A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

              [Sort alphabetically]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> AERONAUTICS AND SPACE FLIGHT (Total: 120 journals)
Showing 1 - 30 of 30 Journals sorted by number of followers
AIAA Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1191)
SpaceNews     Free   (Followers: 825)
Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 771)
Journal of Propulsion and Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 610)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 495)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 457)
Aviation Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 437)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 427)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 384)
Journal of Aircraft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 335)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 314)
IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 282)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 278)
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261)
Gyroscopy and Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204)
Space Science International     Open Access   (Followers: 200)
Space Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
International Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 82)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
Aerospace     Open Access   (Followers: 60)
Space Safety Magazine     Free   (Followers: 51)
Space Research Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
International Journal of Aeroacoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Aerospace Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Space Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
CEAS Aeronautical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Russian Aeronautics (Iz VUZ)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Artificial Satellites     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Aerospace Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Annual of Navigation     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chinese Journal of Aeronautics     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Aerospace Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aviation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Space Structures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Space Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Fatigue of Aircraft Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Satellite Communications Policy and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Elsevier Astrodynamics Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Aeronautical Journal, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Airline and Airport Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Air Force Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
COSPAR Colloquia Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Space Technology Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aviation in Focus - Journal of Aeronautical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Population Space and Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Aeronautical Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Aviation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the Astronautical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Aerospace Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Air Medical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Space Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Aviation Technology, Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the American Helicopter Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
New Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Turbo and Jet-Engines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
RocketSTEM     Free   (Followers: 6)
Civil Aviation High Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Aviation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Aviation Advances & Maintenance     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cosmic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Unmanned Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Space and Polity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Life Sciences in Space Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : Journal of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astrodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Investigación Pecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aerospace technic and technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Spatial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ASTRA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of KONBiN     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Problemy Mechatroniki. Uzbrojenie, lotnictwo, inżynieria bezpieczeństwa / Problems of Mechatronics. Armament, Aviation, Safety Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
npj Microgravity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Astrobiology & Outreach     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal on Miniaturization for Air and Space Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Microgravity Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Вісник Національного Авіаційного Університету     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Poder Aéreo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
MAD - Magazine of Aviation Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Australasian Society of Aerospace Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Aerospace Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technical Soaring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Spatial Information Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mekanika : Jurnal Teknik Mesin i     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Perspectives of Earth and Space Scientists i     Open Access  

              [Sort alphabetically]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1541-9312
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1135 journals]
  • Use of HFE Guidance for the Review of Nuclear Power Plants
    • Authors: John O’Hara, Stephen Fleger
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1-5, December 2020.
      The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) evaluates the human factors engineering (HFE) of nuclear power plant design and operations to protect public health and safety. The HFE safety reviews encompass both the design process and its products. The NRC staff performs the reviews using the detailed guidance contained in two key documents: the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711) and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). This paper will describe these two documents and the method used to develop them. As the NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that they remain state-of-the-art design evaluation tools, we will discuss the topics being addressed in support of future updates as well.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641001
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Tracking Cognitive Decline with a Serious Game: Benchmarking Against the
           Mini-Mental State Examination
    • Authors: Tiffany Tong, Jacqueline Urakami, Mark Chignell, Mary C. Tierney, Jacques S. Lee
      Pages: 6 - 10
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 6-10, December 2020.
      We are developing whack-a-mole games for cognitive assessment. In prior research, we have shown that variants of the game assess cognitive speed and executive functioning (response inhibition), and can be used to screen for delirium in emergency departments. We have also found that whack-a-mole game performance is significantly correlated with overall Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. In this paper, we report the results of a study that assessed the relationship of our serious game for cognitive assessment with specific components of the MMSE. We found that game performance is correlated most strongly with the orientation to time items component of MMSE and that the combination of three elements of the MMSE (attention and calculation; orientation to time; repetition) accounted for almost half of the variance in game performance in our sample.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641002
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Use Of Linear-Polarization Doppler Radar System to Detect Falls: Results
           From a Simulated Living Environment
    • Authors: Sunwook Kim, Maury A. Nussbaum, Fleming Lure
      Pages: 11 - 12
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 11-12, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641003
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Systematic Review of Human Factors Literature About Voice User
           Interfaces and Older Adults
    • Authors: Brodrick Stigall, Kelly Caine
      Pages: 13 - 17
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 13-17, December 2020.
      We conducted a systematic literature review of the human factors literature at the intersection of voice user interfaces (VUI) and older adults among Human Factors publications. Our review was limited to research published in the past 50 years (1970 – 2020) in either the journal Human Factors or the Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. While we included a broad array of search terms related to VUIs, we found very few articles about VUIs that were specifically focused on designing for older adults or used older adults as participants in studies. Of the 26 human factors publications we did find that were related to this topic, most found older adults take more time to operate VUIs and/or made more errors than younger adults, whereas a minority of publications found no age-related differences. We concluded that age-related differences in the use of VUIs are likely task specific.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641004
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Person-Centered Design Framework for Serious Games for Dementia
    • Authors: Bella Yigong Zhang, Mark Chignell
      Pages: 18 - 22
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 18-22, December 2020.
      With the rapidly aging population and the rising number of people living with dementia (PLWD), there is an urgent need for programming and activities that can promote the health and wellbeing of PLWD. Due to staffing and budgetary constraints, there is considerable interest in using technology to support this effort. Serious games for dementia have become a very active research area. However, much of the work is being done without a strong theoretical basis. We incorporate a Montessori approach with highly tactile interactions. We have developed a person-centered design framework for serious games for dementia with initial design recommendations. This framework has the potential to facilitate future strategic design and development in the field of serious games for dementia.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641005
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Human factors and aging: A 20-year retrospective and prospective from
           CREATE researchers
    • Authors: Wendy A. Rogers, Sara J. Czaja, Neil Charness, Walter R. Boot, Joseph Sharit
      Pages: 23 - 26
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 23-26, December 2020.
      The Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) was founded in 1999 and is funded by the National Institute on Aging (National Institutes of Health; PO1 AG017211). This interdisciplinary team of psychologists and engineers focuses on design and deployment of technology with aging adults. In this panel session, we will provide an overview of CREATE research in the domains of health, leisure, work, and social engagement. We will discuss current and emerging technologies. CREATE research has provided insights about the needs and preferences of older adults; design requirements for successful technology support; the necessity of proper instruction and training; and the value of technology tools for all facets of life. This interdisciplinary collaboration has generated evidence-based guidelines for designing, training, and deploying technology to enhance quality of life. Time will be provided for general audience discussion regarding future directions and challenges for design of emerging technologies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641006
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Effects of Engagement in Physical Exercise on Semi- autonomous
           Takeover Request Perception between Younger and Older Adults
    • Authors: Gaojian Huang, Brandon J. Pitts
      Pages: 27 - 27
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 27-27, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641007
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Toward a Framework for Embodiment in Communication Technologies:
           Facilitating Social Connectivity for Older Adults
    • Authors: George Mois, Jenay M. Beer
      Pages: 28 - 32
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 28-32, December 2020.
      The majority of older adults report that they want to age in place, however, communities are often unequipped with the tools necessary to support this process. As a result, older adults can often encounter challenges in maintaining social contact with family, friends, and the community. Communication technologies present opportunities for supporting social connectivity. These technologies include a host of various platforms that are set along a continuum of embodiment. The goal of this paper is to conceptualize communication technology embodiment and to propose a framework that aims to explain the role of technology embodiment in creating meaningful social connections. We aim to provide a framework for future research, interventions, and an application guide of the theoretical foundation of communication technology embodiment while noting crucial considerations on the continuum of embodiment, human connectivity, and social presence.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641008
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A User Study on the Feasibility and Acceptance of Delivering Physical
           Activity Programs to Older Adults through Conversational Agents
    • Authors: Jessie Chin, Kelly Quinn, Naoko Muramatsu, David Marquez
      Pages: 33 - 37
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 33-37, December 2020.
      The implementation of evidence-based physical activity (PA) programs for older adults is limited in part due to the administration-related personnel costs. The rapid growth of the off-the-shelf smart speakers, conversational agents (CAs), demonstrates the potential of scalable delivery of PA programs to older adults at home. We implemented a PA virtual coach based on an evidence-based PA program on a Google Home device, and conducted a user study to examine how older adults interact with the virtual coach. Results suggested that all older adults were able to complete the PA program with guidance from the virtual coach, and showed high acceptance and intentions to use CAs in the future. Analyses on conversation turn-taking further suggested that all older adults (including 80% novice CAs users) experienced minimum difficulty talking with the PA virtual coach. Relationships among age, technology acceptance, conversation patterns and the perceived sociability of CAs are also discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641010
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Designing An Augmented Reality Based Interface For Wearable Exoskeletons
    • Authors: Chaitanya Kulkarni, Hsiang-Wen Hsing, Dina Kandi, Shriya Kommaraju, Nathan Lau, Divya Srinivasan
      Pages: 38 - 41
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 38-41, December 2020.
      Full-body, powered wearable exoskeletons combine the capabilities of machines and humans to maximize productivity. Powered exoskeletons can ease industrial workers in manipulating heavy loads in a manner that is difficult to automate. However, introduction of exoskeletons may result in unexpected work hazards, due to the mismatch between user-intended and executed actions thereby creating difficulties in sensing the physical operational envelope, need for increased clearance, and maneuverability limitations. To control such hazards, this paper presents a rearview human localization augmented reality (AR) platform to enhance spatial awareness of people behind the exoskeleton users. This platform leverages a computer vision algorithm called Monocular 3D Pedestrian Localization and Uncertainty Estimation (MonoLoco) for identifying humans and estimating their distance from a video camera feed and off-the-shelf AR goggles for visualizing the surrounding. Augmenting rear view awareness of humans can help exoskeleton users to avoid accidental collisions that can lead to severe injuries.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641012
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • How Long Can a Driver (Safely) Glance at an Augmented-Reality Head-Up
           Display'
    • Authors: Nayara de Oliveira Faria, Joseph L. Gabbard
      Pages: 42 - 46
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 42-46, December 2020.
      Augmented-Reality (AR) head-up display (HUD) is one of the promising solutions to reduce distraction potential while driving and performing secondary visual tasks; however, we currently don’t know how to effectively evaluate interfaces in this area. In this study, we show that current visual distraction standards for evaluating in-vehicle displays may not be applicable for AR HUDs. We provide evidence that AR HUDs can afford longer glances with no decrement in driving performance. We propose that the selection of measurement methods for driver distraction research should be guided not only by the nature of the task under evaluation but also by the properties of the method itself.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641014
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Detection and Mitigation of Inefficient Visual Searching
    • Authors: Joshua P Gallaher, Alexander J. Kamrud, Brett J. Borghetti
      Pages: 47 - 51
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 47-51, December 2020.
      A commonly known cognitive bias is a confirmation bias: the overweighting of evidence supporting a hy- pothesis and underweighting evidence countering that hypothesis. Due to high-stress and fast-paced opera- tions, military decisions can be affected by confirmation bias. One military decision task prone to confirma- tion bias is a visual search. During a visual search, the operator scans an environment to locate a specific target. If confirmation bias causes the operator to scan the wrong portion of the environment first, the search is inefficient. This study has two primary goals: 1) detect inefficient visual search using machine learning and Electroencephalography (EEG) signals, and 2) apply various mitigation techniques in an effort to im- prove the efficiency of searches. Early findings are presented showing how machine learning models can use EEG signals to detect when a person might be performing an inefficient visual search. Four mitigation techniques were evaluated: a nudge which indirectly slows search speed, a hint on how to search efficiently, an explanation for why the participant was receiving a nudge, and instructions to instruct the participant to search efficiently. These mitigation techniques are evaluated, revealing the most effective mitigations found to be the nudge and hint techniques.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641015
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Dynamic Causal Modeling of Gender Differences in Emotion: Implications for
           Augmented Cognition
    • Authors: Jiali Huang, Kristen Lindquist, Chang S. Nam
      Pages: 52 - 56
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 52-56, December 2020.
      The goal of this study is to investigate the neural basis of gender difference in emotion processing. Elec- troencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded when the same set of emotion-eliciting images was shown to male and female participants. Neural connections were estimated using Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) and results for both genders were compared. We found that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex exerts modulatory effects differently for males and females. These findings on the gender differences in neural mechanisms of emotion processing may be utilized in applications of the augmented cognition program.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641016
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • More than Means: Characterizing Individual Differences in Pupillary
           Dilations
    • Authors: Ciara Sibley, Cyrus K. Foroughi, Noelle L. Brown, Henry Phillips, Sabrina Drollinger, Michael Eagle, Joseph T. Coyne
      Pages: 57 - 61
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 57-61, December 2020.
      This study sought to characterize individual differences in pupillary dilations during a simple cognitive task. Eighty-four Navy and Marine Corps student pilots performed a digit memory recall test while their pupillary data were recorded. Results showed that peak pupil sizes significantly increased with difficulty of the memory task, however variability in pupillary dilations was substantial, with only 51% of individuals’ data corresponding with the aggregate results and dilations varying between participants by as much as 1 millimeter. The analyses presented in this paper illustrate the large individual variability that exists in pupil data, between individuals and even within individuals on a trial by trial basis. This work serves as a benchmark for understanding variability in pupillary dilations and encourages follow on work to explore casual mechanisms of differences in pupil dilations across individuals, especially before using pupil data for applied purposes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Human, AI, Robot Teaming and the Future of Work: Barriers and
           Opportunities for Advancement
    • Authors: Erin K. Chiou, Eric Holder, Igor Dolgov, Kaleb McDowell, Lance Menthe, Rod D. Roscoe, Shivam Zaveri
      Pages: 62 - 66
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 62-66, December 2020.
      Global investments in artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics are on the rise, with the results to impact global economies, security, safety, and human well-being. The most heralded advances in this space are more often about the technologies that are capable of disrupting business-as-usual than they are about innovation that advances or supports a global workforce. The Future of Work at the Human-Technology Frontier is one of NSF’s 10 Big Ideas for research advancement. This panel discussion focuses on the barriers and opportunities for a future of human and AI/robot teaming, with people at the center of complex systems that provide social, ethical, and economic value.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641018
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly: Evaluating Tesla’s Human Factors in the
           Wild West of Self-Driving Cars
    • Authors: Samineh C. Gillmore, Nathan L. Tenhundfeld
      Pages: 67 - 71
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 67-71, December 2020.
      With self-driving vehicles no longer a pipe-dream of science fiction comes the growing pains of the new technology. Tesla Motors is the industry leader in implementing new self-driving technologies. Tesla has used new technology in many ways to improve the human factors of their cars, but there are also design flaws that represent threats to efficiency and safety. This paper details the good, the bad, and the ugly of Tesla’s designs, not as a way to negatively impact Tesla’s reputation, but to point out the potential human factors issues that relate to the rise of self-driving cars in general. While the future for autonomous cars has never seemed so promising, it is abundantly clear that we are nowhere near a reality in which the human does not need to be considered.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641020
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Application of Cognitive Performance Modeling for Usability Evaluation of
           Emergency Medical Services In-Vehicle Technology
    • Authors: Junho Park, Johnathan McKenzie, Farzaneh Shahini, Maryam Zahabi
      Pages: 72 - 76
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 72-76, December 2020.
      Motor vehicle crashes are one of the leading causes of emergency medical service (EMS) fatalities. These crashes have been mainly attributed to driver distraction caused by in-vehicle technologies especially mobile computer terminals (MCTs). This study used cognitive performance modeling to assess MCT use by EMS drivers. A pilot study was conducted with six EMS experts performing a navigation task with the MCT. Pilot data results were used to create and validate the models using CogTool platform. In terms of task completion time (TCT), the model closely matched the data collected through observations, allowing for redesign improvements to be considered, while further validating CogTool as an analytical tool. The MCT was also redesigned based on the usability heuristics. The developed models and approach can be used in MCT design and development process to ensure efficient interaction in multi-tasking situations of driving and using the MCT.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641021
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Team Interaction Strategies for Human–Autonomy Teaming in Next
           Generation Combat Vehicles
    • Authors: Glenn J. Lematta, Craig J. Johnson, Eric Holder, Lixiao Huang, Shawaiz A. Bhatti, Nancy J. Cooke
      Pages: 77 - 81
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 77-81, December 2020.
      The current study focuses on improving team effectiveness in Next Generation Combat Vehicles (NGCVs) that combine humans, intelligent agents, and unmanned assets working together toward common goals, “teaming”, through the development of interaction strategies for this future contextual domain. Twenty interaction strategies were derived from three objectives to account for system changes anticipated from the introduction of NGCVs. In particular, consideration is given for improving awareness of team members, maintaining flexible coordination, and working within the constraints of the new environment. Future work should focus on validating the strategies and the implementation of strategies into NGCV design.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641022
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Team Synchronization and Individual Contributions in Coop-Space Fortress
    • Authors: Huao Li, Tianwei Ni, Siddharth Agrawal, Dana Hughes, Katia Sycara
      Pages: 82 - 86
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 82-86, December 2020.
      This work studied human teamwork with a concentration on the influence of team synchronization and in- dividual differences on performance. Human participants were paired to complete collaborative tasks in a simulated game environment, in which they were assigned roles with corresponding responsibilities. Cross- correlation analysis was employed to quantify the degree of team synchronization and time-lag between two teammates’ collective actions. Results showed that team performance is determined by factors at both the individual and team levels. We found interaction effects between team synchronization and individual differences and quantified their contributions to team performance. The application of our research findings and proposed quantitative methods for developing adaptive agents for human-autonomy teaming is discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641023
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • UTT: A Conceptual Model to Guide the Universal Design of Autonomous
           Vehicles
    • Authors: Stephen Carvalho, Suyash Ahire, Earl W. Huff, Julian Brinkley
      Pages: 87 - 91
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 87-91, December 2020.
      Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are closer to becoming a reality in changing the landscape of commercial and personal transportation. The launch of these vehicles come with the promise of improved road safety, reduced traffic fatalities, and enhanced mobility. However, there are questions as to whether the design of AVs will meet the needs of everyone, including people with disabilities and older adults. We argue that there exists no conceptual model that guide sthe inclusive design of autonomous vehicles to benefit all intended users. This paper proposes such a model, called the User Transportation-Activity Technology (UTT) model, which supports the inclusive design of AVs. We present a review of current models of assistive technology design and their drawbacks followed by an introduction of the UTT model and its application in AV design. This paper may benefit researchers, designers, and developers of autonomous vehicles interested in addressing accessible design issues in such vehicles.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641024
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Developing an Integrated Energy System Interface for Electricity-Hydrogen
           Hybrid Nuclear Operations
    • Authors: Thomas A. Ulrich, Roger Lew, Ronald L. Boring, Torrey Mortenson, Jooyoung Park, Heather Medema
      Pages: 92 - 96
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 92-96, December 2020.
      Nuclear power plants are looking towards integrated energy systems to address the challenges faced by increasing competition from renewable energy and cheap natural gas in wholesale electricity markets. Electricity-hydrogen hybrid operations is one potential technology being explored. As part of this investigation a human factors team was integrated into the overall engineering project to develop a human system interface (HSI) for a novel system to extract steam for a coupled hydrogen production process. This paper presents the process used to perform the nuclear specific human factors engineering required to develop the HSI for this novel and unprecedented system. Furthermore, the early integration of the human factors team and the meaningful improvements to the engineering of the system itself in addition to the successful development of the HSI for this particular application are described. Lastly, the HSI developed is presented to demonstrate the culmination of the process and disseminate a potential HSI design for electricity-hydrogen hybrid operations that may be useful for others exploring similar integrated energy systems concepts.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641025
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Social Loafing with Robots – An Empirical Investigation
    • Authors: Linda Onnasch, Terpsichore Panayotidis
      Pages: 97 - 101
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 97-101, December 2020.
      Social loafing describes a phenomenon in human-human interaction of reduced effort when working in a team compared to working individually. With the increasing growth of human-robot teams, studying potential social loafing effects in human-robot interaction seems increasingly relevant. In a laboratory experiment, participants worked on two parallel tasks with a human or a robotic partner. The primary task was once completed coactively and once collectively with the respective partner and a shared task output. Performance measures revealed no effects regarding partner or working condition. However, subjective data revealed that participants invested the least effort when working collectively with the robot compared to working collectively with a human or in the coactive conditions. At the same time, the robot’s performance was perceived as worse compared to the human confederate’s performance. Based on the results we discuss that interacting with robots shares social facets of human teamwork but does not resemble it.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641026
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Mixed Analysis of Influencing Factors for Trust in a Risk-Aware Autonomy
    • Authors: Lixiao Huang, M.L. Cummings, Masahiro Ono
      Pages: 102 - 106
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 102-106, December 2020.
      To study the factor of controllability for humans’ trust in autonomy in decision making, 73 participants used a risk-aware, autonomous planner to navigate an underwater robot in a software-simulated, resource- limited, and risky environment. The experiment examined the association of controllability of the leg size of the path planner with participants’ trust, as well as the underlying reasons. The quantitative analysis showed no significant effect of controllability on trust. However, a verbal data analysis method, which systematically coded and quantified participants’ reasons for choosing their trust levels at different intervals during the experiment, showed that the dimension execution and control was the most frequently mentioned among four emerging practical dimensions of influencing factors for their trust. The other three included risk evaluation; training and learning; and general attitudes. The findings suggested further research on more aspects of controllability, especially the ones that support personal plans, from a human- autonomy interface design perspective.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641027
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Effect of Anthropomorphism and Failure Comprehensibility on
           Human-Robot Trust
    • Authors: Eileen Roesler, Linda Onnasch
      Pages: 107 - 111
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 107-111, December 2020.
      The application of anthropomorphic features to robots is generally considered to be beneficial for human- robot interaction. Although previous research has mainly focused on social robots, the phenomenon gains increasing attention in industrial human-robot interaction, as well. In this study, the impact of anthropomorphic design of a collaborative industrial robot on the dynamics of trust is examined. Participants interacted with a robot, which was either anthropomorphically or technically designed and experienced either a comprehensible or an incomprehensible fault of the robot. Unexpectedly, the robot was perceived as less reliable in the anthropomorphic condition. Additionally, trust increased after faultless experience and decreased after failure experience independently of the type of error. Even though the manipulation of the design did not result in a different perception of the robot’s anthropomorphism, it still influenced the formation of trust. The results emphasize that anthropomorphism is no universal remedy to increase trust, but highly context dependent.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641028
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Performance and Eye Metrics Correlates to Out-of-the-zone Sustained
           Attention in GradCPT
    • Authors: Wei Zhang, Yifan Zhang, Jie Xu
      Pages: 112 - 116
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 112-116, December 2020.
      The purpose of this study was to replicate previous behavioral performance results and investigate eye met- rics correlates in the Gradual Onset Continuous Performance Task (gradCPT). Previous research has shown that gradCPT can provide a measurement of fluctuations in sustained attention over time. In this study, 30 participants each completed three eight-minute sessions of gradCPT. “In the zone” and “out of the zone” periods were identified according to the Variance Time Course measure. Patterns of reaction time, d’, and error rates were consistent with previous studies, while criterion scores differed between the two-zone peri- ods. Eye-tracking data indicated that mean and variation of pupil size, saccade duration, saccade peak veloc- ity, and fixation duration were sensitive to the in-the-zone vs. the out-of-the-zone periods. These results sug- gest that some individuals may change their task strategy during out-of-the-zone periods. Eye metrics might be useful indicators for out-of-the-zone performance when behavioral performance metrics were not availa- ble.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641029
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Brief Literature Review on Human Perceptions of Service Robots with a
           Focus on Healthcare
    • Authors: Algelia Burton, Erin K. Chiou, Robert S. Gutzwiller
      Pages: 117 - 121
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 117-121, December 2020.
      Service robots are becoming increasingly popular in the world where they interact with humans on a semi- or routine basis. It is essential to understand human perceptions of these robots, as they affect use, adoption, and interaction. The primary goal of this brief literature review was to learn about public perceptions of service robots, particularly in healthcare settings. A secondary goal was to understand the measures generally used to gather perception data. A restricted literature search was conducted from September-November 2019 using three databases, yielding 3,629 articles; a total of 22 were selected for this review published between 2011-2019. In general, a variety of largely untested surveys were used, and the studies surveyed illustrated the complexity of the perception space. Perceptions differ by gender, age, culture, and interact with trust, usability, work role, and perceptions of domains of life such as schools or healthcare. Limitations and the future need to better understand this area are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641030
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Impact of Team Training On Coordination And Trust Calibration In
           Human–Autonomy Teaming
    • Authors: Craig J. Johnson, Mustafa Demir, Alexandra T. Wolff, Nancy J. Cooke
      Pages: 122 - 122
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 122-122, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641031
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • General Aviation Weather Hazards:Current Human Factors Research, Pilot
           Practices, and Tools
    • Authors: Beth Blickensderfer, Lori J Brown, Alyssa Greenman, Jayde King, Brandon Pitts
      Pages: 123 - 126
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 123-126, December 2020.
      When General Aviation (GA) pilots encounter unexpected weather hazards in-flight, the results are typically deadly. It is unsurprising that the National Transportation Safety Board repeatedly lists weather related factors in GA flight operations as an unsolved aviation safety challenge. Solving this problem requires multidisciplinary perspectives. Fortunately, in the past several years innovative laboratory research and industry products have become available. This panel discussion brings together Human Factors and Ergonomics researchers and practitioners to discuss and describe the current work and future directions to avoid weather related accidents in GA.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641032
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Review of Stall-Type Accident Statistics Over the Past Fifty Years
    • Authors: Nicoletta Fala
      Pages: 127 - 128
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 127-128, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641033
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Comparison of Rule-Based and Machine Learning Models for Classification
           of Human Factors Aviation Safety Event Reports
    • Authors: Katherine Darveau, Daniel Hannon, Chad Foster
      Pages: 129 - 133
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 129-133, December 2020.
      There is growing interest in the study and practice of applying data science (DS) and machine learning (ML) to automate decision making in safety-critical industries. As an alternative or augmentation to human review, there are opportunities to explore these methods for classifying aviation operational events by root cause. This study seeks to apply a thoughtful approach to design, compare, and combine rule-based and ML techniques to classify events caused by human error in aircraft/engine assembly, maintenance or operation. Event reports contain a combination of continuous parameters, unstructured text entries, and categorical selections. A Human Factors approach to classifier development prioritizes the evaluation of distinct data features and entry methods to improve modeling. Findings, including the performance of tested models, led to recommendations for the design of textual data collection systems and classification approaches.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641034
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Flight Performance and Mental Stress of Pilots by Verbal Reports and
           Spatial Disorientation
    • Authors: Yohan Kang, Myung Hwan Yun, Sungho Kim
      Pages: 134 - 138
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 134-138, December 2020.
      Spatial disorientation (SD) can adversely affect a pilot’s flight mission and cause critical flight accidents. To ensure a pilot’s flight safety, it is important to understand the impact of SD on a pilot’s flight performance and mental stress levels, and it is necessary to verify the effectiveness of using verbal reports (VR) for pilots to overcome SD without the aid of aeronautical systems. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the difference in pilot performance and mental stress levels by VR executions and SD types. In this study, simulated flight experiments were performed on thirty Air Force fighter pilots (fifteen VR and fifteen non-VR) using a SD simulator with an Electrocardiography (ECG) measurement sensor attached. The experimental data was analyzed with using two flight performance scales (instructor evaluation scores and self-evaluation scores) and two mental stress scales (heart rate variability (HRV) measures and subjective stress scores) by two VR executions (VR and non-VR) and six SD types (Somatogravic Illusion, Coriolis, Leans, False Horizon, Graveyard Spin, and Black Hole Illusion). The result of the experiment, in terms of flight performance, showed a significant difference in instructor evaluation scores for VR execution, and in both instructor evaluation scores and self-evaluation scores for SD types. On the other hand, in terms of mental stress, there was a significant difference in both high frequency (HF) of HRV measures and subjective stress scores for VR execution, and in subjective stress scores for SD types. The results of this study can help pilots understand SD situations and overcome SD by executing VR.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641035
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Friendlier Skies: Development of Electronic Checklists for Emergency
           Procedures for the KC-135 Stratotanker
    • Authors: Cara Bailey Fausset, Elizabeth Weldon, Latrice Williams, Matt Boyle, Kevin Cartwright, Mark Robinson, Joe Bosch, Marcia Crosland, Bayne Meeks
      Pages: 139 - 143
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 139-143, December 2020.
      The KC-135 Stratotanker has been a workhorse aircraft for the U.S. Air Force and Air National Guard for over 60 years. The aircraft and its technologies have had many modifications and updates over the decades, but the Emergency Procedures (EPs) section of the KC-135 In-Flight Manual has only been updated based on engineering modifications and incident and accident reports. The goal of this project was to systematically assess, identify, and document issues in the KC-135 EPs using aviation checklist design guidance and a crew-centric human factors approach. Electronic checklists were then created to address the issues in the KC-135 EPs. The number of emergency procedures was reduced by over 50%: 351 KC-135 EPs were streamlined into 154 electronic checklists. The revised electronic checklists for emergency procedures will optimize KC-135 crew responses to non-normal situations and ensure safe and efficient operation of the KC-135 beyond its projected sunset in 2040.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641036
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Narrative Analysis of Runway Incursion Reports in the National
           Transportation Safety Board Database To Identify Contributing
    • Authors: Divya Bhargava, Karen Marais
      Pages: 144 - 148
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 144-148, December 2020.
      A runway incursion occurs when an aircraft, ground vehicle, or a pedestrian is incorrectly present on the runway. This incorrect presence can lead to a collision resulting in fatal injuries and aircraft damage. Despite the aviation community’s measures to reduce incursions, they continue increasing. Most runway incursions are a result of human error. Our limited knowledge of these human errors and their causes is hindering our ability to reduce runway incursions. While previous researchers have analyzed past runway incursions to identify types of human error, we still know little about the causes of these errors. The narratives in the NTSB database often provide detailed information to identify human errors and their causes. In this paper, we analyze the narratives of runway incursion reports in the NTSB database. We use task analysis to map human error to tasks they perform, and map the causes of these errors to the error itself.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641037
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Human Factors in Future Vertical Lift, the U.S. Army’s Next
           Generation Rotorcraft
    • Authors: Katie Ernst, Michael Wilson, David Durbin, Roth Roth, Laura Militello, Robert Copeland
      Pages: 149 - 153
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 149-153, December 2020.
      The United States Army is developing and procuring their next generation of rotorcraft, called the Future Vertical Lift (FVL) program. FVL rotorcraft will fly faster and incorporate new work requirements such as command of unmanned systems and optionally piloted variants. Successful design and implementation of human automation teaming will be paramount to the mission success and safety of FVL systems, presenting both challenges and opportunities for human factors personnel supporting FVL development. The purpose of this panel is to highlight the range of human factors challenges within the FVL program. Panelists are drawn from both government and industry, and represent a diverse set of perspectives including user, researcher, and practitioner. The session will include time for panelists to introduce their work and challenges that they are addressing within the FVL program as well as interact with audience members.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641038
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Impact of UAS with Low Size, Weight, and Power Sensors on Air Traffic
           Controllers’ Performance and Acceptability Ratings
    • Authors: Kim-Phuong L. Vu, Jonathan VanLuven, Timothy Diep, Vernol Battiste, Summer Brandt, Kevin J. Monk, Robert C. Rorie, Robert J. Shively, Thomas Z. Strybel
      Pages: 154 - 158
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 154-158, December 2020.
      A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to evaluate the impact of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) with low size, weight, and power (SWaP) sensors operating in a busy, low-altitude sector. Use of low SWaP sensors allow for UAS to perform detect-and-avoid (DAA) maneuvers against non-transponding traffic in the sector. Depending upon the detection range of the low SWaP sensor, the UAS pilot may or may not have time to coordinate with air traffic controllers (ATCos) prior to performing the DAA maneuver. ATCo’s sector performance and subjective ratings of acceptability were obtained in four conditions that varied in UAS-ATCo coordination (all or none) prior to the DAA maneuver and workload (higher or lower). For performance, ATCos committed more losses of separation in high than low workload conditions. They also had to make more flight plan changes to manage the UAS when the UAS pilot did not coordinate DAA maneuvers compared to when they did coordinate the maneuvers prior to execution. Although the ATCos found the DAA procedures used by the UAS in the study to be acceptable, most preferred the UAS pilot to coordinate their DAA maneuvers with ATCos prior to executing them.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641039
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • UAS Pilot Assessments of Display and Alerting for the Airborne Collision
           Avoidance System XU
    • Authors: Casey L. Smith, R. Conrad Rorie, Kevin J. Monk, Jillian Keeler, Garrett G. Sadler
      Pages: 159 - 163
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 159-163, December 2020.
      Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) must comply with specific standards to operate in the National Airspace System (NAS). Among the requirements are the detect and avoid (DAA) capabilities, which include display, alerting, and guidance specifications. Previous studies have queried pilots for their subjective feedback of these display elements on earlier systems; the present study sought pilot evaluations with an initial iteration of the unmanned variant of a Next Generation Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS XU). Sixteen participants piloted simulated aircraft with both standalone and integrated DAA displays. Their opinions were gathered using post-block and post-simulation questionnaires as well as guided debriefs. The data showed pilots had better understanding and comfort with the system when using an integrated display. Pilots also rated ACAS XU alerting and guidance as generally acceptable and effective. Implications for further development of ACAS XU and DAA displays are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641040
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Examining Teamwork of Space Crewmembers and Mission Control Personnel
           Under Crew Autonomy: A Multiteam System Perspective
    • Authors: Ute Fischer, Kathleen Mosier
      Pages: 164 - 168
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 164-168, December 2020.
      Introducing crew autonomy into the design of future space operations will involve a change in how responsibilities are distributed between crew and mission control and may disrupt the functioning of the space/ground multiteam system (MTS). During a 4-month space mission simulation we collected survey data from crewmembers and mission controllers tapping their team concept, perception of MTS cohesion and efficacy, task work and performance. Preliminary analyses indicate some aspects of team cognition that may be affected by crew autonomy. Crewmembers’ and mission controllers’ team concepts centered on members of their own component teams rather than the MTS. Mission controllers perceived higher cohesion— especially higher task cohesion—with crewmembers than vice-versa and were more likely than crewmembers to express high confidence in the efficacy of the MTS. While mission controllers and crewmembers expressed comparable levels of satisfaction with task performance, they disagreed on how much each component team contributed to task success.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641041
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Investigating attitudes towards drone delivery
    • Authors: Hinnerk Eißfeldt, Albert End
      Pages: 169 - 173
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 169-173, December 2020.
      In recent years, civil drones have become increasingly present in the media and in everyday life. There has been a high level of interest in drone delivery from the very beginning, yet public acceptance of drone delivery still seems limited, with acceptance rates usually ranging from 30 to 40%. The present paper reports findings of a representative national study about the acceptance of civilian drones in Germany. Several factors limiting public support of drone delivery are identified, such as concerns about traffic safety, noise, and animal welfare. In addition, gender effects are discussed, showing female respondents to be more critical about drone delivery in general. Moreover, an effect of NIMBYism is confirmed in the context of drone delivery: Even residents who envision using drones for delivering their own parcels frequently state that they would not agree to flights over their own homes. This particular effect is termed ‘NOMOH’ (‘Not Over My Own Home’).
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641042
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • An Evaluation of UAS Pilot Workload and Acceptability Ratings with Four
           Simulated Radar Declaration Ranges
    • Authors: Jillian N. Keeler, R. Conrad Rorie, Kevin J. Monk, Garrett G. Sadler, Casey Smith
      Pages: 174 - 178
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 174-178, December 2020.
      Currently, minimum operational performance standards (MOPS) are being developed for a broader rangeof unmanned aircraft system (UAS) platforms, including smaller UAS that will feature onboard sensors that are low in size, weight, and power, otherwise known as low SWaP. The low SWaP sensors used to detect non-cooperative traffic will have limited declaration ranges compared to those designed for medium-to-large UAS. A human-in-the-loop (HITL) study was conducted examining four possible radar declaration ranges (i.e., 1.5 NM, 2 NM, 2.5 NM, and 3 NM) for a potential low SWaP sensor with a detect and avoid (DAA) system encountering various non-cooperative encounters in Oakland Center airspace. Participants had lower workload, particularly workload associated with temporal demand and effort, in scenarios that featured larger detection ranges. Furthermore, participants reported better ability to remain DAA well clear within the larger declaration range conditions, specifically with the 2.5 NM and 3 NM conditions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641043
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Human Factors Challenges in Urban Air Mobility
    • Authors: Scott Scheff, Ferne Friedman-Berg, Jay Shively, Andrew Carter
      Pages: 179 - 182
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 179-182, December 2020.
      For several generations there has been the vision of the flying car, a way to leave the road behind and fly through the skies from one point to another above the urban landscape. Finally, we appear to be on the cusp of true urban air mobility (UAM). Companies such as Uber Elevate, Amazon Delivery Drones, Hyundai Motor Company, and KittyHawk are looking to change the way we transport not just ourselves, but packages too. With this UAM capability however, comes multiple challenges for the human factors practitioner. Topics covered in this panel discussion will include the various challenges associated with safely operating UAM platforms in the airspace, requirement considerations, workload factors, and machine vs. human automation needs. This diverse panel includes renowned UAM and unmanned systems experts representing Government and Industry.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641044
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effect of Gesture Interface Mapping on Controlling a
           Multi-degree-of-freedom Robotic Arm in a Complex Environment
    • Authors: Sherrie Holder, Leia Stirling
      Pages: 183 - 187
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 183-187, December 2020.
      There are many robotic scenarios that require real-time function in large or unconstrained environments, for example, the robotic arm on the International Space Station (ISS). Use of fully-wearable gesture control systems are well-suited to human-robot interaction scenarios where users are mobile and must have hands free. A human study examined operation of a simulated ISS robotic arm using three different gesture input mappings compared to the traditional joystick interface. Two gesture mappings permitted multiple simultaneous inputs (multi-input), while the third was a single-input method. Experimental results support performance advantages of multi-input gesture methods over single input. Differences between the two multi-input methods in task completion and workload display an effect of user-directed attention on interface success. Mappings based on natural human arm movement are promising for gesture interfaces in mobile robotic applications. This study also highlights challenges in gesture mapping, including how users align gestures with their body and environment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641045
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Systems Thinking in Aerospace: The Contributions to the Design of Future
           Airliners’ Single Pilot Operations
    • Authors: Daniela Schmid, Neville A. Stanton
      Pages: 188 - 192
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 188-192, December 2020.
      Systems thinking methods have evolved into a popular toolkit in Human Factors to analyze complex sociotechnical systems at early design stages, such as future airliners’ single pilot operations (SPO). A quantitative re-analysis of studies from a systematic literature review (Schmid & Stanton, 2019b) was conducted to categorically assess their contributions to researching SPO and to fitting their systems thinking methods to contemporary Human Factors problems. Although only 15 of 79 publications applied systems thinking methods to operational, automation, and the pilot incapacitation issue(s) of SPO, these studies provided a comprehensive concept of operations that is able to deal with many issues of future single-piloted airliners. These theoretical models require further evaluation by looking at the empirical instances of system behavior. Finally, the hierarchical structures in system’s development and operations from systems thinking enable Human Factors professionals and researchers to approach SPO systematically.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641046
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Pros and Cons of A VR-based Flight Training Simulator; Empirical
           Evaluations by Student and Instructor Pilots
    • Authors: Chang-Geun Oh
      Pages: 193 - 197
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 193-197, December 2020.
      A medium-fidelity virtual reality (VR) flight simulator was developed to evaluate how aircraft pilots perceived simulated flights in the VR environment compared with conventional mockup-based simulators. In Experiment 1, student and instructor pilots conducted ten repeating flights in the simulator. Three extreme flight conditions were created, and participants rated perceptions of the extreme flights using multiple criteria. In Experiment 2, pilots manipulated G1000 electronic cockpit systems in the simulator during three repeating simulated flights and were asked to rate their perceptions of the manual controls. Participants perceived that the VR simulator was similar to or better than conventional simulators for all given Experiment 1 criteria and found that repetition made the operations easier. However, manipulating electronic cockpit systems was still not considered better than using conventional simulators, even though it became easier by repetition. Participants liked the 360-degree angle of visibility in the VR environment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641047
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Use of Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS) for Low-visibility
           Takeoffs in Part 121 Operations
    • Authors: Dennis B. Beringer, Kelene A. Fercho
      Pages: 198 - 202
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 198-202, December 2020.
      Twelve Part 121 operations commercial-carrier crews completed low-visibility takeoffs at Memphis International Airport using an Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS). A 2x2x2x3 factorial design with runway visual range (RVR; 500 and 700 feet), runway edge lighting (high intensity or medium intensity) and two levels of EFVS (either captain’s head-up display only or with additional first officer’s head-down repeater) was used along with supplemental sample points and several baseline trials representing current-authorization conditions. Tasks included normal takeoffs, EFVS failure (both continue and reject trials), and engine failure (reject). There were no significant main effects of display or infrastructure in the main design (500, 700 RVR), and pilot performances in the experimental trials with EFVS were not markedly different from the baseline (current authorization) trials. All crews were able to stop the aircraft successfully on the runway during rejected takeoffs. Pilots uniformly believed they could successfully complete takeoffs or reject them in lower visibilities with EFVS as compared with using the head-up display without EFVS, which was sup-ported by observed performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641048
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Improving Support for Contingency Planning in Air Traffic Flow Management
    • Authors: Alicia Fernandes, Chris Brinton, Curt Kaler
      Pages: 203 - 207
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 203-207, December 2020.
      As air traffic continues to increase, it will be increasingly important to maximize use of available capacity. Traffic management coordinators explicitly incorporate contingency planning into their decision-making processes, but current Traffic Flow Management (TFM) tools provide limited support for such contingency planning. This paper describes an effort to explicitly support contingency planning in TFM, allowing automation to better align with the human’s approach to the situation. We propose a modeling framework and report on initial operational feedback indicating that our modeling framework captures the essence of TFM workflow.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641049
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Under Pressure – How Time Pressure Affects Automation-Aided
           Decision-Making In A Luggage Screening Task
    • Authors: Tobias Rieger, Dietrich Manzey
      Pages: 208 - 208
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 208-208, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641050
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Cue Utilization as an Objective Metric in Naturalistic Decision-Making
    • Authors: Mark W. Wiggins
      Pages: 209 - 213
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 209-213, December 2020.
      The utilization of cues is a process that underpins a wide range of naturalistic models of decision-making, often differentiating the performance of experts and non-experts. However, the domain-specific and idiosyncratic nature of cue utilization means that the existence of cues in memory, together with their application, has been difficult to assess. This paper explains a valid and reliable approach to the assessment of cue utilization that accounts for idiosyncrasy and confirms the role of cues in facilitating performance amongst skilled practitioners. It also enables comparative analyses between operators, thereby facilitating a more robust process for the selection of subject-matter experts, assessments of gaps in performance that might be explained by differences in cue utilization, especially following the introduction of new technologies, the evaluation of training outcomes against baseline performance, and the identification of changes in cue utilization that might be associated with absences or other workplace demands.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641051
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Design of a Decision Support Application to Support Individuals in Mental
           Health Crisis
    • Authors: Amanda J. Johnson, Ann M. Bisantz, Amy L. Reynolds, Scott T. Meier
      Pages: 214 - 217
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 214-217, December 2020.
      Mental health and suicide are two substantial issues facing our society. They have far reaching impacts on the healthcare and public safety systems, the economy, and human life. Despite their impact and importance, the amount of research is disproportionate to the magnitude of the problem. The current study sought to determine decision requirements of those in mental health crisis and to translate them into a user-friendly mobile application. Individuals who had been in mental health crises and mental health professionals were interviewed. Results showed that both the availability of resources and the impact of anxiety and overwhelm on decision making are areas in which individuals in crisis can be better supported. Outcome of research included design of a prototype mobile application designed to support decision making during mental health crisis.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641052
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Communication Interface for a Dismounted Ground Commander and an
           Intelligent Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Systems (IA-UAS) – A Feasibility
           Study
    • Authors: Regina Ziv-Schegolsky, Ilit Oppenheim, Yisrael Parmet, Tal Oron-Gilad
      Pages: 218 - 223
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 218-223, December 2020.
      As unmanned systems become more intelligent, ground force may be able to interact directly with the UAS, without the need for a human UAS operator as a moderator. We looked at how interaction tools facilitate coordination between commanders and intelligent autonomous UASs. For this a mission execution interface (MEI) was developed. It was added to an existing chat and graphical bi-directional communication interface that was shown valuable for commander-UAS operator interaction. This setup was tested in the battle-lab facility using Wizard-of-Oz technique to generate the intelligent UAS capabilities. Focusing on the utility of the MEI relative to chat alone, or when both communication means are provided, results demonstrate how the MEI was used for mission execution for static or dynamic targets. Design improvements need to be applied to the MEI following the study outcomes and user feedback to make it more effective for conveying the commander’s intent throughout the mission.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641053
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • ProBot – A Procedure Chatbot for Digital Procedural Adherence
    • Authors: Nilesh Ade, Noor Quddus, Trent Parker, S.Camille Peres
      Pages: 224 - 228
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 224-228, December 2020.
      One of the major implications of Industry 4.0 will be the application of digital procedures in process industries. Digital procedures are procedures that are accessed through a smart gadget such as a tablet or a phone. However, like paper-based procedures their usability is limited by their access. The issue of accessibility is magnified in tasks such as loading a hopper car with plastic pellets wherein the operators typically place the procedure at a safe distance from the worksite. This drawback can be tackled in the case of digital procedures using artificial intelligence-based voice enabled conversational agent (chatbot). As a part of this study, we have developed a chatbot for assisting digital procedure adherence. The chatbot is trained using the possible set of queries from the operator and text from the digital procedures through deep learning and provides responses using natural language generation. The testing of the chatbot is performed using a simulated conversation with an operator performing the task of loading a hopper car.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641054
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Decision-Making Model for Emergency Evacuation Based on the Lens Model
           Using Machine Learning and Monte-Carlo Simulation for Incomplete
           Information Environment
    • Authors: Miriam Alabi, Younho Seong, Sun Yi
      Pages: 229 - 233
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 229-233, December 2020.
      Preparing for emergencies reduces significant losses to infrastructure and the economy. In this study, a decision-making analysis tool, Lens model (LM), is used to characterize the decision behavior during an emergency evacuation based on multiple cues. Five Supervised Machine Learning (SML) algorithms were used to derive the LM parameters. The decision to evacuate under uncertain and incomplete information is always challenging. However, the LM consisting of the ecological-judgment models was created to understand evacuation behavior in uncertain environments fully. The judgment model was consolidated from historical data, whereas the ecological data, the incomplete information, was simulated using the Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS). The SML models were evaluated using prediction accuracy (PA), and their performance validated by comparing the measures to the LM parameters. Experimental results show that k-nearest neighbor (KNN) achieved the least error in the ecology model as the LM parameter, Re corresponds to the performance of the algorithm model.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641055
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Real Life Does Not Always Get in the Way: Verbal Memory and the Sustained
           Attention to Response Task
    • Authors: Samantha L. Smith, Graham K. Edgar, Paul N. Russell, William S. Helton
      Pages: 234 - 238
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 234-238, December 2020.
      The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) is a go/no-go task where participants must respond frequently to target stimuli and withhold responses from infrequent neutral stimuli. Researchers have shown that the fast and frequent responding characteristic of SART is typically associated with difficulty withholding responses to no-go stimuli. Imposing additional cognitive demands has been shown to further impair task performance. In the present research, participants completed a modified SART task, a narrative memory task, and a dual-task condition where both were done simultaneously. No significant performance impairments were found in the dual- compared to single-task conditions. The tasks’ non-overlapping resource demands, alongside a potential arousing benefit of the memory task, may explain the lack of notable dual-task interference. Future research is needed to better understand the effects of arousal and other factors that may help to uncouple errors of commission from response time, particularly in tasks with high ecological validity.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641056
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Providing a foundation for interpretable autonomous agents through
           elicitation and modeling of criminal investigation pathways
    • Authors: Sam Hepenstal, Leishi Zhang, Neesha Kodogoda, B.L. William Wong
      Pages: 239 - 243
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 239-243, December 2020.
      Criminal investigations are guided by repetitive and time-consuming information retrieval tasks, often with high risk and high consequence. If Artificial intelligence (AI) systems can automate lines of inquiry, it could reduce the burden on analysts and allow them to focus their efforts on analysis. However, there is a critical need for algorithmic transparency to address ethical concerns. In this paper, we use data gathered from Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) interviews of criminal intelligence analysts and perform a novel analysis method to elicit question networks. We show how these networks form an event tree, where events are consolidated by capturing analyst intentions. The event tree is simplified with a Dynamic Chain Event Graph (DCEG) that provides a foundation for transparent autonomous investigations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641057
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Model of Monitoring as Sensemaking: Application to Flight Path
           Management and Pilot Training
    • Authors: Dorrit Billman, Randall Mumaw, Michael Feary
      Pages: 244 - 248
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 244-248, December 2020.
      Monitoring is a critical part of supervisory control and plays a critical role on the flight deck. Monitoring the flight path is critical to aviation safety. Recently, there has been interest in improving training of monitoring. We propose a model of expert monitoring that can serve as the basis for training. We claim that effective monitoring is much more than a scan pattern or where eyes point. In aviation, monitoring is centered around the pilot’s Situation Model, which integrates and represents the pilot’s knowledge from mental models in memory with observations about the current state. Effective monitoring is a cycle of posing a monitoring question, identifying how to gather the evidence needed to answer the question, and assessing implications for action. These processes may be fluent or effortful but depend on strategic regulation. We step through implications of our model for training.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641058
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • An Adaptive Fuzzy Modeling of Visual Attention in Real-world Interaction
           with Health Information System
    • Authors: Smriti Sridhar, Younghoon Kwon MD., Yeilim Cho MD., Inki Kim PhD.
      Pages: 249 - 253
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 249-253, December 2020.
      Bottom-up and top-down processes are the two mechanisms of visual attention allocation, which allow people to efficiently spot task-relevant stimuli from cluttered and noisy environments, while staying alert to abnormalities within the visual field of view. This paper presents a preliminary study of the physicians’ real-life interaction with Information Communication Technology (ICT) in their own offices, along with extensively analyzing one case of an hour-long interaction of a physician, in which one performs a daily routine of reviewing patient electronic health records (EHRs) and writing diagnostic notes to the system interface. The physician interactions were captured in a time series data by recording display screen, keystrokes and mouse movements, also by simultaneously tracking eye movements. Then, a fuzzy-based model that can distinguish bottom-up and top-down processes were defined by using statistical random variables in terms of eye-movement patterns. The shift between those two attentional processes was detected by tracking the parametric changes of gaze behaviors as input: significant shift of fixation, sustained gazing, and fixation trajectory over time. Based on those gaze metrics, a random variable was assigned to the discrete probability of low (0), medium (0.5), or high (1.0), for a quantified fuzzy output, which was further machine-learned into an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model in order to judge how a physician is likely to be dominated by a bottom-up or top-down processes in performing a task at that instance in time. On training the ANFIS model with three different types of fuzzy membership functions (Gaussian, triangular and trapezoidal), the model performed best with the Gaussian function (after 100 iterations, the predicted root mean-square error (RMSE) converged at 0.07%, yielding a smooth linear curve). For a proof-of concept, the model was implemented by using one physician’s gaze behaviors, of which the average, machine-learned fuzzy output probability indicated that the physician was veering toward bottom-up visual attention. This individualized, task-specific pattern of visual attention has implications for the designs of intelligent interface in ICT. Our ANFIS model can scale up to different physicians and tasks to predict the likelihood of bottom-up or top-down information processing based on real-world gaze behaviors.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641059
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Propositional Constraint Graphs: An Intuitive, Domain-General Tool for
           Diagramming Knowledge, Assumptions, and Uncertainties
    • Authors: Zachary H. Pugh, Douglas J. Gillan
      Pages: 254 - 258
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 254-258, December 2020.
      A diagramming method called Propositional Constraint (PC) graphing was developed as an aid for tasks involving argumentation, planning, and design. Motivated by several AI models of defeasible (or non- monotonic) reasoning, PC graphs were designed to represent knowledge according to an analogical framework in which constraints (e.g., evidence, goals, system constraints) may elicit or deny possibilities (e.g., explanations, decisions, behaviors). In cases of underspecification, an absence of constraints yields uncertainty and competition among plausible outcomes. In cases of overspecification, no plausible outcome is yielded until one of the constraints is amended or forfeited. This framework shares features with theoretical models of reasoning and argumentation, but despite its intuitiveness and applicability, we know of no modeling language or graphical aid that explicitly depicts this defeasible constraint structure. We describe the syntax and semantics for PC graphing and then illustrate potential uses for it.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641060
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Frontiers of Human-Machine Teaming: How Human Factors Is Contributing
    • Authors: Michael F. Rayo, Michael F. Rayo, Emilie M. Roth, Alexander M. Morison, Daniel J. Zelik, Stoney A. Trent
      Pages: 259 - 262
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 259-262, December 2020.
      Although the majority of effort in Artificial Intelligence (AI) ideation, design, and development seeks to optimize the AI as the primary method of optimizing overall system performance, the evidence is clear that for risk-critical work in high-complexity, high-uncertainty settings, it is the interactions between human and machines that must be prioritized. Only be effectively coordinating the available machine and human agents can the system be resilient to an increasing set of system demands. This panel will convey the work that they are doing and obstacles they are facing in the following areas: (1) demonstrating the critical importance of human-machine teaming, (2) hardening design patterns that result in successful human- machine teams, (3) designing and evaluating new automation solutions for their ability to team, and (4) ensuring that new automation solutions are implemented and adopted for risk-critical work.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641061
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Evaluating Situation Assessment in Distributed Network Electricity Control
    • Authors: Mark W.Wiggins, Jaime Auton, Daniel Sturman
      Pages: 263 - 267
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 263-267, December 2020.
      Situation assessment is a critical skill amongst electricity distribution controllers but can be difficult to assess in practice. In the present research, we adapted a psychometric approach based on the principle that expert situation assessment engages cue-based associations from memory. Using consortium norming, we acquired performance data from 320 network control operators for five network control-related tasks that comprised the electricity network service provider edition of the EXPERT Intensive Skills Evaluation (EXPERTise 2.0) software. Operators were distributed across 11 Distributed Network Service Providers (DNSP), with data collected over three phases. Data were examined across the three phases of data collection and suggest that DNSPs can monitor the situation assessment of network controllers at an individual and at an organisational level, affording the opportunity to identify changes in performance and implement remedial strategies as appropriate.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641062
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Paper-Rock-Scissors: an exploration of the dynamics of players’
           strategies
    • Authors: Hanshu Zhang, Frederic Moisan, Cleotilde Gonzalez
      Pages: 268 - 272
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 268-272, December 2020.
      This research contributes to the understanding of dynamic decision making behavior in adversarial repeated interactions. Using a well-known competitive game, Rock-Paper-Scissors in a two-player experiment, we collected data of repeated play in pairs over many trials. We design a payoff matrix that allows us to distinguish the optimal (Nash) behavior from random behavior. Our analyses indicate that participants do not play in agreement with Nash or random. We also do not find evidence of the cyclic behavior suggested in the literature. Interestingly, human behavior is very heterogeneous. While some players follow the common “Win-Stay/Lose-Shift” heuristic, many others also follow a "Win-Shift/Lose-Stay” heuristic. We summarize our conclusions for the study of the dynamics of behavior in adversarial situations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641063
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Implications for Using Mobile Ecological Momentary Assessment to Collect
           Climate Data from Vulnerable Urban Populations
    • Authors: Jacklin Stonewall, Michael Dorneich, Ulrike Passe, Linda Shenk
      Pages: 273 - 277
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 273-277, December 2020.
      This work documents the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to gather data on household behaviors related to outdoor temperatures. In order for urban decision-makers to take effective action to address heat events, they must understand vulnerable residents’ current practices in relation to outdoor temperature. However, vulnerable residents are often excluded from research and can be difficult to reach. EMA allows researchers to gather data in real time and in a subject’s natural environment, which reduces recall bias and improves ecological validity. In this study, EMA was used via a mobile phone app to gather information on home cooling behaviors from residents in vulnerable neighborhoods. Few participants reported making changes to their indoor environments apart from adjusting the thermostat. Despite low participation, the experience of conducting this research has resulted in valuable “lessons learned”. These lessons are used to inform implications and considerations for future use of EMA with vulnerable populations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641064
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Operator Responsibility for Outcomes: A Demonstration of the ResQu Model
    • Authors: Nir Douer, Meirav Redlich, Joachim Meyer
      Pages: 278 - 282
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 278-282, December 2020.
      In systems with advanced automation, human responsibility for outcomes becomes equivocal. We developed the Responsibility Quantification (ResQu) model to compute a measure of operator responsibility (Douer & Meyer, 2020) and compared it to observed and subjective levels of responsibility (Douer & Meyer, 2019). We used the model to calculate operators’ objective responsibility in a common fault event in the control room in a dairy factory. We compared the results to the subjective assessments made by different functions in the diary. The capabilities of the automation greatly exceeded those of the human, and the operator should comply with the indications of the automation. Thus, the objective causal human responsibility is 0. Outside observers, such as managers, assigned much higher responsibility to the operator, possibly holding operators responsible for adverse outcomes in situations in which they rightly trusted the automation.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641065
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Evaluating Risk-Propensity Assessment Methods: Patterns in Repeated
           Exposure to Emotional Stimuli
    • Authors: Sahinya Susindar, Harrison Wissel-Littmann, Terry Ho, Thomas K. Ferris
      Pages: 283 - 287
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 283-287, December 2020.
      In studying naturalistic human decision-making, it is important to understand how emotional states shape decision-making processes and outcomes. Emotion regulation techniques can improve the quality of decisions, but there are several challenges to evaluating these techniques in a controlled research context. Determining the effectiveness of emotion regulation techniques requires methodology that can: 1) reliably elicit desired emotions in decision-makers; 2) include decision tasks with response measures that are sensitive to emotional loading; and 3) support repeated exposures/trials with relatively-consistent emotional loading and response sensitivity. The current study investigates one common method, the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), for its consistency and reliability in measuring the risk-propensity of decision-makers, and specifically how the method’s effectiveness might change over the course of repeated exposures. With the PANASX subjective assessment serving for comparison, results suggest the BART assessment method, when applied over repeated exposures, is reduced in its sensitivity to emotional stimuli and exhibits decision task-related learning effects which influence the observed trends in response data in complex ways. This work is valuable for researchers in decision-making and to guide design for humans with consideration for their affective states.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641066
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Considering a Meso-Ergonomic Factor: Can Accountability Reduce Errors'
    • Authors: Pouria Salehi, Erin K. Chiou
      Pages: 288 - 292
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 288-292, December 2020.
      Accountability is an ill-defined and underexplored concept in job design, particularly in highly proceduralized environments that must operate under both high throughput and high-security expectations. Using x-ray images from the Airport Scanner game, this paper investigates two mechanisms of accountability: an active condition, and a passive condition. Each group was shown a list of prohibited items, but different feedback was provided. The active group was asked to be vigilant for any possible threat, whereas the passive group was instructed to stick to the list. Data from 76 participants were collected. The active group took longer (+16%) to process fewer (-10%) x-ray images compared to the passive group. As a result, the active group accomplished fewer hits (-14%), but also fewer misses (-31%) compared to the other group. While the active group worked slower, they provided higher quality performance. We conclude that accountability mechanisms can reduce errors if applied appropriately.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641067
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Defining A Design Space of The Auto-Mobile Office: A Computational
           Abstraction Hierarchy Analysis
    • Authors: Mengyao Li, Atefeh Katrahmani, Amudha V. Kamaraj, John D. Lee
      Pages: 293 - 297
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 293-297, December 2020.
      One advantage of highly automated vehicles is drivers can use commute time for non-driving tasks, such as work-related tasks. The potential for an auto-mobile office—a space where drivers work in automated vehicles—is a complex yet underexplored idea. This paper begins to define a design space of the auto- mobile office in SAE Level 3 automated vehicles by integrating the affinity diagram (AD) with a computational representation of the abstraction hierarchy (AH). The AD uses a bottom-up approach where researchers starting with individual findings aggregate and abstract those into higher-level concepts. The AH uses a top-down approach where researchers start with first principles to identify means-ends links between system goals and concrete forms of the system. Using the programming language R, the means-ends links of AH can be explored statistically. This computational approach to the AH provides a systematic means to define the design space of the auto-mobile office.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641068
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Planning Bias in the Spatial Rendezvous: Partial Compensation for
           Temporal Uncertainty
    • Authors: Colleen E. Patton, Christopher D. Wickens, Benjamin A. Clegg, Xiaoyan Zhou
      Pages: 298 - 302
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 298-302, December 2020.
      Rendezvous behaviors involve meeting at a time and place, therefore requiring accurate prediction and planning of both your own and the target trajectory. Previous work suggests that the planning bias occurs in spatial situations, with control decisions in a basic ship simulation producing a general tendency towards late rendezvous arrivals. The current experiment introduced temporal uncertainty, operationalized through intermittent delays in the trajectory of the participant’s ship on only some trials. Most trends found under certainty, such as preference for dual axis control, were replicated. Compensation for the possible delays resulted in improved accuracy overall, although not enough to overcome the delays themselves; late arrivals were still prevalent on those trials. Experiencing uncertainty therefore influences the planning bias, and the inclusion of some unpredictable events may counterintuitively improve overall performance. The implications for real-world planning and decision making are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641069
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Assessing the Ability of Multidimensional Scaling and Pathfinder Networks
           to Measure Spatial Knowledge
    • Authors: Caleb Furlough, Douglas J. Gillan
      Pages: 303 - 307
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 303-307, December 2020.
      Cognitive maps, or mental representations of external environments, aid spatial navigation. Typically, researchers study cognitive maps by having participants provide a sketched map. However, multidimensional scaling (MDS) and Pathfinder, statistical techniques which represent a set of input proximities as a n-dimensional space or a network, respectively, can both be used as measures of cognitive maps. Previous research with semantic knowledge suggests that Pathfinder is better than MDS for mental modelling. In the present study, participants drew maps of a familiar environment from memory and provided pairwise distance ratings for landmarks present in those locations. Using those distance ratings as inputs for MDS solutions and Pathfinder networks, the extent to which MDS and Pathfinder related to the participant sketch maps was assessed. Results indicated that MDS solutions were more highly correlated with sketch maps than were Pathfinder networks.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641070
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Towards a Context-Dependent Framework for Visualizing Mental Models
    • Authors: Samantha Harper, Stephen Dorton
      Pages: 308 - 312
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 308-312, December 2020.
      Mental models describe an internal representation of knowledge, which can be used to describe, explain, and predict a person’s interactions with their environment. While there is no shortage on mental model research, a recent literature review revealed the majority of research on mental models does not include an actual model of any kind. Mental models are able to capture complex information, which is difficult to effectively convey through written word alone. A set of visual metaphors are needed to effectively convey the disparate information that can be identified in mental models. We have conducted initial research to develop a notional framework for visualizing mental models based on the context of the elicitation methods used (and the data collected).
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641071
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Predicting Graceful Extensibility of Human-Machine Systems: A New Analysis
           Method for Evaluating Extensibility Plots to Anticipate Distributed System
           Performance
    • Authors: Dane A. Morey, Jesse M. Marquisee, Ryan C. Gifford, Morgan C. Fitzgerald, Michael F. Rayo
      Pages: 313 - 318
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 313-318, December 2020.
      With all of the research and investment dedicated to artificial intelligence and other automation technologies, there is a paucity of evaluation methods for how these technologies integrate into effective joint human-machine teams. Current evaluation methods, which largely were designed to measure performance of discrete representative tasks, provide little information about how the system will perform when operating outside the bounds of the evaluation. We are exploring a method of generating Extensibility Plots, which predicts the ability of the human-machine system to respond to classes of challenges at intensities both within and outside of what was tested. In this paper we test and explore the method, using performance data collected from a healthcare setting in which a machine and nurse jointly detect signs of patient decompensation. We explore the validity and usefulness of these curves to predict the graceful extensibility of the system.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641072
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Abstraction Hierarchy Based Explainable Artificial Intelligence
    • Authors: Murat Dikmen, Catherine Burns
      Pages: 319 - 323
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 319-323, December 2020.
      This work explores the application of Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) in the context of Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI). We built an AI system using a loan evaluation data set and applied an XAI technique to obtain data-driven explanations for predictions. Using an ion Hierarchy (AH), we generated domain knowledge-based explanations to accompany data-driven explanations. An online experiment was conducted to test the usefulness of AH-based explanations. Participants read financial profiles of loan applicants, the AI system’s loan approval/rejection decisions, and explanations that justify the decisions. Presence or absence of AH-based explanations was manipulated, and participants’ perceptions of the explanation quality was measured. The results showed that providing AH-based explanations helped participants learn about the loan evaluation process and improved the perceived quality of explanations. We conclude that a CWA approach can increase understandability when explaining the decisions made by AI systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641073
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Human Factors Issues and Challenges In Research on ‘Many-
           Agent’ Control Applications
    • Authors: Christopher A. Miller, Julie Adams, Shane S. Clark, Stephanie Kane, Karina Roundtree, Phillip Walker
      Pages: 324 - 328
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 324-328, December 2020.
      Human control of multiple agents in swarm or multi-agent deployments are still novel and understudied—especially when real-world research involving many agents (e.g., 50+) are considered, though many organizations are rushing to deploy them for diverse purposes from package delivery to military engagements. Challenges include the scale of situation awareness, workload and attention splitting associated with division of labor across many functions, human perceptions of emergent swarm behaviors, etc. The challenges in either fielding many automated agents in real world settings using current technologies, or of accurately simulating those agents and behaviors sufficiently are posing difficulties—and will become ever more difficult as scale and complexity increases. This panel will focus on recent efforts to create and evaluate methods to support human control of large numbers of swarm or multi-agent vehicles, with an emphasis on deployment and lessons from real world “in the wild” evaluations using multiple representative machine agents.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641074
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Kalman estimation model of human trust in supervisory control of robotic
           swarms
    • Authors: Huao Li, Michael Lewis, Katia Sycara
      Pages: 329 - 333
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 329-333, December 2020.
      Trust is an important factor in the interaction between humans and automation that can mediate the reliance of human operators. In this work, we evaluate a computational model of human trust on swarm systems based on Sheridan (2019)’s modified Kalman estimation model using existing experiment data (Nam, Li, Li, Lewis, & Sycara, 2018). Results show that our Kalman Filter model outperforms existing state of the art alternatives including dynamic Bayesian networks and inverse reinforcement learning. This work is novel in that: 1) The Kalman estimator is the first computational model formulating the human trust evolution as a combination of both open-loop trust anticipation and closed-loop trust feedback. 2) The proposed model considers the operator’s cognitive time lag between perceiving and processing the system display. 3) The proposed model provides a personalized model for each individual and reaches a better level of fitness than state-of-the-art alternatives.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641075
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Real-Time Speech Workload Estimation for Intelligent Human- Machine
           Systems
    • Authors: Julian Fortune, Jamison Heard, Julie A. Adams
      Pages: 334 - 338
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 334-338, December 2020.
      Demanding task environments (e.g., supervising a remotely piloted aircraft) require performing tasks quickly and accurately; however, periods of low and high operator workload can decrease task performance. Intelligent modulation of the system’s demands and interaction modality in response to changes in operator workload state may increase performance by avoiding undesirable workload states. This system requires real- time estimation of each workload component (i.e., cognitive, physical, visual, speech, and auditory) to adapt the correct modality. Existing workload systems estimate multiple workload components post-hoc, but none estimate speech workload, or function in real-time. This manuscript presents an algorithm to estimate speech workload and mitigate undesirable workload states in real-time. The adaptive system uses the algorithm’s estimates to mitigate under/overload, a crucial step towards adaptive machine-human systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641076
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Trusting the X in XAI: Effects of different types of explanations by a
           self-driving car on trust, explanation satisfaction and mental models
    • Authors: Jan Maarten Schraagen, Pia Elsasser, Hanna Fricke, Marleen Hof, Fabyen Ragalmuto
      Pages: 339 - 343
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 339-343, December 2020.
      There is an increasing demand for opaque intelligent systems to explain themselves to humans, in order to increase user trust and the formation of adequate mental models. Previous research has shown effects of different types of explanations on user preferences and performance. However, this research has not addressed the differential effects of intentional and causal explanations on both users’ trust and mental models, nor has it employed multiple trust measurement scales at multiple points in time. In the current research, the effects of three types of explanations (causal, intentional, mixed) on trust development, mental models, and user satisfaction were investigated in the context of a self-driving car. Results showed that participants were least satisfied with causal explanations, that intentional explanations were most effective in establishing high levels of trust, and that mixed explanations led to the best functional understanding of the system and resulted in the least changes in trust over time.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641077
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Modeling and inferring human trust in automation based on real- time eye
           tracking data
    • Authors: Yidu Lu, Nadine Sarter
      Pages: 344 - 348
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 344-348, December 2020.
      Trust miscalibration remains a major challenge for human-machine interaction. It can lead to misuse or disuse of automated systems. To date, most trust research has relied on subjective ratings and behavioral or physiological data to assess trust. Those trust measurements are discrete, disruptive and quite difficult to implement. To better understand the process of trust calibration, we propose eye tracking as an unobtrusive method for inferring trust levels in real time. Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle simulation, participants were exposed to varying levels of reliability of an automated target detection system. Eye movement data were captured and labeled as high or low trust based on subjective trust ratings. Feature extraction and raw eye movement data were compared as input for multiple classification modeling methods. Accuracy rates of 92% and 80%, respectively, were achieved with individual-level and group-level modeling, suggesting that eye tracking is a promising technique for tracing trust levels.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641078
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Creating Metrics for Human-Agent Teams
    • Authors: Elizabeth Cavanah, Zachary Ford, Angelica Jasper, Jacklin Stonewall, Stephen B. Gilbert, Michael Dorneich
      Pages: 349 - 353
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 349-353, December 2020.
      This paper describes the requirements and overall design of a testbed for a human-agent team. A robust, flexible testbed will enable researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of human-agent teaming concepts and issues. In the testbed, MazeWorld, multiple agents play different roles in which tasks are interdependent. Each role can be served by a human or an autonomous agent. Metrics were developed to capture individual and team effectiveness and allow researchers to compare different types of teams and teamwork protocols. Examples of the current task design are presented with the discussion of the future development of the system.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641079
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Using Function Allocation Methods to Inform Research Roadmaps: A
           Human-Robot Interaction Case Study for Medjool Date Thinning
    • Authors: Yael Salzer, Ellen J. Bass
      Pages: 354 - 358
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 354-358, December 2020.
      The objective of the work is to develop a roadmap to support robotic Medjool date thinning system (RDTS) human-robot interaction research. The focus of the work relates to the allocation of functions among the human operator and the envisioned RDTS. We reviewed the current status of enabling technologies. We used the abstraction hierarchy multilevel representation framework to identify the physical functions and resources of the envisioned system. By considering the current status and the abstraction hierarchy, we developed four technically possible function allocation options. These analyses formed the basis for discussion to support research roadmap refinement. The researchers are using this refined roadmap to align their goals to ensure a better RDTS research outcome.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641080
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Effect of Effort on the Allocation of Visual Attention During the
           Induction of General Anesthesia: A SEEV Model Analysis
    • Authors: Tobias Grundgeiger, Katharina Beckh, Oliver Happel
      Pages: 359 - 363
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 359-363, December 2020.
      Anesthesiologists work in complex work environments where optimal scanning of information is critical for patient safety. The Salience, Effort, Expectancy, Value (SEEV) model can be used to model attention distributions of individuals. We used an existing data set of eye tracking data of anesthesiologists inducing general anesthesia to (1) develop a method for considering the effort parameter in the model in such an environment and (2) investigate the explanatory power of an EEV model compared to an EV model. To operationalize effort, we created a 3D model using Unreal Engine 4. We used Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations to obtain EV and EEV model predictions. The inclusion of effort did not yield an advantage over the model which did not include effort. We discuss methodological considerations for future research and suggest to simultaneously consider salience and effort to be able to assess the role of effort more accurately.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641081
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Comparison Between Head-Mounted Displays Regarding The Resumption of A
           Disrupted Work Task
    • Authors: Mari Kruse, Vera Volk, Nathalie Merdan, Penelope Sanderson, Tobias Grundgeiger
      Pages: 364 - 365
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 364-365, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641082
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • How Coordinated Visual Attention on a Target Area of Interest is Impacted
           by a Change in Workload Over Time
    • Authors: Shannon P. Devlin, Jake R. Flynn, Sara L. Riggs
      Pages: 366 - 370
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 366-370, December 2020.
      Data-rich environments rely on operators to collaborate, especially in light of workload changes. This work explores the relationship between the operators’ shared visual attention patterns on a target area of interest (AOI), i.e. the AOI causing a workload change, and how it affects collaborative performance. Eye tracking data was collected from ten pairs of participants who completed two scenarios, the first being low workload and the second being high workload, in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) command and control testbed. Then, best and worst performing pairs were compared in terms of two shared visual attention metrics: (1) percent gaze overlap and (2) the phi coefficient for the target AOI. The results showed that coordinated visits to and from the target AOI were associated with better performance during high workload. These results suggest including quantitative measures of visual attention can be indicators of the adaptation process in real- time.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641083
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Scanpath analysis into the wild: the spatiotemporal distribution of
           fixations as an indicator of driver’s mental workload
    • Authors: Francesco Di Nocera, Orlando Ricciardi, Simon Mastrangelo, Emiliano Torres, Marco Bordignon, Francesco Marcolin
      Pages: 371 - 375
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 371-375, December 2020.
      Past studies using the distribution of eye fixations as an indicator of mental workload are limited to simulations and laboratory tasks. Hence, this assessment strategy has not yet been proven useful in real- world settings. In order to bridge this gap, in this study eye movements of a group of individuals were recorded while driving a car in a suburban road. Drivers’ scanpaths during driving and during driving while performing mundane secondary tasks were compared in this study. A more grouped pattern of fixations was expected in the dual-task condition than in the driving-only condition. As expected, results showed the effectiveness the spatiotemporal distribution of fixations in correctly discriminating between task load conditions, therefore indicating its usefulness for assessing mental workload also in complex real-world tasks.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641084
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Gap Between The Micro And Macro Scales of Teamwork is Spanned By
           Neural Information But Not Neural Band Power
    • Authors: Ron Stevens, Trysha Galloway
      Pages: 376 - 380
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 376-380, December 2020.
      One of the more intriguing questions about teamwork is how macro-scale behaviors arise from the micro-scale neural dynamics of each team member. In this paper we show that the low-level dynamics of EEG band power, which themselves link poorly with behavioral teamwork measures can be transformed into information-based units of neurodynamic organization that link with macro-level constructs like experience and uncertainty. We suggest it is the frequency, magnitude and durations of the temporal organizations within the EEG band power that are important for linking to macro behaviors, and not exclusively EEG power levels. These studies provide an avenue for understanding how complex organizations arise from the dynamics of underlying micro-scale variables. The study also has practical implications for how micro-scale variables might be better represented, both conceptually and in terms of parsimony, for training machines to recognize human behaviors that span scales of teamwork.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641085
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effects of Task Switching In Baggage Screeners
    • Authors: Kevin Zish, Simone Erchov, Jesse Eisert, Charles McKee, Daniel Endres, David Band
      Pages: 381 - 385
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 381-385, December 2020.
      Using a visual search and decision-making task, we investigated common task switching effects on baggage screeners. Like the general population, baggage screeners perform best when there is no task switching as shown by a high sustained d’ and fast decision time. Although baggage screeners continue to improve throughout the task, task switching results in functional decay of the memory for the current decision-criterion.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641086
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Applying Design Thinking: Tales From The Field
    • Authors: Sanjay Batra, Hugues Belanger, Scott Confer
      Pages: 386 - 389
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 386-389, December 2020.
      It has been over 30 years since The Design of Everyday Things was published by Don Norman. An increasingly popular approach of “Design Thinking” owes much of its popularity to Norman’s notion of “Human-Centered Design.” Design thinking at its core empowers everyone on a team to “think like a designer” with an array of creativity approaches to solve complex problems. This panel will focus on the utility of Design Thinking by bringing together viewpoints from three experience designers with over 60 years of combined tenure creating products and services. By discussing the challenges in each of their respective industries of business consulting, internet software, and hardware development, the panelists will share their experiences how design thinking can be applied and extended.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641087
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Longitudinal Study Investigating the Effects of Workload and Exposure on
           3D Gestural Human Computer Interaction
    • Authors: Katherina A. Jurewicz, David M. Neyens
      Pages: 390 - 394
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 390-394, December 2020.
      3D gestural input technology has the ability to expand human-computer interaction (HCI) beyond traditional input modalities. It is known that context and domain expertise are influential to gesture development, but there is little known about other individual factors such as workload and exposure. Therefore, the objective of this work is to explore the effects of workload and exposure on intuitive gesture choice and reaction time under a general HCI context. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the differences in intuitive mappings for high and low workload conditions as well as across three separate experimental sessions. There were no differences in the intuitive mappings for either workload conditions or different experimental sessions. However, there was a difference in reaction times between all experimental sessions indicating there was a learning effect from the first to the last session in that the participants became faster in generating intuitive mappings.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641088
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Come Closer: Experimental Investigation of Robots’ Appearance on
           Proximity, Affect and Trust in a Domestic Environment
    • Authors: Linda Miller, Johannes Kraus, Franziska Babel, Matthias Messner, Martin Baumann
      Pages: 395 - 399
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 395-399, December 2020.
      From once being utopian, robots become more and more common in public and private social life. One area of application are robots, which are able to perform chores in domestic environments. To support users accustoming to the new robot companion, psychological mechanisms that enhance the interaction with robots need to be understood. In this research, the effects of robot’s height and manipulator position on proximity, affect and trust with regards to a humanoid robot were investigated in a laboratory experiment. Results indicated an effect of robot’s height on the comfort distance. On the other hand, a habituation effect after a second robot-human approach was found, in which the influence of the robot’s height on proximity diminished. Similar effects with an anxiety decrease and trending trust increase in the tall robot over time emphasize the importance of first encounters, which should be paid special attention to by designers of robotic systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641089
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • ISO Human-Computer Interaction Standards: Finding Them and What They
           Contain
    • Authors: Paul Green
      Pages: 400 - 404
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 400-404, December 2020.
      An HFES Task Force is considering if, when, and which, HFES research publications should require the citation of relevant standards, policies, and practices to help translate research into practice. To support the Task Force activities, papers and reports are being written about how to find relevant standards produced by various organizations (e.g., the International Standards Organization, ISO) and the content of those standards. This paper describes the human-computer interaction standards being produced by ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (Information Technology). Subcommittees 7 (Software and Systems Engineering) and 35 (User Interfaces), and Technical Committee 159, Subcommittee 4 (Ergonomics of Human-System Interaction), in particular, the contents of the ISO 9241 series and the ISO 2506x series. Also included are instructions on how to find standards using the ISO Browsing Tool and Technical Committee listings, and references to other materials on finding standards and standards-related teaching materials.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641090
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Impact of Agents’ Errors on Performance, Reliance and Trust in
           Human-Agent Collaboration
    • Authors: Sylvain Daronnat, Leif Azzopardi, Martin Halvey
      Pages: 405 - 409
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 405-409, December 2020.
      Trust in automation is often strongly tied to an agent’s performance. However, our understanding of imperfect agents’ behaviours and its impact on trust is limited. In this paper, we study the relationship between performance, reliance and trust in a set of human-agent collaborative tasks. Participants collaborated with different automated agents that performed similarly but made errors in different ways; namely mistakes (error of prioritization), lapses (error of omission) and slips (lowered accuracy). We conducted a 4x2 within-subjects experiment (n=24) varying the agent behaviours (no error, slips, mistakes and lapses) and task difficulty (easy/hard) during a real-time collaborative game. Our results show that, at the same level of agent performance, agents’ errors are perceived differently and change the way participants interact with agents. For instance, slips and mistakes are more harmful to performance than lapses while slips are more harmful to reliance than mistakes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641091
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Unreasonable Ineptitude of Deep Image Classification Networks
    • Authors: Shane T. Mueller, Priyansh Agarwal, Anne Linja, Nisarg Dave, Lamia Alam
      Pages: 410 - 414
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 410-414, December 2020.
      The success of deep image classification networks has been met with enthusiasm and investment from both the academic community and industry. We hypothesize users will expect these systems to behave similarly to humans, and to succeed and fail in ways humans do. To investigate this, we tested six popular image classifiers on imagery from ten tool categories, examining how 17 visual transforms impacted both human and AI classification. Results showed that (1) none of the visual transforms we examined produced substantial impairment for human recognition; (2) human errors were limited to mostly to functional confusions; (3) almost all visual transforms impacted nearly every image classifier negatively and often catastrophically; (4) human expectations about performance of AI classifiers map more closely onto human error than AI performance; and (5) models trained with an enriched training set involving examples of the transformed imagery achieved improved performance but were not inoculated from error.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641092
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Patterns of interaction with information sources: A case study of a home
           healthcare admission nurse completing medication-related activities
    • Authors: Elease McLaurin, Ellen J. Bass
      Pages: 415 - 419
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 415-419, December 2020.
      A method is presented for understanding how people interact with information sources in complex work environments. The method is based on 1) the importance of focusing on information transformations in cognitive work systems articulated in the information trails model and 2) the concept of mediated actions from activity theory as a framework for systematically describing the activities of a human actor. The method was applied to data from a single observation of a home healthcare nurse completing medication-related activities during an admission visit. During the visit, the nurse provided or obtained information using 21 different action patterns to interact with information sources. Using these action patterns, the complexity of different care activities was inspected. The presented method provides a tool for identifying work system redesign opportunities for improving information flow.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641093
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Challenges and Opportunities in Collaborative Vulnerability Research
           Workflows
    • Authors: Ryan Mullins, Deirdre Kelliher, Ben Nargi, Mike Keeney, Nathan Schurr
      Pages: 420 - 424
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 420-424, December 2020.
      Recently, cyber reasoning systems demonstrated near-human performance characteristics when they autonomously identified, proved, and mitigated vulnerabilities in software during a competitive event. New research seeks to augment human vulnerability research teams with cyber reasoning system teammates in collaborative work environments. However, the literature lacks a concrete understanding of vulnerability research workflows and practices, limiting designers’, engineers’, and researchers’ ability to successfully integrate these artificially intelligent entities into teams. This paper contributes a general workflow model of the vulnerability research process, and identifies specific collaboration challenges and opportunities anchored in this model. Contributions were derived from a qualitative field study of work habits, behaviors, and practices of human vulnerability research teams. These contributions will inform future work in the vulnerability research domain by establishing an empirically-driven workflow model that can be adapted to specific organizational and functional constraints placed on individual and teams.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641094
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Lessons Learned in Leveraging Existing Simulations for Cybersecurity
           Training, Evaluation, and Research
    • Authors: Daniel Mabie, David Schuster
      Pages: 425 - 429
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 425-429, December 2020.
      We provide lessons learned in leveraging existing simulations to conduct human-subjects cybersecurity experiments and develop training for cybersecurity professionals. First, we provide criteria for the evaluation and categorization of existing simulation tools into four categories (competitions, testbeds, tabletop exercises, and simulations used in published research). Following this, eight criteria are offered to evaluate simulations on their suitability for use in experiments. We evaluated one representative product in each category. This paper serves as a resource for practitioners who use simulation as a method of training or evaluation. Further, this work is a starting point for researchers to efficiently find and leverage simulations to conduct cybersecurity research.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641095
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effect of Facts Box on Users’ Comprehension of Differential Privacy:
           A Preliminary Study
    • Authors: Aiping Xiong, Tianhao Wang, Ninghui Li, Somesh Jha
      Pages: 430 - 430
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 430-430, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641096
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • What makes phishing emails hard for humans to detect'
    • Authors: Kuldeep Singh, Palvi Aggarwal, Prashanth Rajivan, Cleotilde Gonzalez
      Pages: 431 - 435
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 431-435, December 2020.
      This research investigates the email features that make a phishing email difficult to detect by humans. We use an existing data set of phishing and ham emails and expand that data set by collecting annotations of the features that make the emails phishing. Using the new, annotated data set, we perform cluster analyses to identify the categories of emails and their attributes. We then analyze the accuracy of detection in each category. Our results indicate that the similarity of the features of phishing emails to benign emails, play a critical role in the accuracy of detection. The phishing emails that are most similar to ham emails had the lowest accuracy while the phishing emails that were most dissimilar to the ham emails were detected more accurately. Regression models reveal the contribution of phishing email’s features to phishing detection accuracy. We discuss the implications of these results to theory and practice.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641097
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Modeling Information Pooling Bias in Incident Response Teams: An Agent
           Based Modeling Approach
    • Authors: Prashanth Rajivan, Nancy J. Cooke
      Pages: 436 - 440
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 436-440, December 2020.
      Security analysts regularly correlate disparate incidents to detect cyber-attacks. However, past research shows that team-based incident correlation analysis may be affected by information pooling bias. This article presents findings from an agent-based model used to explore the cognitive processes hypothesized to be causing this bias during information exchange within a team. The model simulated information exchange between three analysts conducting incident correlation analysis by searching for information available with them about the different incidents. Three models of memory search process were compared: Random, Local, and Memory-aided search. Results from the simulation show that agents in a local search model, compared to memory-aided search model, shared more often the information known to majority in the team. Comparing model results with data from lab experiments suggest that teams, by default, may be employing a heuristic search process during information exchange leading to sub-optimal team processes and performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641098
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Cyber Buzz: Examining Virality Characteristics of Cybersecurity Content In
           Social Networks
    • Authors: Thomas Shields, Hannah Li, Peter Lebedev, Josiah Dykstra
      Pages: 441 - 445
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 441-445, December 2020.
      The Internet is a rich environment for information to spread rapidly and widely. The ability of cybersecurity content to achieve virality in social networks can be useful for measuring security awareness, policy adoption, or cybersecurity literacy. It may also reveal new and emerging cybersecurity events. Virality in online social networks can be characterized and measured many ways and have different causes. Leveraging existing research in social network virality measurements, we calculate and analyze virality measurements and correlations on an anonymized Reddit dataset, examining overall trends and characteristics of individual cybersecurity forums (subreddits). We reproduce content-based virality prediction algorithms and assess their performance, then introduce additional features beyond post title, including time of day, to improve prediction accuracy to ~71% for each of the virality scores. We examine the intersection of the virality facets to reveal correlations about the content and times when cybersecurity content is most viral.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641099
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • An Exploratory Study of a Masking Strategy of Cyberdeception Using
           CyberVAN
    • Authors: Palvi Aggarwal, Omkar Thakoor, Aditya Mate, Milind Tambe, Edward A. Cranford, Christian Lebiere, Cleotilde Gonzalez
      Pages: 446 - 450
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 446-450, December 2020.
      During the network reconnaissance process, attackers scan the network to gather information before launching an attack. This is a good chance for defenders to use deception and disrupt the attacker’s learning process. In this paper, we present an exploratory experiment to test the effectiveness of a masking strategy (compared to a random masking strategy) to reduce the utility of attackers. A total of 30 human participants (in the role of attackers) are randomly assigned to one of the two experimental conditions: Optimal or Random (15 in each condition). Attackers appeared to be more successful in launching attacks in the optimal condition compared to the random condition but the total score of attackers was not different from the random masking strategy. Most importantly, we found a generalized tendency to act according to the certainty bias (or risk aversion). These observations will help to improve the current state-of-the-art masking algorithms of cyberdefense.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641100
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Cybersecurity Teamwork: A Review of Current Practices and Suggested
           Improvements
    • Authors: Richard J. Simonson, Joseph R. Keebler, Mathew Lessmiller, Tyson Richards, John C. Lee
      Pages: 451 - 455
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 451-455, December 2020.
      As cyber-attacks and their subsequent responses have become more frequent and complex over the past decade, research into the performance and effectiveness of cybersecurity teams has gained an immense amount of traction. However, investigation of teamwork in this domain is lacking due to the exclusion of known team competencies and a lack of reliance on team science. This paper serves to provide insight into the benefit that can be gained from utilizing the extant teamwork literature to improve teams’ research and applications in the domain of cyber-security.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641101
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • What Attackers Know and What They Have to Lose: Framing Effects on
           Cyber-attacker Decision Making
    • Authors: Edward A. Cranford, Cleotilde Gonzalez, Palvi Aggarwal, Milind Tambe, Christian Lebiere
      Pages: 456 - 460
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 456-460, December 2020.
      Many cybersecurity algorithms assume adversaries make perfectly rational decisions. However, human decisions are only boundedly rational and, according to Instance-Based Learning Theory, are based on the similarity of the present contextual features to past experiences. More must be understood about what available features are represented in the decision and how outcomes are evaluated. To these ends, we examined human behavior in a cybersecurity game designed to simulate an insider attack scenario. In a human-subjects experiment, we manipulated the information made available to participants (concealed or revealed decision probabilities) and the framing of the outcome (as losses or not). An endowment was given to frame negative outcomes as losses, but these were not framed as losses when no endowment was given. The results reveal differences in behavior when some information is concealed, but the framing of outcomes only affects behavior when all information is available. A cognitive model was developed to help understand the cognitive representation of these features and the implications of the behavioral results.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641102
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Humans and Technology for Inclusive Privacy and Security
    • Authors: Sanchari Das, Robert S. Gutzwiller, Rod D. Roscoe, Prashanth Rajivan, Yang Wang, L. Jean Camp, Roberto Hoyle
      Pages: 461 - 464
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 461-464, December 2020.
      Computer security and user privacy are critical issues and concerns in the digital era due to both increasing users and threats to their data. Separate issues arise between generic cybersecurity guidance (i.e., protect all user data from malicious threats) and the individualistic approach of privacy (i.e., specific to users and dependent on user needs and risk perceptions). Research has shown that several security- and privacy-focused vulnerabilities are technological (e.g., software bugs (Streiff, Kenny, Das, Leeth, & Camp, 2018), insecure authentication (Das, Wang, Tingle, & Camp, 2019)), or behavioral (e.g., sharing passwords (Das, Dingman, & Camp, 2018); and compliance (Das, Dev, & Srinivasan, 2018) (Dev, Das, Rashidi, & Camp, 2019)). This panel proposal addresses a third category of sociotechnical vulnerabilities that can and sometimes do arise from non-inclusive design of security and privacy. In this panel, we will address users’ needs and desires for privacy. The panel will engage in in-depth discussions about value-sensitive design while focusing on potentially vulnerable populations, such as older adults, teens, persons with disabilities, and others who are not typically emphasized in general security and privacy concerns. Human factors have a stake in and ability to facilitate improvements in these areas.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641104
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Tools for Ergonomic Intervention: The Development and Analysis of a Cost
           Calculator
    • Authors: Derek Stephens, Diana J. Schwerha
      Pages: 465 - 469
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 465-469, December 2020.
      The purpose of this study was to determine if safety professionals can use an ergonomic intervention costing calculator, which integrates performance and quality data into the costing matrix, to increase communication and better of decision making for the company. The sample size included 9 participants, which included four safety managers, four EHS managers, and one HR generalist. Results showed that all participants found the calculator very useful, well integrated, and it increased communication across the company. The mean System Usability Score (SUS) score was 82, which is rated as a perfectly acceptable software for use. Recommendations from this study include adding some additional features to the calculator, increasing awareness and availability of the calculator, and conducting further analysis using larger sample sizes. Limitations in this study include small sample size and limited interventions that were tested.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641105
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Demonstration: Virtual Patient Immersive Trainer to Train Perceptual
           Skills Using Augmented Reality
    • Authors: Christen E. Sushereba, Laura G. Militello
      Pages: 470 - 472
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 470-472, December 2020.
      In this session, we will demonstrate the Virtual Patient Immersive Trainer (VPIT). The VPIT system uses augmented reality (AR) to allow medics and medical students to experience a photorealistic, life-sized virtual patient. The VPIT supports learners in obtaining the perceptual skills required to recognize and interpret subtle perceptual cues critical to assessing a patient’s condition. We will conduct an interactive demonstration of the virtual patient using both a tablet (for group interaction) and an AR-enabled headset (Microsoft HoloLens) for individual interaction. In addition, we will demonstrate use of the instructor tablet to control what the learner sees (e.g., injury types, severity of injury) and to monitor student performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641106
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effects of Visual Location of Information on The Performance of Monitoring
           Task Searhing in Digital Interactive Interface
    • Authors: Xiaoli Wu, Qizhi Li
      Pages: 473 - 479
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 473-479, December 2020.
      The visual location of the information influences the searching efficiency of the monitoring task. In this paper, from the division of human eye’s visual regions, the task searching experiments of visual location in digital interactive interface are conducted. The experimental results show that, for target information blocks in the foveal and the parafoveal regions, the operators can finish the task searching efficiently and rapidly. However, when the target task is away from present fixation range’s parafoveal region, it will easily lead to sequence searching that will cost extra unnecessary task searching time, or even lead to failure of task searching. Therefore, the information layout design of digital interactive interface should be set successively in effective visual locations, i.e., the foveal and the parafoveal regions according to task order. This will satisfy the visual location rule and will efficiently improve the performance of task searching.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641107
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Education of the Human Factors Engineer in the Age of Data Science
    • Authors: Daniel Hannon, Esa Rantanen, Ben Sawyer, Ashley Hughes, Katherine Darveau, Robert O’Donnell, James Intriligator, John D. Lee
      Pages: 480 - 484
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 480-484, December 2020.
      The continued advances in artificial intelligence and automation through machine learning applications, under the heading of data science, gives reason for pause within the educator community as we consider how to position future human factors engineers to contribute meaningfully in these projects. Do the lessons we learned and now teach regarding automation based on previous generations of technology still apply' What level of DS and ML expertise is needed for a human factors engineer to have a relevant role in the design of future automation' How do we integrate these topics into a field that often has not emphasized quantitative skills' This panel discussion brings together human factors engineers and educators at different stages of their careers to consider how curricula are being adapted to include data science and machine learning, and what the future of human factors education may look like in the coming years.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641109
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Investigating the Effects of Demographics and Framing on the Robot-Theater
           Program
    • Authors: Chihab Nadri, Jiayuan Dong, Haley Swaim, Sangjin Ko, Harsh Sanghavi, Myounghoon Jeon
      Pages: 485 - 489
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 485-489, December 2020.
      While STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics) education programs have shown promise in increasing students’ interest in STEM and arts & design fields, the effects of demographic and other contextual factors have not been thoroughly investigated yet. While conducting robot-theater summer youth sessions with forty participants of the TechGirls international summer exchange program, we explored these factors. Participants in teams of four to six students created a script for a theater play that required the use of programmable robots. Results seem to suggest the influence of demographic factors such as nationality, as well as the effect of framing on participant attitudes towards robots and STEAM education. Subsequent validation of these effects in other studies is expected to contribute to refining the design of robot-theater and other STEAM education programs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641110
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Influence of Voice on Pedagogical Agent’s Persona and Recall
           Performance
    • Authors: Thomas W. Morris, Hung-Tao M. Chen
      Pages: 490 - 494
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 490-494, December 2020.
      Despite the prevalence of computer-generated speech, few studies have investigated the direct relationship between an agent’s voice and students’ perception or recall performance. This study investigated the effects of voice (without visual information) on students’ perception ratings and recall performance. Our results indicated that in the absence of visual information, students greatly preferred the human voice. The recall performance, however, indicated that the synthesized voices led to better recall performance. Implications for pedagogical practices are described in the discussion section.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641111
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • An Explorative Analysis of the Feasibility of Implementing Metacognitive
           Strategies in Self-Regulated Learning with the Conversational Agents
    • Authors: Smit Desai, Jessie Chin
      Pages: 495 - 499
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 495-499, December 2020.
      With the prevalence of commercially available conversational agents (CAs), little research examined the capacities and constraints of these devices to support adults to learn new information on their own. The article conducted systematic analysis on the commercially available CAs (using work domain analysis and literature review), synthesized the metacognitive strategies that have been implemented in the computer-based learning environments, and examined the feasibility to implement these strategies on CAs to support self-regulated learning. This study has implications on designing scalable evidence-based theory-driven educational applications to support users to learn new information on their own using the off-the-shelf devices.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641112
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics for Improving Online
           Learning Environments
    • Authors: Yancy Vance Paredes, Robert F. Siegle, I-Han Hsiao, Scotty D. Craig
      Pages: 500 - 504
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 500-504, December 2020.
      The proliferation of educational technology systems has led to the advent of a large number of datasets related to learner interaction. New fields have emerged which aim to use this data to identify interventions that could help the learners become efficient and effective in their learning. However, these systems have to follow user-centered design principles to ensure that the system is usable and the data is of high quality. Human factors literature is limited on the topics regarding Educational Data Mining (EDM) and Learning Analytics (LA). To develop improved educational systems, it is important for human factors engineers to be exposed to these data-oriented fields. This paper aims to provide a brief introduction to the fields of EDM and LA, discuss data visualization and dashboards that are used to convey results to learners, and finally to identify where human factors can aid other fields.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641113
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Human-Centered and Psychological Concepts in Undergraduate Engineering
           Project Documentation
    • Authors: Rod D. Roscoe, Samuel T. Arnold, Chelsea K. Johnson
      Pages: 505 - 509
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 505-509, December 2020.
      The success of engineering and design is facilitated by a working understanding of human thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In this study, we explored how undergraduate engineering students included such human-centered and psychological concepts in their project documentation. Although, we observed a range of concepts related to design processes, teams, cognition, and motivation, these concepts appeared infrequently and superficially. We discuss how this analysis and approach may help to identify topics that could be leveraged for future human-centered engineering instruction.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641114
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Bridging Psychology and Engineering: Undergraduate Conceptions of Human
           Systems Engineering
    • Authors: Rod D. Roscoe, Samuel T. Arnold, Ashley T. Clark
      Pages: 510 - 514
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 510-514, December 2020.
      Instruction and coursework that link engineering and psychology may enable future engineers to better understand the people they are engineering for (e.g., users and clients) and themselves as engineers (e.g., teammates). In addition, human-centered engineering education may empower engineering students to better solve problems at the intersection of technology and people. In this study, we surveyed students’ conceptions and attitudes toward human systems engineering. We aggregate responses across three survey iterations to discuss students’ knowledge and beliefs, and to consider instructional opportunities for introductory courses.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641115
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Impact of Task Lighting on Close Visual Activities and Quality of Life
           in Older Adults
    • Authors: Martha Sanders
      Pages: 515 - 515
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 515-515, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641116
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Observation and Records of Spatial Behavior For Wayfinding: A Case Study
           in a Hospital Built Environment
    • Authors: Márcia M. Rangel, Claudia Mont’Alvão
      Pages: 516 - 520
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 516-520, December 2020.
      Autonomous and intuitive displacement is a parameter to verify the potential of information for spatial orientation in a built environment. Being oriented implies not getting lost on the route linked to a task, both in known or unknown environments. This topic is a maximum measurement of a user's behavior in their displacement. First, some main concepts will be presented, proposing some indicators for users’observation in the built environment. After that, a case study will be presented, using the indicators that are proposed based on the task, routes, strategies, and user behavior for a data collection. As a result, this data was checked with the Visibility Index (VI) method.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641117
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Who is in the Room' Notification for Intrusions While in Virtual
           Reality
    • Authors: Aaron Crowson, Zachary H. Pugh, Michael Wilkinson, Christopher B. Mayhorn
      Pages: 521 - 525
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 521-525, December 2020.
      The development of head-mounted display virtual reality systems (e.g., Oculus Rift, HTC Vive) has resulted in an increasing need to represent the physical world while immersed in the virtual. Current research has focused on representing static objects in the physical room, but there has been little research into notifying VR users of changes in the environment. This study investigates how different sensory modalities affect noticeability and comprehension of notifications designed to alert head-mounted display users when a person enters his/her area of use. In addition, this study investigates how the use of an orientation type notification aids in perception of alerts that manifest outside a virtual reality users’ visual field. Results of a survey indicated that participants perceived the auditory modality as more effective regardless of notification type. An experiment corroborated these findings for the person notifications; however, the visual modality was in practice more effective for orientation notifications.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641118
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Field Observations of Placement for Large-Panel Flat and Curved Displays
           for Presbyopic and Prepresbyopic Computer Users
    • Authors: Michael C Bartha, Paul Allie, Doug Kokot
      Pages: 526 - 530
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 526-530, December 2020.
      Displays with panels larger than 30 inches are being provided to workers in corporate settings at an increasing rate. Additionally, some models are offered that have curved panels. This field study was designed to observe user selected position of 34 inch curved and flat displays and determine if there are positioning, user experience and satisfaction differences between pre-presbyopes and presbyope workers who have multifocal vision correction. The results indicate that participants position larger displays a little farther away than displays with a less than 30 inch diagonal. Newer, larger displays did not reduce reports of eye discomfort, but they did significantly reduce reports of neck and shoulder discomfort. Study participants preferred working with the curved display compared to the large flat display.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641119
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Employee Reactions to Electrochromic Glass Windows in a Financial Office
           Building
    • Authors: Alan Hedge, Cameron McKee
      Pages: 531 - 535
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 531-535, December 2020.
      A post occupancy evaluation survey of workers in a new financial office building with EC windows was conducted. Results show that those occupants with window views responded more favorably to the effects of the EC windows than those who did not have these views. Most occupants did not report eyestrain or headache. Significantly more occupants with EC window views reported comfortable daylight, better daylight quality, better daylight satisfaction, better alertness, greater energy, relaxation and happiness at work, better sleep quality, and increase productivity. Implications of these findings are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641120
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Potential Case of Inattentional Blindness in a Police-Pursuit Collision
    • Authors: Jeffrey A. Martin
      Pages: 536 - 540
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 536-540, December 2020.
      The perceptual phenomenon of “inattentional blindness” has been widely acknowledged in the scientific literature for 30 years. In addition to the laboratory-based examples, real-life examples appear in the literature. This paper provides a case study where a deputy sheriff’s patrol car collided with a fleeing motorcyclist – with unique circumstances – as recorded on in-car-camera (ICC) videos. Although the motorcyclist brought suit alleging the deputy intentionally collided with him, the deputy reported that he first noticed another deputy running after the motorcyclist prior to seeing the fleeing motorcyclist. However, the ICC video from the involved deputy’s patrol car strongly supports the motorcyclist was visible from the deputy’s perspective before the on-foot deputy appeared. The facts of this incident are compared to the widely accepted characteristics of inattentional blindness in exploring whether that perceptual phenomenon may have been at play in this case.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641121
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • An Eye Tracking-Based Forensic Analysis of Motorcyclist Conspicuity During
           a Left Turn Maneuver
    • Authors: Stephanie A. Whetsel Borzendowski, Leah S. Hartman, Alan O. Campbell
      Pages: 541 - 544
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 541-544, December 2020.
      Research has identified drivers’ failure to detect motorcyclists as a causal factor in collisions, with drivers often looking towards or at a motorcycle but reporting that they never saw the motorcycle. Driving is a complex task and it is important to understand where and how drivers allocate their attention. Using mobile eye tracking technology, the present study was conducted as part of the forensic analysis of a collision between a passenger vehicle and a motorcycle. Gaze patterns of eight individuals were recorded as they made left-hand turns across traffic. Data from this study indicated that half of the participants fixated the motorcycle. However, none of the participants appeared to detect the motorcycle-initiated motion towards them as they made their left turn. These findings suggest that drivers were able to peripherally detect the motorcycle but failed to see it or judged the motorcycle not to be an imminent threat.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641122
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Face Validity of Various Display Methodologies in Conveying Spatial
           Awareness and Depth Perception
    • Authors: Rosemarie Figueroa-Jacinto, Elizabeth Kappler, Xiaojian Jin, Steve Arndt, Steve Rundell
      Pages: 545 - 549
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 545-549, December 2020.
      The information conveyed through visual cues varies greatly depending on the display method. Digital images are often used as trial demonstratives and are a vital resource in the presentation and transfer of information to a jury during litigation. In the situation where depth perception and spatial awareness are a key factor in the understanding of a subject incident, immersive technology, such as virtual reality (VR), may provide a valuable alternative to traditional media forms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different display methodologies in conveying depth perception and spatial awareness during an “optical illusion” misstep and fall case. This study provides a quantitative characterization of participants’ responses to various display methodologies ranging from 2D photographs to a VR environment. Results indicate that individuals were able to perceive a larger number of visual cues when immersed in a three-dimensional virtual environment, giving them a more accurate representation of the scene.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641124
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Case Study Demonstrating the Utility of Surveillance Video in Assessing
           Gait Dynamics and Behavior During a Slip and Fall
    • Authors: Leah S. Hartman, Stephanie A. Whetsel Borzendowski, Alan O. Campbell
      Pages: 550 - 554
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 550-554, December 2020.
      As the use of surveillance video at commercial properties becomes more prevalent, it is more likely an incident involving a personal injury will be captured on film. This provides a unique opportunity for Human Factors practitioners involved in forensic investigations to analyze the behavior of the individual prior to, during, and after the event in question. It also provides an opportunity to gather unique and objective data. The present work describes a case study of a slip and fall where surveillance video and onsite measurements were combined and analyzed to quantify a plaintiff’s gait pattern. Using this type of analysis, we were able to determine that the plaintiff was likely aware that the floor was slippery and adjusted her gait and behavior prior to the slip and fall incident.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641125
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Media and Public Engagement for Societal Impact: Getting the Word Out
           about Human Factors and Ergonomics
    • Authors: Rod D. Roscoe, Claudia Z. Acemyan, Karen Jacobs, Michelle M. Robertson, Angela Yoo, Doug Mitchell
      Pages: 555 - 558
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 555-558, December 2020.
      Societal impact refers to the influence of research on economic, environmental, cultural, and social outcomes that extend beyond the scientific sphere. In 2018, the Human Factors and Ergonomic Society launched the Societal Impact Committee to mindfully identify societal issues in which HF/E could contribute to beneficial impact while also advancing science and practice. This panel will consider the role of media and public engagement in facilitating this broad endeavor. Panelists will discuss their experiences, strategies, and lessons learned pertaining to connecting with the media and public via outreach, journalism, museums, and more.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641126
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Inclusion and Accessibility in The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
    • Authors: Kylie M. Gomes, Theresa Nguyen, Jacklin Stonewall, Kermit Davis, Sarah Coppola, Kim Hallett, Rua M. Williams
      Pages: 559 - 562
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 559-562, December 2020.
      The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Diversity Committee is entering its fourth year and continuing ways to improve diversity within the society as well as promote inclusive excellence within the HFE profession. Building on the annual meeting content from the committee’s first two years, 2019’s alternative format session on “HFE in Diversity, Inclusion and Social Justice: A Practical Primer” facilitated discussion amongst attendees about practical knowledge related to conducting diversity, inclusion, and social justice research. At the end of the session, a questionnaire was administered to gather input for future annual meeting programming. A topic of interest that emerged included promoting inclusion in HFE training, education, and the profession as a whole. Therefore, with input from past participants, this panel brings together researchers, experts, and HFES leadership to discuss challenges related to inclusion and accessibility within the society and profession, as well as how to move forward to address these challenges.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641127
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Designing For Diversity: Implications for Research and Practice
    • Authors: Abigail R. Wooldridge, Rod D. Roscoe, Rod D. Roscoe, Shannon C. Roberts, Rupa Valdez, Abigail R. Wooldridge
      Pages: 563 - 567
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 563-567, December 2020.
      The Diversity Committee of HFES has led sessions at the Annual Meeting for the past three years focused on improving diversity, equity and inclusion in the society as well as providing support to human factors and ergonomics (HF/E) researchers and practitioners who aim to apply HF/E knowledge and principles to improve diversity, equity and inclusion through their work. In this panel, we bring together researchers actively engaged in designing technology and systems by considering issues of diversity, equity and inclusion to share insights and methods. Topics include the thoughtful design of sampling strategies and research approaches, alternative and participatory methods to understand the impact of automation and technology on equity, scoping design problems to be inclusive and equitable through interdisciplinary partnerships, and the application of sociotechnical system design and team science to develop interdisciplinary teams. By sharing our experiences, we hope to prepare others to successfully approach these topics.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641128
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • UX & HF: The State of the Union
    • Authors: Tim Ballew, Michael C. Bartha, Christy Harper, Danae Holmes, Pieter Kruithof, Melissa Meingast
      Pages: 568 - 576
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 568-576, December 2020.
      The disciplines of HF and UX appear to be drifting further apart, with careers in UX continuing to grow at rates that far surpass those in HF. Does this divergence come at a cost, or is it a natural step that lends clarity and focus to the two disciplines, or both' In this panel we will explore the reasons for this separation and how this divergence has been reflected in our own career from a range of perspectives, ranging from research practices that incorporate both disciplines as critical aspects of the design process, to those where HF processes underlie the approach to UX, to those that trade scientific rigor in favor of democratization of the discipline. We will discuss the implications of this separation, and how (and if) to bridge the gap.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641129
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • HFES Student Chapters: A Discussion of Best Practices
    • Authors: Grace E. Waldfogle, Katie Lucaites, Emily Brunsen, Jessyca Derby
      Pages: 577 - 581
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 577-581, December 2020.
      The objective of this panel is to open a dialog about how to effectively run student chapters of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. The panel will start by Grace Waldfogle briefly giving an overview of the discussion panel and providing her insight into the University of Central Florida’s student chapter. Katie Lucaites will discuss the benefits of applied projects and how the Clemson student chapter succeeds. Emily Brunsen will share how the North Carolina State University student chapter makes their presence known on campus. Finally, Jessyca Derby will discuss the do’s and don’ts of chapter success from Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. The specific theme of this discussion panel is to express student chapter successes and failures in an open discussion format. Each panelist brings a different viewpoint from varying chapter sizes around the country. Grace will foster discussion among the panelists and questions from the general audience.Discussion time: 90 minutes
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641130
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Planning the sabbatical: Potential benefits, options, and strategies
    • Authors: Ellen J. Bass, Barrett S. Caldwell, Caroline G. L. Cao, John D. Lee, Christopher Miller
      Pages: 582 - 586
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 582-586, December 2020.
      The goal of the Mid-career Professional Group of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society is to support the development and mentoring of mid-career professionals. One opportunity for which early mid-career professionals lack knowledge is the sabbatical. Following a designated number of years of consecutive service, a sabbatical can provide a time for personal and professional development through an approved leave of absence. While sabbaticals provide time for deep consideration of a particular topic and/or to reconsider one’s career options, few mid-career professionals are prepared to plan and to execute a sabbatical period. This panel will introduce the benefits of a sabbatical and will highlight options and strategies for those who are considering the sabbatical opportunity.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641131
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • HFES Technical Standards Update
    • Authors: Robert R. (Bob) Fox, Rammohan (Ram) Maikala, Tom Albin, David Rempel, Robert R. (Bob) Fox, Judi E. See
      Pages: 587 - 588
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 587-588, December 2020.
      HFES oversees or touches on a variety of ergonomics and human factors standards activities including standards developed within HFES (e.g. HFES 100) and standards work outside of HFES such as ANSI, ISO and ACGIH. This session is intended to update HFES members on the standards work that HFES is involved. This year the emphasis will be on specific new standards work on topical areas. Included will be a discussion of a suggested interpretation strategy for the outcome metrics of the Revised NIOSH Lift Equation (RNLE) that came out of work on the revision of the ISO 11228 Part 1 on Lifting, Lowering and carrying, the status of the HFES 100 Human Factors Engineering of Computer Workstations standard and the latest work on the ACGIH Ergonomics standards and on a proposed ANSI standard on Human Readiness Levels.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641132
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • How to Maximize Success in Industry as a UX Researcher
    • Authors: Christy Harper, Christy Harper, Melissa Meingast, Rochelle E. Edwards, Maya Greene, Tasha D. Valdez, Amrita Sidhu Maguire
      Pages: 589 - 592
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 589-592, December 2020.
      Planning academic research, learning about human computer interaction, understanding cognitive biases, and using statistics are fundamentals that help to prepare students for industry. However, to succeed as a UX researcher, there are other strategies, mindsets and knowledge needed to be successful. Our experienced industry professionals will provide insight to help early career professionals transition to and succeed in an applied industry role. We will touch on communication in the business world, adapting methodologies, going beyond the textbook to acquire skills, becoming a bold leader, learning how to demonstrate value, and adjusting research as we consider future technologies. A moderator will collect questions via Sli.do and significant time will be spent on audience discussion.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641133
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Patient Safety Learning Labs: What are we actually learning
    • Authors: Shilo Anders, Emily S. Patterson, Ken R. Catchpole, Richard J. Holden, Ayse Gurses, Matthew B. Weinger (Co-Chair), Yan Xiao (Co- Chair)
      Pages: 593 - 597
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 593-597, December 2020.
      Over the last several years, a number of human factors researchers have been integral to the advent and success of AHRQ’s Patient Safety Learning Laboratories (PSLLs). This panel is made up of researchers involved in this program of research and co-chaired by two different project PIs. The goal of this panel is to share what panelists have learned as the engage in this research to address patient safety issues using a systems engineering approach.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641134
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Provider Burnout as it relates to the Electronic Health Record and
           Clinical Workflow
    • Authors: Jason J. Saleem, Meredith Price, Jacob M. Read, Ki-Hwan Bae, Monica Gentili, Jonathan A. Becker, Michael Eli Pendleton
      Pages: 598 - 602
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 598-602, December 2020.
      Provider burnout has reached epidemic levels, especially with primary care-oriented specialties such as Family Medicine. Guided by a sociotechnical systems perspective, we investigated contributing burnout factors that relate to the electronic health record (EHR) and clinical workflow in an academic healthcare institution. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 family medicine and geriatrics providers and administered EHR usability and workflow integration surveys. Findings are organized around recurrent, overarching themes: (1) Clinic Workflow, (2) Documentation, (3) EHR Workflow and Usability, (4) Patient Complexity, (5) Staffing, and (6) Technical Issues. The most consistent finding across all provider interviews was poor EHR usability as a contributing factor to burnout; especially the number of clicks needed to complete EHR tasks. This finding is supported by low usability and workflow integration survey ratings. Using a sociotechnical systems framework, we demonstrate social, technological, and environmental contributors to burnout and discuss potential interventions to mitigate these contributing factors.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641135
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Impact of Nurse Experience and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment on
           Nurses’ Workflow in an Intensive Care Unit
    • Authors: Alireza Kasaie, Jung Hyup Kim, Wenbin Guo, Laurel Despins
      Pages: 603 - 607
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 603-607, December 2020.
      The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of Nurse Experience (NE) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) on nurses’ workflow and process time in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). In this study, a combination of data from the time-motion study observations, ICU nurses’ Real-Time Location System (RTLS), and the Real-Time Measurement System (RTMS) data were used to develop multiple Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) charts. HTA chart helped us to identify the ICU nurses’ workflow patterns. The results showed that ICU nurses spent over 47% of their time on performing primary care (in-room activities) and 25% on out-of-room activities. Furthermore, NE levels and SOFA scores had significant impacts on the average process time of nurse handoff, in-room Electronic Medical Record (EMR) charting, and the workflow patterns of out-of-room activities and out-of-room EMR usage. The outcomes of this study will provide a detailed workflow of ICU nurses and might help nurse managers to conduct a better strategy for improving ICU nurse’s workflow.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641136
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Exploring the Complexities of Trauma Care Flow and Documentation
    • Authors: Danita Patel, Zoe Pruitt, Ronald Romero Barrientos, Tim McEwen, Max Metzger, Allan Fong
      Pages: 608 - 612
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 608-612, December 2020.
      Trauma care is complex as severe injuries happen unexpectedly, may not immediately present symptoms, and may require assessment by multiple providers to improve outcomes. This work aims to explore the complexities of trauma patient flow and documentation challenges through semi-structured interviews of both in-field and in-hospital providers. Ten trauma care providers were asked to explain their typical workflow and documentations related to trauma care. We found that trauma care flow is convoluted and non-linear depending on several factors, such as how the patient enters the system and the severity of injuries. Additionally, documentation practices vary, following no specific guidelines, partly due to the chaotic nature of incoming traumas. Participants mentioned using apps to aid workflow, but none were used to aid in documentation or clinical handover. Documentation usually takes place on paper or away from electronic devices, which has design implications for clinical decision support or artificial intelligence development tools.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641137
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Comparing Physician and Nurse Opinions of Team and Individual Handoffs:
           Does Role Influence Preference'
    • Authors: Emily Heuck, Abigail Wooldridge
      Pages: 613 - 617
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 613-617, December 2020.
      Care transitions are key to patient safety and remain a safety issue despite previous research. This study examines how the design of care transitions impacts different health care professions. Twenty-nine physicians and nurses were interviewed about operating room to intensive care unit care transitions. We compared relationships between work system elements in positive and negative opinions about two sociotechnical system designs: including team or individual handoffs. Nurses did not express positive opinions of individual handoffs or negative opinions of team handoffs, while physicians expressed positive and negative opinions of both. Relationships between work system elements varied by profession in the positive opinions about team handoffs and negative opinions about individual handoffs. Professional needs and culture may be related to the different perceptions of each handoff. Future work should continue to examine professional differences when developing a flexibly standardized process to ensure all users are considered.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641138
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Developing a Framework for Telehealth Integration into Clinical Workflow
    • Authors: Samuel Bonet, Farzan Sasangohar
      Pages: 618 - 619
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 618-619, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641139
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Integration of Telemedicine into Clinicians’ Workflow: A Scoping
           Review
    • Authors: Samuel Bonet, Farzan Sasangohar
      Pages: 620 - 621
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 620-621, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641140
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Patient Factor: Involving Patient and Family Stakeholders as Advisors,
           Co-Designers, Citizen Scientists, and Peers
    • Authors: Richard J. Holden, Rupa S. Valdez, Shilo Anders, *Colleen Ewart, *Alexandra Lang, Enid Montague, Rupa Valdez, Wayne Zachary
      Pages: 622 - 626
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 622-626, December 2020.
      In health and healthcare, patients, families, and other stakeholders increasingly participate in designing, executing, and evaluating initiatives likely to affect them. Stakeholder participant roles include: (1) Advisors, as in patient/family advisory councils; (2) Co-Designers, as in participatory design team members; (3) Citizen Scientists, as in community-based participatory research; and (4) Peers, as in peer reviewers of proposed research or decisions regarding the ethics of a planned research study. This panel assembles leading US and UK human factors experts to discuss how stakeholders can be and have been involved as participants in the design, implementation, or evaluation of health or healthcare related initiatives. Panelists describe: (a) how they have involved stakeholders, describing their methods, strategies, and results; (b) associated benefits they have observed; (c) needs that have surfaced and must be addressed for successful stakeholder participation; and (d) recommendations for human factors professionals planning to involve stakeholder participants.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641141
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Use of Wearable Sensors and Machine Learning Methods in Promoting Total
           Joint Replacement Treatment Outcomes: A Survey
    • Authors: Mustafa Ozkan Yerebakan, Xiang Zhong, Hari K. Parvataneni, Chancellor F. Gray, Boyi Hu
      Pages: 627 - 631
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 627-631, December 2020.
      Total Joint Replacement (TJR) surgeries are one of the most prevalent operations that are undergone by the elderly population. With the world population aging, the number of surgeries will continue to increase. A small portion of these surgeries result in complications that require readmissions. These readmissions amount to a significant financial and time burden for both the patients and the hospitals. In the past decade machine learning and wearable sensors have both been used extensively in the healthcare domain but the contribution to the prediction/evaluation and management of TJR is limited. What’s more, to our best knowledge there has been no effort in summarizing the findings from these studies. Therefore, this study highlights what has been achieved by using machine learning and wearable sensors in the TJR context and point out possible research avenues.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641142
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Surgeon Postures during Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Breast
           Reconstruction Procedures: A Pilot Study
    • Authors: Tianke Wang, Katherine E. Law, Christin Harless, Minh-Doan Nguyen, M. Susan Hallbeck
      Pages: 632 - 633
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 632-633, December 2020.
      Deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is a surgical procedure using tissue harvested from the abdominal area to reconstruct the breast after a mastectomy. Primary surgical phases include the abdominal flap harvest, chest dissection, and anastomosis. In this study, inertial measurement units (IMUs) were used to measure surgeon upper body postures while performing DIEP flap procedures. Ergonomic risks of musculoskeletal disorders were evaluated using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) based on the postures obtained from the IMUs. Joint angles were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. The neck and back had higher joint angles during the abdominal flap (M=32°, 17°, respectively) and chest dissection (M=31°, 18°, respectively) phases than the anastomosis phase. These high-risk postures may lead to musculoskeletal disorders. Future interventions should focus on improving the postures of the neck and back during the abdominal flap and chest dissection phases of the procedure.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641143
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Task Analysis on Yoga Poses Toward a Wearable Sensor-based Learning System
           for Users with Visual Impairment
    • Authors: Melanie Grudinschi, Kyle Norland, Sang Won Lee, Sol Lim
      Pages: 634 - 638
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 634-638, December 2020.
      People with visual impairments may experience difficulties in learning new physical exercises due to a lack of visual feedback. Learning and practicing yoga is especially challenging for this population as yoga requires imitation-oriented learning. A typical yoga class requires students to observe and copy poses and movements as the instructor presents them, while maintaining postural balance during the practice. Without additional, nonvisual feedback, it can be difficult for students with visual impairments to understand whether they have accurately copied a pose – and if they have not, how to fix an inaccurate pose. Therefore, there is a need for an intelligent learning system that can capture a person’s physical posture and provide additional, nonvisual feedback to guide them into a correct pose. This study is a preliminary step toward the development of a wearable inertial sensor-based virtual learning system for people who are blind or have low vision. Using hierarchical task analysis, we developed a step-by-step conceptual model of yoga poses, which can be used in constructing an effective nonvisual feedback system. We also ranked sensor locations according to their importance by analyzing postural deviations in each pose compared to the reference starting pose.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641144
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to
           evaluate technology-supported exercise programs for knee health
    • Authors: Tianrong Chen, Calvin Kalun Or, Jiayin Chen
      Pages: 639 - 640
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 639-640, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641145
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effect of Guided Tactical Breathing with Biofeedback on Acute Stress
           Attenuation and Marksmanship Performance of Novice Shooters
    • Authors: Ramtin Lotfabadi, Joshua A. Granek, Jiayuan He, Ning Jiang, Fan He, Junhan Bae, Hamid Boland, Catherine M. Burns
      Pages: 641 - 645
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 641-645, December 2020.
      The current study introduced a novel approach to inducing stress, and examining effects of wearable and mobile technology-assisted tactical breathing with real-time heartrate biofeedback, on the attenuation of acute stress, post-stressor recovery and performance. 39 participants with no prior experience with firearms participated in a marksmanship task engaging stationary targets with a semi-automatic rifle, at a controlled indoor shooting range. Novice shooters applying guided tactical breathing with biofeedback following exposure to the shooting task, were able to maintain lower arousal (uninhibited parasympathetic system). Findings suggested significant effect of intervention with biofeedback on stress attenuation, however no significant improvement of marksmanship performance among novice shooters resulting from the intervention was found. This study provides insights into app-led tactical breathing training to control arousal levels during stress, recommending strategies on further evaluation of the effectiveness of mobile and wearable technologies on stress attenuation for varying levels of marksmanship skill and individual difference.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641146
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Path to ‘Dieps by Dinner’ Involves The Entire Operative
           Team
    • Authors: Katherine E. Law, Anna R. Linden, Christin Harless, Minh-Doan T. Nguyen, M. Susan Hallbeck
      Pages: 646 - 650
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 646-650, December 2020.
      More and more breast cancer patients are turning to autologous options for reconstruction. Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator (DIEP) flap reconstruction is considered the gold standard flap breast reconstruction procedure; however, it requires a significant number of resources, including two surgeons and microsurgical equipment. A multidisciplinary group was tasked with reducing operative time of DIEP flap procedures by 25% so that complex surgeries can become more routine and accessible to patients. Using participatory ergonomics, members of the operative team were engaged to identify interventions. Following implementation, 22 DIEP flap cases were evaluated using workload surveys and patient outcomes to determine the success of the interventions. DIEP flap surgical durations were reduced by 25% on average (M=12.9 hours, SD=5.7 to M=9.7 hours, SD=1.4). When cases lasted longer than 9 hours, surgeons reported 31% more physical demand and 78% more fatigue than cases that were 9 hours or less. Survey results linked positive team characteristics to reduced frustrations and distractions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641147
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Physician Perceptions of Disposition Decision-making for Older Adults in
           the Emergency Department: A Preliminary Analysis
    • Authors: Rachel A. Rutkowski, Megan Salwei, Hanna Barton, Kathryn Wust, Peter Hoonakker, Maria Brenny-Fitzpatrick, Barbara King, Manish N. Shah, Michael S. Pulia, Brian W. Patterson, Paula vW. Dáil, Maureen Smith, Pascale Carayon, Nicole E. Werner
      Pages: 648 - 652
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 648-652, December 2020.
      Disposition decision-making in the emergency department (ED) is critical to patient safety and quality of care. Disposition decision-making has particularly important implications for older adults who comprise a significant portion of ED visits annually and are vulnerable to suboptimal outcomes throughout ED care transitions. We conducted a secondary inductive content analysis of interviews with ED physicians (N= 11) to explore their perceptions of who they involve in disposition decision-making and what information they use to make disposition decisions for older adults. ED physicians cited 7 roles (5 types of clinicians, patients and families) and 11 information types, both clinical (e.g. test/lab results) and non-clinical (e.g. family’s preference). Our preliminary findings represent a key first step toward the development of interventions that promote patient safety and quality of care for older adults in the ED by supporting the cognitive and communicative aspects of disposition decision-making.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641148
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Illuminating the decision-making strategies of anesthesia providers in
           challenging cases
    • Authors: Joshua Biro, David M. Neyens, Candace Jaruzel, Catherine D. Tobin, Myrtede Alfred, Sarah Coppola, James H. Abernathy, Ken R. Catchpole
      Pages: 653 - 657
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 653-657, December 2020.
      Medication errors and error-related scenarios in anesthesia remain an important area of research. Interventions and best practice recommendations in anesthesia are often based in the work-as-imagined healthcare system, remaining under-used due to a range of unforeseen complexities in healthcare work-as- done. In order to design adaptable anesthesia medication delivery systems, a better understanding of clinical cognition within the context of anesthesia work is needed. Fourteen interviews probing anesthesia providers’ decision making were performed. The results revealed three overarching themes: (1) anesthesia providers find cases challenging when they have incomplete information, (2) decision-making begins with information seeking, and (3) attributes such as expertise, experience, and work environment influence anesthesia providers’ information seeking and synthesis of tasks. These themes and the context within this data help create a more realistic view of work-as-done and generate insights into what potential medication error reducing interventions should look to avoid and what they could help facilitate.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641149
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Anonymity in Questions and Answers about Health
    • Authors: Cheng Guo, Kelly Caine
      Pages: 658 - 662
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 658-662, December 2020.
      Social Question & Answer (Q&A) sites are a unique source of health information that draw from personal, rather than professional experience. When people ask or answer questions about health using these sites, they may do so using their real name, or another type of identity such as pseudonymity (e.g., a username or nickname) or anonymity. People’s behavior may differ when they have a choice about which type of identity they choose, especially the context of different levels of sensitivity of content (e.g., health vs. non- health). In this work, we explore the relationship between different types of identity (e.g., anonymity and pseudonymity) and several Q&A metrics of user behavior on Yahoo Answers in the context of health and non-health content using path analysis. We find that health-related questions are more likely to be asked and answered anonymously. We also find that anonymous answers have more upvotes and downvotes than pseudonymous answers indicating more engagement. We conclude by suggesting that health Q&A sites and other online health communities may improve the quality of discussion by providing anonymity features and implementing moderation mechanisms.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641150
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Evaluation and Prediction of Human Error in Ambulance-Based Telemedicine
           Stroke Assessment
    • Authors: Hunter Rogers, Amal Ponathil, Kapil Chalil Madathil, Anjali Joseph, Nathan McNeese, Christine Holmstedt, James McElligott
      Pages: 663 - 663
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 663-663, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641151
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Proactive Risk Assessment Methodology to Enhance Patient Safety:
           Reducing Wrong Site Surgery as a Preventable Medical Error
    • Authors: Maryam Tabibzadeh, Gelareh Jahangiri
      Pages: 664 - 668
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 664-668, December 2020.
      Patient safety has been a major area of concern over the last decades in the healthcare industry. The number of preventable medical errors in hospitals has been noticeably high. These errors are more likely to occur in intensive care units including Operating Rooms (ORs). Wrong site surgery is one of the critical sentinel events that occur in healthcare settings.This paper fills an important gap by proposing an integrated, system-oriented methodology for proactive risk assessment of operations in ORs, to specifically analyze the wrong site surgery issue, through the identification and monitoring of appropriate Leading Safety Indicators (LSIs) to evaluate the safety of those operations and generate warning/predicting signals for potential failures. These LSIs are identified across the layers of an introduced framework, which is built on the foundation of the Human-Organization-Technology (HOT) model originally developed by Meshkati (1992). This multi-layered framework captures the contributing causes of wrong site surgery.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641152
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Cognitive Aid to Support In-hospital Resuscitation Teams: An
           Experimental Evaluation in a Medical Simulation
    • Authors: Tobias Grundgeiger, Felix Hahn, Thomas Wurmb, Oliver Happel
      Pages: 669 - 670
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 669-670, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641153
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Predicting The Future: Diverse Perspectives on The Transformation of
           Healthcare Delivery over the Next 15 Years
    • Authors: Emily S. Patterson, Shilo Anders, Laura G. Militello, Jason J. Saleem, Shawna Perry, Clayton Rothwell, Dustin Weiler
      Pages: 671 - 674
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 671-674, December 2020.
      Over the last 15 years, healthcare delivery has experienced enormous changes across every aspect of clinical care, both for participants in it and affiliated stakeholders. The plethora and breadth of these changes and ongoing struggles with their incorporation into the work of healthcare begs the question: In 2035, what emerging innovations and considerations will we wish we had prepared for with regard to human factors engineering research, technology development, and system redesign efforts' Panelists and co-chairs have deep experience with steering, and being impacted by, innovations in information technology in healthcare. The panelists represent diverse academic, clinical, government contract research and development, and small entrepreneurial business. Perhaps the biggest benefit of this session will be the explicit inclusion of the audience in brainstorming and discussion activities, which will be facilitated digitally and verbally during the session and shared afterwards electronically with participants.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641154
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Exploring Work System Adaptations in Providing Care for Children with
           Medical Complexity in the Home
    • Authors: Hanna J. Barton, Shanmugapriya Loganathar, Nawang Singhe, Mary L. Ehlenbach, Barbara Katz, Ryan J. Coller, Nicole E. Werner
      Pages: 675 - 679
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 675-679, December 2020.
      Children with medical complexity (CMC) rely on family caregivers to provide advanced medical care in the home. Yet, family caregivers are often under-supported. To better support family caregivers, we must understand and identify the ways that the work system is not designed to support their work. Work system adaptations can uncover where the work system is not designed to support the worker. This study sought to identify and categorize caregiver adaptations to the work system. We conducted 30 home-visit interviews with caregivers of CMC. Inductive content analysis revealed that family caregivers were making work system adaptations on multiple levels including: medical devices, direct care, auxiliary care, and integration of caregiving into everyday life. Our findings imply that family caregivers are attempting to address barriers on multiple levels by adapting the work system. Critical next steps should create system interventions to address the mismatch between the caregivers’ needs and the work system.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641156
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Interventions to Improve Interprofessional Bedside Rounds in a Paediatric
           Critical Care Unit
    • Authors: Alanna Bateman, Sonia Pinkney, Jessica Tomasi, Peter Laussen, Patricia Trbovich
      Pages: 680 - 683
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 680-683, December 2020.
      Communication errors are the leading root cause of preventable adverse events in hospitals. Patient care rounds provide the most important opportunity for interprofessional communication; however, rounds involve many interprofessional team members, and it can be challenging to achieve optimal communication and team functioning. While rounding best practices have been identified, implementations of best practices have produced mixed results, and little emphasis has been placed on explicitly aligning interventions to user needs. The goal of this study was to elucidate health care providers’ (HCPs) rounding needs and to align intervention design to those needs to improve interprofessional communication within a paediatric critical care unit (CCU). Interview and survey data were collected to identify needs and a participatory design approach was taken to transform needs into intervention(s). The main needs identified led to specific changes included in the intervention design such as changes in the structure, content and timing of morning rounds.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641157
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Understanding Patterns in Neonatal Trajectories in the First 10 Minutes
           After Birth
    • Authors: Jelena Zestic, Helen Liley, Penelope Sanderson
      Pages: 684 - 684
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 684-684, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641158
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Identifying roles in older adults’ emergency department transitions
    • Authors: Megan E. Salwei, Hanna Barton, Nicole E. Werner, Rachel Rutkowski, Peter L.T. Hoonakker, Kathryn Wust, Manish N. Shah, Brian W. Patterson, Michael S. Pulia, Azita G. Hamedani, Maureen Smith, Barbara King, Paula vW. Dail, Pascale Carayon
      Pages: 685 - 689
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 685-689, December 2020.
      Older adults frequently visit the emergency department (ED) and participate in multiple transitions of care following an ED visit. These transitions of care, e.g. to hospital, long-term care facility or home, represent patient safety risks because of communication and coordination failures between the various roles involved, but also provide opportunities for error detection and recovery and, therefore, resilience. The objective of this study was to identify and describe the multiple roles involved in older adult care transitions during an ED visit. As part of a large research project, we conducted patient-centered observations and interviewed ED clinicians and hospital administrators. We identified 16 ED roles involved in older adult care transitions out of the ED, including 4 roles solely focused on coordinating transitions. By better understanding the roles involved in ED care transitions, we can improve the design of team processes and technologies to support care of older adults throughout their care transitions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641159
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Strategies for Improving Patient Engagement in Perioperative Pain
           Management: An Observational Study
    • Authors: Amro Khasawneh, Marie Hanna, Ronen Shechter, Traci Speed, Jamia Saunders, Samuel Kim, Eileen McDonald, Yea-Jen Hsu, Anping Xie
      Pages: 690 - 691
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 690-691, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641160
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • An Exploration of the Role of the Social Environment in the Identification
           of Glycemic Events
    • Pages: 692 - 696
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 692-696, December 2020.
      Patient ergonomics focuses on how patients and their social networks engage in health management in home and community settings. To that end, we explored awareness of hypo- and hyperglycemic events from the perspective of adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their parents in the context of their social environment. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants (8 dyads) and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Our analysis shows the different ways in which adolescents with T1D and their parents recognize glycemic events. These observations elucidate how the social environment affects this process and how connections influence the management of T1D. Additionally, these insights provided directions for ways in which patient education and information technology could be enhanced.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641161
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Children with Medical Complexity: Challenges and Opportunities for Human
           Factors/Ergonomics
    • Authors: Hanna Barton, Ryan Coller, Sara Finesilver, Christopher Lunsford, Rupa S. Valdez, Nicole E. Werner
      Pages: 697 - 701
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 697-701, December 2020.
      For vulnerable patient populations, such as children with medical complexity (CMC), the patient journey is fraught with challenges. By providing a range of perspectives including clinicians, a family caregiver, and Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E) experts, the present panel will describe the unique opportunities for HF/E to design jointly optimized systems for CMC and their family caregivers, including an explication of some of the specific challenges and complexities related to studying the work of and designing systems for this population. We will also highlight the ways in which HF/E could help in the design of solutions to improve outcomes for families.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641162
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Correlating Physiologic Measures of Stress: Exploring Dyads in Clinical
           Surgical Teams
    • Authors: Allan Fong, Shimae Fitzgibbons, Jack Sava, Weiguang Wang, Nicholas R. Wegener, James G. Christian, Erin C. Hall
      Pages: 702 - 706
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 702-706, December 2020.
      Clinical teams are subject to stress from various sources, including the technical and cognitive challenges of providing care in high stakes environments. Existing analytic approaches are limited in their ability to study the interdependence of team member stress. This study explores the correlation of a physiologic marker of stress, blood pulse wave, between members of a working surgical team. We propose an area overlap method as a means of evaluating blood pulse wave time-series correlation as a function of time. This is a stepwise approach to the collection and analysis of a large volume of continuous physiologic data from paired team members in a clinical setting. This method was applied to thirteen surgical team dyads with similar results to Pearson correlation. The area overlap method allows for improved exploration of temporal correlation within dyads but, in its current form, does not identify directionality of correlation.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641163
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • What does social isolation have to do with my arthritis' Patient and
           provider views of the implementation of an electronic Social Determinants
           of Health risk assessment tool
    • Pages: 707 - 710
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 707-710, December 2020.
      Social Determinants of Health (SDoH) are the conditions in which people are born, live, learn, work, and play that can affect health, functioning, and quality-of-life outcomes. The Institute of Medicine charged healthcare institutions with capturing and measuring patient SDoH risk factors through the electronic health record. Following the implementation of a social determinants of health electronic module across a major health institution, the response to institutional implementation was evaluated. To assess the response, a multidisciplinary team interviewed patients and providers, mapped the workflow, and performed simulated tests to trace the flow of SDoH data from survey item responses to visualization in EHR output for clinicians. Major results of this investigation were: 1) the lack of patient consensus about value of collecting SDOH data, and 2) the disjointed view of patient reported SDoH risks across patients, providers, and the electronic health record due to the way data was collected and visualized.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641164
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Closing the Loop in Computer Agent/Patient Communication
    • Pages: 711 - 715
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 711-715, December 2020.
      While patient-centered communication supports patient self-care, providers rarely have enough time to consistently use patient- centered communication techniques. Technology has potential to support patient-centered communication, but frequently older adults prefer face-to-face communication with providers. Conversational agents (CAs) may support provider communication with older adults by emulating best practices from face-to-face communication. We investigated older adults’ response to a prototype CA communication system that served as a virtual provider and presented medication instructions using teachback, a recommended best practice that involves asking patients questions to ‘close the communication loop’. Older adults were told how to take medications by a CA who used (or did not use) teachback, and then were interviewed. Older adults were open to interacting with the CA and thought it would help support self-care. They thought the CA was a more effective teacher when using teachback and that this interactive strategy helped them remember the instructions. However, teachback did not improve instruction memory.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641165
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Ergonomic Process Improvement for Mapping Risk and Identifying Key
           Interventions for Eliminating Injuries from Needles and Sharps in the OR
    • Authors: Pramila Kalaga, Barbara Wolford, Matthew Mormino, Timothy Kingston, Julie Fedderson, Heidi Husk, Suzanne Smith, Missy O’Brien, Courtney Thompson, Kelly Vaughn, Scott Miller, Kelly Berg, Emily Delaughter, Jacquelyn Kellar, Stefanie Trimble, Bethany Lowndes
      Pages: 716 - 720
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 716-720, December 2020.
      The risk of a needle stick or sharps injury in the operating room (OR) is high due to conditions such as minimal physical protective measures, frequent transfer of sharps, and reliance on human attention and skill for injury avoidance. An ergonomic process improvement project was initiated at a large metro teaching hospital to identify ergonomic risk factors for these OR injuries. To maximize the engagement of the front- end users, an ergonomic process improvement (EPI) team was developed, consisting of representatives from participating OR teams, an employee health nurse and two ergonomists. Surveys, observations, and interviews were conducted to quantify injury risk for the OR teams, evaluate barriers to best practice adherence, and identify opportunities for targeted interventions. Risk mapping was completed for the surgeons, surgical techs and OR nurses identifying double gloving and safe passing zone as areas in need of improvement. Through observation and interviews, researchers identified physical factors relating to musculoskeletal pain and cognitive factors leading to distractions as safety risk concerns. The overall success of the EPI was the engagement of the OR teams and surgeons in the process of identifying risk factors and potential opportunities for ergonomic solutions related to cognitive workload, physical workload, teamwork, and work design for injury prevention. The risk factors identified will provide the basis for developing targeted, effective interventions for eliminating injuries from needles and sharps within the OR.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641166
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Training Decay Selection for Usability Validation: Pilot Study Methodology
           and Results for an FDA Research Grant
    • Authors: Kelli Sum, Lana Sneath, Shannon Clark, Dan Nathan-Roberts
      Pages: 721 - 725
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 721-725, December 2020.
      As medical devices become more technologically advanced, patients risk forgetting their training and missing critical steps. Existing literature explores ways to train patients on medical devices but does not quantify how long information is retained, which is essential for valid medical device testing before approval. The aim of the research presented is to validate a robust method of quantifying training decay research across multiple periods. Some participants were trained on an insulin pump and assigned to decay periods of one hour, one day, or one week. Additionally, an untrained cohort represented a theoretical maximum decay. Although results are not statistically significant due to a small sample size, task performance shows possible differences between time points and task types. Improvements and considerations translating this pilot study into a more extensive main study are also discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641167
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Correlation Between Gestures’ Qualitative Properties and Usa- bility
           metrics
    • Authors: Daniela Chanci, Naveen Madapana, Glebys Gonzalez, Juan Wachs
      Pages: 726 - 730
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 726-730, December 2020.
      The choice of best gestures and commands for touchless interfaces is a critical step that determines the user- satisfaction and overall efficiency of surgeon computer interaction. In this regard, usability metrics such as task completion time, error rate, and memorability have a long-standing as potential entities in determining the best gesture vocabulary. In addition, some previous works concerned with this problem have utilized qualitative measures to identify the best gesture. In this work, we hypothesize that there is a correlation between the qualitative properties of gestures (v) and their usability metrics (u). Therefore, we conducted an experiment with linguists to quantify the properties of the gestures. Next, a user study was conducted with surgeons, and the usability metrics were measured. Lastly, linear and non-linear regression techniques were used to find the correlations between u and v. Results show that usability metrics are correlated with the gestures’ qualitative properties (R2 = 0.4).
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641168
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Understanding Veteran Attitudes, Interests, and Needs around Virtual Care
           Applications
    • Authors: Jason J. Saleem, Brian Moon, Emma Bross, Shilo Anders, Brandon Conway, Nancy R. Wilck, Kathleen L. Frisbee, Jennifer Herout
      Pages: 731 - 735
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 731-735, December 2020.
      Given the substantial increase in interest and activity in the virtual care space, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is making a concerted effort to increase opportunities for Veterans to adopt virtual care applications. We investigated Veteran attitudes, interests, and needs for virtual care applications, including privacy considerations and specific types of data they would be comfortable sharing with their providers through various Veteran-facing tools. We administered a 28-item questionnaire to 40 Veterans and performed follow-up interviews with a subset of nine Veterans. Study results revealed broad support by Veterans for using virtual care applications, including wearable devices, for sharing all types of health information with their providers. Further, Veterans expressed a desire for consolidation across VA-provided virtual care tools. Our findings will inform a strategy for Veteran-facing tools. Other health care systems may be interested in exploring these topics, based on our study results.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641169
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • User-centered Requirements for Patient Fluid Intake Monitoring Support
    • Authors: Ellen J. Bass, Andrew J. Abbate, Yaman Noaiseh, Rose Ann DiMaria-Ghalili
      Pages: 736 - 740
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 736-740, December 2020.
      There is a need to support patients with monitoring liquid intake. This work addresses development of requirements for real-time and historical displays and reports with respect to fluid consumption as well as alerts based on critical clinical thresholds. We conducted focus groups with registered nurses and registered dietitians in order to identify the information needs and alerting criteria to support fluid consumption measurement. This paper presents results of the focus group data analysis and the related requirements resulting from the analysis.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641170
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Heuristic Evaluation of Usability for Environmental Control Units’
           Eye-Tracking Interfaces at Veterans Affairs Spinal Cord Injuries and
           Disorders Centers
    • Authors: Gabriella M. Hancock, Sam S. Anvari, Nicole B. Mok, Aram Ayvazyan, Xiaolu Bai, Kelsey M. McCoy, Matthew T. Nare, Gregory P. Mather, Carmen L. Machado, Rebecca M.E. Chompff, Amanda S. McBride, Natalia Morales
      Pages: 741 - 745
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 741-745, December 2020.
      Heuristic evaluation is a valid method for assessing interface usability. Results derived from these methods are useful in identifying the most impactful design elements influencing usability and user experience of a system. By establishing the features in need of most improvement, designers can more effortful consider their approaches for iterative efforts to improve usability and user experience. This work used established design principles (i.e., Shneiderman’s Golden Rules and Nielsen’s Heuristics) to analyze the inpatient environmental control units deployed at VA Spinal Cord Injuries and Disorders (SCI/D) Centers to assist with task completion, foster independence, and improve the quality of life in veterans with spinal cord injuries and disorders. Analyses revealed many usability issues in the current interface, varying in severity from minor to catastrophic. Specific design recommendations to address these issues are provided.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641171
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Users’ Needs in Designing a Mobile Dialysis Device. Insights from an
           Interview in a Mixed Methods Study
    • Authors: Auður Anna Jónsdóttir1, Larry Kessler, Seung Yeon Rim, Ji-Eun Kim
      Pages: 746 - 749
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 746-749, December 2020.
      The goal of this study is to identify ways to increase the usability of a mobile dialysis device through semi-structured interviews during the early stage of product development. We analyzed interview data using a mixed method of rank order and open-ended questions. The results from the open-ended questions showed that patients and care partners prefer the device being carried on patients’ backs, followed by the waist and the shoulder. We also identified 13 key categories of ideal features that the mobile dialysis device must hold. The results from the rank order question showed that the participants significantly preferred the Vest over the Backpack, Shoulder bag, and Distributed model. Accuracy of the device is more important compared to Safety, Ease of attachment, Comfort, Size, Operational simplicity, and Invisibility. The prioritized needs from patients and care partners provide designers and clinicians with better target solutions for designing a mobile dialysis device.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641172
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • User and Task Analysis for Evaluation of Clinical Decision Support for
           Quality Improvement
    • Authors: Swaminathan Kandaswamy, Dean Karavite, Naveen Muthu, Gerald Shaeffer, Robert Grundmeier, Marc Tobias, Mike Zeidlhack, Evan Orenstein
      Pages: 750 - 754
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 750-754, December 2020.
      Clinical decision support (CDS) is a process for enhancing health-related decisions and actions with pertinent, organized clinical knowledge and patient information that can significantly improve health outcomes and healthcare delivery. However, their impact on clinical outcomes has been inconsistent. Rigorous and continuous evaluation of CDS is necessary for improving CDS. A User and Task analysis was conducted to understand the stakeholder roles, their goals and tasks involved in the evaluation of CDS. This study describes a framework for evaluating CDS effectiveness for improving quality outcomes based on the analysis.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641173
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Acceptance of mHealth by Elderly Adults: A Path Analysis
    • Authors: Zhenzhen Xie, Calvin Kalun Or
      Pages: 755 - 759
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 755-759, December 2020.
      Mobile health (mHealth) appears to be a promising assistive tool for the long-term health management of the elderly. However, mHealth adoption rates remain relatively low among the elderly. In this study, we surveyed 108 elderly adults to determine their perceptions of mHealth applications (apps) and conducted a path analysis with the aim of studying the factors that affected the acceptance of mHealth in this population. Notably, the intention to use health apps was positively affected by the perceived usefulness (PU) (β=0.32, p
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641174
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Relating Subjective Workload and Effort to Performance During Stable and
           Shifting Task Demands: A Multilevel Approach
    • Authors: Justine Rockwood, Derek L. Mracek, Eric Anthony Day
      Pages: 760 - 764
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 760-764, December 2020.
      Interrelations between subsystems in control theories of self-regulation are frequently studied at the between- person level, despite being within-person phenomena. The current study models within-person variations of comparator, effector, and output subsystems through relationships in subjective workload, subjective effort, and objective performance on a complex decision-making task during stable and shifting task demands. Effects are examined at both immediate and downstream time points. Results provided mixed support for the proposed subsystem interrelationships, fully supporting the model during stable task demands, partially supporting it following an increase in task demands, but not supporting the model following a decrease in task demands. Results indicate dynamic within-person relationships between self-regulatory subsystem indicators and task performance, underscoring the importance of using longitudinal, multilevel approaches for disaggregating within-person and between-person components.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641175
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Relationship between Motion Sickness and Accuracy of Vestibulo-ocular
           Reflex
    • Authors: Hikaru Sato, Yuki Sato, Takahiro Wada
      Pages: 765 - 769
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 765-769, December 2020.
      The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is the reflexive eye movement occurring in the opposite direction of head movement to stabilize the visual image during head movement. We hypothesize that there exists a correlation between motion sickness and the accuracy of VOR because motion sickness and VOR are thought to be related to the head movement signals estimated in the central nervous system. The first purpose of the present research is to investigate the relationship between motion sickness and VOR accuracy using a mathematical model, which simultaneously describes motion sickness and VOR. The result of numerical simulation experiments shows a strong negative correlation between VOR accuracy and the severity of motion sickness. The second purpose is to investigate the relationship between motion sickness and VOR accuracy by experiments on humans. The result shows moderate negative correlations between the VOR accuracy and the severity of motion sickness among participants.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641176
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Quantifying Dynamic Resilience using First-process Autoregressive
           Modelling: An Empirical Study
    • Authors: Luke Crameri, Imali Hettiarachchi, Samer Hanoun
      Pages: 770 - 774
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 770-774, December 2020.
      Dynamic resilience is a temporal process that reflects individuals’ capability to overcome task-induced stress and sustain their performance during task-related events. First-order autoregressive (AR(1)) modelling is posited for measuring individuals’ dynamic resilience over time. The current research investigated this by testing 30 adults in a dynamic decision-making task. AR(1) modelling was conducted on the data, and was compared against a modified seismic resilience metric for concurrent validity purposes. Results revealed that AR(1) modeled parameters are applicable in assessing participants’ dynamic resilience, with analyses supporting their use to distinguish between individuals that can overcome task-induced stress and those that cannot, as well as, in the classification of individuals’ dynamic resilience.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641177
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Prediction of Collisions in Connected Vehicle Systems with A Long
           Short-Term Memory Model
    • Authors: Rohit Mishra, Yiqi Zhang, Fenglong Ma, Anlong Li
      Pages: 775 - 779
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 775-779, December 2020.
      The advances in connected vehicle systems (CVS) allow vehicles to communicate with each other and with infrastructures via wireless communication networks. This technology enables vehicles to detect potential hazards on the road, generate warnings, and assist the driver in taking preventive actions. To date, few mathematical models have been developed to predict the collision rates in connected vehicle systems. In this work, a Long Short-Term Memory model (LSTM) using time-series data of human drivers was developed to predict the collision rates in CVS by quantifying warning parameters and hazard scenario features. The model was validated with the driving performance data before and after warnings from thirty-two drivers in a behavioral experiment. The results indicated the LSTM model showed a prediction accuracy of 74% higher than SVM and logistic regression models. The LSTM model showed the potential to help optimize the warning algorithm in the connected vehicle systems to improve driver safety.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641178
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Understanding Heart Rate Reactions to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
           Among Veterans
    • Authors: Mahnoosh Sadeghi, Farzan Sasangohar, Sudeep Hegde, Anthony McDonald
      Pages: 780 - 780
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 780-780, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641179
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • On The Field: Examining Differences in Video Format in Sports Media
           Viewing
    • Authors: Ragan Wilson, Christopher B. Mayhorn
      Pages: 781 - 785
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 781-785, December 2020.
      With virtual reality’s emerging popularity and the subsequent push for more sports media experiences, there is a need to evaluate virtual reality’s use into more video watching experiences. This research explores differences in experiences between Monitor (2D) video and HMD (360-Degree) video footage by measuring user perceptions of presence, suspense, and enjoyment. Furthermore, this study examines the relationship between presence, game attractiveness, suspense, and enjoyment as explored by Kim, Cheong, and Kim (2016). Differences were assessed via a MANOVA examining specifically presence, suspense, and enjoyment while the relationships were explored via a confirmatory factor analysis. Results suggest that there was a difference between Monitor (2D) video and HMD (360-Degree) in regard to spatial presence, engagement, suspense, and enjoyment, but the previous model from Kim et al. (2016) was not a good fit to this study’s data.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641181
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Effect of Task Complexity on Eye Movement and Multitasking Performance
           in Students With and Without ADHD
    • Authors: Madison Johnson, Ji-Eun Kim
      Pages: 786 - 790
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 786-790, December 2020.
      Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects many individual’s ability to maintain and shift attention. Little is known about the connection between executive function and eye movement in individuals diagnosed with ADHD during multitasking. The objective of this research is to examine the relationship between patterns of eye movement and multitasking performance between students with and without ADHD. During the experiment, students with and without ADHD completed NASA’s Multi-Attribute Task Battery at both low and high task complexity. We found that students without ADHD showed higher error counts, higher workload ratings, and greater total number of fixations in the high task complexity than in the low task complexity. By understanding the relationship among eye movement, executive functioning, and mental workload, it is possible to gain insight in attention allocation in online learning environments and apply that knowledge to create tools for equal access to learning.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641182
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Is smartphone usage predicting fear of missing out and loneliness in a
           sample from the generation z'
    • Authors: Cristiane K. Brazil, Malgorzata J. Rys
      Pages: 791 - 795
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 791-795, December 2020.
      Despite being an extremely connected society, new phenomena are stemming from this new tech-era, such as Fear of Missing Out (FOMO) and loneliness. In this project, data was collected from around 150 Generation Z engineering students to analyze possible individual predictors of FOMO and loneliness, and their link with objective measurements of smartphone and social media usage. The results show that more than half of subjects underestimated their usage time, and there was no direct correlation between overall smartphone use and FOMO. When analyzing individual differences in personality traits, FOMO was linked to Agreeableness, Neuroticism and Extraversion. Loneliness was found to be related with how subjects usually feel after using social media, with more than 40% of them having negative of mixed feelings after visiting social media platforms. This study gives insights of behavioral decisions of younger adults and how individual differences might impact the outcomes of social media use.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641183
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Individual Differences in Estimating Numeric Variability
    • Authors: Kimberly S. Spahr, Christopher D. Wickens, Benjamin A. Clegg, C.A.P. Smith
      Pages: 796 - 796
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 796-796, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641184
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Systematic Review of The Semantic Vigilance Literature
    • Authors: Alexis R. Neigel, Lindsay Y. Dhanani, Grace E. Waldfogle, Victoria L. Claypoole, James L. Szalma
      Pages: 797 - 801
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 797-801, December 2020.
      The present study sought to review and summarize the extant literature on semantic vigilance, or lexical vigilance, to benchmark the performance, stress, and workload associated with such tasks. This review also seeks to better define and describe semantic vigilance in relation to the vigilance taxonomy (Parasuraman & Davies, 1977; Parasuraman, Warm, & Dember, 1987). In a database search, 5499 records were identified. After removing duplicates and screening articles based on the inclusion criteria, 8 full-text articles on semantic vigilance were retained for further analysis. The results of this review indicated that semantic vigilance tasks, while short in length, reliably produce a traditional vigilance decrement that is associated with high workload and low stress state scores. While a nascent field of research, this review identified several gaps within the field including limitations in participant selection and inclusion, a lack of application to real world semantic vigilance tasks, and limited variability in the stimuli used for measuring semantic vigilance performance over time.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641185
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The use of non-spatial strategies in the Direction Orientation Task
    • Authors: Joseph T. Coyne, Noelle L. Brown, Cyrus K. Foroughi, Ciara Sibley, Emily Sexauer, Ericka Rovira
      Pages: 802 - 806
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 802-806, December 2020.
      Spatial ability has been identified as one of the skills needed to be a pilot. However, the test used by the military to measure this ability, the Direction Orientation Task (DOT), has a number of problems. The DOT2, was developed to address issues such as a ceiling effect and the limited number of possible trials. The initial DOT2 validation was done with a group of Naval Aviators, however the current study sought to collect further evidence, within a more variable population. A group of students completed the new DOT2 task, along with a survey on strategy use. We found that the percentage of time participants reported using a math strategy on the task was highly correlated with accuracy whereas the use of a spatial strategy was negatively correlated with accuracy. A similar mathematical solution can be applied to the original DOT, suggesting neither tests may be measuring spatial ability.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641186
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Identifying hazards at residential and commercial pools: An interactive
           session
    • Authors: Leah S. Hartman, Stephanie A. Whetsel Borzendowski, Alison Vredenburgh, Ilene Zackowitz, Alan O. Campbell
      Pages: 807 - 809
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 807-809, December 2020.
      This special joint session with shared interest from multiple technical groups (Children’s Issues Technical Group, Forensics Professional Group, and Safety Technical Group) provides audience members with an opportunity to discuss multiple case examples of fatal incidents involving children and pools. Participants will first hear several examples of human factors forensic analyses of different cases. The audience will then perform a safety audit for a pool owner, working in teams, identifying potential hazards and ways the owner can mitigate the hazards. Teams will present the findings of the safety analysis. After team presentations, the facts of an incident involving the subject pool will be presented to determine if their safety analysis recommendations could have prevented the specific incident. This session will emphasize the broad application of human factors for forensic incidents involving children and pools as well as safety analyses to educate owners and potentially help to prevent incidents.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641187
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • An Investigation of the Factors Predicting Participation in Social Media
           Challenge
    • Authors: Amro Khasawneh, Shraddhaa Narasimha, Kapil Chalil Madathil, Heidi Zinzow, Patrick Rosopa
      Pages: 810 - 811
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 810-811, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641188
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Cognitive Work Analysis and Visualization Design for the Graduate
           Admission Decision Making Process
    • Authors: Xiaomei Wang, Ann M. Bisantz, Matthew L. Bolton, Lora Cavuoto, Varun Chandola
      Pages: 815 - 819
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 815-819, December 2020.
      Graduate admission has always been a complex decision making process. The link between application materials and student success has remained elusive and, as such, there is no validated method for making decisions. To understand the purposes, processes, difficulties and needs of the current graduate admission process, semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants from engineering departments. Cognitive work analysis techniques were used to summarize the findings from the interviews. Visualizations were designed to improve the current online review system. User feedback was collected in an experiment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641189
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Transfer of Training: Effectiveness of Context-Based Visual Decision Aids
           to Enhance the Situation Awareness of Windstorm Risk Engineers
    • Authors: Sruthy Agnisarman, Kapil Chalil Madathil, Jeffrey Bertrand
      Pages: 820 - 820
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 820-820, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641190
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Eye tracking data analytics in virtual reality training: Application in
           Deepwater Horizon oil drilling operation
    • Authors: Ziho Kang, Jiwon Jeon, Saeed Salehi
      Pages: 821 - 825
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 821-825, December 2020.
      Virtual reality (VR) enable us to train in a safe environment using computer-generated simulations. One such simulated environment is the Deepwater Horizon operation, and VR enables us to evaluate trainees’ and operators’ situation awareness (SA) in a non-hazardous environment. One unobtrusive and viable SA evaluation method might be the use of eye movements, specifically the time-ordered visual scan paths. In this research, we investigated how SA can be associated with visual scan paths in an anomaly detection task within the oil drilling rig virtual reality simulator. The results show that the trainees having lower SA tended to create random visual scan paths whereas the trainees having higher SA tended to create concentrated and refined visual scan paths. The results show promise in developing timely intervention methods through analyzing the visual scan path characteristics of the trainees.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641191
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Utilizing Cognitive Load Theory and Evidence-Centered Design to Inform the
           Design of Game-Based Learning Environments
    • Authors: Dolly Bounajim, Arif Rachmatullah, Danielle Boulden, Bradford Mott, James Lester, Trudi Lord, Frieda Reichsman, Paul Horwitz, Chad Dorsey, Eric Wiebe
      Pages: 826 - 830
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 826-830, December 2020.
      Digital game-based learning (DGBL) environments are increasingly utilized to facilitate classroom instruction. For the game in our study, a formative stealth assessment tool, in the form of an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) is guided by evidence-centered assessment design (ECD). Cognitive Load Theory and ECD are utilized as diagnostic tools to analyze upsurges in hints delivered by the ITS and inform game design revisions that will promote improved learner support and learning outcomes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641192
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Inclusion by Design: A 75-Minute Crash Course on Accessible Design
    • Authors: Julian Brinkley, Earl W. Huff
      Pages: 831 - 835
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 831-835, December 2020.
      The community of researchers supporting instruction on design thinking has a significant body of materials to help students understand and master the process of creative problem solving in design. Missing, we argue are materials and processes which directly support the design of inclusive technologies for persons with disabilities. We present ‘Inclusion by Design’, an interactive and participative crash course designed to introduce students to techniques that may be useful in an inclusive design process. In a single 75-minute session, students explore the inclusive design of a transportation technology for a visually impaired persona. We report on our findings from a single pilot of the crash course involving six diverse students within a graduate course on Inclusive Design. Our findings suggest that the course may be effective in introducing techniques like storyboarding, scenario creation, and low fidelity prototyping to students using an approach that may be effective for various learning styles.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641193
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • “What the Organization Has”: An Investigation of Situational Aspects
           of Safety Culture of Road Traffic Organization Using a Macroergonomic
           Approach
    • Authors: Andrijanto, Itoh Makoto, Pangaribuan Alphared Gabariel
      Pages: 836 - 840
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 836-840, December 2020.
      This research applied a reciprocal model to investigate the safety culture of road traffic organizations for motorcyclists’ safety. By focusing on the situational aspects, we applied the four steps of the macroergonomic approach to analyze a local government organization in Indonesia. We identified some weak elements of safety culture embedded in the sub-system level of the organization. The absence of proper education of motorcyclist candidates has led to failures in developing their skills and knowledge. In addition, we found that the existence of the item “if any” in the licensing registration procedure weakened the understanding of the importance of learning. Investigation of situational aspects revealed some critical issues regarding safety culture development by road traffic organizations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641194
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Crew Endurance Training in the United States Navy: Interim Assessment of a
           3-year Project
    • Authors: Nita Lewis Shattuck, Panagiotis Matsangas, Heather Clifton, Jennifer Hart, Charles Czeisler, Laura Barger
      Pages: 841 - 845
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 841-845, December 2020.
      This project was designed to support the US Navy’s (USN) implementation of circadian- based watchbills by providing guidance on sleep management and shipboard practices which support crew endurance. In the first two years of the three-year effort, we identified specific training needs and developed instructor-led materials. We delivered the training to two audiences all active duty members of the US Navy or US Marine Corps: senior leaders and entry-level to mid-level personnel (N=353 participants; 15 training sessions total). Following the training, we administered a short questionnaire to obtain individual feedback. Responses from both audiences showed a high level of satisfaction with the training. Future efforts will focus on improving the training materials, further assessing training, and developing additional materials designed for specific military audiences at increased risk of insufficient sleep.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641195
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Assessment of the fixed 4-hours on/8-hours off watchstanding schedule on a
           surface vessel of the Swedish Royal Navy
    • Authors: Nita Lewis Shattuck, Panagiotis Matsangas, Joakim Dahlman, Anna Dahlman
      Pages: 846 - 850
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 846-850, December 2020.
      We assessed the utility of the 3-section, fixed, 4hrs-on/8hrs-off watchstanding schedule on a ship of the Swedish Royal Navy (HSwMS ORIOΝ). Data from the ORIOΝ (n=12 sailors) were compared with data from three USN vessels (n=22). Daily sleep duration, number of sleep episodes/day, and daily work duration were equivalent in the two samples. Compared to their USN peers, however, sailors on the ORION were more alert, reported better sleep quality, less severe insomnia symptoms, and better mood. Also, sailors on the ORION were faster and made fewer errors on the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Analysis of daily activities suggests that Swedish sailors may have felt and performed better because sailors working night shifts were allowed to wake up later. Our findings suggest the sailor well-being when standing watch on the fixed 4/8 can be improved when sailors are allowed flexible wake up times in the morning after a night shift.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641196
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A High Reliability Organization (HRO)-based Retrospective Analysis of
           Boeing 737 Max Crashes
    • Authors: Yalda Khashe, Soraya Levy
      Pages: 851 - 855
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 851-855, December 2020.
      The two crashes of Boeing 737 Max aircrafts within the small span of half a year resulted in tremendous loss of life, money, and public trust in the regulatory systems responsible for ensuring passenger safety within increasingly automated aviation systems. However, these two instances of catastrophic system failure provide experts in the fields of human and organizational factors with the opportunity to transform the aviation industry, propelling it into a period of innovative automation technologies, replete with a groundbreaking reverence for system reliability, safety, and preparedness for failure. By applying the key principles of High Reliability Organization (HRO) to a retrospective analysis of the concurrent Boeing 737 Max crashes, we aim to identify relationships between defining HRO characteristics and preventative measures that Boeing, human workers, and regulatory agencies could have followed before and during the accidents’ occurrences.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641197
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Exploring Informal Caregiver Workload using a Macroergonomics Lens on
           Multiple Resources
    • Authors: Siddarth Ponnala, Nicole E. Werner
      Pages: 856 - 860
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 856-860, December 2020.
      Persons with dementia (PwD) are an increasing population that are becoming more dependent on informal caregivers. Thus, caregiver workload is becoming a national concern due to the amount of patient work associated with caregiving. While we have a rudimentary understanding of caregiving work demands, caregiving capacity is an area that needs further inquiry. In this study, we apply a macroergonomic approach to identify non-cognitive resources employed by caregivers, and contingencies for caregivers’ resource usage. We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with self-identified primary caregivers of persons with dementia. Using the patient work system model, we conducted content and thematic analyses of interview data to build a conceptual model of caregiving capacity. Our conceptual model includes 6 different resources channels that caregivers may activate. We also identified 3 contingencies of resource usage. This model can serve as a foundation for exploring distribution of caregiver workload among non- cognitive resources.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641198
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Interactive Team Cognition in Incident Action Planning: A Network Approach
           to Assess Work-As-Done Within and Between Multidisciplinary Crisis
           Management Teams
    • Authors: Jukrin Moon, Farzan Sasangohar, S. Camille Peres, Changwon Son
      Pages: 861 - 862
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 861-862, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641199
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Scaling Our Impact: Emerging Human Factors Applications Addressing
           Societal Challenges
    • Authors: Courtney Rogers, Rupa S. Valdez, Juan E. Gilbert, Karen Lange Morales, Wendy Rogers, Andrew Thatcher, Abigail R. Wooldridge
      Pages: 863 - 867
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 863-867, December 2020.
      There is an increasing need and interest for Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) professionals to apply our discipline to a larger context. HFE researchers are starting to conduct research outside of traditional settings, focusing their efforts on complex societal challenges; however, this type of work is still in its infancy and there is a need to define how HFE can be used in broader contexts, outside of formal institutions. In this panel, we begin a formalized conversation of how our field can scale its impact. Each panelist will introduce a societal challenge they are addressing and discuss how HFE can be adapted to this context. The topics of this panel will span elections technology, sustainability and climate change, universal access to mental healthcare, social isolation in older adults, and food insecurity. This session will conclude with a moderated discussion between the panelists and audience to brainstorm specific societal challenges that HFE can address as well as how methods can be adapted to this context.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:26:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641200
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Evaluation of Hologram Distances in Reducing Shoulder Stress During
           Augmented Reality Interactions
    • Authors: Jeong Ho Kim, Hemateja Ari, Charan Madasu, Jaejin Hwang
      Pages: 868 - 871
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 868-871, December 2020.
      This study investigated the effect of different hologram distances on the shoulder postures, muscle activities, and the task performance (speed) during Augmented Reality (AR) interactions. With a repeated- measures design, 20 participants (10 males) performed the 3-D cube task involving gaze, pinching, and dragging gestures by different hologram distances: near (30 cm), middle (60 cm), and far (90 cm) relative to the participant. Meanwhile, muscle activities (upper trapezius, anterior and middle deltoid) and the right shoulder postures were measured. The results showed that hologram distances significantly affected middle deltoid muscle activities and shoulder flexion and abduction angles, and task performance during 3-D cube task (p’s < 0.001). The far hologram distance resulted in higher middle deltoid muscle activity and shoulder angles compared to the near and middle distances. Task performance was higher when the hologram was displayed in the middle compared to the near and far distances (p’s < 0.001). These results indicate that a hologram distance may be an important design factor affecting users’ shoulder stress and task performance during AR interactions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641201
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Evaluating Postural Risk Level of Digitally Represented Workplace:
           Analyzing Postural Possibilities
    • Authors: Hayoun Moon, Woojin Park
      Pages: 872 - 873
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 872-873, December 2020.
      Eliminating awkward and stressful working postures through the ergonomics workplace design is important in preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders. However, effective design tools are currently lacking. Different postural analysis tools have been proposed to help evaluate workplaces in the level of postural stresses experienced by the workers, but they are not capable of supporting the proactive ergonomics in design. In an effort to address the problem, this study presents a novel memory-based workplace evaluation (MBWE) model. When given an input scenario expressed in terms of the worker anthropometric characteristics, the task requirement, and the geometric descriptions of the to-be-evaluated workplace design, the model computes the range of feasible working postures for the scenario, determines their postural stress levels, and presents a report on the overall postural risk level of the input scenario. The MBWE model combines the memory-based posture planning (MBPP) model and the Ovako working posture analysis (OWAS) method.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641202
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Posture and performance trade-offs with different display configurations
    • Authors: Kaitlin M. Gallagher, Caleb Burruss, Elizabeth Bjornsen
      Pages: 874 - 874
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 874-874, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641203
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Classifying Lifting-Lowering Height and Load Level using Inertial
           Sensor-derived Kinematics: An Initial Study
    • Authors: Sol Lim, Clive D’Souza
      Pages: 875 - 877
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 875-877, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641204
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Relationship between Computer Vision Estimated Trunk Kinematics and
           Work-Related Low-Back Pain
    • Authors: Runyu L. Greene, Ming-Lun Lu, Yu Hen Hu, Robert G. Radwin
      Pages: 878 - 878
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 878-878, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641205
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Prediction of Occupational Physical Activities using Inertial Measurement
           Units and Deep Learning Models
    • Authors: Yishu Yan, Hao Fan, Yibin Li, Elias Hoeglinger, Alexander Wiesinger, Alan Barr, Carisa Harris Adamson
      Pages: 879 - 881
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 879-881, December 2020.
      Many workers engaged in manual material handling (MMH) jobs experience high physical demands that are associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD). Quantifying the physical demands of a job is an important legal requirement in the US that is used by human resources in the job hiring process. Most physical demands analysis (PDA) are performed using observational and semi-quantitative methods. The lack of accuracy and reliability of these methods can create problems when assigning acceptable tasks to an injured worker. In this study, various deep learning models were applied to data from eight inertial measurement units (IMUs) to predict 15 occupational physical activities (OPA). Overall, a 95% accuracy was reached by convolutional neural network (CNN) for predicting occupational physical activities when performed in isolation. More work is needed to estimate the accuracy of the model when OPA elements are combined into a more complex task.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641206
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Reports from the field: current challenges is assessing risk from push
           pull tasks and gaps in the research base
    • Authors: T.J. Albin, R. Fox, S. Gallagher, E. Weston, N. Wiggerman
      Pages: 882 - 883
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 882-883, December 2020.
      In this session, we continue our discussion of push and pull manual materials handling tasks, especially issues related to the use of manual carts. We will describe some current issues in the evaluation of cart-handling tasks from aspects of both risk and performance, describe some practices currently employed to address these issues and will conclude with some thoughts about a program of research to enhance our understanding of how these tasks can be performed safely and efficiently.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641207
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Neural Efficiency of Human-Exoskeleton Interactions during Asymmetrical
           Manual Handling Tasks
    • Authors: Yibo Zhu, Eric B. Weston, Ranjana K. Mehta, William S. Marras
      Pages: 884 - 884
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 884-884, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641208
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Benefits and Barriers to Passive Occupational Exoskeleton Adoption in
           Manufacturing Companies
    • Authors: Diana J. Schwerha, Nathan McNamara, Sunwook Kim, Maury A. Nussbaum
      Pages: 885 - 885
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 885-885, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641209
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effects of Passive Back-Support Exoskeleton Designs on Trunk Muscle
           Activity and Energy Expenditure during Repetitive Lifting
    • Authors: Saman Madinei, Mohammad Mehdi Alemi, Sunwook Kim, Divya Srinivasan, Maury A. Nussbaum
      Pages: 886 - 887
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 886-887, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641210
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effects of Using a Whole-Body Powered Exoskeleton on Physical Demands
           During Manual Handling
    • Authors: Hanjun Park, Sunwook Kim, Willow Lawton, Maury A. Nussbaum, Divya Srinivasan
      Pages: 888 - 889
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 888-889, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641211
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Machine Learning Approach to Hand-Arm Motion Prediction for Active Upper
           Extremity Occupational Exoskeleton Devices
    • Authors: Simon Kudernatsch, Christopher Wolfe, Hasan Ferdowsi, Donald Peterson
      Pages: 890 - 893
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 890-893, December 2020.
      Exoskeleton devices are currently being utilized in a variety of occupational settings to reduce musculoskeletal efforts to lower fatigue, improve performance, and minimize work-related injuries associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The intrinsic challenges that accompany the development of fully supporting and active upper extremity multi-degrees of freedom (DOF) devices include not only the mechanical design, but also lack of an intuitive way to control and operate these devices. A proof-of-concept instrumented handle consisting an embedded sensor network was developed with the intention to utilize artificial neural networks (ANN) to properly identify the intended motion of the user and to estimate the motion intensity. Results show this method is feasible and delivers useful insight into developing the next stages of the “smart handle” technology that will include the remaining hand motions, correctly classifying combination of intended motions and using the handle output to control complex multi-DOF upper extremity exoskeletons devices.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641212
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effects of Back-Support Exoskeleton Use on Gait Performance
    • Authors: Jang-Ho Park, Youngjae Lee, Sunwook Kim, Maury A. Nussbaum, Divya Srinivasan
      Pages: 894 - 895
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 894-895, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641213
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Assessing Psychosocial and Personal Factors in Industrial Work: Issues and
           Challenges for the Occupational Ergonomics Practitioner and Researcher
    • Authors: Robert R. (Bob) Fox, Missie Smith, Stephen Bao, Sean Gallagher, Carisa Harris-Adamson, Ming-Lun (Jack) Lu, Jeannie Nigam
      Pages: 896 - 899
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 896-899, December 2020.
      The occupational ergonomics practitioner has traditionally focused on physical aspects and risk factors of industrial jobs (e.g., forces exerted, moments and loading on the joints, low back compressive force, upper extremity repetitive motion, etc.). However, some studies have shown that physical risk factors may only account for about 37% of low back pain (Punnett et al., 2005). Psychosocial factors continue to be identified as an important element in the incidence of many occupationally-related musculoskeletal disorders. Some researchers have included assessments of psychosocial and personal/individual factors to biomechanical assessments in studies of occupational injury risks (e.g., Marras et al., 2000, Ferguson et al., 2012). Others (e.g., Barim et al., 2019) have examined incorporating personal/individual factors into risk assessment methods to give a more complete picture of injury risk that an individual or a subgroup of workers (e.g., gender, age, prior injury) may face on jobs.This discussion panel will explore the research in the fields of psychosocial and personal risk factors and their relevance to the assessment of injury risk. This session is relevant for the practitioners who must understand, interpret and apply the results of research to real-world problems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641214
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Leadership Styles in Participatory Ergonomics Programs: A Bibliometric
           Analysis
    • Authors: Mark C. Schall, Jesse S. Michel
      Pages: 900 - 904
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 900-904, December 2020.
      Workplace participatory ergonomics (PE) programs may foster the prevention of injuries and illnesses as well as promote healthier behaviors and productivity among employees. Facilitating leadership has been identified as a critical component to the implementation of PE programs. Several contemporary leadership styles and theories have been proposed in the Industrial and Organizational (I/O) Psychology literature. A bibliometric mapping analysis was performed to assess the extent to which contemporary leadership styles have been studied in relation to PE programs in the ergonomics and public, environmental, and occupational health literature categories of the Clarivate Analytics Web of Science (WoS). Results indicated that while production in the collective areas of PE programs and leadership has increased significantly in recent decades, the study of contemporary leadership styles and/or theories in PE programs has been limited. The results highlight an opportunity for additional interdisciplinary research that may lead to more effective PE program implementation.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641215
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Development of an observation-based tool for ergonomic exposure assessment
           in informal electronic waste recycling and other unregulated
           non-repetitive work
    • Authors: Augustine A. Acquah, Clive D’Souza, Bernard Martin, John Arko-Mensah, Afua Asabea Nti, Lawrencia Kwarteng, Sylvia Takyi, Paul K. Botwe, Prudence Tettey, Duah Dwomoh, Isabella A. Quakyi, Thomas G. Robins, Julius N. Fobil
      Pages: 905 - 909
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 905-909, December 2020.
      Most existing ergonomic assessment tools are intended for routine work. Time- and cost- efficient observational tools for ergonomic assessment of unregulated work are lacking. This paper presents the development of an observation-based tool designed to investigate ergonomic exposures among informal electronic waste workers that could be applied to other unregulated jobs/tasks. Real-time coding of observation is used to estimate the relative duration and intensity of exposure to key work postures, forceful exertions, movements, contact stress and vibration. Time spent in manual material handling activities such as carrying, lifting and pushing/pulling of working carts are also estimated. A preliminary study conducted with 6 e-waste workers showed that the tool can easily be used with minimal training and good inter- observer agreement (i.e., 89% to 100%) for most risk factors assessed. This new assessment tool provides effective and flexible options for quantifying ergonomic exposures among workers engaged in unregulated, highly variable work.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641216
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Psychophysically Based Physical Capability Limits For Right Angle Power
           Tool Operation
    • Authors: Jonathan Valencia, Joel Cort
      Pages: 910 - 914
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 910-914, December 2020.
      A psychophysical methodology was utilized to examine 40 non-skilled female participants performing right-angle power tool (RAPT) fastening tasks. A combination of two between subject variables were examined for a total of four between-subject groups: joint orientation (horizontal and vertical planes) and joint hardness (hard and soft joints). Participants were evenly distributed into one of four joint orientation- hardness groups. Within each group, a combination of three fastening strategies and three fastening frequencies were performed by each participant. The chosen target torque determined the physical capability limits (PCL). A mixed-design repeated analysis of variance with Tukey’ significance post hoc test were used to determine any significance with the measured variables (p
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641217
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Ergonomic Evaluation of Orchard Ladders with Shorter Rung Spacing
    • Authors: Victor Duraj, Fadi Fathallah
      Pages: 915 - 918
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 915-918, December 2020.
      Falls from ladders continue to be a concern in orchard work. Standard ladder design per the American National Standards Institute utilizes 30.5 cm (12-inch) rung spacing, which is the distance between steps along the rails. The European standard provides for a range of 25.0 to 30.0 cm (9.8 to 11.8 inches). This paper reports on a laboratory study of five tripod-style ladders, one with standard rung spacing and four with incrementally shorter spacing of 12.7 mm (0.5 inches). The ladders were positioned at 72 degrees, as well as at shallower 68 and 64 degree orientations. The average increased heart rate was lowest for the 26.7 cm (10.5 inch) rung spacing. Electromyography, motion, and ratings of perceived exertions were also collected. No test subject chose the standard ladder at any angle as their most preferred. The preliminary findings of this study support the reconsideration of the standard 12” orchard ladder.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641218
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The social value of Participatory Ergonomics from a practitioner’s
           perspective
    • Authors: Kátia M. Costa-Black, Chris Arteberry
      Pages: 919 - 923
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 919-923, December 2020.
      Ergonomics applies a set of ambitious frameworks and robust body of evidence for integrating different practices to optimize worker health and well-being. One recognized framework is the participatory approach, which delves into sociotechnical workplace actions – developed from the ground up – to achieve improved human performance outcomes and acceptability across the organization. Much of what is known about the value of participatory ergonomics centers on return-on-investment analyses related to injury prevention. Outside this spectrum, little has been discussed. This paper imparts how a participatory approach can lead to various positive impacts beyond financial gains, mainly by focusing on continuous improvements at the management systems level and on proactively motivating people and organizations to embrace healthy working conditions and behaviors. Issues such as the social-ethical value of involving workers in work design and return-to-work solutions are discussed to illustrate the holistic value of participatory ergonomics in the context of Total Worker Health.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641219
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Designing an Occupational Exposure Report for Aircraft Rescue and
           Firefighting
    • Authors: Barbara Millet
      Pages: 924 - 927
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 924-927, December 2020.
      Despite the known carcinogenic hazards encountered by Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting (ARFF) personnel on the job, little is known about what reportable components should be documented from ARFF incidents. Interviews and focus groups were used to investigate ARFF firefighters’ knowledge of and behaviors related to occupational exposures. Two interviews and five focus group sessions were conducted with a total of 52 ARFF firefighters. We describe perceptions of occupational exposure risks among ARFF Firefighters in South Florida and characterize the variables needed for ARFF exposure reporting.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641220
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Spinal Compression Force During Manual Material Handling - Calculated in
           JackTM Software Using Real Vs Predicted Human Motion
    • Authors: Zohar Potash, Yaar Harari, Raziel Riemer
      Pages: 928 - 929
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 928-929, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641221
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Changes in the range of head flexion rotation and neck muscle activity
           after prolonged use of a smartphone
    • Authors: Donghyun Song, Eunjee Kim, Yujin Kwon, Hyorim Kim, Gwanseob Shin
      Pages: 930 - 933
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 930-933, December 2020.
      Text-neck has been the main health concern among smartphone users. The current study explored a potential association between the duration of static head flexion posture during smartphone use and the viscoelastic changes of the cervical spine passive tissues. Ten participants conducted a smartphone task for 30 minutes, and their full head flexion angle and the neck muscle activity during a head extension motion were quantified before, in the middle, and after the 30-min task. Participants reported higher neck discomfort ratings after smartphone use, and the neck muscle activity showed an increasing trend over time. However, no significant difference was found in the muscle activity level between the three time levels. Full head flexion angle also did not vary significantly over time (p> 0.05). Study results imply the reduction of tissue stiffness during smartphone use, but warrant further research with a more sensitive evaluation method.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641222
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Comparison of bus driving posture in USA and India
    • Authors: Veda Rasmi Mallembakam, Yang Lu, Andris Freivalds, Eunsik Kim
      Pages: 934 - 938
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 934-938, December 2020.
      The aim of this project is to compare driving postures in India and the USA in order to develop seat designs to improve driver posture. The postures of 14 bus drivers from the USA and 9 from India were evaluated by RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment) analysis, and various seat dimensions from India ware collected and compared with standard dimension in the USA. For both countries, low posture occurred most frequently, showing a RULA score of 3, indicating a need for posture change and further investigations. Among drivers who exhibited high posture, posture in American drivers displayed a RULA score of 4, and posture in Indian drivers showed a RULA score of 6. Furthermore, the component ratio of the high posture group in India was about 10 times higher than that of the high posture group in the USA.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641223
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Predicting Shoulder Joint Reaction Forces From 3D Body Kinematics: A
           Convolutional Neural Network Approach
    • Authors: Syed T. Mubarrat, Suman K. Chowdhury, Ashish D. Nimbarte
      Pages: 939 - 941
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 939-941, December 2020.
      This study aimed to develop a convolutional neural network (CNN) model to predict shoulder joint reaction forces from 3D body kinematics. Results showed a good convergence between CNN model prediction and musculoskeletal model estimation for six novel tasks. Therefore, a CNN-based deep learning model can be used as a simple and relatively less time- and labor-intensive method to identify unsafe shoulder exertions in order to prevent the incidence of shoulder injuries or pathologies in occupational settings.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641224
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Survey of One-handed Lifting in Manufacturing Industry: A Cross-sectional
           Study of the BackWorks Study Cohort
    • Authors: Ruoliang Tang, Jay M. Kapellusch, Andrew S. Merryweather, Matthew S. Thiese, Kurt T. Hegmann, Sue A. Ferguson, William S. Marras, Ming-Lun Lu
      Pages: 942 - 946
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 942-946, December 2020.
      Low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem and a major cause of lost productivity in workplaces. Manual materials handling (MMH) jobs have traditionally been regarded as risk factor for LBP. Compared to two-handed lifting, one-handed lifting has received little attention in both epidemiological and biomechanical research. In addition, one frequent complaint of the revised NIOSH lifting equation (RNLE) has been the lack of capability to directly evaluate one-handed lifting. Modifications have been proposed by the European Union, however their efficacy and influence have not yet been evaluated. This cross-sectional study provided objective survey of the MMH jobs, especially the one-handed lifting performed in manufacturing industry and investigated the outcomes of three proposed methods to address one-handed lifting using RNLE approach. Preliminary results suggest that workers with some one-handed lifting are associated with higher physical exposure. However, the increase was more significant among those who perform primarily one-handed lifting.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641225
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Workload Issues among Commercial Cleaning Workers (Discussion Panel)
    • Authors: Stephen Bao, Ben Walker, Debra Milek, Wonil Lee, Andrew Ryan, Jim Jia-Hua Lin, Richard Goggins, Cynthia Rivera
      Pages: 947 - 949
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 947-949, December 2020.
      Cleaning is a generic and essential job in various sectors and workplaces, commonly under the categories of janitorial or custodial services. Cleaning activities in organizations are often not the main business outputs of those organizations that they serve. Such jobs are performed either by an organization’s own employees, or more often, contracted out to external service providers. Therefore even organizations may have well-established occupational health and safety programs, the issues of cleaning workers’ work conditions are often overlooked (Seixas et al. 2013), thus resulting in high workers’ compensation claims (Lynch 2011, Smith and Anderson 2017). In the University of California system alone, there were 761 workers’ compensation claims among the custodial workers in 2010, with an actuarial estimated ultimate direct cost of $7.1 million (Lynch 2011). It has been suggested that workload among commercial cleaning workers has been increasing over the years, which may be responsible for the increased workers’ compensation claims among cleaning workers (Simcox et al. 2013, Teran and vanDommelen-Gonzalez 2017). It seems that it is necessary to understand the workload situation among commercial janitors so that proper protection ideas and mechanisms can be developed and implemented. However, current knowledge about cleaning workers’ workload is still very limited. Standard worktimes, which are normally based on time studies, are often used to develop “acceptable” janitorial workloads in the cleaning industry (Walker 2018). However, ergonomics researchers have been observing high musculoskeletal disorder risks among janitorial workers (Messing et al. 1998, Norman et al. 2003, Schwartz et al. 2019). Since the risk factors are multifaceted, this Discussion Panel consisting of a number of content experts including researchers, government health and safety specialists, and industry practitioners aim to help janitorial/custodial work conditions. We hope we will be able to develop a framework for future research on establishing healthy and safe workload for cleaning workers.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641226
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Exercise Equipment Development for Safe Activation of the Medial Deltoid
    • Authors: Selena Celic, Eunsik Kim, Jill Urbanic
      Pages: 950 - 954
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 950-954, December 2020.
      The medial deltoid muscle is a small – and often neglected – muscle in comparison to other muscular systems in the immediately surrounding area of the upper body. If there is low or improper focus on the medial deltoid, there is a high risk of muscle imbalances and dysfunctions. Limited equipment exists today for proper training of the medial deltoid muscle; meaning there exists an opportunity to develop equipment which can safely and intuitively activate the medial deltoid muscle. To ensure maximization of the medial deltoid without increasing the activation of the surrounding muscles, the activation measurements of the anterior deltoid, posterior deltoid, and upper trapezius were also verified throughout the experiments with the seven exercises tested. This paper presents the pitfalls of current solutions, research of various studies and experiments, and confirms the activation levels and risks associated with various movement patterns.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641227
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Monitoring muscle fatigue following continuous load changes
    • Authors: Woojin Yoon, Gwanseob Shin
      Pages: 955 - 959
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 955-959, December 2020.
      Human-Robot collaboration (HRC) have been actively applied in industry in a form of interactacting with workers by detecting their muscle fatigue. During repetitive movements such as dynamic muscle contractions, the information of decrement of electromyography (EMG) center frequency can suggest muscle fatigue occurred. However, the method was not evaluated both for development and recovery of muscle fatigue during such dynamic situations. If the decrement can be detected during the work without interruptions, the method can be highly useful in the industry. This study aims to confirm validity of the dynamic fatigue evaluation method using the wavelet transform in both direction of fatigue (development and recovery) by varying load intensity. Seventeen healthy males conducted four sets of repetitive elbow flexion-extension exertions work with one set of 2-minute work with a 2 kg weight (‘heavy work’) and then another with an 1 kg weight (‘light work’). Muscle fatigue was quantified by calculating the EMG center frequency from dynamic evaluation and static evaluation for each set of exertion work task. In the result, the EMG center frequency was significantly decreased during every ‘heavy work’ and increased during every ‘light work’, which was consistent with the result from dynamic fatigue evaluation based on the wavelet transform. The result suggests the possibility of monitoring muscle fatigue in real-time in industry and providing a guideline in designing a human-robot interaction system.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641228
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Neuromuscular Fatigue mechanisms in Type 1 diabetic men and women
    • Authors: Oshin Tyagi, Yibo Zhu, Connor Johnson, Ranjana K. Mehta, Farzan Sasangohar, Madhav Erraguntla, Khalid Qarake
      Pages: 960 - 961
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 960-961, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641229
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Towards Video-Based Automatic Lifting Load Prediction
    • Authors: Yin Li, Runyu L. Greene, Fangzhou Mu, Yu Hen Hu, Robert G. Radwin
      Pages: 962 - 963
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 962-963, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641230
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Muscle Recruitment during Simulated Piece Picking Tasks Commonly Performed
           in Distribution Centers
    • Authors: Steven A. Lavender, Chunyi Sun, Carolyn Sommerich
      Pages: 964 - 964
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 964-964, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641231
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Investigating Inclusive Design of Shared Automated Vehicles with
           Full-Scale Modeling
    • Authors: Kamolnat Tabattanon, Patrik T. Schuler, Clive D’Souza
      Pages: 965 - 969
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 965-969, December 2020.
      Shared automated vehicles (SAVs) in the form of low-speed driverless shuttles have the potential to improve independent mobility for older adults and people with disabilities. At full vehicle autonomy and in the absence of an onboard operator, tasks such as ingress-egress, interior circulation, and securement of passengers and carry-on items will need to be safe, efficient, and independent. This paper describes a novel laboratory apparatus for conducting inclusive design research related to SAVs and presents preliminary findings from an ongoing preliminary study examining the effects of interior design configuration on ingress-egress performance for six wheelchair users. Early findings emphasize the interactions between diverse user abilities and technology design on user performance. The study demonstrates the potential benefit of full-scale physical simulations to investigating a broad range of usability and inclusive design issues related to emerging SAVs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641232
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Sensitivity of Wrist-Wearables to Changes in Physical and Mental Demands
    • Authors: Jackie S. Cha, Fajar Ausri, Laura Mudge, Denny Yu
      Pages: 970 - 970
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 970-970, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641233
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Blue Light Exposure Effects on Sleep Attributes in a 72-Hour Military
           Exercise
    • Authors: Stephanie A. T. Brown, Linda L. DeSimone, Tina M. Burke
      Pages: 971 - 975
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 971-975, December 2020.
      In the digital age, the military is developing cutting edge technologies (e.g., heads-up and mixed reality displays, night vision devices, etc.) to maximize situational awareness and effectiveness. Effects of light exposure from screen-based systems on our Soldier-operators has not been fully considered. Some literature concludes that evening blue light exposure preceding bedtime can result in increased alertness and may negatively impact sleep, producing negative moodstates and sleepiness upon wakening. The current study looks at blue light exposure and subsequent sleep of forty-six Soldiers during a company-wide field exercise utilizing wrist-worn actigraphy and light sensors. Observations indicate periods of blue light exposure during evening field operations were followed by sleep intervals with significant decrements in sleep quality. Future studies will isolate the effects of military-specific blue light emitting device exposure in high contrast, low ambient light environments on sleep quality, providing specific guidance and interventions to reduce negative impacts on operations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641234
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Assessing the Ergonomic Benefits of a New Adjustable Forklift Backrest
    • Authors: Pranav Madhav Kuber, Ehsan Rashedi
      Pages: 976 - 980
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 976-980, December 2020.
      A new forklift backrest has been developed by incorporating adjustability concepts into the design to facilitate comfort to a wide range of users. We have conducted a comparative study between the new and original backrests to assess the effectiveness of design features. Using the phenomenon of restlessness, discomfort of the user was associated with the amount of body movement, where we have used a motion- capture system and a force platform to quantify the individuals’ movement for a wide range of body sizes. Meanwhile, subjective comfort and design feedback were collected using a questionnaire. Our results showed a reduction in the mean torso movement and the maximum center of pressure change of location by 300 and 6 mm, respectively, for the new design. Taking advantage of adjustability feature, the new backrest design exhibited enhanced comfort for longer durations and reduced magnitude of discomfort for a wide range of participants’ body sizes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641235
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Designing with Extraordinary People: Stories of Creating Accessible
           Technology for the Five Percent
    • Pages: 981 - 984
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 981-984, December 2020.
      As human factors practitioners, we are well versed in targeting our design requirements for the range of users clustered within the ‘5th percentile female up to the 95th percentile male’. But what happens to the tail ends, or the 10% of the population that become inadequately served under this model' Minority populations often must mask their own needs in order to find inclusion, and their pain points remain invisible to mainstream populations. As industries continue to focus on inclusion and experience growth in diversity, a persistent issue has been an unawareness of the inaccessible nature of “designed for the majority” systems. It is imperative that HF practitioners understand that inclusive and accessible are two separate things. Through stories of lessons learned from designing technology for U.S. Department of Defense warfighters who are women, the practitioner will discuss applied principals for creating accessible designs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641236
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Effects of Keyboard Layout and Size on Smartphone Typing Performance
    • Authors: Colton J. Turner, Barbara S. Chaparro, Inga M. Sogaard, Jibo He
      Pages: 985 - 989
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 985-989, December 2020.
      Usability and typing performance on a smartphone with two unique QWERTY keyboard layouts (standard vs. curved) on two phone sizes (4.0-inch vs. 5.5-inch displays) was investigated in this study. The effect of hand posture was also investigated (one- vs. two-thumbs). Results show users typed the slowest when using one thumb with the curved keyboard on the small phone (15 WPM), and the fastest when using two thumbs with the standard keyboard on the large phone (24 WPM). Typing performance with the curved keyboard on the large phone size (19 WPM) did not differ between typing with one thumb using the standard keyboard on the large or small phone, or with two thumbs using the standard keyboard on the small phone. Error rates were higher when using the curved keyboard, regardless of phone size. Subjectively, the curved keyboard was rated inferior for both phone sizes in comparison to the standard layout.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641237
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Remote Health Monitoring in Children: Needfinding in Parents
    • Authors: Shannon M. Bryant, Paul Oppold, Michael Schwartz, Glenn Martin
      Pages: 990 - 994
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 990-994, December 2020.
      Wearable devices seem to be ubiquitous in today’s world. From a runner tracking their jogging route, to the gamification of exercising by achieving steps, to keeping up with notifications from apps and calendar updates, wearables serve as multi-functional devices that attempt to track, analyze, and provide insights about wellness data in our everyday lives. Although wearables among adults have seen an increase since 2016 in usage of approximately 9%, the percent usage for children under the age of 18 is largely undocumented (Liu, 2019). This article focuses on discovering parental needs for remote health monitoring in children and leveraging those needs to recommend device specifications and design guidelines for future children’s wearable devices.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641238
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Development of a Civilian 3d Hand Scan Database
    • Authors: Bethany Juhnke, Colleen Pokorny, Linsey Griffin, Susan Sokolowski
      Pages: 995 - 999
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 995-999, December 2020.
      Despite the complexity of the human hand, most large-scale anthropometric data for the human hand includes minimal measurements. Anthropometric studies are expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and more efficient methods are needed to capture hand data and build large-scale civilian databases to impact product design and human factors analyses. A first of its kind large-scale 3D hand anthropometric database was the result of this study with 398 unique datasets. This database was created at minimal cost and time to researchers to improve accessibility to data and impact the design of products for hands.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641239
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Data Analytics Approach to Persona Development for The Future Mobile
           Office
    • Authors: Amudha V. Kamaraj, Atefeh Katrahmani, Mengyao Li, John D. Lee
      Pages: 1000 - 1004
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1000-1004, December 2020.
      The concept of using automated vehicles as mobile workspaces is now emerging. Consequently, the in- vehicle environment of automated vehicles must be redesigned to support user interactions in performing work-related tasks. During the design phase, interaction designers often use personas to understand target user groups. Personas are representations of prototypical users and are constructed from user surveys and interview data. Although data-driven, large samples of user data are typically assessed qualitatively and may result in personas that are not representative of target user groups. To create representative personas, this paper demonstrates a data analytics approach to persona development for future mobile workspaces using data from the occupational information network (O*NET). O*NET consists of data on 968 occupations, each defined by 277 features. The data were reduced using dimensionality reduction and 7 personas were identified using cluster analysis. Finally, the important features of each persona were identified using logistic regression.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641240
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • This or That' Instructions for Use (IFU): IF U Could Pick Your Dream
           Printout Format
    • Authors: Young J. Chun, Jeremy Honig
      Pages: 1005 - 1007
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1005-1007, December 2020.
      An Instructions for Use (IFU) is a critical element of a drug delivery device system user interface that is frequently used as risk mitigation when the product cannot be effectively mitigated by the design of the device itself. However, format of a printout IFU is often selected without thoughtful consideration or even neglected while the IFU contents such as wordings and images are iteratively improved over the course of device development. There is a limited number of research papers that exist on the effects of the IFU printout format on task performance, especially with a drug delivery device. This study was to evaluate two different IFU formats (spiral bound vs accordion style) on task performance for use of a complex reusable electromechanical injection pen device system for preparing and administering medication. This study provides valuable insights for biotech/pharmaceutical industry for optimizing their IFU design by selecting more appropriate hardcopy IFU format for their drug delivery device. This will enable creating optimal user experience as well as more effectively reducing use related risks as part of overall device user interface for a complex drug delivery device system.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641241
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Method to Develop a Better Performance Glove Pattern Block Using 3d Hand
           Anthropometry
    • Authors: Susan L. Sokolowski, Linsey Griffin
      Pages: 1008 - 1012
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1008-1012, December 2020.
      Fit challenges exist for performance glove users, because the methods of collecting anthropometric hand data and glove patterning have not been updated in unison. This paper will demonstrate a new method to draft a better basic performance glove pattern block from more relevant hand anthropometric data. The method may be used by product/industrial design educators, professional designers, patternmakers and manufacturers to develop better fitting and functioning gloves.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641242
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Anthropometric Analysis to Build Ergonomic Equipment
    • Authors: Priyadarshini Dasgupta, Lisa M. Kuhn, Jonathan Faulk
      Pages: 1013 - 1017
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1013-1017, December 2020.
      Body dimensions such as hip breadth, knee height, and chest circumference are important measurements required to build items such as car seats and toilets. However, recent studies strongly point towards a questionable existence or absence of female data in the anthropometric database. Furthermore, many of these databases are dated or are derived from dated models. The objective of this study is to identify an ideal size designation for better fitting choices including both female and male populations for important everyday equipment such as toilet seats.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641243
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • When User Research Leads Design Astray
    • Authors: Keith Karn, Christy Harper, Alisa Rantanen, Rochelle Edwards, Michael C. Bartha
      Pages: 1018 - 1021
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1018-1021, December 2020.
      User research in all its forms—from early ethnographic studies to late stage usability validation studies— undoubtedly can add value to any product design and development process. At its best, user research is tightly integrated with the design process, and designers and other team members eagerly seek out research findings to guide design decisions. At its worst, user research can hinder rather than help the efforts of the larger product design and development team—answering the wrong questions, providing misleading information, and focusing attention on issues that are not critical to product success. This can lead to friction between researchers and designers and other members of the product development team. This panel addresses the challenges of integrating user research into the product development process in a way that truly adds value, while suggesting ways to avoid common pitfalls that can result in user research leading designers astray.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641244
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Arranging Icons on Small Displays: Do Hexagonal Layouts Improve Search
           Performance'
    • Authors: Tassilo Bouwman, Duncan P. Brumby
      Pages: 1022 - 1026
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1022-1026, December 2020.
      Mobile devices with small displays can use hexagonal layouts of circular icons to use space more efficiently – we test whether this design choice improves people's search performance. An experiment is reported in which 24 participants performed known-item searches of menus that varied along four dimensions: (1) whether icons were arranged using a hexagonal or a grid layout, (2) how closely icons were placed next to each other, (3) the number of icons in the display that shared the same color as the target, and (4) whether icons stayed in the same location or moved between trials. Results show that search times were faster with hexagonal layouts but only when there were many same-color distractors and icons were packed very close to each other. This work contributes new empirical findings on how icon arrangements, in interaction with other critical visual design features, affect search performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641245
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Comparison of Auditory Icon Alarms and Spearcon Sequences for Patient
           Monitoring
    • Authors: Emma Knight, Alison Utting, Penelope Sanderson
      Pages: 1027 - 1027
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1027-1027, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641246
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Evaluating the Efficacy of a Mobile, Augmented Reality Pediatric Code Cart
           Education Application
    • Authors: John Morgan, Abigail R. Wooldridge, Anthony Composto, Ashley Mitchell, Widya A. Ramadhani, Jyotika Roychowdhury, Keith Hanson, Elsa Vazquez-Melendez, Harleena Kendhari, Nadia Shaikh, Teresa Riech, Matthew Mischler, Sara Krzyzaniak, Ginger Barton, Kyle T. Formella, Zachary R. Abbott, John N. Farmer, Rebecca Ebert-Allen, Trina Croland
      Pages: 1028 - 1032
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1028-1032, December 2020.
      Pediatric codes are rare events that require fast intervention from medical professionals to resuscitate a child. A pediatric code cart contains all medications and equipment immediately needed to complete a pediatric resuscitation, but not all health care professionals (HCPs) know what is located on the cart and where. A mobile, augmented reality (AR) application was created to improve this knowledge. Ten participants performed a timed search on the cart while wearing Tobii Pro eye tracking glasses before and after exposure to the application. Also, a survey to assess participants’ confidence using the code cart was administered before and after exposure to the application; the post survey also contained usability and satisfaction scales. The results showed that performance and confidence improved after using the application, and that the application usability is acceptable. Our findings suggest the application is useful for improving knowledge and efficiency while working with a pediatric code cart.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641247
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Female Voice Agents in Fully Autonomous Vehicles Are Not Only More
           Likeable and Comfortable, But Also More Competent
    • Authors: Jiayuan Dong, Emily Lawson, Jack Olsen, Myounghoon Jeon
      Pages: 1033 - 1037
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1033-1037, December 2020.
      Driving agents can provide an effective solution to improve drivers’ trust in and to manage interactions with autonomous vehicles. Research has focused on voice-agents, while few have explored robot-agents or the comparison between the two. The present study tested two variables - voice gender and agent embodiment, using conversational scripts. Twenty participants experienced autonomous driving using the simulator for four agent conditions and filled out subjective questionnaires for their perception of each agent. Results showed that the participants perceived the voice only female agent as more likeable, more comfortable, and more competent than other conditions. Their final preference ranking also favored this agent over the others. Interestingly, eye-tracking data showed that embodied agents did not add more visual distractions than the voice only agents. The results are discussed with the traditional gender stereotype, uncanny valley, and participants’ gender. This study can contribute to the design of in-vehicle agents in the autonomous vehicles and future studies are planned to further identify the underlying mechanisms of user perception on different agents.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641248
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Autonomous Vehicle Design Anti-Patterns: Making Emerging Transportation
           Technologies Inaccessible by Design
    • Authors: Julian Brinkley, Earl W. Huff, Kwajo Boateng, Suyash Ahire
      Pages: 1038 - 1042
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1038-1042, December 2020.
      Fully autonomous or “self-driving” vehicles represent a potentially transformative shift in personal mobility. Given the emerging nature of self-driving vehicle technologies, however, guidance for accessible implementation is limited. It has been suggested that the result is that much of this emerging technology is being designed in a manner that will render it largely inaccessible for persons with disabilities. Borrowing from object-oriented programming we identify common barriers to accessibility which we argue are de facto anti- patterns in the design of accessible self-driving vehicle technology. Drawing from the literature and our own studies we describe design commonalities (anti-patterns) which we argue may pose problems for persons with disabilities. We believe that this work may provide direction for designers regarding how to better support the needs of persons with a range of disabilities in the self-driving vehicle context.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641249
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Complexity of Documentation Needs for Children with Medical Complexity
    • Authors: Ephrem Abebe, Matthew Scanlon, Haozhi Chen, Denny Yu
      Pages: 1043 - 1043
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1043-1043, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641250
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Public Trust and Acceptance for Concepts of Remotely Operated Urban Air
           Mobility Transportation
    • Authors: Eric T. Chancey, Michael S. Politowicz
      Pages: 1044 - 1048
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1044-1048, December 2020.
      There is building interest within industry and government to enable Urban Air Mobility (i.e., air-taxies). One concept envisions remotely piloted aircraft, yet it is unclear how this will impact public trust and acceptance. Method: Two hundred participants read vignettes describing remotely-piloted UAM operations and then responded to a series of questionnaires. The study employed a one-way between-subjects design manipulating five levels of Pilot-in-Command Distance: Onboard Pilot; Remote Control Pilot; Dedicated Remote Operator; Remote Operator; System Manager. Results: The Remote Control Pilot group indicated they would be less likely than the Onboard Pilot group to use UAM, based on the mediating effect of trust in the automation. The Remote Control Pilot and Remote Operator groups indicated they would be less likely to use UAM than the Onboard Pilot group, based on the mediating effect of trust in the remote pilot/operator. Conclusion: Trust in UAM automation and remote pilots/operators will likely affect public acceptance of UAM.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641251
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Robot Career Fair: An Exploratory Evaluation of Anthropomorphic Robots in
           Various Career Categories
    • Authors: Nathan L. Tenhundfeld, Elizabeth K. Phillips, Jacob R. Davis
      Pages: 1049 - 1053
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1049-1053, December 2020.
      Robots are being used in a host of different work environments currently. However, to date there has been very little broad exploration into the designs of systems and how that affects users’ perception of fit for the robots in different job categories. In the present experiment we showed participants images of 252 robots and asked them to make assignments of the robots into 16 potential job categories taken from the U.S. Department of Labor. The robots’ overall human likeness, as well as four contributory components of anthropomorphism were used to predict job category assignment. Results indicate that participants expect higher levels of anthropomorphism in jobs with more direct human interactions (such as education and hospitality), whereas they expect minimal levels in jobs with less human interaction (e.g. agriculture and architecture). Results also indicate that there is more nuance required for these judgments than general human likeness.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641252
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Inclusive Design Guidance: External Autonomous Vehicle Interfaces
    • Authors: Karina A. Roundtree, Steven Hattrup, Janani Swaminathan, Nicholas Zerbel, Jeffrey Klow, Vivswan Shitole, Abrar Fallatah, Roli Khanna, Julie A. Adams
      Pages: 1054 - 1058
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1054-1058, December 2020.
      Autonomous vehicles are expected on roads in the near future and need to interact safely with external road users, such as manual motor drivers, cyclists, and pedestrians. The particular needs of the external road users, such as children, adults, older adults, and individuals with visual, auditory, and/or cognitive impairments, will vary greatly and must be considered in order to design effective inclusive interfaces for all users. Current interface designs lack effective communication between an autonomous vehicle and external road users with regard to conveying and understanding the mobility intent of each party. The goal is to provide inclusive design guidance for an external human-vehicle interface that enables effective communication between autonomous vehicles and external road users. Factors related to communicating intent, the external road users, and environmental constraints, were used to inform the design guidance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641253
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Designing 360 Video for Immersive Journalism
    • Authors: Deborah Pang Davis, Barbara Millet
      Pages: 1059 - 1063
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1059-1063, December 2020.
      Journalism has seen tremendous change and 360-degree video, a form of virtual reality (VR), continues to present new ways for audiences to experience and engage with stories. Many journalists see 360° video as the future of storytelling. This literature review was conducted to guide UX practitioners and journalism professionals to practical information in an effort to understand the design challenges of VR and 360° video in journalism and identify opportunities to improve the user experience.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641254
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Visualizing Uncertainty in Weather Forecasts
    • Authors: Qinyu Ding, Barbara Millet
      Pages: 1064 - 1068
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1064-1068, December 2020.
      Uncertainty bears an inherent relationship to weather forecasting. Even with advances in technology and mathematical modeling improving weather forecasts, communicating risks to the public is still challenging. This systematic review investigates design attributes that influence the expression of uncertainty visualization in weather forecasts. A total of 14 publications met the inclusion criteria. This review revealed six categories of design features that can inform how viewers interpret the uncertainty conveyed in weather forecast displays. These design features also provide us with an initial basis for developing guidelines. We discuss how the features might be used and the importance of doing so.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641255
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Do You Need to Travel' Mapping Face-to-Face Communication Objectives
           to Technology Affordances
    • Authors: Rachel E. Dianiska, Charles J. Peasley, Nicholas Wilson, Neil Barnett, Leilani Hammel, Ben Purdy, Peggy Wu, Elizabeth Shirtcliff, James H. Oliver, Stephen B. Gilbert
      Pages: 1069 - 1073
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1069-1073, December 2020.
      Computer-mediated communications (CMC) can be used as a substitute for face-to-face (FtF) meetings but their effectiveness is highly context dependent. This paper describes a theoretical framework and initial experimental design for characterizing a travel replacement threshold. This effort begins with a use case of remote engineering maintenance training, conducted in three conditions: side-by-side (physically proximate), teleconference (using off-the-shelf software), and a custom VR/AR system designed to provide the apprentice with a virtual view of both the instructor’s larger scale lab and smaller scale workbench. The research hypotheses, experimental protocol, and dependent measures are described. The task involves an instructor demonstrating a circuit board troubleshooting task to a remote apprentice. The apprentice then completes the trained task independently, and performance and subject preferences are compared across conditions. The details of this paper, the result of extensive literature review and winnowing of variables, may assist researchers exploring CMC, training, or social communication.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641256
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Effect of Feedback Type on Perception of Performance
    • Authors: Jamiahus Walton, Stephen Gilbert
      Pages: 1074 - 1078
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1074-1078, December 2020.
      In an increasingly connected world, it’s essential to have efficient teams. Training is a common method used to maintain or improve team performance. However, implementing high quality team training can be costly and require a significant amount of time and effort. An Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) designed for a team, or an Intelligent Team Tutoring System (ITTS), can provide a solution that would reduce the cost, time, and effort required to implement high quality training. Few studies have examined the influence that feedback delivered by an ITTS has on an individual’s perception of their performance and their team’s performance. This within-subjects study, in which 117 participants (39 teams) completed a virtual shopping mall task, addresses this gap. Results indicate that user interface (UI) designers should display either Individual feedback or Team feedback, not both, to give users a correct perception of their performance and their team’s performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641257
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Load Carriage affects Kinematics during Ingress and Egress on Simulated
           Travelators
    • Authors: Alexa Charbonneau, Ben Garson, Fiona Bisoffi, Stephanie Esparza, Miral Bhakta, Luke Bailey, Rahul Soangra
      Pages: 1079 - 1083
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1079-1083, December 2020.
      Technology advancements has impacted the quality of life in the modern world. Nowadays travelators found popularly as conveyers in airports have been widely used but it is not known how load carriage affects Ingress/egress on travelators. Ten healthy young adults stepped off a metal platform onto a forward moving treadmill belt at a given speed and then stepped on to a second platform. Data was collected to understand how load carriage could influence ingress and egress in participants. Participants were tested for four conditions (load, No load, speed of 0.3 m/s and 0.6 m/s). Load carriage at speed 0.6 m/s were found to have significantly higher knee flexion angles. Ankle angles measured for ingress presented different trends amongst the four conditions. Load carriage at speed 0.6 m/s showed greater plantarflexion compared to the other three conditions. Our future work will assess effects of load carriage on travelators among older adults.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641258
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Asymmetric Load Carriage at Shoulder Height affects Temporal Gait
           Characteristics among Food Service Workers
    • Authors: Christopher Espino, Robin Faustino, Tiffany Franco, Angel Reign Galvan, Matthew Gothong, Ennis Khaleq, Cody Occhino, Rahul Soangra
      Pages: 1084 - 1087
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1084-1087, December 2020.
      Slips and falls are common injuries among restaurant and food service workers. It is estimated that food service workers have 60% higher rate of occupational injury or illness than workers in other industry. This study investigates effects of asymmetric load carriage at shoulder level on gait characteristics. Each participant walked with a service tray held at shoulder height. Each participant’s gait was analyzed under 3 different load walking conditions, no load walking (NLW), intermediate load walking (ILW) (2.5% BW), and maximum load walking (MLW) (5% BW). We found that participants walked significantly slower with gait cycle time 1.125s versus 1.150 s in MLW compared to NLW(p
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641259
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Investigating Two Variables in a Manual Dexterity Test to Provide
           Suggestions for Workers in General Industries
    • Authors: Shun Yao, Shengping Zhao
      Pages: 1088 - 1090
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1088-1090, December 2020.
      Manual dexterity is an important ability for industries involving lots of handworks, including medical treatment and some manufacturing. To fully evaluate manual dexterity to provide more suggestions for workers in those industries, eight three subjects were recruited to do a lab test on manual dexterity using a typical instrument produced by a Chinese company. Two variables of the test were measured, namely “the total time of completing the manual dexterity test” and “the total counts of dropping pins unintentionally”. A simple linear regression was then performed between those two variables. Results show that a statistically significant positive correlation exists (the value of R2 equals 0.57, which is larger than the critical value 0.217). By dividing the results into four zones, differences between those zones as well as the importance of both physical ability (competence) and psychological factors (a good mentality) were discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641260
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Preliminary Investigation of System Transparency and System Failure on
           Driver Trust in Partial Vehicle Automation
    • Authors: Jieun Lee, Genya Abe, Kenji Sato, Makoto Itoh
      Pages: 1091 - 1091
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1091-1091, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641261
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Real-World Use of Partially Automated Driving Systems and Driver
           Impressions
    • Authors: Hyungil Kim, Miao Song, Zachary Doerzaph
      Pages: 1092 - 1093
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1092-1093, December 2020.
      Background: Automated driving systems (ADSs) have the potential to fundamentally transform transportation by reducing crashes, congestion, and cost while improving traffic efficiency and access to mobility for the transportation-challenged population (US DOT, 2020). However, a recent on-road test of five vehicles capable of SAE Level 2 (SAE, 2016) driving automation equipped with forward collision warning (FCW), adaptive cruise control (ACC), lane departure warning (LDW), and lane keep assist (LKA) revealed that ADSs may not work as expected in typical driving situations, such as approaching stopped vehicles and negotiating hills and curves (IIHS, 2018). Even worse, people may not use ADSs as intended due to their misunderstanding of, over-trust, or distrust in such systems’ capabilities and limitations (IIHS, 2019). As Level 2 ADSs have become commercially available, accounts of unintended uses of these systems and fatal consequences have emerged. For example, a recent news article reported a Tesla driver napping behind the wheel (Fox News, 2019). Objective: Given the growing availability of ADSs on public roadways as well as the risk of their unintended use and safety consequences, this work aimed to better understand (1) realworld use of ADSs, (2) prevalence of unintended use of such systems, and (3) driver impressions after prolonged use of such systems. Method: The research team investigated an existing naturalistic driving database collected from the Virginia Connected Corridor Level 2 Naturalistic Driving Study (VCC L2 NDS, Dunn, Dingus, & Soccolich, 2019). The dataset contains data from 50 participants who drove personally owned vehicles for 12 months. Participating vehicles were equipped with longitudinal control systems (e.g., ACC) at the minimum, although most also had lateral control systems (e.g., LKA). Specifically, we investigated safety-critical events (SCEs, Guo & Fang, 2013) of different severity levels (e.g., crashes and near-crashes) captured in the data. We also examined drivers’ responses to a post-study questionnaire that captured drivers’ subjective ratings on the usefulness and usability of the ADS. Results: We found that 47 out of 235 (20%) SCEs involved ADS use. An in-depth analysis of 47 SCEs revealed that people misused ADSs in 57% of SCEs (e.g., engaged in secondary tasks, used the systems not on highways, or with hands off the wheel). During 13% of SCEs, the systems neither reacted to the situation nor warned the driver. A post-study survey showed that people found ADSs useful and usable. However, the more participants were positive to ADS features, the more they felt comfortable engaging in secondary tasks, which is an unintended side effect of Level 2 ADSs as they require the human driver’s supervision. This study also captured some scenarios where the ADSs did not meet driver expectations. Many people reported that the longitudinal control features did not respond well to cutting-in leads (23% of participants) and stopped leads (14%). The lateral control features were often automatically disengaged when encountering blurred lane markings (14% of participants reported) and had difficulties when negotiating curves (9%). Conclusion: This study contributes to a better understanding of the capabilities and limitations of early production SAE L2 vehicles, the prevalence of the unintended use of ADSs, and drivers’ perceptions of these new technologies. Designers of human-machine interfaces (HMIs) for such systems should always consider the possibility of drivers’ overconfidence in the systems. Therefore, it might be better for vehicles to have multimodal HMIs (Large et al., 2019) adaptive to not only the urgency of situations but also driver state by monitoring driver behavior and engagement in the primary task of driving. Application: The findings from this study may inform the development of HMIs, training programs, and owner’s manuals to reduce the unintended use of ADSs and safety consequences. The identified characteristics of situations where the ADSs failed to warn drivers during SCEs will further inform the development of testing scenarios to ensure ADS safety.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641262
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Does the Size-Arrival Effect Occur with an Active Collision- Avoidance
           Task in an Immersive 3D Virtual Reality Environment'
    • Authors: Patricia R. DeLucia, Adam M. Braly, Bria R. Savoy
      Pages: 1094 - 1094
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1094-1094, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641263
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Human-Centered Design of GRE Preparation Applications for Non-Native
           English Speakers
    • Authors: Matthew Martell, Yilun Xing, Xiaonan Sun, Ji-Eun Kim
      Pages: 1095 - 1099
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1095-1099, December 2020.
      The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) is a primary barrier to entry into US graduate programs for non-native English speakers. The goal of this study is to develop a GRE preparation mobile phone application for non-native English speakers through the human-centered design cycle. We conducted a Cognitive Task Analysis and Knowledge Audit for the Magoosh GRE App to identify the most difficult tasks while using the app. We proposed features to help with the most difficult tasks and implemented the most promising feature through iterative prototyping taking into account user feedback. Usability testing for the most recent prototype demonstrates the need for a GRE preparation app targeted at non-native English speakers. Results show that the additional functionality added in the prototype shows promise for assisting non-native English speakers in studying for the GRE.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641264
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Process Risks in Perioperative Medication Delivery
    • Authors: Sarah M. Coppola, Patience Osei, Ayse P. Gurses, Myrtede Alfred, David M. Neyans, Ken R. Catchpole, Anjali Joseph, Catherine D. Tobin, Joshua M. Biro, Maya Rucks, James H. Abernathy
      Pages: 1100 - 1100
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1100-1100, December 2020.
      One anesthesia provider is often responsible for prescribing, formulating, dispensing, administering, and documenting medications in the operating room. Unlike other hospital units, there are few safety interventions. Systems engineering approaches can provide important insights into improving patient safety during medication delivery processes (Kaplan et al., 2013; Reid et al., 2005). This study observed anesthesia medication delivery during 20 anesthetic cases in the OR and interviewed 10 anesthesia providers in a large midatlantic academic hospital using a Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) framework to identify process risk in perioperative medication delivery (Holden et al., 2013). Anesthesia attendings, fellows, residents, and certified resident nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) were sampled based on who was in the OR during observations and who volunteered for interviews. Interviews were transcribed and coded through a consensus procedure. The medication delivery process was described using a SEIPS-based process map. Tasks were separated based on the anesthesia phase, though the tasks and phases are not linear; e.g: a provider may prepare for the next case during the maintenance phase.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641265
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • After you: Merging at Highway On-Ramps
    • Authors: Tanja Stoll, Lucas Weihrauch, Martin Baumann
      Pages: 1105 - 1109
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1105-1109, December 2020.
      Vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication offer new possibilities for cooperatively interactive driving. It enables vehicles to carry out maneuvers cooperatively with other vehicles. However, these maneuvers have to be predictable and understandable to a human driver to prevent the driver from intervening with the automation. In a video-based study, we investigated potential influencing factors on the willingness to behave cooperatively in an on-ramp situation on a highway: the situation’s criticality for the lane-changing vehicle, the way the intention to change the lane was indicated and the scope of action. Moreover, we asked participants to rate their perceived criticality. Participants preferred to change lanes to the left or decelerate to let the other vehicle merge in front of them. If a lane change was not possible, participants rated the situation as more critical. These results are useful for the developing process of human-machine interfaces for cooperatively interacting vehicles.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641266
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • What’s the Difference' Reconciling Knowledge Structure Concepts to
           Aid AI Development for Human-Machine Teaming
    • Authors: Olivia B. Newton, Stephen M. Fiore
      Pages: 1110 - 1114
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1110-1114, December 2020.
      A significant challenge for the development of artificial social intelligence for effective human-machine teams is defining the forms of artificial knowledge structures needed for machine agents to meaningfully engage in collaboration. Relevant to this, individual and shared knowledge structure concepts have been proposed across a variety of disciplines, resulting in a lack of conceptual clarity and impeding their operationalization for human-machine teaming. To reconcile conceptual differences across disciplines and enable the emergence of complex socio-cognitive abilities in machine agents, research is needed to integrate theory on the knowledge structures that underpin complex cognition. Toward this end, we survey research from the cognitive and computational sciences to develop a framework for the systematic application and evaluation of knowledge structure concepts for machine agents in teams. Our approach focuses on contextual factors, specifically the task environment structure and the situation temporality, that can help guide knowledge structure requirements for artificial social intelligence.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641267
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Personality assessment as a measure of nonhuman mental capacities: A study
           in anthropomorphism
    • Authors: Briana M. Sobel, Valerie K. Sims
      Pages: 1115 - 1119
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1115-1119, December 2020.
      Humans often attribute a humanlike mind to a nonhuman to better understand its behavior in a process known as anthropomorphism. This paper seeks to use personality assessment as a measure of perceived humanlike mental capacities of computers. The relationship was further examined by comparing to assessments of a living counterpart, in this case pets. Participants were given a Big Five Personality inventory and asked to rate each item’s suitability to describe a person, a computer, or a pet. Results indicate that computers are seen for their intellectual similarity to humans while pets have a social and emotional similarity to humans. This research shows that measures of human mental characteristics, such as personality, can also be used to describe nonhumans. Researchers can now better understand the relationship between humans and the various nonhumans in their lives and use this to design more effective interactions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641268
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Sustainable Post-Occupancy Evaluation Survey (SPOES): An Approach to Human
           Factors in Minnesota State-funded Buildings
    • Pages: 1120 - 1124
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1120-1124, December 2020.
      An interdisciplinary team from the Interior Design (ID) and the Center for Sustainable Building Research (CSBR), University of Minnesota developed a tool to inform sustainable design practices in state-funded buildings. The internet-based questionnaire called Sustainable Post Occupancy Evaluation (SPOES) provides both quantitative and qualitative analysis of building occupants’ satisfaction, health, and wellbeing via 12 indoor environmental quality (IEQ) categories. Since 2009, SPOES has provided business and building owners, architects, interior designers, facility managers of 60 state-funded workplace, classroom and residence hall buildings IEQ scores of occupants’ satisfaction to help them better engage building occupants and bring employee health and wellbeing to the forefront of their practices. This presentation will cover the SPOES questionnaire and report formats, results from workplace, classroom, residence hall buildings, and implications for evaluating the impacts of building designs on occupants’ health and wellbeing.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641269
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Comparing Two Decision Support Modes Using the Cognitive Shadow Online
           Policy-Capturing System
    • Authors: Katherine Labonté, Daniel Lafond, Aren Hunter, Heather F. Neyedli, Sébastien Tremblay
      Pages: 1125 - 1129
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1125-1129, December 2020.
      The Cognitive Shadow is a prototype tool intended to support decision making by autonomously modeling human operators’ response pattern and providing online notifications to the operators about the decision they are expected to make in new situations. Since the system can be configured either in a reactive “shadowing” or a proactive “recommendation” mode, this study aimed to determine its most effective mode in terms of human and model accuracy, workload, and trust. Subjects participated in an aircraft threat evaluation simulation without decision support or while using either mode of the Cognitive Shadow. Whereas the recommendation mode had no advantage over the control condition, the shadowing mode led to higher human and model accuracy. These benefits were maintained even when the tool was unexpectedly removed. Neither mode influenced workload, and the initial lower trust rating in the shadowing mode faded quickly, making it the best overall configuration for the cognitive assistant.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641270
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Attention Allocation to Physically Separate Task and Situation Displays in
           a Command and Control Setting
    • Authors: H. Golan, A. Parush, E. Jaffe
      Pages: 1130 - 1134
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1130-1134, December 2020.
      Using a simulated Emergency Medical Services (EMS) dispatch center during multi-casualty incident management, this study explored whether the presence of a separate situation display in a Command and Control (C2) setting might require attention at the expense of attending an individual task display, and how it influenced performance and situational awareness. Overall, participants always attended the task display more than the situation display. However, the situation display drew attention at the expense of attending less the task display. The presence of the situation display was related to improved performance and better situational awareness (SA), particularly in the projection level of the SA, which could account also for the better decision-making performance. Participants may have developed an attention allocation strategy to effectively utilize the information of the situation display and execute their tasks on the task display.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641271
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Adaptation of Heuristic Evaluations for the Physical Environment
    • Authors: Roslyn Shanklin, Philip Kortum, Claudia Ziegler Acemyan
      Pages: 1135 - 1139
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1135-1139, December 2020.
      Previous work has investigated the need for domain specific heuristics. Nielsen’s ten heuristics offer a general list of principles, but those principles may not capture usability issues specific to a given interface. Studies have demonstrated methods to establish a domain specific heuristic set, but very little research has been conducted on interfaces in the physical environment, creating a gap in the state-of-the-art. The research described in this paper aims to address this gap by developing an environmental heuristic set; the heuristic set was developed specifically for the Houston light rail system, METRORail. Following development, the heuristic set was validated against Nielsen’s more general heuristics through several field studies. Results highlighted that there were significantly more usability issues identified when using the environment-based heuristics than the general heuristics. This suggests that domain specific heuristics provide a framework that allows evaluators to capture usability issues particular to the interface of the physical environment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641272
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Nursing’s Role in Translating Safe Communication Practices to
           Clinical Trial Management
    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Johnson, Jane M. Carrington, Jessica Rainbow
      Pages: 1140 - 1144
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1140-1144, December 2020.
      There is great emphasis on safety-related communication best practices in healthcare. However, little is known about safety-related communication within clinical trial management. Clinical trial participants are at greater risk for adverse events, injury, and trial withdrawal when seeking care outside of the trial when external providers are not aware of protocol constraints with care management. Nurses are traditionally the first providers to gather or denote importance on pertinent information when a participant seeks care. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2014 Minimum Information Model for Patient Safety and the SACCIA Safe Communication framework support identification of communication errors that place participants at risk. Implementation of these frameworks by providers can promote accuracy, clarity, context, and actionable decision-making that is in alignment to protocol mandated requirements for care. This paper reviews participant-nurse communication and provides recommendations for effective communication with clinical trial participants who seek care external to the trial.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641273
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Real-Time Gaze-Aware Cognitive Support System for Security Surveillance
    • Authors: Alexandre Marois, Daniel Lafond, Alexandre Williot, François Vachon, Sébastien Tremblay
      Pages: 1145 - 1149
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1145-1149, December 2020.
      Security surveillance entails many cognitive challenges (e.g., task interruption, vigilance decrements, cognitive overload). To help surveillance operators overcome these difficulties and perform more efficient visual search, gaze-based intelligent systems can be developed. The present study aimed at testing the impact of the Scantracker system—which pinpointed neglected cameras while detecting and correcting attentional tunneling and vigilance decrease—on human scanning behavior and surveillance performance. Participants took part in a surveillance simulation, monitoring cameras and searching for ongoing incidents, and half of them was supported by the Scantracker. Although behavioral surveillance performance was not improved, participants supported by the Scantracker showed more efficient gaze-based measures of surveillance. Moreover, some of these measures were associated with performance, suggesting that scan pattern improvements might lead indirectly to more efficient incident detection. Overall, these results speak to the potential of using gaze- aware intelligent systems to support surveillance operators.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641274
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • How Trust is Defined and its use in Human-Human and Human-Machine
           Interaction
    • Authors: A.D. Kaplan, T.T. Kessler, P.A. Hancock
      Pages: 1150 - 1154
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1150-1154, December 2020.
      Trust is a critical element in virtually all forms of interactions, including those between humans and machines. Yet aspects of trust do vary somewhat between definitions. The present work seeks to unify these disparate definitions of trust, comparing and contrasting between the major works. Overall, every definition of trust involves an individual in a position of vulnerability (the trustor) and a person on whom they must rely (the trustee) despite circumstances which may place the trustor in some kind of potential for harm. Such engagements are enacted in order to secure some form of gain from the trusting relationship. The ways in which these definitions influence empirical measurement (both qualitative and quantitative) are identified and elaborated on.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641275
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Stress Management and Air Traffic Control Trainees: Development and
           Evaluation of a New Training Course
    • Authors: Jamie D. Barrett, Brett Torrence, Michelle Bryant, Linda Pierce, Julia Buck
      Pages: 1155 - 1159
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1155-1159, December 2020.
      The primary mission of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is to maintain the safety of the National Airspace System (NAS). As part of this mission, the FAA is tasked with ensuring that future air traffic controllers are adequately trained to perform the high-risk job of directing air traffic. The FAA Academy curriculum for newly hired controllers involves 3-4 months of intensive lessons and performance assessments. It has been suggested that this training program is quite stressful, and successful trainees tend to be those who can better manage stress. To support ATC trainees, researchers at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) have conducted operational research to develop and evaluate a stress management training to help trainees manage their stress during training at the FAA Academy.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641276
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Rider Trust and the Role of the Operator in Automated Shuttles
    • Authors: Amanda E. Carriero, Kaedyn W. Crabtree, Joel M. Cooper, Blaine Leonard
      Pages: 1160 - 1164
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1160-1164, December 2020.
      Automated, low-speed shuttles are being deployed to help solve the first-mile/last-mile problem in several cities worldwide. To achieve full automation, each of the roles and responsibilities of the operator must be considered. This research aimed to address how increased ridership, abrupt emergency stops, and the operator influenced the development of trust in riders. Surveys and video footage were collected from riders, as well as the operator on-board. Results suggested that increased ridership with the shuttle predicts more positive experiences and confidence in the technology. However, riders that experienced one or more unexpected emergency stops during shuttle operation were less trusting of the technology. In addition, we found that the backup operator actively worked to foster rider trust. These findings suggest that several challenges will need to be addressed in order to develop and maintain rider trust in low speed automated shuttles when an operator is no longer present.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641277
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Immersive Learning Environments at Scale: Constraints and Opportunities
    • Authors: Robert F. Siegle, Rod D. Roscoe, Noah L. Schroeder, Scotty D. Craig
      Pages: 1165 - 1169
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1165-1169, December 2020.
      The expansion of online education into massive open online courses (MOOCs) and equipment have created a unique opportunity for delivering immersive learning experiences at scale. However, although the inclusivity of the MOOC ecosystem can be commended, many online courses lack key benefits associated with traditional classroom environments: immersive, engaging, and team-driven learning opportunities. Immersive learning environments (ILEs) address these educational gaps but has not been able to operate at the broad scale that MOOCs offer. Importantly, ILEs address opportunities missing from MOOC systems, they add unique learning opportunities that would also be missing in a traditional classroom. The inclusion of this virtual reality technology is pivotal topic for educational research. This theoretical paper will briefly define immersive learning environments and the potential benefits of incorporating immersive learning environments into scalable educational systems. We will also consider developers constraints on creating these online ecosystem and suggested strategies for overcoming them.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641278
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Robotic Assisted Surgery: The Gap Between Challenges And Solutions
    • Authors: Falisha Kanji, Kate Cohen, Tara Cohen, Myrtede Alfred, Daniel Shouhed, Jennifer Anger, Ken Catchpole
      Pages: 1170 - 1170
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1170-1170, December 2020.
      A roboticist by the name of Rodney Brooks once said, “the benefits of having robots could vastly outweigh the problems.” While this may be true, it is important to assess these problems and understand how they may be mitigated. The use of robots is growing in many industries and can be found in areas such as manufacturing, healthcare, agriculture, food preparation and national defense. Within healthcare, robots are commonly used in surgery to perform procedures such as sacrocolpopexies, prostatectomies, hysterectomies, hernia repairs and nephrectomies. The benefits of robotic-assisted surgery (RAS) are similar to laparoscopy and include decreased blood loss, faster recovery time, and shorter lengths of stay at the hospital. Unlike purely laparoscopic surgery, the robot provides wrist dexterity, allowing for more complex surgeries to be performed in a minimally invasive fashion by surgeons who may not have expertise in laparoscopy. However, recent reports have heightened challenges facing RAS operating room (OR) teams. Effects of the OR layout, team communication, team coordination, disruptions to workflow, and equipment malfunctions were among the issues observed in a variety of RAS procedures. Issues such as disruptions to the workflow trigger delays and inefficiencies, which in turn could affect patient safety and quality of care. As part of a wider study to implement and evaluate multiple interventions associated with improving efficiency and safety of RAS, a literature search was conducted to investigate issues experienced by the OR team in RAS and the interventions developed and tested to resolve these issues. The literature search excluded studies concerned with laparoscopic and open surgery; proficiency training; and articles that were not written in English. Commentaries, editorials, and abstracts were further excluded. At the conclusion of the literature search, 17 articles involving the implementation or evaluation of interventions surrounding RAS were evaluated and categorized based on the issues that were addressed. Seven articles discussed disruptions to the OR team’s workflow; five articles discussed issues with patient safety, surgical complications, or risk assessment; three papers discussed issues with teamwork; and the remaining articles discussed issues with communication, efficiency, cognitive load, and surgical performance. Despite the number of articles that were found to discuss issues in RAS, only four of the 17 articles implemented interventions. The interventions primarily included the use of checklists and nontechnical skills training. The scarce number of articles focusing on interventions aimed at improving the safety, quality, and efficiency of RAS demonstrates the wide gap that exists between known problems and potential solutions. As the number of robotic-assisted procedures continue to grow, it is important to improve OR team efficiency and patient care. The current study is part of a five-year, four-site study investigating the nature of issues that exist in RAS. The larger study will also design and implement interventions based on RAS observations conducted by the researchers in an effort to ensure that the benefits of robotic surgery truly do outweigh the existing problems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641279
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and
           Health to Measure Public Transportation Barriers among Older Adults
    • Authors: Patrik T. Schuler, Clive D’Souza
      Pages: 1171 - 1175
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1171-1175, December 2020.
      The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) is a universal framework used to classify human functioning in clinical and rehabilitative domains. The objective of this study was to examine the utility of the ICF as a framework to categorize and measure barriers to public transportation reported by older adults. ICF coding techniques were applied to sixty paratransit applications for analyzing user-reported barriers to public transportation. Paratransit users were divided into groups based on age (young old vs. oldest old) and ambulatory level (non- vs. ambulatory). Analysis identified 119 instances of user- reported environmental barriers ranging from technology requirements to system/service-based factors, though the prevalence of different barriers differed across groups. Overall, the methodology appears promising. Understanding the complex relationships between functioning and different transportation barriers experienced by specific sub-populations could help identify unmet transportation needs, generate precise research questions, and support the development of inclusive transportation technologies and systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641280
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Augmented Reality Procedure Assistance System for Operator Training and
           Simulation
    • Authors: Eugene Hayden, Kang Wang, Chengjie Wu, Shi Cao
      Pages: 1176 - 1180
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1176-1180, December 2020.
      This study explores the design, implementation, and evaluation of an Augmented Reality (AR) prototype that assists novice operators in performing procedural tasks in simulator environments. The prototype uses an optical see-through head-mounted display (OST HMD) in conjunction with a simulator display to supplement sequences of interactive visual and attention-guiding cues to the operator’s field of view. We used a 2x2 within-subject design to test two conditions: with/without AR-cues, each condition had a voice assistant and two procedural tasks (preflight and landing). An experiment examined twenty-six novice operators. The results demonstrated that augmented reality had benefits in terms of improved situation awareness and accuracy, however, it yielded longer task completion time by creating a speed-accuracy trade-off effect in favour of accuracy. No significant effect on mental workload is found. The results suggest that augmented reality systems have the potential to be used by a wider audience of operators.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641281
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effects of Audio Learning on Semi-Autonomous Driving Safety
    • Authors: Hung-Tao M. Chen, Megan Thomas
      Pages: 1181 - 1185
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1181-1185, December 2020.
      Semi-autonomous driving has been found to require less cognitive resources from drivers. It is not immediately clear if engaging in secondary tasks such as audio learning is safe in a semi-autonomous driving situation, especially considering the finding that semi-autonomous drivers tend to be less engaged. The current study investigated the effects of audio learning during a simulated semi-autonomous driving situation. Our results indicated that audio learning could delay warning message reaction time, and drivers had worse audio learning performance in a simulated semi-autonomous driving situation. Implications of current findings on driver safety, audio learning, and forensic practices are described in the discussion section.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641282
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Feedback Modalities in Brain–Computer Interfaces: A Systematic
           Review
    • Authors: Wakana Ishihara, Karen Moxon, Sheryl Ehrman, Mark Yarborough, Tina L. Panontin, Dan Nathan-Roberts
      Pages: 1186 - 1190
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1186-1190, December 2020.
      This systematic review addresses the plausibility of using novel feedback modalities for brain–computer interface (BCI) and attempts to identify the best feedback modality on the basis of the effectiveness or learning rate. Out of the chosen studies, it was found that 100% of studies tested visual feedback, 31.6% tested auditory feedback, 57.9% tested tactile feedback, and 21.1% tested proprioceptive feedback. Visual feedback was included in every study design because it was intrinsic to the response of the task (e.g. seeing a cursor move). However, when used alone, it was not very effective at improving accuracy or learning. Proprioceptive feedback was most successful at increasing the effectiveness of motor imagery BCI tasks involving neuroprosthetics. The use of auditory and tactile feedback resulted in mixed results. The limitations of this current study and further study recommendations are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641283
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Usability Testing for the Operation of a Mobile Robotic Telepresence
           System by Older Adults
    • Authors: Samuel Olatunji, Andre Potenza, Tal Oron-Gilad, Andrey Kiselev, Amy Loutfi, Yael Edan
      Pages: 1191 - 1195
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1191-1195, December 2020.
      Mobile robotic telepresence (MRP) systems feature a video conferencing interface on a mobile robot, enabling pilot users to remotely control the robot while communicating with a local user. For older adults in an assisted living facility, the operators are mostly caregivers or remote family members. This small-sample usability testing aimed to evaluate the use of MRP by the older adult. Participants navigated the robot to locations in the home, e.g., to check if the front-door is closed. Two levels of automation were introduced; assisted teleoperation and autonomous. Observations revealed that the older adults enjoyed the dexterity with which the robot could be teleoperated in the assisted teleoperation mode. Yet, they preferred the operation of the MRP at the autonomous mode where the robot navigated autonomously towards the locations the user indicated. Usability, preference and objective findings raise awareness regarding elder care assistive robot developmental factors. Future experimental plans are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641284
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effects of Individual Differences, Attention, and Memory Deficits on
           Driver Distraction
    • Authors: Alejandro A. Arca, Kaitlin M. Stanford, Mustapha Mouloua
      Pages: 1196 - 1201
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1196-1201, December 2020.
      The current study was designed to empirically examine the effects of individual differences in attention and memory deficits on driver distraction. Forty-eight participants consisting of 37 non-ADHD and 11 ADHD drivers were tested in a medium fidelity GE-ISIM driving simulator. All participants took part in a series of simulated driving scenarios involving both high and low traffic conditions in conjunction with completing a 20-Questions task either by text- message or phone-call. Measures of UFOV, simulated driving, heart rate variability, and subjective (NASA TLX) workload performance were recorded for each of the experimental tasks. It was hypothesized that ADHD diagnosis, type of cellular distraction, and traffic density would affect driving performance as measured by driving performance, workload assessment, and physiological measures. Preliminary results indicated that ADHD diagnosis, type of cellular distraction, and traffic density affected the performance of the secondary task. These results provide further evidence for the deleterious effects of cellphone use on driver distraction, especially for drivers who are diagnosed with attention-deficit and memory capacity deficits. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and directions for future research are also presented.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641285
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Examining Methods for Combining Speed and Accuracy in a Go/No-Go Vigilance
           Task
    • Authors: Shane T. Mueller, Lamia Alam, Gregory J. Funke, Anne Linja, Tauseef Ibne Mamun, Samantha L. Smith
      Pages: 1202 - 1206
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1202-1206, December 2020.
      In many human performance tasks, researchers assess performance by measuring both accuracy and response time. A number of theoretical and practical approaches have been proposed to obtain a single performance value that combines these measures, with varying degrees of success. In this report, we examine data from a common paradigm used in applied human factors assessment: a go/no-go vigilance task (Smith et al., 2019). We examined whether 12 different measures of performance were sensitive to the vigilance decrement induced by the design, and also examined how the different measures were correlated. Results suggest that most combined measures were slight improvements over accuracy or response time alone, with the most sensitive and representative result coming from the Linear Ballistic Accumulator model. Practical lessons for applying these measures are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641286
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effects of Break Schedule on Neck Muscle Fatigue
    • Authors: Sarker P., Norasi H., Koenig J., Hallbeck M.S., Mirka GA.
      Pages: 1207 - 1207
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1207-1207, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641287
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Understanding Human Movement Patterns within Cislunar Habitats
    • Authors: Harry Litaker, Omar Bekdash, Steve Chappell, Kara Beaton, Michael Gernhardt
      Pages: 1208 - 1212
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1208-1212, December 2020.
      In preparation for testing five Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) commercial cislunar habitat designs, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) embarked on a yearlong in-house training program. This consisted of in-house testing for subject matter experts (SMEs) and crew to informed and ensure evaluation data collection techniques for each of the contractor options. Many evaluation techniques were tested with some continuing forward. Two-test conditions were employed - 1) habitat centric functions with one space element and 2) distributed functions across two or more space elements. This paper will look at one of these techniques—human circulation patterns—to assess a spacecraft habitat’s internal configuration while the crew is working a three day simulated cislunar mission. Real time tracking of the crew was accomplished using the AllTraq© system of ultra- wideband frequency (UWB) receivers and radio frequency identification tags (RFID). Heat maps, Zone Time Histograms, Zone Time Utilizations Tables and Task/Time Density Tables were constructed from the collected data. Results indicated distributing functions across elements decreased crew interference and task wait times. Additionally, areas of underutilization were located, which lead to interior layout design changes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641288
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Assessing the Effect of Countdown Featured TOR Signal on Drivers in
           Automated Driving Mode Change
    • Authors: HyunJoo Park, HyunJae Park, Sang-Hwan Kim
      Pages: 1213 - 1217
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1213-1217, December 2020.
      In conditional automated driving, drivers may be required starting manual driving from automated driving mode after take-over request (TOR). The objective of the study was to investigate different TOR features for drivers to engage in manual driving effectively in terms of reaction time, preference, and situation awareness (SA). Five TOR features, including four features using countdown, were designed and evaluated, consisted of combinations of different modalities and codes. Results revealed the use of non-verbal sound cue (beep) yielded shorter reaction time while participants preferred verbal sound cue (speech). Drivers' SA was not different for TOR features, but the level of SA was affected by different aspects of SA. The results may provide insights into designing multimodal TOR along with drivers' behavior during take-over tasks.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:20:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641289
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Exploration of Human-Mediated Interruption Strategies via Spoken
           Information Removal
    • Authors: Savannah M. Seals, Nia Peters, Nina Pryor
      Pages: 1218 - 1222
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1218-1222, December 2020.
      Previous research from our laboratory which examined the impact of interruptions on performance in a collaborative communication task, found that interruptions from a synthetic agent, occurring either at fixed or random intervals, had a more deleterious effect on task performance than when interruption timing was determined by a human participant monitoring the communication task (Peters, Romigh, Bradley, & Raj, 2017). These results suggest that interruption times initiated by the human interrupters were more appropriate than the machine-generated ones; however, post-hoc analyses revealed no relation between interruption timing and language information prior to the human interruptions. Given these conflicting results and the demonstrated role of language information in other communication interactions, we aim to identify which spoken language components most motivate human interruption decisions, utilizing methods borrowed from the turn-taking literature (De Ruiter, Mitterer, & Enfield, 2006). Results indicate that listeners leverage prosodic and lexical information in making interruption decisions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641290
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Predictive Analytics for Chair Asset Management
    • Authors: Alison Heller- Ono
      Pages: 1223 - 1227
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1223-1227, December 2020.
      Once an ergonomic office chair is purchased in the workplace, it usually remains in circulation far beyond its acceptable life cycle and warranty. Older chairs present ergonomic and safety risks exposing employees to unnecessary musculoskeletal stress and strain resulting in injury exposure claims for the employer. This paper introduces a chair assessment methodology using predictive analytics to evaluate the quality and competency of an office ergonomic chair over time. Rather than relying solely on an employee’s subjective, biased opinion of chair quality or waiting for absolute failure; instead an objective, measurable rating scale is used to determine chair status. The Chair Assessment (software) System (CAS) provides an overall score indicating whether the chair should remain in use, be repaired or removed from circulation in a timely manner so it can be replaced. The Chair Assessment System is part of a furniture asset management system focused specifically on chair use-life cycle.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641291
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Bringing the Automation-Related Complacency Scale into the 21st Century
    • Pages: 1228 - 1232
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1228-1232, December 2020.
      Complacency potential is an important measure to avoid performance error, such as neglecting to detect a system failure. This study updates and expands upon Singh, Molloy, and Parasuraman’s 1993 Complacency-Potential Rating Scale (CPRS). We updated and expanded the CPRS questions to include technology commonly used today and how frequently the technology is used. The goal of our study was to update the scale, analyze for factor shifts and internal consistency, and to explore correlations between the individual values for each factor and the frequency of use questions. We hypothesized that the factors would not shift from the original and the revised CPRS’s four subscales. Our research found that the revised CPRS consisted of only three subscales with the following Cronbach’s Alpha values: Confidence: 0.599, Safety/Reliability: 0.534, and Trust: 0.201. Correlations between the subscales and the revised complacency-potential and the frequency of use questions are also discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641292
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effects of Auditory Cueing on Cadence and Gait Pattern
    • Authors: Andrei Carballo, Matthew Chang, Brian Hirmiz, Nicolette Lambright, Vivian Lee, Marla Lewis, Martin Nguyen, Matthew Gothong, Rahul Soangra
      Pages: 1233 - 1237
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1233-1237, December 2020.
      A large portion of the population participate in gait rehabilitation, especially those with conditions such as increased fall risk such as stroke, or Parkinson’s Disease. Some studies have shown that auditory cues help improve gait and reduce fall risk, but relationship with gait patterns is missing. In this study, eight participants walked at their preferred cadence and at increased and reduced cadence by 20%. We found that step length and step width were not significantly different in all walking conditions. Decreased cadence resulted in an increase of swing time, stance time, stride time, and stance to swing ratio, and a decrease in stride length. Increased cadence resulted in a decrease in stance time, stride time, swing time, and stance to swing ratio, and an increase in stride length. The results suggest there is a strong correlation between auditory cues and gait patterns that can improve rehabilitative processes in the future.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641293
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Attentional Control and Performance Across Increasing Degrees of
           Unreliable Automation
    • Pages: 1238 - 1241
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1238-1241, December 2020.
      Automation is becoming increasingly pervasive across various technological domains. As this trend continues, work must be done to understand how humans interact with these automated systems. However, individual differences can influence performance during these interactions, particularly as automation becomes more complex, potentially leaving operators out-of-the-loop. Much of the current research investigates the role of working memory and performance across low and high levels of unreliable automation. There is little work investigating the connection between other high-level cognitive processes such as attentional control and performance. Foroughi et al. (2019) found a positive correlation between attentional control and task performance. However, they only included a low-level form of automation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between attentional control and performance using increasing degrees of unreliable automation. Our results demonstrated a positive correlation between attentional control and performance using high-level unreliable automation.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641294
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Emotion Task Analysis: Proposing a Tool for the Assessment of Emotional
           Components in a Task
    • Authors: Aaron Crowson, Michael Wilkinson, Richard B. Wagner, Ragan Wilson, Doug Gillan
      Pages: 1242 - 1246
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1242-1246, December 2020.
      Emotion is critical to human experience and is an integral part of perception, cognition, and behavior. While the mechanisms and precise measurement of emotion has been debated in the literature, researchers have theorized that emotion is related to activation across physiological, experiential, and behavioral response systems. This has important implications in human factors research and practice. Just as the cognitive task analysis was proposed to be used in tandem with hierarchical task analyses to account for cognitive components of a task, the current paper proposes a method to account for emotional components of a task. The emotion task analysis is proposed for the purpose of explicating emotion from an individual. Specifically, in order to account for emotional load and/or processes elicited during a task and to be used in tandem with previously established task analyses by usability/user experience researchers and human factors practitioners.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641295
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Hand Posture and Force Estimation using Surface Electromyography and an
           Artificial Neural Network
    • Authors: Mengcheng Wang, Chuan Zhao, Alan Barr, Suihuai Yu, Jay Kapellusch, Carisa Harris Adamson
      Pages: 1247 - 1248
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1247-1248, December 2020.
      Prior epidemiological studies have shown that heavy hand exertion force and hand posture (grip versus pinch) are important risk factors for distal upper extremity disorders such as wrist tendinosis and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, quantifying the magnitude of hand exertions reliably and accurately is challenging and has relied heavily upon subjective worker or analyst observations. Prior studies have used electromyography (EMG) with machine learning models to estimate hand exertion but relatively few studies have assessed whether hand posture and exertion forces can be predicted at varying levels of force exertion, duty cycle and repetition rate. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop an approach to estimate hand posture (pinch versus grip) and hand exertion force using forearm surface electromyography (sEMG) and artificial neural networks.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641296
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Novices Perform Like Experts on a Closed Card Sort but Not an Open Card
           Sort
    • Authors: Ian Robertson, Philip Kortum, Frederick L. Oswald, Claudia Ziegler Acemyan
      Pages: 1249 - 1253
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1249-1253, December 2020.
      Developing good psychological measures benefits from the input of content experts. For many constructs or domains, however, who constitutes an ‘expert’ might be ill-defined. Novices—such as students, customers, or co-workers—may possess the same knowledge as experts. Moreover, as convenience samples, novices are more readily available and less costly. Card sorting is a technique frequently used in human factors to elicit expert knowledge. This study compared novice and expert performance on a card sort task under two conditions, an open sort and a closed sort. Because the closed sort offered a category structure for sorting, it was predicted and found that novices in the closed sort tended to match expert sorting results more closely than in the open sort. The structure also made novice solutions better approximate the expert open sort. This suggests that novices can be useful in the follow-up stage of measure development, but not in the initial stage.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641297
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • How Do Drivers Hold Their Phone' Age, Prevalence, & Handedness
    • Authors: Trey Roady, Kyle Wilson, Jonny Kuo, Michael G. Lenné
      Pages: 1254 - 1257
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1254-1257, December 2020.
      ObjectiveResearch shows frequent mobile phone use in vehicles but says little regarding how drivers hold their phone. This knowledge would inform countermeasures and benefit law enforcement in detecting phone use.Methods934 participants were surveyed over phone-use prevalence, handedness, traffic-direction, and where they held their device.ResultsThe majority (66%) reported using their phone while driving. Younger drivers were more likely to use their device. Of device-users, 67% preferred their passenger-side hand, 25% driver-side, and 8% both. Height- wise: 22% held in-lap, 52% even with the wheel, and 22% at wheel-top. Older drivers were more likely to hold the phone in the highest position The three most popular combinations were passenger-middle (35%), passenger-low (19%), and passenger-high (13.9%). There was insufficient evidence of differences based on handedness, prevalence, or traffic-direction.ConclusionDriver-preferred attention regions often require substantial neck flexion and eye-movement, which facilitates distraction detection. However, behavior may change in response to future interventions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641298
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Beyond the Vigilance End-Spurt with Event-Related Potentials
    • Authors: Megan B. Morris, Ashley R. Haubert, Glenn Gunzelmann
      Pages: 1258 - 1262
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1258-1262, December 2020.
      As task environments become more automated and operators become more passive monitors, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms of the vigilance decrement to help inform task development and interventions. Some vigilance studies have reported an end-spurt effect, where performance increases at the end of the task. This is commonly purported to be the result of increased resources from motivation or arousal; however, self-regulation of attentional resources throughout the vigil has not been addressed. To provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the vigilance decrement, we utilize event-related potentials to examine the vigilance decrement beyond the end-spurt. Thirty-two individuals aged 18 – 36 (M = 22.60; SD = 4.08) completed a vigilance task with an unknown end time while EEG data was collected. Results revealed non-monotonic trends in N1 and P3 components, suggesting that individuals might self-regulate resources during the vigil, adapting to the constraints of the task environment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641299
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Virtual Reality: History, Applications, and Challenges for Human Factors
           Research
    • Authors: Heather C. Lum, Lisa Jo Elliott, Faisal Aqlan, Richard Zhao
      Pages: 1263 - 1268
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1263-1268, December 2020.
      Research into the viability of virtual reality (VR) systems goes back nearly five decades. Even so, Human Factors researchers utilizing this type of technology are by most estimates still relatively rare in the field. The following paper focuses on how virtual reality technology is evolving into a viable tool during the research process. A brief background followed by an overview of the major terminology relating to VR is followed by human factors related applications for use. The paper concludes by discussing how VR can be used in education and specific research being conducted to examine metacognitive skills for engineering students.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641300
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Accuracy of Estimating Hand Location During Lifting Using Five Wearable
           Motion Sensors
    • Authors: Menekse S. Barim, Ming-Lun Lu, Shuo Feng, Grant Hughes, Marie Hayden, Dwight Werren
      Pages: 1269 - 1273
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1269-1273, December 2020.
      The purpose of this study was to assess two computation models for estimating the hand locations during lifting tasks using data from five inertial measurement units (IMUs) attached to five body segments. The first model computed the hand location with the IMU gyroscope data and the pre-defined ratios of body segment lengths. The second model used the same gyroscope information and all measured lengths of the body segments. The outcome measure of these models was the estimated hand location in 12 lifting zones defined by the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) for lifting. Motion data was collected with the wearable system and a laboratory-grade motion capture system on ten subjects that performed 12 two- handed lifting tasks representing the lifting zones. By including body segment measurements, the average accuracy of the model improved from 4 to 34%, suggesting that body segment information plays an important role in estimating the lifting zones.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641301
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Investigating drivers’ trust in autonomous vehicles’ decisions
           of lane changing events
    • Authors: Jackie Ayoub, Feng Zhou
      Pages: 1274 - 1278
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1274-1278, December 2020.
      It is potential to improve the interaction between autonomous vehicles (AVs) and drivers by calibrating drivers’ trust in AVs. In this study, we investigated drivers’ trust in AVs’ decisions of changing lanes on a six-lane highway. We derived the AV lane changing scenarios using a machine learning model. The scenarios were rated by 250 participants recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turks (AMTs) in a survey study. The study was designed as a mixed-subject design where the between-subject variable was the amount of information presented (i.e., 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 pieces of information) and the within-subject variable was the information display format (i.e., tabular or visual forms). The results showed that 1) mental demand was always lower in the visual display compared to the tabular one, 2) trust and risk seemed to be inversely proportional across conditions, and 3) 4, 5, or 6 pieces of information tended to be preferred better than others. These results provide design implications on calibrating trust in AV systems by involving the driver in the decision-making process.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641303
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Updates on NORA Musculoskeletal Health Cross-Sector Council Activities
    • Authors: David M. Rempel, Scott Schneider, Sean Gallagher, Sheree Gibson, Susan Kotowski, Ming- Lun Lu, Robert R. Fox, Ann Marie Dale, Gary Orr, Ninica Howard, Ben Zavitz, Blake McGowan, Steven Wurzelbacher, Kelsey McCoskey, Lida Orta-Anes
      Pages: 1279 - 1281
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1279-1281, December 2020.
      The National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) is a research framework for the nation and for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The NORA Musculoskeletal Health Cross-Sector (MUS) Council focuses on the mitigation of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Two projects have been chosen by the MUS Council for disseminating existing information on ergonomic assessment methods and interventions. The first project involves collaboration with the AIHA Ergonomics Committee on the latest update of the AIHA Ergonomic Assessment Toolkit. The second project aims to post all-industry information on ergonomic solutions/interventions/guidelines in collaboration with the International Ergonomics Association (IEA). The MUS Council plans on leveraging the collaborative efforts for promoting widespread adoption of evidence-based workplace practices for the prevention of WMSDs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641304
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Usability Challenges with EHRs During Pre-Rounding in the Pediatric Acute
           Care Department
    • Authors: Jawad Alami, Stephen Borowitz, Sara L. Riggs
      Pages: 1282 - 1286
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1282-1286, December 2020.
      Health providers heavily rely on Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems in the daily patient care. While EHRs have improved the quality of patient care, issues related to implementation and training with these systems have resulted in clinician frustration and burnout. The goal of this work is to identify usability issues related to the EHRs during the pre-rounding process. Residents in the Pediatric Acute Care Department completed questionnaires before and after the experimental portion of this study where they were assigned two patients to pre-round. The results showed several emerging themes of issues residents encounter that include access cost of finding certain types of information, added workload offloaded to the residents, and incomplete information while pre-rounding. This initial study shows that these usability issues have resulted in increased frustration among residents. Addressing these issues related to EHRs could streamline the pre-rounding process and reduce the workload of the clinicians.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641305
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Engineering Approach to Unintentional Firearm Discharges
    • Authors: Richard Stone, Fatima Mgaedeh, Colten Fales, Cong Xu, Gary Backous
      Pages: 1287 - 1291
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1287-1291, December 2020.
      Unintentional discharges (UDs) of a firearm had been a common phenomenon among law enforcement, increasing the number of injured police, and sometimes it’s fatal. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the trigger finger shelf device proposed by Sheepdog Knife and gun ergonomically and individual preferences. A total of 16 participants from the local Sheriff department participated in this study. The participants were run in pairs through a series of shooting drills testing a series of 8 weapons, including an AR-15, Remington 870, Glock 17, 1911 varying in distance, and several targets using an EMG and video recording to track their performance. Results showed that the use of the trigger shelf did not negatively impact the accuracy and performance of the participants. Also, the trigger shelf assists significantly in decreasing muscle activity. These findings prove that the existence of the trigger shelf does not affect the user’s performance, aiding users ergonomically, and it is a potential future design to help reduce the unintentional discharges.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641306
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Investigating the Effects of Interruptions and Reliable Cueing on Change
           Detection within Dynamic Scenes
    • Authors: Kimberly N. Perry, Mark W. Scerbo, Sarah A. Powers
      Pages: 1292 - 1296
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1292-1296, December 2020.
      The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of cuing and task interruptions on change detection within dynamic scenes. Undergraduate students watched 24 brief videos (12 containing interruptions) for anomalous feature changes appearing in 8 videos. Half of the object changes occurred during a visual occlusion, while the others contained no interruption. All videos were unique and depicted various dynamic scenes. Participants were assigned at random to one of three conditions containing cues to the changes (reliable, unreliable, or no cue). The results showed that more object changes were detected during uninterrupted vs. interrupted trials. More object changes were detected with reliable vs. unreliable cues for uninterrupted trials. Providing reliable cues had no benefit over the other conditions when interruptions were present. Overall, these results suggest that visual interruptions may degrade information stored in memory, which could compromise visual monitoring tasks.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641307
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Understanding Exercise Challenges and Barriers for Older Adults with
           Mobility Disabilities
    • Authors: Qiong Nie, Lyndsie M. Koon, Madina Khamzina, Wendy A. Rogers
      Pages: 1297 - 1301
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1297-1301, December 2020.
      Interventions to address exercise challenges in older people have been the focus of recent research, given the importance of exercise for health outcomes. However, exercise challenges for older adults with mobility disabilities have received little attention. We investigated participation of exercise among older adults with mobility disabilities to understand exercise barriers and challenges experienced by this population. We conducted a needs assessment using two archival datasets: a quantitative survey with 1,137 respondents and a qualitative in-depth interview with 23 participants. The quantitative evaluation revealed low participation of walking and less engagement of vigorous activities, and significant correlates of health status and lack of energy with vigorous activities. The in-depth interviews showed exercise challenges were attributed to difficulties with physical limitations, accessibility, and environmental limitations. Individuals with mobility disabilities may face unique challenges and barriers, affordable and effective supports to promote exercise engagement for them should be adapted to such needs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641308
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Exploring The Effect of Visual Information Degradation on Human Perception
           and Performance In A Human-Telerobot System
    • Authors: Richard Stone, Minglu Wang, Thomas Schnieders, Esraa Abdelall
      Pages: 1302 - 1307
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1302-1307, December 2020.
      Human-robotic interaction system are increasingly becoming integrated into industrial, commercial and emergency service agencies. It is critical that human operators understand and trust automation when these systems support and even make important decisions. The following study focused on human-in-loop telerobotic system performing a reconnaissance operation. Twenty-four subjects were divided into groups based on level of automation (Low-Level Automation (LLA), and High-Level Automation (HLA)). Results indicated a significant difference between low and high word level of control in hit rate when permanent error occurred. In the LLA group, the type of error had a significant effect on the hit rate. In general, the high level of automation was better than the low level of automation, especially if it was more reliable, suggesting that subjects in the HLA group could rely on the automatic implementation to perform the task more effectively and more accurately.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641310
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Exploring User Information Needs in Online Pet Adoption Profiles
    • Authors: Zoe M. Becerra, Sweta Parmar, Keenan May, Rachel E. Stuck
      Pages: 1308 - 1312
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1308-1312, December 2020.
      With the increase of online shopping, animal shelters can use websites to allow potential adopters to view adoptable animals and increase the number of adoptions. However, little research has evaluated the information needs of this user group. This study conducted a user needs analysis to determine the types of information potential adopters want when searching for a new pet, specifically a cat or dog. Twenty-six participants ranked different behavioral and physical characteristics based on the level of importance and identified their top five overall characteristics. In general, cat adopters ranked the cat’s personality and behavior to be very important and dog adopters found physical characteristics highly important. This study shows the importance of understanding potential adopters’ needs to provide relevant and valued information on online pet adoption profiles. The recommendations and insights can be used to develop pet profiles that meet adopters’ needs and help adopters find the right pet.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:26:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641311
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Some Characteristics of Mental Models of Advanced Driver Assistance
           Systems: A Semi-structured Interviews Approach
    • Authors: Michael A. Nees, Nithya Sharma, Karli Herwig
      Pages: 1313 - 1317
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1313-1317, December 2020.
      People construct mental models—internal cognitive representations—when they interact with dynamic systems. The introduction of automation in vehicles has raised concerns about potential negative consequences of inaccurate mental models, yet characteristics of mental models remain difficult to identify. A descriptive study used semi-structured interviews to explore mental models of advanced driver assistance systems (adaptive cruise control, lane keeping assist, and Level 2 systems). Results exposed shortcomings in drivers’ understandings of the hardware, software, and limitations of these systems and also suggested that mental models will affect behavior while using automation. Further, we found that mental models can be influenced by interface feedback (or lack thereof) and limitations experienced. Some drivers attributed purposeful design to aspects of the systems that likely were chosen idiosyncratically or arbitrarily. Our findings offered potentially useful avenues for future research on mental models of automation and corroborated concerns that inaccurate mental models may be common.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:26:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641314
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Differentiated Instruction further Realized through Teacher-Agent Teaming
    • Authors: Geoff Musick, Divine Maloney, Chris Flathmann, Nathan J. McNeese, Jamiahus Walton
      Pages: 1318 - 1322
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1318-1322, December 2020.
      Teacher-agent teams have the potential to increase instructional effectiveness in diverse classrooms. The agent can be trained on previous student assessment data to create a model for assessing student performance and provide instructional recommendations. We propose a conceptual model that outlines how assessment agents can be trained for and used in classrooms to create effective teacher-agent teams. Furthermore, we show how teacher-agent teams can assist in the implementation of differentiated instruction, a strategy which allows teachers to effectively instruct students of diverse backgrounds and understandings. Differentiated instruction is further realized by having an assessment agent focus on grading student work, providing feedback to students, categorizing students, and giving recommendations for instruction so that teachers can focus on providing individualized or small group instruction to diverse learners. This model maximizes the strengths of teachers, while minimizing the tedious tasks that teachers routinely perform.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:26:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641315
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Augmented Reality Applications in Support of Electrical Utility Operations
    • Authors: Angelia Sebok, Rita Mann, Terence Andre, Anders Gronstedt, Kerri Chik, Ian Cooley, Dustin Shell, Heather Anderson
      Pages: 1323 - 1327
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1323-1327, December 2020.
      The electric utilities industry is facing a potential crisis. As experienced workers are preparing to retire, new employees are being hired to take their place. These new workers lack the training and experience of the retiring workforce. This paper describes the potential use of Augmented Reality (AR) to address the challenges posed by this loss of expertise. The research effort investigated opportunities to use AR to improve knowledge transfer in the electric utilities industry.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:26:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641316
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Tread Patterns and the Effect on Basketball Player Slippage
    • Authors: Colten W. Fales, Richard T. Stone, Daniel Van Groningen, Braden Westby
      Pages: 1328 - 1332
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1328-1332, December 2020.
      The focus of this study was to investigate the effects that different basketball shoe outsole tread patterns have on the amount of slip and therefore the performance of the individual while undergoing normal basketball transitions. Tread grooves and patterns must exist on the outsole of a basketball shoe to account for the chances of contamination and for the practical durability of the shoes. With the existence of so many basketball shoes with varying tread patterns and characteristics it presents the question of whether or not varying patterns affect traction, slip, and athletic performance. This study evaluated the amount of slips of two pairs of basketball shoes with human participants running basketball drills on a hardwood basketball floor at Wartburg College. The results indicated that one shoe with a more unique tread pattern exhibited fewer slips and severe slips, especially when considering lateral movements, than the shoe with a tread pattern seen more often in shoes available on the market today.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:26:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641317
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Face-to-Face and Online Friendships: Examining Differences in Trust and
           Distrust Based on Modality
    • Authors: Andrew C. Griggs, Emily A. Rickel, Elizabeth H. Lazzara, Christina M. Frederick Embry-Riddle
      Pages: 1333 - 1337
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1333-1337, December 2020.
      There is growing concern that the quality and psychological benefits of online friendships are not comparable to their face-to-face counterparts. Trust is a key component of relationships and has been studied within the context of virtual relationships for decades. However, previous literature has not thoroughly explored differences in trust among online friendships and online gaming friendships specifically. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in trust and distrust in online friendships based on the relationship’s modality (face-to-face or online). We collected questionnaire responses from participants (n = 253) regarding characteristics of their friendships as well perceptions of trust and distrust within these relationships. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of covariance did not reveal statistically significant differences between trust and distrust as a function of friendship modality. We discuss these results in terms of theoretical and practical implications for modern friendships and offer recommendations for future research.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:26:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641318
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Extended Abstract: Exploring Sex Differences in the Role of Social Support
           on Vigilance Tasks
    • Authors: Allison E. Garibaldi, Grace E. Waldfogle, James L. Szalma
      Pages: 1338 - 1339
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1338-1339, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:26:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641319
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Evaluation Methodologies for Virtual Reality and Physical Test
           Environments for Spaceflight Design
    • Authors: Harry Litaker, Ron Archer, Brett Montoya, Robert Howard
      Pages: 1340 - 1344
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1340-1344, December 2020.
      NASA human factor design engineers wanted to examine if there would be any differences in testing low-fidelity conceptual designs in a physical environment compared to a virtual environment. An evaluation of two identical environments was conducted with subject matter experts (SMEs). Results indicated that when testing a design concept at this early stage, a high correlation between the two environments exists, meaning SMEs found little to no difference when evaluating a design in either a physical or a virtual environment. There are advantages and limitations to both environments. The virtual world gave the experts a better sense of the microgravity space and the relationships of space and human presence that are difficult to simulate in a 1-g physical environment. However, the interaction between human and mechanics is better enhanced in the physical world compared to the virtual world. These advantages and limitations of each environment are important; thus, at this early design life cycle phase, virtual reality shows great promise as an evaluation environment for testing early design concepts that will cost less, give more options, and increase designer’s time to design.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:26:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641320
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Mobile Environment for Developing User Situation Awareness (MEDUSA):
           Training for Healthcare Professionals
    • Authors: Steven J. Kass, Brian Eddy, Thomas Reichherzer, Jill Van Der Like, Dean Jones, Alexander King, Branden Mazour, Ryan McCourt
      Pages: 1345 - 1349
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1345-1349, December 2020.
      This paper describes the development of a mobile phone application (MEDUSA) for training situation awareness. MEDUSA was developed as a cost efficient form of on demand training to supplement other more costly, traditional forms of training such as simulation labs and live patient rounds. Users care for a simulated patient and are tested using a version of the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT). Users receive feedback on how many SAGAT queries they answered correctly and are provided tips on how to improve SA. Initial usability testing demonstrated strong support for the program among a sample of nursing students. Continued efforts are on-going in the design and testing of a teaching portal that allows trainers to easily create their own scenarios.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:26:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641321
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Where Two Ends Meet: Operator and Stakeholder Perceptions of Procedures
    • Authors: Anjelica M. Mendoza, Sin-Ning C. Liu, Stefan V. Dumlao, Joseph W. Hendricks, Changwon Son, Farzan Sasangohar, S. Camille Peres
      Pages: 1350 - 1354
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1350-1354, December 2020.
      The differences between ‘work as imagined’ (WAI) and ‘work as done’ (WAD) reflect theoretically pervasive and well-known barriers to the examination of human performance at work. Due to the dynamic and situational nature of work, the idealized performance reflected in procedures is not always done as prescribed. The identification and examination of this gap and the nature of these deviations are imperative for high-risk industries. The present study used conventional content analysis to compare stakeholders’ performance expectations to the realities of operator performance through interviews collected at a high-risk petrochemical producer. Direct comparisons of stakeholder and operator perspectives revealed divergent expectations of how procedures are used, when they’re most useful, and reasons why operators don’t utilize the procedure amendment process. These differences could be resolved through increased collaboration between stakeholders and operators. Future research should consider collaboration interventions to bridge the gap between WAI and WAD.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641322
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Impact of Perceived Agent Expertise on Trust in Computer Agent
           Recommendations
    • Authors: William H Sharp, Marc M. Sebrechts
      Pages: 1355 - 1359
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1355-1359, December 2020.
      Computer agents are frequently anthropomorphized, giving them appearances and responses similar to humans. Research has demonstrated that users tend to apply social norms and expectations to such computer agents, and that people interact with computer agents in a similar fashion as they would another human. Perceived expertise has been shown to affect trust in human-human relationships, but the literature investigating how this influences trust in computer agents is limited. The current study investigated the effect of computer agent perceived level of expertise and recommendation reliability on subjective (rated) and objective (compliance) trust during a pattern recognition task. Reliability of agent recommendations had a strong effect on both subjective and objective trust. Expert agents started with higher subjective trust, but showed less trust repair. Agent expertise had little impact on objective trust resiliency or repair.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641323
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Pink Elephants on the Road: Visual Illusions and Distortions when Driving
           during Significant Sleep Deprivation
    • Authors: Curtis M. Craig, Nichole L. Morris, Katelyn R. Schwieters, Conrad Iber
      Pages: 1360 - 1364
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1360-1364, December 2020.
      Visual hallucinations, illusions, and distortions have been observed in individuals undergoing severe periods of extended wakefulness. However, the incidence of these perceptual phenomena occurring during applied domains such as driving have been underreported. This study investigates effects of a 30-hour period of extended wakefulness during which participants abstained from stimulants and were not allowed to sleep or nap. Participants drove every 4 hours during this period on an uneventful 30-minute driving route in a fullcab high fidelity driving simulator. At the end of the study, participants reported whether they experienced significant visual illusions or distortions, and when the events occurred. Participants reported visual distortions and illusions during drives comprising a time period between 22 and 30 hours awake. Furthermore, self-reported mental workload and extroversion predicted the likelihood of experiencing the visual phenomena. Potential mechanisms for this relationship and possible consequences for safe driving performance during significant sleep deprivation are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641325
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Negotiating Time and Space: Investigating the Pediatric Code Cart
           Augmented Reality Application
    • Authors: Widya A. Ramadhani, Abigail R. Wooldridge, Jyotika Roychowdhury, Ashley Mitchell, Keith Hanson, Elsa Vazquez-Melendez, Harleena Kendhari, Nadia Shaikh, Teresa Riech, Matthew Mischler, Sara Krzyzaniak, Ginger Barton, Kyle T. Formella, Zachary R. Abbott, John N. Farmer, Rebecca Ebert-Allen, Trina Croland
      Pages: 1365 - 1366
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1365-1366, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641326
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Digital Home Assistants and Aging: Initial Perspectives from Novice Older
           Adult Users
    • Authors: Kenneth A. Blocker, Travis Kadylak, Lyndsie M. Koon, Christopher E. Kovac, Wendy A. Rogers
      Pages: 1367 - 1371
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1367-1371, December 2020.
      Digital home assistants like the Amazon Echo are increasing in popularity each year among the general population and provide assistance across a wide array of daily activities. Despite their general utility, they may be most useful for supporting older adults with the various challenges of aging. However, little is known about older adults’ opinions regarding these devices, which is necessary to encourage their adoption of these devices. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 18 older adult novice users to learn about their initial opinions regarding two digital home assistants, the Amazon Echo smart speaker and Echo Show smart display. Results revealed an overall trend of positive attitudes toward them and their capabilities, with a preference toward the Echo Show. These findings provided insights into older adults’ first impressions of digital home assistants, plus the foundation for investigating their potential in supporting older adults in maintaining functional independence.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641327
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Impact of Mental States on Semi-autonomous Driving Takeover
           Performance: A Systematic Review
    • Authors: Gaojian Huang, Christine Petersen, Brandon J. Pitts
      Pages: 1372 - 1376
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1372-1376, December 2020.
      Semi-autonomous vehicles still require drivers to occasionally resume manual control. However, drivers of these vehicles may have different mental states. For example, drivers may be engaged in non-driving related tasks or may exhibit mind wandering behavior. Also, monitoring monotonous driving environments can result in passive fatigue. Given the potential for different types of mental states to negatively affect takeover performance, it will be critical to highlight how mental states affect semi-autonomous takeover. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize the literature on mental states (such as distraction, fatigue, emotion) and takeover performance. This review focuses specifically on five fatigue studies. Overall, studies were too few to observe consistent findings, but some suggest that response times to takeover alerts and post-takeover performance may be affected by fatigue. Ultimately, this review may help researchers improve and develop real-time mental states monitoring systems for a wide range of application domains.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641328
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The accuracy of interrater reliability estimates found using a subset of
           the total data sample: A bootstrap analysis
    • Authors: Miriam E. Armstrong, McKenna K. Tornblad, Keith S. Jones
      Pages: 1377 - 1382
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1377-1382, December 2020.
      Interrater reliability (IRR) assesses the stability of a coding protocol over time and across coders. For practical reasons, it is often difficult to assess IRR for an entire dataset, so researchers sometimes calculate the IRR for a subset of the total data sample. The purpose of this study is to investigate the accuracy of such subset IRRs. Using bootstrapping, we determined the effects of sample size (10%, 25%, & 40% of the total dataset) and IRR measure type (percent agreement, Krippendorff’s alpha, & the G Index) on the bias and percent error of subset IRRs. Results support the use of calculating IRR from subsets of the total data sample, though we discuss how the accuracy of subset IRR values may depend on aspects of the dataset such as total sample size and coding methodology.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641329
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Cross-Cultural Difference in Product Preference in Consumer Review-Based
           Text Mining Methods: a Case Study on Smart Band
    • Authors: Cai Wang, Myung Hwan Yun
      Pages: 1383 - 1387
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1383-1387, December 2020.
      The aim of this study is to compare the cross-cultural differences in product preference among users from different countries, taking Mi band 3 as a case study. With the development of global market, more and more products and services are sold across the globe. Users from different cultures have different behaviors, cognitive styles, and value systems. Therefore, product should be designed to meet the needs and preferences of users from different cultural groups. Compared to traditional research method such as survey questionnaire or interview that requires variety of foreigners as participants, text mining methods from online reviews save much more cost and time. We collected review data from the following three websites: Naver of South Korea, Jingdong of China, and Amazon of the United States. Text mining methods including opinion mining, sentiment analysis, and semantic network analysis were performed. Firstly, product aspects were extracted from reviews according to word frequency. This indicates how much users are paying attention to different aspects of the product. Fine-grained sentiment analysis was conducted to find out customer satisfaction with different product aspects. Then, the words most associated with each product aspect were listed. Cluster analysis was conducted and the topic of each cluster was summarized. Lastly, cross-cultural difference among three countries from the results was observed and discussed. Though there exist similar issues in product preferences among South Korea, China, and the United States, cross-cultural differences about Mi band 3 are shown in many product aspects. The outcome can suggest implications for making strategies in product internationalization and product localization for the global marketing of smart band.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641330
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Head-Mounted Display Virtual Reality in Disease Treatment: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-analysis
    • Authors: Jiayin Chen, Zhenzhen Xie, Calvin Kalun Or
      Pages: 1388 - 1389
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1388-1389, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641331
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Interdisciplinary Human Factors Curricula for Individualized, Independent
           Study
    • Authors: Esa M. Rantanen, Hamza Khammash, James C. Hall
      Pages: 1390 - 1394
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1390-1394, December 2020.
      Education and career development of new generations of human factors professionals has rightly been a central concern the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society for many decades. There have been periodic surveys to track the changing employer expectations for new professionals, and there have been several panel discussion at the HFES Annual Meetings to address various issues in education of future professionals. There have been significant changes in academia, where many traditional disciplinary programs are declining and new interdisciplinary programs are emerging. These trends may present novel opportunities for education of the future human factors workforce. In this project we surveyed all courses in a university course catalog to identify courses that offer training, to varying degrees, in the Core Competencies as defined by the Board of Certification in Professional Ergonomics. These courses could form a basis for interdisciplinary programs in human factors without being confined in any particular department or existing program.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641332
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Gender Differences in Perceptions of Technology, Technology Readiness, and
           Spatial Cognition
    • Authors: Dawn G. Blasko, Heather C. Lum, John Campbell
      Pages: 1395 - 1399
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1395-1399, December 2020.
      With developments in new technologies such as mobile mapping and mixed reality (virtual and augmented reality), there is demand for insight into how individual differences influence technology readiness. We examined the influence of gender, perceived sense of direction, mental rotation, and navigation on the different aspects of technology readiness: discomfort, optimism, innovativeness, and insecurity. The results of an online questionnaire showed that women were equally optimistic about embracing technology. However, they rated themselves higher on discomfort and insecurity and lower on innovativeness. We also examined the perceived usefulness of navigation aids. For example, both men and women found mobile maps useful, but men found paper maps more useful than women. Women were more likely than men to feel that using Google Maps increased safety. Therefore, it is incorrect to say that women are less ready to embrace technology, rather it depends on its usefulness for the task at hand.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641333
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Proposing A Novel Method for Prevention and Intervention of Upper
           Respiratory Tract Infections (URTIs) with Assistance of Wearable Sensor
           Technology
    • Authors: Tianqi Gao Smith, Enzo Sacchetti, Mohammed A. Mahyoub
      Pages: 1400 - 1405
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1400-1405, December 2020.
      URTIs are a group of seasonal bacterial and viral infections. Symptoms related to URTIs are the number one cause of missed school and work (Keech et al., 1998). This proposed study would examine how wearable sensor technology and telehealth notifications may assist in preventing and expediting the recovery of URTIs. Participants of this study were divided into three groups of varying levels of wearable sensor technology and URTI telehealth notifications to measure health statistics and URTI prevention and treatment: No Device No Text – control with no Fitbit, Device No Text – Fitbit, and Device With Text – Fitbit with telehealth text notifications. The difference in frequency and longevity of URTIs as a result of group classification from this study may be observed. The results of this experiment could have implications on the future of telehealth as a relatively affordable and accessible aid in treating and monitoring patients facing common infections. This paper will serve as a framework for using wearable sensor technology and telehealth notifications in preventing and mitigating the effects of URTIs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641334
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Human-Machine Interfaces for Handover from Automated Driving Systems: A
           Literature Review
    • Authors: Richard L. Greatbatch, Hyungil Kim, Zachary R. Doerzaph, Robert Llaneras
      Pages: 1406 - 1410
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1406-1410, December 2020.
      New automated driving systems are constantly being developed and integrated into vehicles. At the current state of technology, these features still require drivers to monitor performance and resume control when required by the systems. To cue drivers to take control, a takeover request (TOR) is presented with auditory, visual, and haptic cues. To characterize current TOR practices, a literature review was conducted to review types of human-machine interfaces (HMI’s) and their associated message presentation. Twenty-six articles were identified after searching keywords across journal articles and conference proceedings. HMIs and message types were identified and classified. Results indicated that TORs are more commonly used as general alerts to gain driver attention to driving tasks, rather than to request drivers to engage in a specific action or explain context of the TOR. Literature suggests that future systems may focus more on not only alerting drivers but providing additional context to those alerts.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641335
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Visual Blood Loss Estimation Accuracy: Directions for Future Research
           Based on a Systematic Literature Review
    • Authors: Rachel Phillips, Marc Friberg, Mattias Lantz Cronqvist, Carl-Oscar Jonson, Erik Prytz
      Pages: 1411 - 1415
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1411-1415, December 2020.
      Visual blood loss estimation occurs in a variety of medical contexts and may impact everything from interventions by immediate responders to the likelihood of receiving blood transfusions in a hospital setting. However, research suggests that visual blood loss estimation is inaccurate for laypeople and medical professionals. The aim of the current study was to conduct a systematic literature review to determine the current state of knowledge on visual blood loss estimation accuracy and identify directions for future research. A structured search resulted in 1799 titles that were subsequently screened. A total of 72 articles were coded for comparison. Based on the evaluation, several gaps were identified, most notably related to factors of the situation that may influence estimation accuracy such as blood flow and victim/patient gender. Directions for future research are proposed based on identified gaps.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641337
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Surface Inclination Influences Fall Risk and Lower Extremity Joint Moments
           During Walking
    • Authors: Rachel Kling, Alex Chung, Courtney Cox, Emily Kimbro, Jim Grodzielanek, Stephen Ayres, Shireen Hosseini, Michael Shiraishi, Rahul Soangra
      Pages: 1416 - 1420
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1416-1420, December 2020.
      Falls present a large danger to the geriatric population, with one in three individuals over the age of 65 experiencing at least one fall annually. With most falls occurring while walking, the relationship between inclined walking and fall risk has not been fully explored. In this study, 16 healthy young participants (age: 26.8 ±5.4 years, height: 175.0±11.0 cm, weight: 68.2 ±19.9 kg) walked on a treadmill with level surface and 10 degrees incline/decline in a virtual environment laboratory. We found that gait parameters and lower extremity joint moments were affected by surface inclination. These observed changes in joint moments and gait parameters may present challenges to the older population especially with musculoskeletal disorders and thereby increase the risk of falls. This study offers new information on the effects of incline and decline surface walking compared to normal flat ground surface walking.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641338
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Assessing the Development of Operator Trust in Automation: A Longitudinal
           Study of an Autonomous Campus Shuttle
    • Authors: Margaret Fowler, Farzan Sasangohar, Bob Brydia
      Pages: 1421 - 1425
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1421-1425, December 2020.
      A large public tier-1 university hosted an autonomous vehicle on campus for a 12-week demonstration. Throughout the deployment, the vehicle was operated autonomously and used 5 safety operators from the student population to take over shuttle operations, as necessary. Daily and weekly surveys as well as pre-and post-study interviews were used to investigate how operators’ trust developed and changed over time as well as the relationship between trust and operational issues that varied in severity. Results revealed that there was not a significant relationship between trust and severity of operational issues. Trust levels appeared to remain relatively consistent before, during and after the deployment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641339
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Designing Human-Autonomy Teaming Experiments Through Reinforcement
           Learning
    • Authors: Beau Schelble, Lorenzo-Barberis Canonico, Nathan McNeese, Jack Carroll, Casey Hird
      Pages: 1426 - 1430
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1426-1430, December 2020.
      This paper creates and defines a framework for building and implementing human-autonomy teaming experiments that enable the utilization of modern reinforcement learning models. These models are used to train artificial agents to then interact alongside humans in a human-autonomy team. The framework was synthesized from experience gained redesigning a previously known and validated team task simulation environment known as NeoCITIES. Through this redesign, several important high-level distinctions were made that regarded both the artificial agent and the task simulation itself. The distinctions within the framework include gamification, access to high-performance computing, a proper reward function, an appropriate team task simulation, and customizability. This framework enables researchers to create experiments that are more usable for the human and more closely resemble real-world human-autonomy interactions. The framework also allows researchers to create veritable and robust experimental platforms meant to study human-autonomy teaming for years to come.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641340
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Reported Order of Importance Does not Predict Fixation Order when Viewing
           Driving Scenes
    • Authors: Anastasia Diamond, Alex Chaparro
      Pages: 1431 - 1435
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1431-1435, December 2020.
      Distracted driving and its negative effects on driving performance are well documented. Eye movement patterns of distracted drivers have also been studied, though insight into what the driver specifically looks at is not as well understood. Researchers have studied eye movement metrics like, eyes-off-road glance times, time-to-first-fixation, among others, over an entire drive, but not what the driver is looking at in a specific moment in time. The current study used eye tracking to investigate what objects and areas people looked at in driving scenes and what they reported they would look at later in the same scenes. The results suggest that people look where they say they would look, but not in the order they reported they would look. This finding demonstrates that participants may scrutinize scenes differently at various times, but attend to the same objects or areas, indicating an associated importance, semantic constraints, and relevance for driving.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641341
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Brief Review of Frequently Used Self-Report Measures of Trust in
           Automation
    • Authors: Spencer C. Kohn, Molly Kluck, Tyler Shaw
      Pages: 1436 - 1440
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1436-1440, December 2020.
      With the growing popularity of trust in automation research, there is a strong need for a review of which methods are used to measure trust in automation. This review catalogues the self-report methods commonly used to measure trust in automation, via publications found in the PsychINFO and ACM databases. The frequency of commonly deployed self-report scales are reported and the state of self-report measurement of trust in automation is discussed in brief.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641342
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Transportation Security Administration (TSA) Aptitude Alignment Job Role
           Study (JRS) for Travel Document Checker (TDC) Position
    • Authors: Kristopher Korbelak, Jeffrey Dressel, Emily Sanders, Jenny LaFreniere, Anson Carter
      Pages: 1441 - 1444
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1441-1444, December 2020.
      The current study investigated individual differences and their relationship to performance while fulfilling the Travel Document Checker job role at security screening checkpoints. It is part of a larger effort to understand variability in performance across different job roles that Transportation Security Officers (TSOs) routinely fulfill. Vigilance, task-focused coping and avoidance-focused coping explained the most variance in counterfeit detection. Future efforts should validate these findings and determine individual difference characteristics that are meaningful predictors of performance across other checkpoint job roles.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:25:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641343
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Ergonomic Redesign of the Coca Cola Freestyle Machine Graphical User
           Interface to Improve Accessibility
    • Authors: Rebecca Hannan, Samantha Laform, Kate Boyle, Samuel Danziger, Mohammed A. Mahyoub, Tianqi Gao Smith
      Pages: 1445 - 1450
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1445-1450, December 2020.
      The purpose of this research is to redesign the graphical user interface of the Coca Cola Freestyle machine to improve its usability for individuals with visual impairments. The proposed design included a feature to increase text and button size. Also, the drink selection process was reordered. In this study, the original display and the redesign were implemented on a touchscreen laptop to emulate the actual process. Ten subjects with normal and impaired vision were recruited respectively and were randomly assigned to complete a drink selection task in using either the “Original” GUI or a “Redesign” created by the authors (n=5).User feedback was collected and analyzed. The drink dispensing task completion time was recorded and analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey pairwise comparison. It was concluded that the original design was easier to navigate in terms of icon position, but the redesign was preferred because of its flexibility to change the text size.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641344
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Predicting the Cross-sectional Areas of Low Back Intervertebral Discs:
           Archived Medical Record Versus MRI Scans from Asymptomatic Subjects
    • Authors: Ruoliang Tang, Celal Gungor, Richard F. Sesek, Sean Gallagher, Gerard A. Davis, Kenneth Bo Foreman
      Pages: 1451 - 1455
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1451-1455, December 2020.
      Evidence suggests that biomechanical models should consider the variations in spinal geometry, particularly the geometry of the intervertebral discs (IVDs), to investigate the mechanism and pathogenesis of low back pain (LBP). Regression models, as a non-invasive and indirect method, have been developed using anthropometric variables to estimate the size of the IVDs, with two major sources of geometric data, archived medical record (AMR) from hospital database and samples of subjects asymptomatic of LBP (ASY). Unfortunately, there is a lack of comparison of model performance and validity between the two approaches. The objective of this study was to compare the two approaches of model development. Results from this study may help determine whether it is feasible and plausible to apply AMR-derived regression models to estimate the geometry of the low back IVDs and help develop more personalized workplace ergonomic assessments in industry.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641346
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Training Novices to Discriminate Retinal Diseases Using Perceptual
           Learning
    • Authors: Elnaz Amiri, Patty Sha, Evan M. Palmer
      Pages: 1456 - 1460
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1456-1460, December 2020.
      Perceptual learning refers to the enhanced ability of users to pick up information from a class of stimuli and is achieved through rapid, repeated stimulus exposure with feedback. Classifying optical coherence tomography images of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) scans as either the wet or dry subtype is an extremely difficult perceptual task that typically requires years of training. The purpose of this study was to develop techniques to quickly train users to classify AMD retinal scan images as wet or dry. To determine whether gamification techniques might aid perceptual learning, half of the participants received a gamified feedback during training while the other half received informational feedback only. Results demonstrated significant improvement in AMD image classification for both the gamified and non-gamified groups, even on retinal scans never encountered during training. Participants in the gamified group, however, had higher levels of intrinsic motivation for the task.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641347
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Rail Safety: Examining the Effect of Driving Experience and Type of
           Crossing on Safety Concerns
    • Authors: Anne Linja, Pasi Lautala, David Nelson, Elizabeth S. Veinott
      Pages: 1461 - 1465
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1461-1465, December 2020.
      Vehicle-train collisions at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings continue to be a safety concern and despite improvements in warnings, many of these incidents are attributed to human error. In some cases, distractions other than railroad traffic, such as nearby highway intersections, may create additional burdens for drivers’ decision making. In this study, we systematically examined safety concerns across two types of Highway-Rail Grade Crossings: non-short storage and short-storage. In a controlled experiment, 48 college-aged drivers viewed a series of driving scene images and identified, rated, and explained up to five safety concerns in each image. Participants reported more safety concerns and higher average severity of those concerns for short-storage rail crossings than non-short storage, but these findings did not depend on rural vs. urban driving experience. Content analysis of the 1,230 safety concerns using chi-squared analysis revealed differences in attention to dynamic safety concerns by rail crossing type, but not to static concerns.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641348
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Ergonomic Assessment of Low Back Loading Pattern During Occupational
           Lifting Task in a Lower Limb Amputee: Minimizing Injury Risk.
    • Authors: Chandrasekaran Jayaraman, Chaithanya K. Mummidisetty, Shenan Hoppe-Ludwig, Matthew McGuire, Arun Jayaraman
      Pages: 1466 - 1470
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1466-1470, December 2020.
      While the relationship between occupational task intensity and repetitive overuse injuries have been well studied and prescription/guidelines to assess and minimize risk of such injuries well established in the general healthy population, these aspects are not well understood in individuals with disabilities. In this practice-oriented paper, we use high a resolution sensor-data driven methodology to track muscle activation patterns and joint kinematics during a common lifting task in a unilateral lower limb amputee to gain a better understanding of the risk of injury during non-optimal lifting postures. The observed data from high resolution sensors are used to recommend optimized prosthetic device tuning. Further the participant specific low back compression loads calculated using Hand-Calculation Back Compressive Force estimation model (HCBCF) and the University of Michigan 3D Static Strength Prediction Program (3DSSPP™) model is used to identify the safe zones of joint loading during the lifting task.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641349
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Driver stopping behavior at stop-controlled intersections with sightline
           limitations
    • Authors: Branden S. Kolarik, Kyra B. Phillips, Jacqueline F. Zimmermann, David A. Krauss
      Pages: 1471 - 1475
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1471-1475, December 2020.
      Though drivers approaching a stop-sign-controlled intersection are legally required to stop at the limit line if one is present, it is well established that many drivers fail to do so. At many intersections, stopping at the limit line does not afford drivers a full view of approaching traffic, so drivers must travel past the limit line to overcome sightline obstructions including vegetation, buildings, or parked vehicles. In the present observational study, typical driver stopping/slowing behavior was studied via a camera placed at three stop-sign-controlled T-intersections. The presence of buildings at the corner of two intersections, obstructing drivers’ sightlines, explained variation in stopping behaviors across intersections. While drivers were more likely to stop at these two intersections, they reached a minimum speed further past the limit line. The findings support overcoming sight restrictions as one possible reason for the commonly observed behavior of drivers slowing or stopping beyond the limit line.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641350
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Examining Enhanced Learning Diagnostics in Virtual Reality Flight Trainers
    • Authors: Gregory McGowin, Zerong Xi, Olivia B. Newton, Gita Sukthankar, Stephen M. Fiore, Kevin Oden
      Pages: 1476 - 1480
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1476-1480, December 2020.
      As the complexity of aircraft cockpit operations increases, training effectiveness must be improved, and learning accelerated. Virtual reality (VR) training is increasingly offered as a method for improving training efficacy given its ability to provide a rich sensory experience during learning. This paper describes a study examining how training efficacy can be improved by improving learning diagnostics. We study how varying forms of knowledge assessment are related to different types of task knowledge and task performance in a VR flight simulator. The data suggest that participants who demonstrated higher training comprehension, measured via diagnostic test questions, on conceptual (and to a lesser effect) declarative knowledge, also demonstrated superior knowledge transfer in the VR flight simulator. Findings are discussed in the context of improving cognitively diagnostic assessments that are better able to predict task performance and inform individually tailored training remediation.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641351
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Exploring the Encoding Specificity Principle and Context-Dependent
           Recognition in Virtual Reality
    • Authors: Jason A. Parker, Alexandra D. Kaplan, William G. Volante, Julian Abich, Valerie K. Sims
      Pages: 1481 - 1485
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1481-1485, December 2020.
      A virtual reality (VR) training system’s effectiveness is determined by how well the knowledge-and skills-gained in the virtual environment transfers to real-world performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of virtual reality training by comparing semantic memorization in congruent (e.g., memorization task in VR and recognition task in VR) versus incongruent environments (e.g., memorization task in VR and recognition task in the real word). In the present study, we semi replicated Godden and Baddeley’s 1980 study on context-dependent recognition memory by using a photorealistic virtual reality environment in place of the underwater, scuba environment. Results revealed participants that learned semantic information in the virtual environment performed highly on the memory recognition task in the material, real-world environment (and vice versa). These findings replicate and extend Godden and Baddeley’s original results and provide evidence for the use of VR training to support semantic-based knowledge transfer.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641353
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Optimal Placement of Anti-Counterfeiting Indicators
    • Authors: Elizabeth K. Sterling, Doug Peterson
      Pages: 1486 - 1490
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1486-1490, December 2020.
      With the expansion of the internet, counterfeiting and the purchase of counterfeit goods has exploded. In spite of this, little to no research has been completed on whether or not anti-counterfeiting technologies on packages are noticed by consumers. This was an exploratory research study that examined where participants inspected product packages when specifically asked to look for authenticity cues. Participants were also asked to state what parts of the package made them feel confident in the genuineness of the product. The results found suggested that the participants in this study focused more on the words on the package. The participants did comment that they were specifically looking for spelling errors in the text. Further research is needed to continue to investigate if overt anti-counterfeit indicators are a good investment to help prevent consumers from accidentally purchasing counterfeit products.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641355
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Facilitating the Practice of Biofeedback Via Mobile Applications and
           Wearable Devices for Self-Management of Mental Health
    • Authors: Sudeep Hegde, Changwon Son, Carl Markert, Karim Zahed, Farzan Sasangohar
      Pages: 1491 - 1492
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1491-1492, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641356
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Joy in the Workplace: A Scoping Review of Positive Emotion and
           Electroencephalogram
    • Authors: Yaqoub Yusuf, Jodi Boutte’, Asante’ Lloyd, Emma Fortune, Renaldo C. Blocker
      Pages: 1493 - 1497
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1493-1497, December 2020.
      A workplace that is a conduit for positive emotions can be important to employees retention and can contribute optimal levels of productivity. Validated tools for examining emotions are primarily subjective and retrospective in nature. Recent advances in technology have led to more novel and passive ways of measuring emotions. Wearable sensors, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), are being explored to assess cognitive and physical burdens objectively and in real-time. Therefore, there exists a need to investigate and validate the use of EEG to examine emotions objectively and in real-time. In this paper, we conducted a scoping review of EEG to measure positive emotions and/or indicators of joy in the workplace. Our review results in 22 articles that employ EEG to study joy in occupational settings. Three major themes identified in the analysis include (1) EEG for symptoms detection and outcomes, (2) Populations studied using EEG, and (3) EEG electrode systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641357
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Look, Ma, no hands! A preliminary study of educational interventions aimed
           at setting realistic expectations of semi-autonomous vehicle technology
    • Authors: Shruti M. Amre, Kelly S. Steelman
      Pages: 1498 - 1502
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1498-1502, December 2020.
      Advanced driver-assist features are becoming fairly ubiquitous as more cars are equipped with features like autosteer and lane assist. While these features are primarily developed to promote driver safety, there are reports that drivers are not maintaining adequate supervisory control when the features are engaged. Vehicle technology branding, misinformation provided by dealership sales representatives, and even internet memes may be responsible for creating unrealistic expectations about the driver’s role when driving a semi-autonomous vehicle. In this experiment, we presented participants with a description of a fictitious semi-autonomous vehicle based off the Tesla Model 3 and one of two educational pieces based upon either the SAE levels of automation or an excerpt from an owner manual. We present the findings and discuss the implications for the development of educational interventions aimed at calibrating driver expectations about semi-autonomous vehicle technology and the role of the driver when using advanced driver-assist features.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641358
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Pre-Task Training for Vigilance Using a Video Game-Based Simulation Task
    • Authors: Nicolas Uszak, James L. Szalma
      Pages: 1503 - 1504
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1503-1504, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641359
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • For Whom the Tale’s Told: Towards a Multidimensional Model of Targeted
           Narrative Persuasion in Information Operations
    • Authors: Jihye Song, Stephen M. Fiore
      Pages: 1505 - 1509
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1505-1509, December 2020.
      The modern information environment provides an opportunity for cognitive engineering to inform the study of information operations, which involve strategic, often politically-motivated actions to manipulate a targeted audience. In this paper we integrate interdisciplinary theoretical concepts to provide a foundation for a model of persuasion in information operations. We identify sensemaking and framing as key processes and connect these to narrative and identity theories to illustrate how they can inform the study of the individual and the collective in modern sociotechnical systems. From this, we propose a model of narrative persuasion to guide research on social media information operations. Through this, we offer a set of research guidelines to demonstrate how this can serve as a foundation for empirical work blending quantitative and qualitative methods. In this way, we show how cognitive and computational sciences can be blended in support of fundamental and applied research in information operations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641360
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Integrating Electronic Performance Monitoring with Digital Procedure
           Systems: Considerations and Psychological Outcomes
    • Authors: Anjelica M. Mendoza, Stefan V. Dumlao
      Pages: 1510 - 1510
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1510-1510, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641361
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Validating Human Performance Models: Building a House without Bricks
    • Authors: Richard Steinberg, Raytheon Company, Alice Diggs, Raytheon Company, Jade Driggs
      Pages: 1511 - 1514
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1511-1514, December 2020.
      Verification and validation (V&V) for human performance models (HPMs) can be likened to building a house with no bricks, since it is difficult to obtain metrics to validate a model when the system is still in development. HPMs are effective for performing trade-offs between the human system designs factors including number of operators needed, the role of automated tasks versus operator tasks, and member task responsibilities required to operate a system. On a recent government contract, our team used a human performance model to provide additional analysis beyond traditional trade studies. Our team verified the contractually mandated staff size for using the system. This task demanded that the model have sufficient fidelity to provide information for high confidence staffing decisions. It required a method for verifying and validating the model and its results to ensure that it accurately reflected the real world. The situation caused a dilemma because there was no actual system to gather real data to use to validate the model. It is a challenge to validate human performance models, since they support design decisions prior to system. For example, crew models are typically inform the design, staffing needs, and the requirements for each operator’s user interface prior to development. This paper discusses a successful case study for how our team met the V&V challenges with the US Air Force model accreditation authority and successfully accredited our human performance model with enough fidelity for requirements testing on an Air Force Command and Control program.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641362
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Judging Intentionality in Ambiguous Driving Scenarios: Did they do that to
           Me or just a Mistake'
    • Authors: Yi-Ching Lee
      Pages: 1515 - 1519
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1515-1519, December 2020.
      Aggressive driving is a significant traffic safety issue. Some groups of drivers have been identified as the perpetrators and victims of aggressive driving: males, younger individuals, and individuals with high trait aggression. Even though many personal and contextual factors are relevant, the mechanisms behind the origin of aggressive driving are less defined. Judgment of intentionality, as part of an attributional process, has had some success in highlighting the connection among the cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors behind aggressive driving. This study focused on comparing gender-based attributions of ambiguous traffic situations and found that the affective component played a significant role in the judgment of intentionality. However, there were additional predictors for males. The findings highlight the importance of having a more forgiving attitude when interacting with other road users.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641363
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Beauty and the Beastly Search: Finding Luxury in a Product Hierarchy
    • Authors: Carmen Branje, Alisha Yang, Mark Chignell
      Pages: 1520 - 1524
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1520-1524, December 2020.
      There has been considerable research on design of menu hierarchies in general spanning several decades. However there is much less research on menus relating to specific types of product in online retail settings. Thus there is little guidance in the research literature on specific issues such as how to place luxury items within a beauty product hierarchy, which is the focus of this paper. We report on a study that addressed this problem for an ecommerce site associated with a large Canadian retailer. In a within subjects design, participants searched for four beauty-related products (two of which were classed as “luxury” items) either in a hierarchy where luxury items were intermingled with other products addressing the same need (the “Combined” condition), or in a hierarchy where there was a split between luxury and non-luxury products at the top level (the “Split” condition). Segregating luxury products in the product hierarchy was found to lead to significantly slower, and more lengthy (in terms of links traversed), searches. Searches were found to be more efficient in the “Combined” condition than the “Split” Condition both when searching for luxury items, and when searching for non-luxury items. This work has implications for existing brick-and-mortar retailers moving into or expanding e-commerce portals. Our results suggest that the separation of luxury from non-luxury items in bricks-and-mortar stores does not transfer well to online product hierarchies, where similar segregation leads to poorer digital navigation performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641364
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Driver Response Times to Side Road Path Intrusions from SHRP-2
           Naturalistic Database
    • Authors: Swaroop Dinakar, Jeffrey Muttart, Jeffrey Suway, J.S. Forensics, Jim Marr, Darlene Edewaard, Alexander Enes
      Pages: 1525 - 1529
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1525-1529, December 2020.
      In an age where all major manufacturers are trying to get a better understanding of when an emergency response should be triggered, it becomes imperative to learn how humans respond to emergency events. If one can understand driver behavior, systems can be designed around the user to either assist drivers where they fail to perform well or completely eliminate them from the accident avoidance maneuver. In this study, 169 crash and near crash events from the SHRP2 dataset were analyzed. The response behavior of drivers was measured in events where the through drivers’ path was intruded upon by another vehicle perpendicular to its path. Overall, drivers responded significantly faster when the other vehicle failed to stop, and at intersection locations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:24:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641365
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Evaluation of Seat-Comfort, Body Discomfort and Seat Vibration
           Performance in a Dynamic Testing Environment
    • Authors: Jeong Ho Kim, Wu Pan-Zagorski, Missy A Pereny, Peter W Johnson
      Pages: 1530 - 1531
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1530-1531, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641366
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Mental Workload of Novel, Simulated Advanced Driver Assistance Systems
           (Adas) Use
    • Pages: 1532 - 1536
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1532-1536, December 2020.
      Driving automation is intended to improve safety while minimizing driver mental workload. Misunderstanding among drivers and inconsistencies among manufacturers regarding the nuanced functionalities and limitations of ADAS hinder this goal. Violation of driver expectations about how an ADAS performs, particularly during critical moments, could inadvertently increase workload at critical times. The aim of the present study was to assess mental workload, indexed by the P300 event-related potential (ERP) as drivers engaged novel driving automation features. P300 amplitude indicated significantly higher workload when monitoring two versus one ADAS components.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641367
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Evaluating the Utility of Human Readiness Levels (HRLs) with Human System
           Integration Assessments (HSIAs)
    • Authors: Holly A. H. Handley, Pamela Savage-Knepshield
      Pages: 1537 - 1540
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1537-1540, December 2020.
      An industry-wide Human Readiness Level (HRL) working group was established to revisit and mature previous work conducted on establishing an HRL scale. A releasable and generalizable set of HRLs, including the questions to be answered at each level and the corresponding exit criteria, has been completed and is currently being verified through a variety of case studies. The objective of this research is to describe the current state of the HRL scale and apply it to a program of record to determine its corresponding HRL based on the findings of its Human System Integration Assessment (HSIA). The HSIA documents potential or known issues that could impede or prevent the users’ ability to operate, maintain, and sustain the system. Three HSIAs for the program are analyzed at different acquisition milestones to determine whether the HRL accurately captures the HSI issues for the developing system.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641368
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A depth camera-based full-body reconstruction method for body pose
           training in occupational safety
    • Authors: Li Li, Ken Chen, Karen Chen, Xu Xu*
      Pages: 1541 - 1545
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1541-1545, December 2020.
      Occupational injuries have high incidence rates across various industries. Safety education is a key component to effectively reduce work-related injuries. Posture training for work safety is widely adopted to increase the awareness of unsafe movements at work and to evaluate workers to minimize work-related musculoskeletal stresses. However, existing one-size-fits-all pamphlet-based posture training is facing challenges in its effectiveness. In recent years, the substantial technological development in virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) has made immersive and personalized education possible. For VR/AR-assisted posture training, full-body reconstruction from multiple point clouds is the key step. In this study, we propose a fast and coarse method to reconstruct the full-body pose of safety instructors using multiple low-cost depth cameras. The reconstructed body images from depth cameras are registered through iterative closet point algorithm. The reconstructed full-body pose can be further rendered in VR/AR environments for next-generation safety education.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641369
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Does One Bad Machine Spoil the Bunch': A Review of Trust in
           Multiple-Component Systems
    • Authors: Jeremy Lopez, Richard Pak
      Pages: 1546 - 1550
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1546-1550, December 2020.
      Human-automation interactions are rapidly transitioning from single-component automated systems to multiple-component systems. The human-automation literature has yet to adequately explore trust within multiple-component systems. A currently unanswered question is whether one faulty component causes an operator to lose trust in that one component (Component-Specific Trust; CST) or in every component in the system (System-Wide Trust; SWT). The goals of this paper were to 1) summarize the current work on trust in multiple-component systems, and 2) identify any trends that emerge during the literature review. We reviewed 17 experimental studies that tested whether operators tend to adopt CST or SWT under different conditions. Overall, most studies suggest that operators adopt SWT. However, studies that provided the operator with high decisional freedom and more time with the automated systems suggest that CST is the dominant strategy. Future work should explicitly test these and other variables that may promote users to adopt CST.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641370
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Spatial Ability Stress Test for Screening and Selection: The Development
           of SCOUT-R
    • Authors: Noelle L. Brown, Ciara Sibley, Cyrus K. Foroughi, Joseph T. Coyne, Nathan Herdener, Henry Phillips, Kenneth King
      Pages: 1551 - 1555
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1551-1555, December 2020.
      Spatial abilities are often predictive of occupational success. Specifically, they are thought to play a role in aviator success and thus, are evaluated in Naval and Air Force aviation selection. However, the selection process only includes a single assessment of spatial ability which recent findings have called into question its validity. The creation of a speeded spatial ability stress test with face validity for the Navy and Marine Corps aviation community was investigated. We developed SCOUT-R, a multitask environment where participants quickly discriminated target objects from distractors, all of which could appear in any 90° orientation. The results showed the speeded presentation affected subjective workload and task strategy; however, target discrimination improved as the speed of presentation increased. The implications for SCOUT-R as a spatial ability selection test are considered.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641371
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Does a New Version of the Direction Orientation Task Measure Spatial
           Ability'
    • Authors: Jacqueline Sweet, Joseph Coyne, Nathan Herdener, Anthony J. Ries
      Pages: 1556 - 1560
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1556-1560, December 2020.
      The US Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps use the direction orientation task (DOT) to assess spatial ability of potential pilots. However, recent research has shown limitations with the current implementation of the DOT, as well as an earlier candidate replacement the DOT 2. Specifically, there is evidence to suggest that the use of a math strategy and math ability may be related to performance on both tasks. The focus of the current paper is on the evaluation of a revised version of the DOT task (DOT 2.5) designed to encourage the use of spatial solutions by removing the numerical values from the task. We compared the performance of DOT 2.5 with previously validated measures of spatial ability, namely the paper folding and block rotation tasks. We also asked participants how often they employed different strategies on the task (e.g., a spatial strategy or mathematical one). Our results show the DOT 2.5 is significantly related to spatial ability as measured with block rotation. However, while participants were three times more likely to use a spatial strategy on the task, only the use of a math strategy was related to improved performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641372
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Enacting into Reality: Using User Enactment to Explore the Future of
           Autonomous Vehicle Design
    • Authors: Earl W. Huff, Mengyuan Zhang, Julian Brinkley
      Pages: 1561 - 1565
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1561-1565, December 2020.
      Self-driving vehicles have been heralded as a dramatic new advancement in personal mobility. This emerging technology, beyond potentially improving driving safety, also represents a redefined relationship between the human driver and the vehicle. As this artificial intelligence-based vehicular technology becomes more intelligent, conventional interaction design methodologies may be challenged in their ability to fully encompass this redefined relationship. This problem may be even more pronounced for specific populations like older adults (60+) whose perspectives, we argue, have been underexplored in the self-driving vehicle context. Within this report we describe an emerging methodology, user enactment, and explore its use as a generative design process in two studies focused on older adults. This work adds additional support to the contention that user enactment may be an effective methodological tool for researchers in exploring the relationship between humans and intelligent technologies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641373
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Dear Diary: Conducting Diary Studies with Participants with Visual
           Impairments
    • Authors: Earl W. Huff, Kwajo Boateng, Julian Brinkley
      Pages: 1566 - 1570
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1566-1570, December 2020.
      Within this report we critically reflect on our experiences using a diary study used to understand the use of social networking sites (SNS) by persons with a visual impairment. We elaborate on the development of the data collection process and the challenges involved in retrieving the data from the participants. Feedback from the participants during post-study interviews revealed that most participants were indifferent to the methods for submitting the diary entries and did not find it a challenge. Most of the participants found the process to be a positive experience for self-awareness of their social media use while reporting little to no adverse effects of carrying out the study. Lastly, we provide reflections and lessons learned from the process.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641374
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Observations on the Field of UX Research
    • Authors: Rochelle Edwards, Bridget Huber, Olga Kramarova
      Pages: 1571 - 1575
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1571-1575, December 2020.
      Five observations on human factors and ergonomics are compared to user experience (UX) research. This paper highlights similarities and differences to the original reflections made by Salas (2008) and goes deeper into where user experience research as a field has room to grow, particularly, by maintaining a closer connection to its roots in psychology and human factors. This is important as applied user experience researchers work to make an impact and grow their careers through credibility and rigor of work. User experience researchers of varying tenure and those considering entering the field may benefit from reflecting on where they find such patterns in their own roles and what solutions should be proposed (whether internalized, institutional, or systemic).
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641375
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Embedded Versus Horizontal UX Research Teams: Which May Best Suit You'
    • Authors: Olga Kramarova, Ryle Scribner, Yodit Tefera, Bridget Huber, Tina Tseng, Rochelle Edwards
      Pages: 1576 - 1580
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1576-1580, December 2020.
      This paper explores the two most common user experience research team structures found in industry. The first is a horizontal research team that operates like an internal consultancy to support research across the organization. This structure is great for researchers that are looking to work with a strong community of researchers, have exposure to multiple methodologies, and impact the broader organization. Alternatively, an embedded research team model consists of a researcher supporting a specific product or feature. This model is great for researchers looking to work across the product lifecycle and build closer relationships with cross-functional stakeholders.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641376
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Factors influencing users’ perceived value of Electronic Health
           Record Patient Portals
    • Authors: Rong Yin, David M. Neyens, Katherine E. Law
      Pages: 1581 - 1585
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1581-1585, December 2020.
      Patient portals are websites or apps where patients can access their health information from their Electronic Health Records (EHR). This study was conducted via an online survey to identify what factors influence an EHR patient portal user to believe that the portal is a valuable part of their health care. In total 395 survey responses were included in a logistic regression model. Our results suggest that only 24.1% of our survey responders consider their EHR portals as a valuable part of their health care. Participants who are more likely to consider EHR portals as valuable were those who found EHR portals useful for information, trusted their portal; believed their portals were important in managing health, those who believed their portals were easy to use, and those who developed a habit of using their portals. This study contributes to the understanding of what factors support the perceived value of EHR portals.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641377
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Computer Vision Algorithm to Identify High Force Exertions
    • Authors: Hamed Asadi, Guoyang Zhou, Vaneet Aggarwal, Denny Yu
      Pages: 1586 - 1586
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1586-1586, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641378
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Knowledge and Experience in Video Game Play: Understanding Individual
           Differences and Mental Model Transfer Across Game Genres
    • Pages: 1587 - 1591
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1587-1591, December 2020.
      Research suggests that a variety of factors can alter video game play-from usability to aesthetics to expertise. An important developing area for human factors research is understanding how individual differences may influence interactions with video games, but the field lacks adequate methods for evaluating and classifying differences. This paper provides a notional framework for characterizing one critical individual difference in video game play, that of knowledge differences arising from player experience. This framework attends to common video game genres and mechanics and is illustrated using two distinct video games: Minecraft and Ark. The purpose is to highlight the sorts of knowledge making up player mental models and show how to identify the form of transferable individual differences that can be measured and improve research on video game development and use.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641379
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Preventing Drowsy Driving Crashes Among Night Shift Nurses: An Evaluation
           of Educational and Technological Interventions
    • Authors: Alec Smith, Anthony McDonald, Farzan Sasangohar, Lenis Sosa, Lorelie Lazaro, Christine Ouko
      Pages: 1592 - 1593
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1592-1593, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641380
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Performance and workload comparisons between 2-D and 3-D auditory
           vigilance displays
    • Authors: Eric T. Greenlee, Lucas J. Hess, Brian D. Simpson, Victor S. Finomore
      Pages: 1594 - 1594
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1594-1594, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641381
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Exploring the Effect of Virtual Robot Acceleration on Perceived
           Competitiveness/ Cooperativeness, Animacy, and Intelligence
    • Authors: Jordan Sasser, Fernando Montalvo, Rhyse Bendell, P. A. Hancock, Daniel S. McConnell
      Pages: 1595 - 1599
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1595-1599, December 2020.
      Prior research has indicated that perception of acceleration may be a direct process. This direct process may be conceptually linked to the ecological approach to visual perception and a further extension of direct social perception. The present study examines the effects of perception of acceleration in virtual reality on participants’ perceived attributes (perceived intelligence and animacy) of a virtual human-like robot agent and perceived agent competitive/cooperativeness. Perceptual judgments were collected after experiencing one of the five different conditions dependent on the participant’s acceleration: mirrored acceleration, faster acceleration, slowed acceleration, varied acceleration resulting in a win, and varied acceleration resulting in a loss. Participants experienced each condition twice in a counterbalanced fashion. The focus of the experiment was to determine whether different accelerations influenced perceptual judgments of the observers. Results suggest that faster acceleration was perceived as more competitive and slower acceleration was reported as low in animacy and perceived intelligence.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641382
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Movement Strategies in Virtual Reality: The Influence of Effort Costs and
           Target Depth
    • Authors: Logan D. Clark, Sara L. Riggs
      Pages: 1600 - 1604
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1600-1604, December 2020.
      Kinematic analysis of users’ movement trajectories can reveal strategic movement biases; however, it is unclear if these strategic behaviors also occur in virtual reality (VR). To examine this question, we adapted a task from previous laboratory studies to examine strategic biases in movement behavior in VR. Twelve participants moved to targets positioned in one of two directions along the x-, y-, or z-axis in a VR inter-face, and trajectory profiles were derived and parsed to identify kinematic milestones. Results showed that users achieved similar task completion times across all conditions but used different strategies to select targets at different locations. These findings confirm that users can adapt their movement behaviors to optimize movement performance in VR and highlight how the constraints imposed by VR environments alter users’ movement strategies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641385
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Extended Abstract: The Role of Choice and Rest Break Length in A Vigilance
           Task
    • Authors: Grace E. Waldfogle, Allison E Garibaldi, Israel Castellanos, James L. Szalma
      Pages: 1605 - 1606
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1605-1606, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641386
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Evaluating Impacts of Head Worn Displays on Teamwork in Emergency
           Response: Review of Challenges for the Field
    • Authors: Thomas J. Davidson, Penelope M. Sanderson
      Pages: 1607 - 1607
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1607-1607, December 2020.
      Head Worn Displays (HWDs) are increasingly used to support mobile workers across diverse domains. However, little is known about how HWDs affect teamwork in safety-critical contexts. We conducted a narrative review examining the effects of HWDs on teamwork performance and team processes of situation awareness, communication, and coordination for emergency response. HWDs appear to improve the quality of team performance but increase time to perform under some conditions; effects on team processes are also mixed. It is difficult to compare results across studies due to the diverse technologies, contexts, and measures used. Successful design, evaluation, and deployment of HWDs in emergency response contexts may require a stronger foundation of theory-driven and process-based research. Perspectives such as joint cognitive systems, distributed cognition, and common ground may help researchers uncover mechanisms by which HWDs shape teamwork processes and how team processes affect team performance over time.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:23:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641387
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Experience with Varied Levels of Automation Influences User Response Speed
    • Authors: Lori Mahoney, Joseph W. Houpt
      Pages: 1608 - 1612
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1608-1612, December 2020.
      When presenting an automated aid to a user, there is variation in how much a human or the automation is involved in making and acting on the decision. Level of automation describes the balance between human and computer in making decisions and selecting actions. In this study, we presented subjects with a speeded length-judgment task at two different levels of automation, manipulating the order of the automation level between subjects. We found a significant effect that subjects who were presented first with the condition where the automated aid allowed them to directly select a response (i.e., lower automation level) responded faster in later trials when then presented with the condition where the automated aid required them to agree or disagree with the aid’s response (i.e., higher automation level). This effect was not found when the higher level of automation was presented first.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641388
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • How Can Head Worn Displays and Tablet Computers Affect Co-located Work: A
           Laboratory-Based Exploratory Study
    • Authors: Isaac S. Salisbury, Felicity Burgmann, Penelope M. Sanderson
      Pages: 1613 - 1613
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1613-1613, December 2020.
      Head-worn displays (HWDs) have shown promise for supporting workers in a range of contexts due to their ability to provide live ‘heads up and hands free’ information. However, in many work environments co-located workers may need to collaborate and communicate about the tasks that they are engaged with, and this may be difficult when information is presented privately on a HWD. The current study explored a laboratory-based dual-task game for evaluating how presenting task-relevant information HWDs versus tablet computers can affect the process of collaborative and mobile work. We found no effects of display type on performance, perhaps because ten of the twelve participating dyads allocated tasks in a way that minimised the need to communicate about the displayed information. We suggest that future research focusses on specific features of HWDs, and/or how representative teams adapt to the constraints of HWDs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641389
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Vigilance Decrement: A Dynamical Systems Perspective
    • Authors: Michael T. Tolston, Eric T. Greenlee, Gregory J. Funke
      Pages: 1614 - 1614
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1614-1614, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641390
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Modeling the Interaction with Automated Vehicles in Road Bottleneck
           Scenarios
    • Authors: Michael Rettenmaier, Klaus Bengler
      Pages: 1615 - 1619
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1615-1619, December 2020.
      An important factor for designing the interaction of automated vehicles (AVs) with surrounding road users is the capability of the human communication partner, especially the perception, processing and response. As these processes need time, there is a latest moment the AV has to define its communication strategy. The present work analyzes the situation when an AV negotiates the right of way to a simultaneously oncoming human driver in a road bottleneck scenario. We modeled the sequence of human tasks when perceiving and processing the AV’s information and the time needed to respond to it. The interaction model results in a latest moment after which a comfortable interaction can no longer be initiated. Comparing the model with the data of an underlying study indicates the appropriate modeling of the time required for communication. A later start of communication leads to inefficient traffic flow and worse subjective ratings of the AV’s communication.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641391
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Measuring Driver’s Perceived Workload Using Fractal Dimension of
           Pupil Dilation
    • Authors: Jung Hyup Kim, Xiaonan Yang
      Pages: 1620 - 1624
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1620-1624, December 2020.
      Many physiological measures have been proposed for quantifying the workload in a driving environment. Among them, pupillary response has been identified as an effective workload indicator that can be measured less intrusively and without disrupting the worker’s ongoing activities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the fractal dimension of pupil dilation (FDPD) to measure perceived workload in a driving simulation environment. For the experiment, two different driving scenarios were developed and tested by using the OpenDS driving simulator. The results demonstrate that one of the scenarios shows a significant negative correlation between FDPD and the perceived workload outcome from NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) questionnaires.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641392
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Drivers’ Gaze Behaviors are Influenced by Vehicle Position
    • Authors: Yuki Okafuji, Takahiro Wada, Toshihito Sugiura, Kazuomi Murakami, Hiroyuki Ishida
      Pages: 1625 - 1629
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1625-1629, December 2020.
      Drivers’ gaze behaviors in naturalistic and simulated driving tasks have been investigated for decades. Many studies focus on driving environment to explain a driver’s gaze. However, if there is a great need to use compensatory steering for lane-keeping, drivers could preferentially acquire information directly required for the task. Therefore, we assumed that a driver’s gaze behavior was influenced not only by the environment but also the vehicle position, especially the lateral position. To verify our hypothesis, we carried out a long-time driving simulator experiment, and the gaze behaviors of two participating drivers were analyzed. Results showed that gaze behavior—the fixation distance and the lateral deviation of the fixation—was influenced by the lateral deviation of the vehicle. Consequently, we discussed processes that determined drivers’ gaze behaviors.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641393
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Driver Vigilance in Automated and Manual Driving
    • Authors: David C. Newton, Eric T. Greenlee, Patricia R. DeLucia
      Pages: 1630 - 1630
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1630-1630, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641394
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • What Can Eye Tracking Reveal About Situation Awareness' A Systematic
           Review
    • Authors: Nade Liang, Jing Yang, Ting Zhang, Brandon Pitts, Denny Yu
      Pages: 1631 - 1631
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1631-1631, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641395
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A new perspective on CMS – testing the effect of camera displacement in
           a realistic lane-change task
    • Pages: 1632 - 1633
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1632-1633, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:21:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641396
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Method to Create Perceptually Uniform Color Gradients with Optimized Color
           Differences between each Step for Data Visualization
    • Authors: Derek Millard, Bradley M. Davis, Samineh C. Gillmore
      Pages: 1634 - 1638
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1634-1638, December 2020.
      This paper presents an original method to create optimized color differences between each step of a CIELAB perceptually uniform color gradient. The relevant equations for the necessary color space transformations are discussed, along with the procedure to determine and optimize the color differences between each gradient step. A specific implementation for perceptually uniform color gradients is discussed for safe terrain clearance in manned aviation during a degraded visual environment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641397
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Color-Coded Map Overlay Augmentation for Unmanned Vehicle Sensor
           Management
    • Authors: Jacob Ehrenstrom, Gloria Calhoun, Elizabeth Frost, Jessica Bartik, Anna Lee Van Abel, Kyle Behymer, Heath Ruff
      Pages: 1639 - 1643
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1639-1643, December 2020.
      Four color-coded overlays that augment a tactical map were evaluated as candidates for multi-unmanned vehicle (UV) sensor management by a single operator. Each overlay provided six levels of temporal information to indicate how long ago each map location had been viewed by a UV. Twelve participants completed 140 trials, each trial posing a question to be answered by retrieving spatial-temporal information from static map overlays. The accuracy of the participants’ answers significantly differed as a function of overlay type. Suggestions for overlay design and future research methodology are provided.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641398
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Dynamic Ensembles versus Cones of Uncertainty: Visualizations to Support
           Understanding of Uncertainty in Hurricane Forecasts
    • Authors: Jessica K. Witt, Benjamin A. Clegg, Christopher D. Wickens, C.A.P. Smith, Emily L. Laitin, Amelia C. Warden
      Pages: 1644 - 1648
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1644-1648, December 2020.
      Visualizations attempt to convey the uncertain track of an approaching hurricane. The current experiment contrasted decision characteristics that resulted from observing hurricane paths presented using cones of uncertainty versus a new form of dynamic ensemble. Participants made judgments about whether to evacuate a town at different eccentricities to the central predicted path of a storm. Results showed that dynamic ensembles have different properties to cone displays. Presentations of dynamic ensembles encouraged greater consideration of evacuation at locations further from the most probable path, but that were still at risk. However, dynamic ensembles resulted in lower evacuation rates at the center of the distribution, consistent with a probabilistic sense of the risk but nonetheless a potentially undesirable strategy. In addition, perceptions of the evacuation need with dynamic ensemble presentations were more strongly influenced by the amount of variability than with cones. The implications for use of dynamic ensembles are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:22:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641399
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Does a change in modality mitigate the vigilance decrement'
    • Authors: Tiffany G. Lui, Patricia R. DeLucia, Eric T. Greenlee
      Pages: 1649 - 1649
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1649-1649, December 2020.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:26:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641400
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Fitting Regression Lines to Scatterplots: The Role of Perceptual
           Heuristics
    • Authors: Douglas J. Gillan
      Pages: 1650 - 1654
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1650-1654, December 2020.
      Relations in data are described and analyzed by fitting a regression line to the data. The graphical equivalent is a line fit to a scatterplot, typically via the least squares fit. How do people visually fit a line or recognize the best fitting line for a scatterplot' The present research proposes that people use a set of perceptual heuristics – point capture, early point, balancing points and balancing distances. Experiments 1 and 2A found that participants with no training in regression drew a line and chose the best fitting line, respectively, using those heuristics, especially balancing points. The application of the heuristics was sensitive to the structure of the graphs and influenced the error in drawing the regression line. Participants in Experiment 2B who had received formal training in regression were less likely to apply the heuristics and more likely to choose a line based on the least squares fit. The discussion focuses on the value of cognitive/perceptual analyses of graph reading and proposes methods to help people overcome biases produced by the application of these perceptual heuristics.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:26:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641401
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • HFACS Analysis of U.S. General Aviation Accidents Using Bayesian Network
    • Authors: Chuyang Yang, John H. Mott
      Pages: 1655 - 1659
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1655-1659, December 2020.
      Safety is one of the most important factors that affects the sustainable development of the aviation industry. With the increasing robustness of technologies, humans have played a progressively more important causal role in aviation accidents. This paper applies an HFACS-BN model (HFACS: Human Factors Analysis and Classification System; BN: Bayesian Network) to analyze the root causes of aviation accidents. General aviation (GA) accident reports were collected from the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident database. The authors encoded the human factors of sample cases based on the HFACS framework and constructed a corresponding BN. From this work, parameter estimation associated with a conditional probability table (CPT) was conducted to determine prior probabilities of contributing factors, and a sensitivity test was conducted to determine the most significant factors. This study provides guidance to the federal government to facilitate risk management in order to reduce fatal general aviation accidents.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:26:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641403
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Framework for Analyzing Residential Fire Outcomes in Homes with
           Operative Smoke Alarms
    • Authors: Natalie V. Motta-Mena, Christy Cloninger, Genevieve M. Nauhaus
      Pages: 1660 - 1664
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1660-1664, December 2020.
      Operative smoke alarms have been shown to be effective in reducing home-fire fatalities, but there remain incidents in which injuries and death occur despite the presence of a working smoke alarm. The present work presents a scientifically-guided framework for evaluating the outcomes of such incidents from the perspective of human factors and, specifically, the warnings communication process. It considers the roles of environmental, individual, and situational factors in occupants’ detection, noticing, and processing of smoke alarms, as well as the behaviors produced in response. Such factors include the acoustic environment in which the alarm sounds, the occupants’ cognitive state and focus of attention, the occupants’ developmental and physical abilities, and the situational circumstances in which a response is chosen and executed. The synthesis of these findings provides one methodology for understanding real-world outcomes of fires, as well as informing development and evaluation of countermeasures for improving residential fire fatality rates.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:26:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641404
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Battery-Related Injuries in Children and Adults
    • Authors: Jacqueline Zimmermann, Danielle King, Caroline Crump
      Pages: 1665 - 1670
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1665-1670, December 2020.
      The aim of the current study was to analyze the circumstances behind battery injuries, including the mode of injuries experienced (e.g., a shock or consumption), as well as the battery types and products most frequently involved in battery injuries. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), a probability sample of US hospitals that collects information from emergency room (ER) visits related to a consumer product, was utilized. Injury data from the NEISS database was coded to identify a) the accident mode that led to the injury, b) the battery type involved, and c) the product that was powered by the battery or charger, if available. The data revealed that battery-related injuries were most often associated with (1) children consuming button cell batteries associated with toys and other household objects, and (2) adults becoming burned when handling vehicle batteries. Surprisingly, injuries associated with rechargeable batteries were the least frequent; however, when burns occurred, they were predominantly related to e- cigarettes, as well as vehicles. Results are discussed in terms of general exposure to specific battery types and products analyzing these battery types within each age group.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:26:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181320641405
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Enhancing Safety in the Security and Alarm Monitoring Industry: A Case
           Study in the Development of Job Hazard Analyses
    • Authors: Polly A. College, Ellen J. Bass
      Pages: 1671 - 1675
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 1671-1675, December 2020.
      Job hazard analysis is a process of identifying potential hazards for each task within an activity and enacting safety rules to eliminate or control the hazards. No studies have been published regarding their use in the security industry. Technicians working in the industry face safety challenges due to the hazards inherent in their work environments