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  Subjects -> AERONAUTICS AND SPACE FLIGHT (Total: 124 journals)
Showing 1 - 30 of 30 Journals sorted by number of followers
AIAA Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1002)
SpaceNews     Free   (Followers: 779)
Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 702)
Journal of Propulsion and Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 569)
Aviation Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 411)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 306)
Advances in Space Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 295)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 281)
Journal of Aircraft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 263)
IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 251)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 220)
Gyroscopy and Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165)
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139)
Space Science International     Open Access   (Followers: 117)
Space Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 89)
International Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 86)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Aerospace     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Space Safety Magazine     Free   (Followers: 50)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Space Research Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
International Journal of Aeroacoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Aerospace Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Space Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
CEAS Aeronautical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Russian Aeronautics (Iz VUZ)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Aerospace Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Aerospace Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Artificial Satellites     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Fatigue of Aircraft Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Space Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Frontiers in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Space Structures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Chinese Journal of Aeronautics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Satellite Communications Policy and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Aerospace Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aviation     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Airline and Airport Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the Astronautical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Space Technology Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Population Space and Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Aeronautical Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aeronautical Journal, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American Helicopter Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Aviation Technology, Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Space Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aerospace technic and technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aviation in Focus - Journal of Aeronautical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
New Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Space and Polity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : Journal of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Civil Aviation High Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Air Medical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
RocketSTEM     Free   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Aviation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Astrobiology & Outreach     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Life Sciences in Space Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Aviation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cosmic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spatial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of KONBiN     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Astrodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Unmanned Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transport and Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Aerospace Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Problemy Mechatroniki. Uzbrojenie, lotnictwo, inżynieria bezpieczeństwa / Problems of Mechatronics. Armament, Aviation, Safety Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Microgravity Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Australasian Society of Aerospace Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
npj Microgravity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASTRA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
MAD - Magazine of Aviation Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia y Poder Aéreo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal on Miniaturization for Air and Space Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Perspectives of Earth and Space Scientists i     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigación Pecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transactions on Aerospace Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Вісник Національного Авіаційного Університету     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science and Education : Scientific Publication of BMSTU     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spatial Information Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Xibei Gongye Daxue Xuebao / Journal of Northwestern Polytechnical University     Open Access  
Mekanika : Jurnal Teknik Mesin i     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1541-9312
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Tele-Technology Evaluation and User Testing with Persons Aging with
           Long-Term Mobility Disabilities

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Xian Wu, Tracy L. Mitzner, Rebecca C. Thomas, Emma C. Drobina, Wendy A. Rogers, Jenay M. Beer
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1-5, September 2021.
      Persons aging with mobility disabilities are at risk of social isolation, which is associated with negative health outcomes. Tele-technology is well-suited for supporting social connectedness by facilitating communication using two-way audio/video. However, the software and hardware requirements of tele-technology for this population are not well understood. The goal of this research was to 1) assess the usability of teletechnologies for this population, and 2) identify design recommendations for improving their usability of tele-technology. We conducted two studies: a heuristic evaluation to compare tele-technology design to usability standards, and a usability study with persons aging with long-term mobility disabilities. The following usability issues emerged: hardware limitations related to the size of technology and height adjustability; interface issues, such as system navigation; and network and privacy concerns. We conclude that there is a need for design improvement and design recommendations were proposed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651167
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Socially Assistive Robots for Dementia Care: Exploring Caregiver
           Perceptions of Use Cases and Acceptance

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Xian Wu, Anne E. Adams, Jane C. Komsky, Sarah E. Saint, Taylor E. Mackin, Jason P. Zamer, Daniel S. Hedin, Robert J. Dahlstrom, Jenay M. Beer
      Pages: 6 - 10
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 6-10, September 2021.
      As the older population increases, the number of persons living with dementia (PWD) will increase as well. Yet, at the same time, there are fewer health care professionals per care recipient. To address the rising demand on healthcare professionals and informal care partners of PWD, socially assistive robots (SARs) can potentially facilitate care provision. It is crucial to understand the divergent tasks of these two caregiver groups so that the SAR’s intervention can meet each group’s needs. This qualitative study investigated and compared both caregiver groups’ acceptance of a SAR. Six use cases involving a SAR (NAO, SoftBank) were demonstrated to both caregiver groups (N=20 persons). Both groups expressed willingness to adopt such technology and found that it could be useful in dementia care. However, participants’ perceptions varied by task. Results indicate that healthcare professionals focused more on the assistive aspects, whereas care partners focused more on the social aspects of the SAR.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651192
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Somatosensory Impairments, Falls History and Fear of Falling in Glaucoma -
           A Survey Study Approach

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Caitlin O’Connell, Gadi Wollstein, Ian P. Conner, Mark S. Redfern, Kevin C. Chan, Susan L. Whitney, Rakie Cham
      Pages: 11 - 15
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 11-15, September 2021.
      The primary aim was to determine if somatosensory impairments alter the association between falls history and glaucoma severity. A secondary aim was to identify the activities of daily living that cause increased concern related to falling in glaucoma and their association with glaucoma severity. Established questionnaires about falls and fear of falling (FoF) were mailed to participants diagnosed with glaucoma. Ninety-eight participants responded. Self-reported feet numbness and tingling symptoms were used to determine the presence of somatosensory impairments. Self-reported falls in glaucoma are associated with visual field deficits in both eyes, particularly in the presence of somatosensory impairments. In addition, increased FoF levels are linked with worse visual field deficits in both eyes, especially when performing challenging walking tasks. Somatosensory impairments alter the relationship between falls risk and visual field deficits in glaucoma. This information may be helpful in identifying older workers at an increased risk of falling.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651273
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Developing an Integrated Virtual Assistant (IVA): Feasibility of a
           Behavior Tracking and Reminder Prototype Solution to Assist Persons with
           Dementia and Their Care Partners

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Bailey Collette, Jessica Shotwell, Adam Shepherd, Karen Shepherd, Lisa M. Renzi-Hammond, Jenay M. Beer
      Pages: 16 - 20
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 16-20, September 2021.
      The number of people living with Alzheimer’s and related dementias is increasing worldwide. Much of the care that persons with dementia receive is from informal, family care partners, and solutions that help support the dyad are needed. The purpose of this study was to design and test the feasibility of an application that can track behavior and provide reminders for persons with cognitive impairment or dementia and their care partners. Participants (N=20) included ten family care partners and ten persons with mild cognitive impairment. Participants engaged in a presentation of the application user interface (UI) and accompanying care reports that aggregate data collected by the software. Reactions to the UI and care reports were generally positive, with most participants expressing they would find the application useful. Qualitative themes were identified based on improving the application and care reports’ usability. Overall, results support utilizing this technology to facilitate aging in place and reduce care partner strain.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651279
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Robot-Led Piano Lessons May Improve Cognitive Function: AFeasibility Study
           in a Sample with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Bailey Collette, George Mois, Jenay M. Beer, Laura Boccanfuso, Aditi Ramachadran, Paul Gibson, Kerstin G. Emerson, Lisa M. Renzi-Hammond
      Pages: 21 - 25
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 21-25, September 2021.
      Cognitive training has been shown to increase neural plasticity and cognitive reserve, potentially reducing the risk of developing dementia. Music learning, specifically piano playing, has been shown to be an effective form of multimodal cognitive training. This pilot study explored the feasibility and efficacy of using a socially assistive robot to provide a piano learning cognitive training intervention to older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Participants (N=11) engaged in a four-week feasibility study, which included a one-hour piano lesson per week led by a remotely controlled robot. Participants experienced improved cognitive function in the verbal memory (p=0.04), executive function (p=0.01), reaction time (p=0.04), and cognitive flexibility (p=0.003) domains, as well as in the calculated neurocognitive index score (p=0.03). Socially assistive robots may have the potential to provide cognitive training in the form of piano lessons for older adults with mild cognitive impairment, especially adults who cannot access traditional services.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651280
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The role of the prefrontal cortex on motor performance under stress in
           older adults

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Oshin Tyagi, Ranjana K. Mehta
      Pages: 26 - 26
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 26-26, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651203
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Role of Transparency and Explainability in Automated Systems

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jan Maarten Schraagen, Sabin Kerwien Lopez, Carolin Schneider, Vivien Schneider, Stephanie Tönjes, Emma Wiechmann
      Pages: 27 - 31
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 27-31, September 2021.
      This study investigates the differences and effects of transparency and explainability on trust, situation awareness, and satisfaction in the context of an automated car. Three groups were compared in a between-subjects design (n = 73). Participants in every group saw six graphically manipulated videos of an automated car from the driver’s perspective with either transparency, post-hoc explanations or both combined. Transparency resulted in higher trust, higher satisfaction and higher level 2 situational awareness (SA) than explainability. Transparency also resulted in higher level 2 SA than the combined condition, but did not differ in terms of trust or satisfaction. Moreover, explainability led to significantly worse satisfaction compared to combined feedback. Although our findings should be replicated in more ecologically valid driving situations, we tentatively conclude that transparency alone should be implemented in semi self-driving cars, and possibly automated systems in general, whenever possible to make them most satisfactory, trustworthy, and resulting in higher SA.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651063
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Trust in Automation: The Effects of System Certainty on Decision-Making

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Maya S. Luster, Brandon J. Pitts
      Pages: 32 - 36
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 32-36, September 2021.
      In the field of Human Factors, the concept of trust in automation can help to explain how and why users interact with particular systems. One way to examine trust is through task performance and/or behavioral observations. Previous work has identified several system-related moderators of trust in automation, such as reliability and complexity. However, the effects of system certainty, i.e., the knowledge that a machine has regarding its own decision-making abilities, on trust remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which system certainty affects perceived trust. Participants performed a partially simulated flight task and decided what action to take in response to targets in the environment detected by the aircraft’s automation. The automation’s certainty levels in recognizing targets were 30%, 50%, and 80%. Overall, participants accepted the system’s recommendation regardless of the certainty level and trust in the system increased as the system’s certainty level increased. Results may help to inform the development of future autonomous systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651079
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Performance-Based Adaptive Automation: Number of Task Types and Response
           Time Measures Triggering Level of Automation Changes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gloria Calhoun, Heath Ruff, Elizabeth Frost, Sarah Bowman, Jessica Bartik, Kyle Behymer
      Pages: 37 - 41
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 37-41, September 2021.
      A key challenge facing automation designers is how to achieve an ideal balance of system automation with human interaction for optimal operator decision making and system performance. A performance-based adaptive automation algorithm was evaluated with two versus six monitored task types. Results illustrate the importance of level of automation choices in control schemes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651099
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Preliminary Investigation into Learning Behaviors in Complex
           Environments for Human-in-the-Loop Cyber-Physical Systems

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Maya S. Luster, Brandon J. Pitts
      Pages: 42 - 46
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 42-46, September 2021.
      The field of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) is increasingly recognizing the importance of integrating Human Factors for Human-in-the-loop CPS (HiLCPS) developments. This is because psychological, physiological, and behavioral characteristics of humans can be used to predict human-machine interactions. The goal of this pilot study is to collect initial data to determine whether driving and eye tracking metrics can provide evidence of learning for a CPS project. Six participants performed a series of 12 repeated obstacle avoidance tasks in manual driving. Lane deviations and fixation-related eye data were recorded for each trial. Overall, participants displayed either conservation/safe or aggressive/risky in their lateral position with respect to the obstacle during successive trials. Also, eye tracking metrics were not significantly affected by trial number, but observational trends suggest their potential for aiding in understanding adjustments humans make in learning. Results can inform predictive modeling algorithms that can anticipate and mitigate potential problems in real-time.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651222
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Modeling the Effects of Machine Rigidities on Joint Work Strategies

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kathleen Albert, Martijn IJtsma
      Pages: 47 - 51
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 47-51, September 2021.
      One of the challenges in designing resilient human-machine systems is that machine capabilities are inherently rigid. A resilient joint cognitive system can anticipate and adapt to changing work demands effectively, but limitations of machines can make this adaptation constrained and less fluid. By identifying and accommodating for these rigidities in the design of human-machine system architectures, developers can build human-machine systems that support multiple contexts. This paper proposes a work-modeling approach for analyzing joint human-machine work strategies, focusing on identifying interdependencies that would support opportunistic adaptation and reduce the risk of machine rigidity leading to brittle failures of a human-machine system. The approach is applied to a case study in space operations to demonstrate how interdependencies can be identified and evaluated. The results of this analysis provide early insight into how team adaptation and machine limitations can be systematically accounted for in system architecture design.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651246
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Situation Awareness Classification Using Multi-modal Sensing in Automated
           Driving

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jing Yang, Nade Liang, Kwaku O. Prakah-Asante, Reates Curry, Mike Blommer, Radhakrishnan Swaminathan, Brandon J. Pitts, Denny Yu
      Pages: 52 - 52
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 52-52, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651095
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Practitioner-Educator Model for Human Factors/Ergonomics Education

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Keith S. Karn, Esa M. Rantanen, Russell J. Branaghan, Michael F. Rayo, Christopher A. Sanchez, Heather C. Lum
      Pages: 53 - 56
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 53-56, September 2021.
      Human factors/ergonomics is an applied discipline. As such, we question whether students are adequately prepared if they are not learning, at least in part, from instructors who have real-world experience applying human factors/ergonomics knowledge to practical design problems. A wide variety of other disciplines such as medicine, the building trades, clinical psychology, military strategy, aviation, and the visual and performing arts have all faced this question and come up with educational approaches that typically include educators who are highly skilled in the practice of the discipline. Terms such as practitioner-scholar and scientist-practitioner, and the apprentice models all reflect this notion of students learning from highly skilled, knowledgeable, and practiced professionals in their disciplines. Is it time for human factors/ergonomics education to adopt such a model'
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651031
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Designing for Bi-Directional Transparency in Human-AI-Robot-Teaming

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Eric Holder, Lixiao Huang, Erin Chiou, Myounghoon Jeon, Joseph B. Lyons
      Pages: 57 - 61
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 57-61, September 2021.
      This paper takes a practitioner’s perspective on advancing bi-directional transparency in human-AI-robot teams (HARTs). Bi-directional transparency is important for HARTs because the better that people and artificially intelligent agents can understand one another’s capabilities, limits, inputs, outputs and contexts in a given task environment; the better they can work as a team to accomplish shared goals, interdependent tasks, and overall missions. This understanding can be built, augmented, broken and repaired at various stages across the technology life cycle, including the conceptual design; iterative design of software, hardware and interfaces; marketing and sales; system training; operational use; and system updating and adaptation stages. This paper provides an overview of some best practices and challenges in building this bi-directional transparency at different points in the technology life cycle of human-AI-robot systems. The goal is to help advance a wider discussion and sharing of lessons learned from recent work in this area.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651052
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • User Experience Design for Human-Machine Teaming in Commanding a
           Distributed Constellation of Unmanned Assets in Search and Rescue

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: T. Anderson, K. Fogarty, H. Kenkel, J. Raisigel, S. Zhou, L. M. Reggia, S. G. Manizade, D. R. Lesniak, G. J. Gerling
      Pages: 62 - 66
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 62-66, September 2021.
      Search and rescue missions are time-sensitive, with their duration impacting survivability. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly shortening response time, accelerating area coverage, and informing resource allocation. However, interactions of UAVs and human operators pose challenges, for example, related to understandability and trust in automation. This work seeks to facilitate human-machine teaming in designing an on-the-loop user experience with a constellation of UAVs as they narrow search areas by locating and triangulating mobile phone signals using dynamic co-fields autonomy. First, an abstraction-decomposition hierarchy is built to represent underlying values and requirements of the domain. Second, user interfaces are designed to reduce UAV and phone positional uncertainty over time, monitor power, communications, and other information per asset, and empower the operator to influence drone behavior. Their design includes spatiotemporal representations of search areas, UAV positions, communications signals, as well as notifications. Finally, user evaluation was conducted with domain and usability experts.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651130
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Comparison of Auditory and Visual Representations of System Confidence
           to Support Trust Specificity, Attention Management, and Joint Performance
           in Human-Machine Teams

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      Authors: Kevin Lieberman, Nadine Sarter
      Pages: 67 - 71
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 67-71, September 2021.
      Breakdowns in human-robot teaming can result from trust miscalibration, i.e., a poor mapping of trust to a system’s capabilities, resulting in misuse or disuse of the technology. Trust miscalibration also negatively affects operators’ top-down attention allocation and monitoring of the system. This experiment assessed the efficacy of visual and auditory representations of a system’s confidence in its own abilities for supporting trust specificity, attention management and joint performance in the context of a UAV-supported target detection task. In contrast to earlier studies, neither visual nor auditory confidence information improved detection accuracy. Visual representations of confidence led to slower response times than auditory representations, likely due to resource competition with the visual target detection task. Finally, slower response times were observed when a UAV incorrectly detected a target. Results from this study can inform the design of visual and auditory representations of system confidence in human-machine teams with high attention demands.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651198
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Human Factors Considerations for Teaming between Construction Workersand
           Voice-based Intelligent Virtual Agent (VIVA)

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      Authors: Maryam Rahimi Movassagh, Nazila Roofigari-Esfahan, Sang Won Lee, Carlos Evia, David Hicks, Myounghoon Jeon
      Pages: 72 - 76
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 72-76, September 2021.
      Construction sites experience low productivity due to particular characteristics such as unique designs in each project, sporadic arrival of projects, and complexity of the process. Another contributing factor to low productivity is poor communication among workers, supervisors, and a site’s centralized knowledge hub. Research shows that introducing advanced artificial intelligence (AI) technology in construction can tackle these problems. In this paper, we analyzed human factors considerations–user, task, environment, and technology and identified their characteristics and challenges to design an interactive AI system to facilitate communication between workers and other stakeholders. Based on the analysis, we propose a voice-based intelligent virtual agent (VIVA) as a multi-purpose AI system on construction sites with a further research agenda. We hope that this effort can guide the design of construction-specific AI systems and that this worker-AI teaming can improve overall work processes, enhance productivity, and promote safety in construction.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651139
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Working with Industrial Cobots: The Influence of Reliability and
           Transparency on Perception and Trust

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      Authors: Lina Kluy, Eileen Roesler
      Pages: 77 - 81
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 77-81, September 2021.
      Industrial human-robot collaboration (HRC) is not yet widely spread but on the rise. This development raises the question about properties collaborative robots (cobots) need, to enable a pleasant and smooth interaction. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of transparency and reliability on perception of and trust towards cobots. A video-enhanced online study with 124 participants was conducted. Transparency was provided through the presentation of differing information, and reliability was manipulated through differing error rates. The results showed a positive effect of transparency on perceived safety and intelligence. Reliability had a positive effect on perceived intelligence, likeability and trust. The effect of reliability on trust was more pronounced for low transparent robots. The results indicate the relevance of carefully selected information to counteract negative effects of failures. Future research should transfer the study design into a real-life experiment with more fine-grained levels of transparency and reliability.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651110
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Leveraging Social Media for Human Factors Research in Health Care

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      Authors: Rupa S. Valdez, Annie T. Chen, Andrew J. Hampton, Kapil Chalil Madathil, Elizabeth Lerner Papautsky, Courtney C. Rogers
      Pages: 82 - 85
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 82-85, September 2021.
      There has been a significant increase in using social media for academic research and there is an opportunity for human factors professionals to incorporate these platforms into their research. Social media platforms provide a rich space to study extant data on health information communication, behaviors, and impacts and to recruit study participants. In this session, panelists will discuss using social media to study health-related topics including health management, gender-based violence, disaster response, self-harm, patient ergonomics, and secondary impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. They will share how they have collected and analyzed data and recruited study participants from social media platforms such as Twitter, Reddit, and Facebook. They will also speak to the benefits and challenges of as well as ethical implications for using social media for research. There will be space for a moderated discussion to identify ways social media can be leveraged for human factors research in health care.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651029
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Kinematic Evaluation of Linear and Parabolic Pointing in Virtual Reality

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      Authors: John Sermarini, Joseph T. Kider, Joseph J. LaViola, Daniel S. McConnell
      Pages: 86 - 90
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 86-90, September 2021.
      We present the results of a study investigating the influence of task and effector constraints on the kinematics of pointing movements performed in immersive virtual environments. We compared the effect of target width, as a task constraint, to the effect of movement distance, as an effector constraint, in terms of overall effect on movement time in a pointing task. We also compared a linear ray-cast pointing technique to a parabolic pointing technique to understand how interaction style may be understood in the context of task and effector constraints. The effect of target width as an information constraint on pointing performance was amplified in VR. Pointing technique acted as an effector constraint, with linear ray-cast pointing resulting in faster performance than parabolic pointers.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651131
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Movement Strategies in Virtual Reality: Exploring the Influence of 3D
           Endpoint Variability

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      Authors: Logan D. Clark, Sara L. Riggs
      Pages: 91 - 95
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 91-95, September 2021.
      Research using a kinematic approach has revealed that users often exhibit strategic biases in their movement behavior to minimize the effort required to reach a target. However, a recent exploration of these effects in a virtual reality (VR) environment yielded conflicting results, calling into question whether strategic patterns observed in movements to physical targets can be expected to generalize to VR environments. In the present study, we re-analyze the data from Clark and Riggs (2020) using principal component analysis (PCA) to empirically distinguish between alternative explanations for the unexpected results. Our findings clarify the source of these results for downward versus upward movements and provide a preliminary look at how adaptations to manage perception- and execution-related motor variability may impact users’ movement strategies in VR.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651101
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Strategy Use in Automation-Aided Decision Making

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      Authors: Jackson Duncan-Reid, Jason S. McCarley
      Pages: 96 - 100
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 96-100, September 2021.
      When human operators make signal detection judgments with assistance from an automated decision aid, they perform better than they could unaided but fail to reach optimal sensitivity. We investigated the decision strategies that produce this suboptimal performance. Participants (N = 130) performed a two-response classification task that required them to mentally estimate the mean of a set of randomly sampled values each trial. The task was performed with and without assistance from a 93% reliable decision aid. Psychometric functions were fit to the classification data, and data were fit with two cognitive models of automation use. The first model assumed that participants made automation-aided judgments using a contingent criterion strategy, adjusting their response cutoff for yes vs. no responses following a cue from the aid. The second strategy, a discrete state model, assumed that participants made aided judgments by simply deferring to the aid on some proportion of trials. A measure of model fit favored the discrete-state process model, with parameter estimates indicating large individual differences in deferral rate between participants (range = 2% and 95%).
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651259
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Examining human perception of weight during loaded standing and walking

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      Authors: Ken Chen, Karen B. Chen, Edward P. Fitts
      Pages: 101 - 105
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 101-105, September 2021.
      While the psychophysics of weight perception may help assess the effort needed in manual material handling tasks, the perception of weight is subjective and not necessarily accurate. The purpose of this study was to examine weight perception during standing and walking. Participants (n=10) performed a series of weight comparison trials against a reference load while holding loads (standing) or carrying loads (walking). Polynomial logistic regression models were built to examine the effects of walking, box weight ratio, and reference weight level on the probability of detecting a weight difference. The results showed that weight ratio and reference weight level had statistically significant effects on the detection probability while walking did not have a significant effect. Findings from this study can help inform the design of subjective evaluation of job demands involving motion, and it can be further extended to the gradual increase in load of strengthening tasks in therapeutic exercises.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651015
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Designing and Evaluating an Avatar for On-Person Screening

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      Authors: Kevin Zish, David Band, Kristopher Korbelak, Daniel Endres, Charles McKee, Simone McKnight
      Pages: 106 - 110
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 106-110, September 2021.
      In aviation security, avatars are generic human figures that are used to display alarms provided by on-person screening systems. One critical feature of these avatars is that they provide no body detail unique to an individual traveler. However, the generic nature of these avatars leaves few landmarks that can be used to map the location of an alarm on the avatar to a passenger. We manipulated two features of an avatar, body detail and grid lines, to create 6 avatars to investigate how design influences estimation of target location. Body detail was manipulated at three levels: no joints, some joints, and direct outline of the passenger. Grid lines were manipulated at two levels: grid lines or no grid lines. The results of the study showed that security screeners were nearly 20% closer to the true target location when the avatar featured landmarks that can be found on a typical passenger.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651202
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Applying change management to general aviation: Pilot self-briefings for
           weather

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      Authors: Cassandra Domingo, Beth Blickensderfer
      Pages: 111 - 116
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 111-116, September 2021.
      General aviation (GA) pilots are increasingly relying on available weather technology to conduct preflight weather self-briefings, rather than call-in briefings to Flight Services. However, research has shown that GA pilots’ have difficulty in interpreting weather products, such as radar, and that this problem persists even after additional training. The domain of change management examines how to properly plan and implement transitions in technology. The current paper examines this transition from call-in to self-briefing using principles of change management, specifically from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651144
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Advice from Robots: Would You Choose a Robot that Looked More or Less
           Human'

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      Authors: Min Ji Kim, Amroté Getu, Heath Sharp, Eva Wiese
      Pages: 117 - 121
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 117-121, September 2021.
      Humans are increasingly turning to non-human agents for advice. Therefore, it is important to investigate if human-likeness of a robot affects advice-seeking. In this experiment, participants chose robot advisors with different levels of human-likeness when completing either social or analytical tasks, and the task was either known or unknown when the robot advisor was selected. In the agent first condition, participants chose the advisor before receiving their task assignment, and in the task first condition participants received their task assignment before choosing the advisor. Results indicated that task type did not play a role in agent selection in either condition. However, in the agent first condition, more human-like robots (Nao and Kodomoroid) were selected at a higher rate than machine-like robots (Cozmo) and, in the task first condition, Nao was selected at a higher rate than Cozmo or Kodomoroid. These results should be considered when designing robots for giving advice to improve human-robot interaction.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651121
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Development of a Team Role Behavior Observation Tool: Insights and
           Considerations for Future Research

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      Authors: Andrew C. Griggs, Jordan E. Rogers, Logan M. Gisick, Elizabeth H. Lazzara, Joseph R. Keebler, Tara N. Cohen
      Pages: 122 - 127
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 122-127, September 2021.
      Today’s workforce is dependent on teams. Organizations are interested in positively influencing antecedents to team effectiveness such as team composition. While many factors have been studied thoroughly concerning team composition and effectiveness, team roles have not received comparable attention. Team roles refer to groups of generalizable, goal-directed behaviors that support team performance. Current team role assessments are reliant on surveys and peer ratings. To explore avenues that would enable comparisons between survey-based measures of team roles with benchmarks of observable behavior, we developed a behavior observation tool based on a team role taxonomy known as Team Role Experience and Orientation (TREO). We present the first iteration of this tool based on our review of team role literature, results of an inter-rater reliability assessment, and discuss its potential impact concerning future research and organizational utility. More work is needed to develop a construct-valid behavioral team role assessment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651282
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Age Differences in the Malleability of Attitudes toward Automated Shared
           Mobility

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      Authors: Kathryn Baringer, Dustin J. Souders, Jeremy Lopez
      Pages: 128 - 128
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 128-128, September 2021.
      Introduction:The use of shared automated vehicles (SAVs) should lead to several societal and individual benefits, including reduced greenhouse gas emissions, reduced traffic, and improved mobility for persons who cannot safely drive themselves. We define SAVs as on-demand, fully automated vehicles in which passengers are paired with other riders traveling along a similar route. Previous research has shown that younger adults are more likely to report using conventional ridesharing services and are more accepting of new technologies including automated vehicles (AVs). However, older adults, particularly those who may be close to retiring from driving, stand to greatly benefit from SAV services. In order for SAVs to deliver on their aforementioned benefits, they must be viewed favorably and utilized. We sought to investigate how short educational and/or experiential videos might impact younger, middle-aged, and older adult respondents’ anticipated acceptance and attitudes toward SAVs. Knowing what types of introductory experiences improve different age groups’ perceptions of SAVs will be beneficial for tailoring campaigns aiming to promote SAV usage.Methods:We deployed an online survey using the platform Prolific for middle-aged and older respondents, and our departmental participant pool for younger adults, collecting 585 total responses that resulted in 448 valid responses. Respondents answered questions regarding their demographic attributes, their ridesharing history, preconceptions of technology, as well as their anticipated acceptance attitudes towards SAVs as measured by the dimensions of the Automated Vehicle User Perception Survey (AVUPS). After this, respondents were randomly assigned to an intervention condition where they either watched 1) an educational video about how SAVs work and their potential benefits, 2) an experiential video showing a AV navigating traffic, 3) both the experiential and educational videos, or 4) a control video explaining how ridesharing works. Anticipated acceptance attitudes towards SAVs were measured again after this intervention and difference scores calculated to investigate the effect of the intervention conditions. Prolific respondents were paid at a rate of $9.50/hour and younger adults received course credit.Results:Controlling for preconceptions of technology and ridesharing experience, a MANOVA was run on the difference scores of the dimensions of the AVUPS (intention to use, trust/reliability, perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), safety, control/driving-efficacy, cost, authority, media, and social influence). Both older and middle-aged adults expressed significantly greater increases in PEOU and PU of SAVs than younger adults. We also observed an interaction between age and condition for both PU and PEOU. For PU, older adults’ difference scores were found to be significantly greater than younger adults’ for the control video condition. With PEOU, older adults’ difference scores were significantly greater than both younger adults’ for the control video condition, and middle-aged adults had greater difference scores for the educational-only video condition than younger or older adults.Discussion:The increases in PU observed for older adults in the control condition suggests that educating them on how to use currently available ridesharing services might transfer to and/or highlight the benefits that automated ridesharing might provide. The PEOU interactions also suggest that middle-aged adults might respond more positively than younger or older adults to an educational introduction to SAVs.Conclusion:The positive findings pertaining to PU and PEOU show that exposure to information related to SAVs has a positive impact on these attitudes. PU’s and PEOU’s positive relationship to behavioral intentions (BI) in the Technology Acceptance Model, coupled with the findings from this study, bode well for higher fidelity interventions seeking to inform and/or give individuals experience with SAVs. Providing information on how currently available ridesharing services work helped our older adult respondents recognize the potential usefulness of SAVs. Knowing that different age groups may respond better to educational versus experiential interventions, for example middle-aged adults in this study responding more positively to the educational video condition than younger or older adults, may be useful for targeted promotional campaigns.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651250
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Aviation Human-in-the-Loop Simulation: Best Practices for Subjective
           Performance Measurement

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      Authors: John Kleber, Beth Blickensderfer
      Pages: 129 - 133
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 129-133, September 2021.
      Subjective performance measurements are a useful tool for researchers and instructors to evaluate tasks that are difficult to quantify with objective data pulled from a simulator or the physiological data of pilots. Subjective performance measurements are non-intrusive measures typically conducted by human raters. Some recommendations for utilizing subjective measures include reducing the workload of the human raters, concealing the aim of the experiment from participants, utilizing multiple raters to evaluate each participant, providing raters with proper training, developing error-resistant rater forms and, including both subjective and objective measures when possible.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651107
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A preliminary classification of different tasks that make use of
           uncertainty visualizations

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      Authors: Mahtab Eskandar, Wayne C.W. Giang
      Pages: 134 - 138
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 134-138, September 2021.
      Individuals often struggle with tasks that involve uncertainty. Uncertainty visualizations are a type of cognitive aid that provides uncertainty information to help people with performing these tasks. However, the literature has shown that uncertainty visualizations differ in the extent they improve individuals’ task performance. We hypothesize that differences in the tasks can account for some of this variability. In this study, we aimed to create an initial classification of task types based on studies on uncertainty visualizations by reviewing a diverse set of recent research involving uncertainty visualizations. We classified the experimental tasks found in these papers into four groups: uncertainty assessment, forecasting, decision making, and metacognition. Then, we reviewed the result of the experiments in terms of the similarities and differences in the use of uncertainty visualizations within and between tasks. This classification serves as a starting point for further research into the effective design of visualizations of uncertainty.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651281
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Attributing Blame in Human-Robot Teams with Robots of Differing Appearance

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      Authors: Cecelia Henderson, Douglas J. Gillan
      Pages: 139 - 142
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 139-142, September 2021.
      As automation becomes increasingly common in daily life the importance of understanding how we interact with automated systems increases, especially attribution of blame for accidents involving a human-automation team. The current research project looks at how humans attribute blame in an accident involving a human operator and a robot worker and is based on a previous study (Furlough et al., 2019). Participants will read two scenarios detailing an accident while being shown both the operator and robot. The robot’s appearance is manipulated to imply varying levels of automation, ranging from a simple robot to one with a human appearance. Results showed no significant effects, however, this research still has the potential to contribute to the understanding of interactions between humans and automated systems and could inform design in the future to facilitate a positive working environment with robots and humans.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651020
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Influence of Feedback Types on the Use of Automation During Learning

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      Authors: Emily Brunsen, Imani Murph, Anne C. McLaughlin, Richard B. Wagner
      Pages: 143 - 147
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 143-147, September 2021.
      This study investigated two feedback types to see if there was a relationship between level of elaborative feedback and participant’s ability to learn a task while also looking at their use of automation. The task was a rule-based problem solving task where participants needed to learn the rules of selecting one pair (Ranger and Hiker) on a gridded map. Ten trials were randomly presented to participants who were asked to make pair selections based on rules (two stated and one unknown to the participant when starting) of correct matches. Results indicated that feedback type significantly influenced accuracy, while trial difficulty influenced use of automation. Results from this study can be applied in education and training of declarative knowledge tasks when rules must be inferred.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651228
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Individual Differences in Frustration and Performance with Online Shopping
           Activities

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      Authors: Nina Ferreri, Christopher B. Mayhorn
      Pages: 148 - 153
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 148-153, September 2021.
      Individual differences in user responses and interactions with technology are important to consider when examining frustration and expectations for technology performance. This research expanded on Ferreri and Mayhorn (2021) and Hadlington and Scase (2018) by examining individual differences in responses to failures in digital technology (RFDT) when exposed to a malfunction (present vs. absent) and given an expectation (no vs. low vs. high) about the technology capabilities. A preliminary sample of 30 undergraduate students was obtained to complete an online shopping task. Following the task, participants reported the items they were asked to purchase, as well as their responses to failures in digital technology, technology acceptance attitudes, personality dimensions, and current mood (pre vs. post). Several correlations revealed consistent findings with previous research and indicate potentially significant findings with the full dataset. It is anticipated that those with low expectation and scoring high in neuroticism will report the most frustration.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651054
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Internet Accessibility for Blind and Visually-Impaired Users: An
           Evaluation of Official U.S. State and Territory COVID-19 Websites

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      Authors: Dylan H. Hewitt, Yingchen He
      Pages: 154 - 158
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 154-158, September 2021.
      During the COVID-19 pandemic, most health information was moved to an online format for easier dissemination. However, many of these health websites may not be accessible to users who are visually impaired, such as people who use screen readers and magnifiers. This study aimed to test the accessibility of 55 U.S. state and territory COVID-19 websites using 3 automated accessibility checker tools (MAUVE++, CynthiaSays, and AChecker). The homepage, testing, and vaccine pages for each state/territory were tested. Accessibility violations were categorized based on their relevance to visual impairment and compared between categories. Individuals who have vision loss but still access the websites visually are the most likely to be affected, with relevant accessibility violations detected in 81% of the checked cases. In addition, states/territories were ranked by their accessibility ratings. Our findings emphasize the need to improve the accessibility of public-facing health informational websites and provide suggestions for remedies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651051
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Effects of Diminished Reality on the Detection of and Response to
           Notifications

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      Authors: Khalaeb Richardson, Anne Collins McLaughlin, Mitchell McDonald, Aaron Crowson
      Pages: 159 - 163
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 159-163, September 2021.
      Many environments contain visual and auditory distractions. Cognitive aids help limit these distractions, support attention, and improve task performance. One way this is done is by adding information to the environment via Augmented Reality (AR). Attention may also be supported by removing distractors using Diminished Reality (DR), a form of AR that computationally erases, de-emphasizes, or otherwise diminishes external stimuli. However, there was no research investigating the design of the control and display system for DR technology and the question of how to redirect or gain someone’s attention when their environment is diminished had not been addressed. This study explored the acceptability and effectiveness of notifications with varying attributes and fills that gap in research. Results indicated that low specificity notifications in a diminished environment are rated as being subjectively better than notifications of other formats; low specificity messages were also recalled at a greater rate.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651236
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Diminishing Reality: Potential Benefits and Risks

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      Authors: I. Murph, M. McDonald, K. Richardson, M. Wilkinson, S. Robertson, A. Karunakaran, M. Gandy Coleman, V Byrne, A. C. McLaughlin
      Pages: 164 - 168
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 164-168, September 2021.
      Within distracting environments, it is difficult to maintain attentional focus on complex tasks. Cognitive aids can support attention by adding relevant information to the environment, such as via augmented reality (AR). However, there may be a benefit in removing elements from the environment, such as irrelevant alarms, displays, and conversations. De-emphasis of distracting elements is a type of AR called Diminished Reality (DR). Although de-emphasizing distraction may help focus on a primary task, it may also reduce situational awareness (SA) of other activities that may become relevant. In the current study, participants will assemble a medical ventilator during a simulated emergency while experiencing varying levels of DR. Participants will also be probed to assess secondary SA. We anticipate that participants will have better accuracy and completion times in the full DR conditions but their SA will suffer. Future applications include the design of future DR systems and improved training methods.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651103
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Impact Of Covid-19 Pandemic On Nurses’ Behavior For Updating
           Assessment Results By Using The Electronic Medical Record Log Data In A
           Non- Covid Intensive Care Unit

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      Authors: Alireza Kasaie, Jung Hyup Kim, Laurel Despins
      Pages: 169 - 173
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 169-173, September 2021.
      The primary objective of this paper is to explore whether COVID-19 affects nurses’ behavior on updating assessment results in EMRs in an intensive care unit (ICU) and analyze how the patterns of updating assessment results can be different. The study considered information from March (before the pandemic) and July (during the pandemic) in terms of average process time and frequency. In this study, the response-time measurement system data was used to analyze ICU nurses’ workflow related to EMR documentation. After that, multiple hierarchical task analysis (HTA) charts were developed to find different EMR documentation patterns for assessment results. The results revealed that these patterns were significantly different in terms of average process time and frequency before and during the pandemic. The finding of this study might reveal the possible impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the patterns of updating patient assessment results and how nurses’ preferences can be different in terms of average process time and frequency.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651056
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Using Technology to Support Distributed Teams: A Work System-Based Study
           of an Interdisciplinary Team Responding to COVID-19

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      Authors: Kaitlyn L. Hale-Lopez, Abigail R. Wooldridge, Molly H. Goldstein
      Pages: 174 - 178
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 174-178, September 2021.
      Effective teams are essential to meet the complex and dynamic requirements during pandemic response. This case study analyses the work system of mobileSHIELD, a distributed team developing a diagnostic test in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted interviews with 18 team members to understand how work system design influences the use of technology to support distributed teams. We identified six work system barriers and facilitators. The barriers related to rapidly adopting new technologies and not utilizing features of technologies that support relationships. The facilitators were related to the use of technology to support informal communication, synchronous and asynchronous communication, and mobile technology to improve productivity and collaboration. Our findings indicate technology that is mobile, cloud based, simple and user-friendly can support distributed teams, in particular by improving asynchronous communication. Future research will holistically explore implications for work system design to support interdisciplinary teams responding to societal crises.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651062
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Predicting Student Intention to Wear a Mask to Avoid Contracting COVID-19

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      Authors: Karim Zahed, Kianna Arthur, Solangia Engler, Farzan Sasangohar, Rachel Smallman, Sherecce Fields
      Pages: 179 - 183
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 179-183, September 2021.
      With governments having enforced mask mandates and stressing the importance of wearing masks to avoid contracting COVID-19, still many individuals do not properly adhere to recommended guidelines. To investigate factors influencing why individuals engage in wearing masks, 578 participants at a university in the southern United States completed a survey, answering questions related to various behavioral change theories, including the Health Belief Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and the Transtheoretical Model. Intention was rated high and was positively correlated with Subjective Norms and Self Efficacy. However perceived benefits of wearing a mask and perceived susceptibility were rated low indicating that benefits and susceptibility did not influence intention. The SEM model showed that benefits actually had a negative relationship with intention, whereas susceptibility had no significant relationship. Integrating constructs from the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior increased variance predicted of Intention to wear a mask to 56%.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651230
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Tapering Chronic Opioid Medications: A Human Factors Approach to Building
           a Provider-Facing App

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      Authors: Sadaf Kazi, Aaron Z. Hettinger, Robin Littlejohn, Deanna-Nicole Busog, Kristen E. Miller
      Pages: 184 - 185
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 184-185, September 2021.
      Approximately 25.3 million adults in the U.S. take prescription opioid medication to provide relief from their daily pain. Over-prescription of these medications has contributed to the opioid epidemic in the U.S. Many patient desire tapering opioids. However, guidelines of opioid tapering are complex and difficult to translate into practice at the point of care. Our research used human factors methods, including participatory ergonomics, task analysis, interviews, and usability testing to design a provider app to aid safe opioid tapering. We present preliminary prototypes of our app that is currently being deployed across a large 10-hospital healthcare system in the mid-Atlantic region. Our app will be integrated into the electronic health record and comprises five sections: Patient Context, Taper Settings, Create Taper Plan, Withdrawal and Non-opioid Pain Plan, and Summary Dashboard.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651252
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Usability Lessons for COVID-19 Diagnostic Tests

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      Authors: Sarah Farmer
      Pages: 186 - 190
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 186-190, September 2021.
      As the need for increased and widespread COVID-19 diagnostic testing has arisen, testing has also become decentralized: where testing was originally primarily conducted in clinic or laboratory settings, testing now frequently occurs at community testing sites, pharmacies, workplaces, schools, and in the home. With this paradigm shift comes new usability barriers as companies rapidly adapt laboratory- and point-of-care-based tests for other use cases. This paper outlines the agile methods used to evaluate the usability of diagnostic tests in various phases of the design cycle and under limited access and time constraints, provides an overview of the most commons usability issues found, and lists practical design principles for practice.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Improving Service through a Digital Assistant for Direct Support
           Professionals: Exploratory Focus Groups

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      Authors: Olivia McGough, Matthew Ungerer, Jaya Russell, Patrice D Tremoulet
      Pages: 191 - 195
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 191-195, September 2021.
      Direct Support Professionals (DSPs) who assist adults with autism spectrum disorder sometimes find it difficult to keep up with administrative tasks including the documentation of important data needed by others who also provide support to their clients (e.g. behavior analysts, physicians, other DSPs). Existing technologies, such as cameras, smart speakers and smart medication dispensers, could potentially be leveraged to help capture some of the data that DSPs are asked to report as part of their work responsibilities. However, it is not currently known whether DSPs would be amenable to using these technologies ‘on the job’. This paper presents preliminary results from two exploratory focus groups where DSPs were asked to discuss the possibility of using different types of technologies to facilitate capturing and reviewing data about clients they serve.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651173
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Research and Design Trends for Exam Room Computing to Enhance Patient
           Centeredness

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      Authors: Jason J. Saleem, Laura G. Militello, Onur Asan, Jacob M. Read, Enid Montague
      Pages: 196 - 200
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 196-200, September 2021.
      While there is an extensive and established history of research that demonstrates the unfortunate capacity of exam room computing and electronic health records (EHRs) to negatively impact provider-patient communication and interaction, recent trends in exam room computing are promising in that there may be an opportunity for the EHR to improve patient engagement. The logical evolution of this research is to flip the narrative to understand strategies for using exam room computing as a mediator or facilitator of provider-patient communication and interaction, rather than simply establishing ways to mitigate the documented barriers. Panelists will present and discuss their latest research and experiences that may contribute to the evolution of using exam room computing as a tool to enhance provider-patient communication and interaction. We will also discuss how a thoughtful exam room design with patient-centered exam room computing technologies and practices may positively impact specific human factors, safety, and bias outcomes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651034
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Diary Study of The Teaching and Learning Experience in A High School
           Programming Course

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      Authors: Earl W. Huff, Julian Brinkley
      Pages: 201 - 205
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 201-205, September 2021.
      Prior research into the accessibility of computing education focused primarily on the curricula and tools used in the classroom and the challenges students with disabilities faced in learning from them. We argue that there is insufficient research that explores these problems through observations in an actual programming course to learn about the learning and teaching processes used in conjunction with such curricula and tools. We address this gap through a four-week diary study involving a teacher and two visually impaired students throughout an ongoing distance learning programming course to examine teacher perceptions of their students’ performance in learning to code and students’ perceptions of the course material, tools, and instruction. Findings reveal that despite challenges encountered, students could achieve their learning outcomes from the teacher’s instructions. Additionally, we learn how online learning could be a viable platform for a more accessible learning experience for visually impaired learners.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651225
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Relationship Between Personality, Recalled Cybersickness Severity, and
           Recalled Cybersickness Recovery Time

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      Authors: Angelica Jasper, Taylor Doty, Nathan Sepich, Michael C. Dorneich, Stephen B. Gilbert, Jonathan W. Kelly
      Pages: 206 - 210
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 206-210, September 2021.
      Characteristics of a virtual reality user are known to affect cybersickness, but the specific role of individual differences, such as personality, is largely unknown. This study addressed this gap through examination of subjective recall survey data relating to experiences in virtual reality, including severity of cybersickness symptoms, cybersickness recovery time, and personality. Mediational structural equation modeling on data from 203 participants who used virtual reality at least once per month indicated that extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were associated with cybersickness severity and that severity was associated with cybersickness recovery time. Further, cybersickness severity fully mediated the relationship between personality and recovery time. These findings highlight the potential relationship between individual differences in personality and suggest further investigation into cybersickness with experimental data and validated measures.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651185
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Relationships between cognitive factors and gait strategy during
           exoskeleton-augmented walking

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      Authors: Aditi Gupta, Ryan McKindles, Leia Stirling
      Pages: 211 - 215
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 211-215, September 2021.
      Individual variation in exoskeleton-augmented gait strategy may arise from differences in cognitive factors, e.g., ability to respond quickly to stimuli or complete tasks under divided attention. Gait strategy is defined as different approaches to achieving gait priorities (e.g., walking without falling) and is observed via changes in gait characteristics like normalized stride length or width. Changes indicate shifting priorities like increasing stability or coordination with an exoskeleton. Relationships between cognitive factors and exoskeleton gait characteristics were assessed. Cognitive factors were quantified using a modified Simon task and a speed achievement task on a self-paced treadmill with and without a secondary go/no-go task. Individuals with faster reaction times and decreased ability to maintain a given speed tended to prioritize coordination with an exoskeleton over gait stability. These correlations indicate relationships between cognitive factors and individual exoskeleton-augmented gait strategy that should be further investigated to understand variation in exoskeleton use.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651138
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Metrics for quantifying cognitive factors that may underlie individual
           variation in exoskeleton use

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      Authors: Aditi Gupta, Ryan McKindles, Leia Stirling
      Pages: 216 - 220
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 216-220, September 2021.
      Individual differences in adaptation to exoskeletons have been observed, but are not well understood. Kinematic, kinetic, and physiologic factors are commonly used to assess these systems. Parameters from experimental psychology and gait literature wereadapted to probe the lower extremity perception-cognition-action loop using measures of reaction times, gait task performance, and gait strategy. Parameters were measured in 15 subjects via two tasks: (1) a modified Simon task and (2) a speed-achievement task with secondary go/no-go cues on a self-paced treadmill. Outcome metrics were assessed for significantly different intra- versus inter-subject variability. Reaction time measures from the modified Simon task, as well two speed-achievement metrics and one gait-strategy characteristic we re found to show significant differenc es in intra- versus inter-subject variability. These results suggest that select cognitive factors may differentiate between individuals and be potential predictors for individual variation during exoskeleton system operation.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651135
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Daily Experiences of Facebook for Visually Impaired Users

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      Authors: Earl W. Huff, Aaron Gluck, Kwajo Boateng, Julian Brinkley
      Pages: 221 - 225
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 221-225, September 2021.
      Prior research into using social networking sites (SNSs) by visually impaired (VI) users has focused primarily on their competencies and accessibility barriers in its usage. We argue, however, that there exists insufficient research into the daily pattern of use of SNSs by VI users and benefits unique to this population. To address these limitations, we conducted two empirical studies, a diary study and a follow-up in-depth interview study, to further explore the social experiences of VI users’ everyday Facebook engagement. Our findings show that VI users were motivated to use Facebook by the prospect of connecting with family and friends and that Facebook offers unique benefits to VI users in terms of improved quality-of-life through social capital building, knowledge obtainment, and entertainment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651226
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • HF/E Practitioners: Shared Experiences from Industry

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      Authors: Amrita Maguire, Dan Odell, Christy Harper, Michael Bartha, Scott Openshaw, Angie Avera
      Pages: 226 - 230
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 226-230, September 2021.
      There are many challenges that researchers face when adapting from academic backgrounds to industry. How do we train newcomers to this field to focus on goals in context of their business’s needs' How do we ensure impact early in their career' How do we learn to look beyond the process, methods, mindset, and story-telling, to delivering on corporations’ anticipated needs' What are the challenges when mandating practitioners’ research to translate to actionable items' How do practitioners drive impact that brings the desired value to their corporations' How does one encourage user experience (UX) as an integral process within corporations’ development plans'This panel of practitioners will share the trials and tribulations they have encountered while successfully navigating their respective Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) careers. This panel represents peers with diverse experiences from careers in technology, product design, human-computer interfaces (HCI), medical devices, usability testing, and human factors research.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651032
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Noncompliance and Decision-Making of Airline Pilots: An Analysis of
           Narratives From the Aviation Safety Reporting System

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      Authors: Caitlin J. Lang, Florian Jentsch
      Pages: 231 - 235
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 231-235, September 2021.
      The purpose of this study was to identify self-reported flight deck noncompliance in aviation safety reports and explore the relationship between adaptive expertise, deliberate vs. non-deliberate actions (errors), and intentional vs. unintentional noncompliance. The heuristics for assessing adaptive thinking and behavior were based on subscales of the Adaptive Expertise Survey (AES; Fisher & Peterson, 2001). We analyzed a random sample of 200 ASRS reports from 2019 and coded them with respect to (a) whether they described intentional or unintentional noncompliance by one or more flightcrew members, (b) whether the decision making was deliberate, and (c) whether the decision-making process involved correlates of adaptive or routine (non-adaptive) expertise. We found that unintentional noncompliance was associated most frequently with non-deliberate actions and non-adaptive behaviors. Adaptive behaviors were strongly associated with deliberate actions and intentional noncompliance. Our on-going research to investigate adaptive expertise and its relationship with predictors of noncompliance is discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651260
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Qualitative Assessment of General Aviation Pilots’ Perceptions of
           Preflight Weather Briefings

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      Authors: Jacqueline McSorley, John Kleber, Cassandra Domingo, Gianna Castano, Beth Blickensderfer
      Pages: 236 - 240
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 236-240, September 2021.
      Prior to departing on a flight, General Aviation pilots complete a preflight planning process to ensure the safety of their flight. One aspect of the preflight planning process is obtaining a briefing on the weather conditions that the pilot might encounter along their flight route. Traditionally pilots have utilized a phone-in service, run by Flight Services, to aid in their assessment of weather conditions; however, research indicates that pilots are increasingly reliant on conducting self- briefing using online resources. The purpose of this study is to determine pilot perceptions of obtaining a phone-in brief in comparison to self-briefing.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651175
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Moving From Piloted to Autonomous Operations: Investigating Human Factors
           Challenges in Urban Air Mobility

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      Authors: Karanvir Panesar, Akshay Mathur, Ella Atkins, Nadine Sarter
      Pages: 241 - 245
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 241-245, September 2021.
      Urban Air Mobility (UAM) is expected to be the next major revolution in the aviation industry and a solution to the growing traffic congestion on the ground. The long-term goal of UAM is to reach fully autonomous operations with minimal to no human supervision. Transitioning from today’s piloted to fully autonomous operations while maintaining or exceeding the current safety level in commercial aviation will require sig-nificant advances in technology and extensive collaboration between government, industry, and community stakeholders. In this paper, we discuss results from a focus group aimed at capturing the perspectives of five subject matter experts on the challenges associated with transitioning to fully autonomous operations. The focus group revealed five major themes for future research: overall system and automation design, training, system safety and security, community and, regulations and policy. The findings from this research highlight gaps in technology, regulations and our understanding of large-scale complex systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651143
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Identifying and Categorizing Positive Behaviors in Unexpected Events in
           Aviation

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      Authors: Mira E. Gruber, Jessica Cruit, Janeen A. Kochan, Hannah Arias, Yazmin Diaz, Shawn Pruchnicki, P. A. Hancock
      Pages: 246 - 250
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 246-250, September 2021.
      Unexpected aviation events pose a challenge in training for aviation safety. Since unexpected events, by definition, cannot be specifically trained, one suggestion is to train pilots for the skills necessary to respond to unexpected events. We attempted to better understand positive behaviors in unexpected events in aviation through post hoc analysis of aviation accidents with good outcomes. We conducted a pilot study—an open card sort—with human factors experts to (1) evaluate the utility of the method and (2) create the category names to be used in the full-scale study. Upon completion of the pilot study, we propose a full-scale study with a closed card sort methodology. Understanding what behaviors led to positive outcomes in the past will help in designing training programs to maximize positive outcomes in the future.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651262
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Attitudes to Wearing Face Masks at US Collegiate Aviation Programs

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      Authors: Andrew R. Dattel, Maxine E. Lubner, Peiheng Gao, Hanzi Xie
      Pages: 251 - 255
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 251-255, September 2021.
      A survey was completed by 598 respondents from 14 collegiate aviation programs. The survey queried attitudes of advantages and disadvantages of wearing face masks (FM). Over 75% of respondents were students (with the remainder about equally split between faculty and staff) and 67% who identified as pilots. Despite public guidelines supporting the advantages of FMs, there were polarized attitudes found with the employed methodology. Females were more likely to report greater values and fewer discomforts of wearing FMs. Pilots were more likely to report fewer advantages and more difficulties wearing FMs than non-pilots. Due to public health guidelines concerning FMs, negative attitudes pilots professed are concerning given the many hours they spend in a cramped cockpit.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651195
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Exploratory Study of Pilot Perceptions of Submitting Weather Reports

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      Authors: Shantanu Gupta, Mayur Deo, Mary E. Johnson, Brandon J. Pitts, Barrett S. Caldwell
      Pages: 256 - 256
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 256-256, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651254
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Panel Discussion Cognitive Engineering: Will They Know Our Name When We
           Are 40'

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      Authors: Cindy Dominguez, Michael F. Rayo, Steve Dorton, Dane A. Morey, Neelam Naikar, Emilie Roth, John Allspaw
      Pages: 257 - 261
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 257-261, September 2021.
      This panel discussion will examine the societal awareness of cognitive engineering today. Cognitive engineering celebrated its 30th anniversary in 2018 at the HFES annual meeting. Still, some would say that cognitive engineering is not as well-known as it should be, and that it is applied in an ad hoc manner in the many high-stakes, high-risk technology modernization efforts where it would be useful. As technology advances proliferate for sharp end of the spear decision makers, we are at risk of catastrophic results if CE remains in the shadows; these results are arguably emerging on a daily basis. Each panelist will describe, from their vantage point, CE’s state of the art today, thoughts on barriers to acceptance and application, and how they envision we act towards a future in 2028 in which cognitive engineers engage systematically in complex systems’ development.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651042
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Investigating the role of Non-Technical Skills in Railway Traffic
           Operations through Expert Knowledge Elicitation

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      Authors: Iga Jarosz*, Julia Lo, Jan Lijs
      Pages: 262 - 266
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 262-266, September 2021.
      Many high-risk industries identify non-technical skills as safety-critical abilities of the operational staff that have a protective function against human fallibility. Based on an established non-technical skills classification system, methods for expert knowledge elicitation were used to describe non-technical skills in the specific context of train traffic control in the Netherlands. The findings offer insights regarding the skill importance for good operational outcomes, skill difficulty, categorization, and attitudes based on subject matter experts’ opinions. Substantial overlap between the employed non-technical skills framework and the observed expert classification was found, which might indicate that the experts utilize a mental model of nontechnical skills similar to the one used. Furthermore, considerations concerning the organizational culture and the attitudes towards change provide a promising outlook when introducing novel solutions to non-technical skill training and assessment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651181
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Fun and Games: Designing a Gamified Central Venous Catheterization
           Training Simulator

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      Authors: Haroula M. Tzamaras, Jason Martinez, Dailen C. Brown, Jessica M. Gonzalez-Vargas, Jason Z. Moore, Scarlett R. Miller
      Pages: 267 - 271
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 267-271, September 2021.
      Gamification, or adding elements of games to training systems, has the potential to increase learner engagement and information retention. However, the use of gamification has yet to be explored in Central Venous Catheterization (CVC) trainers which teach a commonly performed medical procedure with high incidence rates. In order to combat these errors, a Dynamic Haptic Robotic Trainer (DHRT) was developed, which focuses on vessel identification and access. A DHRT+ system is currently under development that focuses on whole procedure training (e.g. sterilization and catheter insertion), including a gamified Graphical User Interface. The goal of this paper was to (1) develop a game-like, patient-centered interface to foster personalized learning and (2) understand the perceived utility of gamification for CVC skill development with expert doctors. This paper outlines some of the potential benefits and deficits of the use of gamification in medical trainers that can be used to drive simulation design.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651108
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Using Three-Dimensional Augmented Reality to Enhance General Aviation
           Weather Training

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      Authors: Philippe Meister, Jack Miller, Kexin Wang, Michael C. Dorneich, Eliot Winer, Lori Brown, Geoff Whitehurst
      Pages: 272 - 276
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 272-276, September 2021.
      This work evaluates augmented reality (AR) training materials for general aviation (GA) weather training. Reviews of GA weather training identify gaps where students lack opportunities to experience weather patterns and lack the ability to correlate weather knowledge in weather-related situations. Three-dimensional (3D) visual models may help close the gaps by visualizing information about weather processes, hazards, and visual cues. A 3D AR thunderstorm model visualizes a single-cell thunderstorm clouds, winds, precipitation, lightning, and advective movement. Preliminary evaluation of the model was conducted through a subject matter expert (SME) review and a usability study. The SME review identified improvements to the model and areas for future content design. The usability study identified usability issues with the model. Insights about the design of weather visualizations are developed into recommendations. The approach will integrate 3D AR models into the weather training curriculum to create interactive print training.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651163
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Framework for Virtual Reality-Based Motor Skills Training for the Use of
           Exoskeletons

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      Authors: Garret Burks, Youngjae Lee, Sunwook Kim, Yang Ye, Ben Beiter, Connor Herron, Yangming Shi, Alexander Leonessa, Jing Du, Divya Srinivasan
      Pages: 277 - 278
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 277-278, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651170
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Users’ Perception Of Training Approaches For Advanced Driver
           Assistance Systems (Adas)

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      Authors: Ganesh Pai, Apoorva P. Hungund, Sarah Widrow, Jaydeep Radadiya, Anuj K. Pradhan
      Pages: 279 - 283
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 279-283, September 2021.
      Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) provide safety and comfort while driving. However, to effectively use ADAS, it is necessary for users to have proper knowledge of the systems and to trust the system to operate safely. Providing knowledge about operational capabilities and limitations of a system may help improve drivers’ mental models and calibrate their trust resulting in proper use of ADAS. Traditionally system information is provided via the owner’s manual, which is known to be tedious and time-consuming and underscores the need for alternate training approaches. This study evaluates two training methods, Text-Based and System Visualization, to examine users’ perceptions of training and change in trust after training. Results show that although training did not affect users’ trust, a qualitative examination showed that users preferred the Text-Based method rather than the Visualization method.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651266
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Human performance and system safety: Alternative perspectives on safety
           assessment

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      Authors: Randall J. Mumaw, Emilie M. Roth, Vicki Bier, Dennis Bley, Ronald Boring, Larry Hettinger
      Pages: 284 - 288
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 284-288, September 2021.
      Discussion Panel Abstract: The recent Boeing 737MAX accidents crystalized for the public the complexity of anticipating system and operator performance and developing a system design that prevents catastrophic outcomes. The operational situations, progression of flightcrew actions, and system behaviors that led to the two accidents had not been anticipated by the manufacturer or the regulator. These accidents were only the most recent examples of our failure to anticipate and manage operational complexities and operator performance. The art and science of human factors has yet to perfect risk assessment (or safety assessment) for complex systems.In the not-so-distant past, system risk assessment made estimates of human error probabilities (HEPs) for specific operational tasks, which were combined with estimated equipment failure rates to produce an overall risk estimate. Indeed, these Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) techniques have evolved over decades and are still being developed (e.g., IDHEAS-ECA, Xing et al., 2020), partly because they satisfy the need for a simple quantitative threshold that can be used by industry and regulators: if risk probability is too high, change the design or some other aspect of operations.Through the years, there have been critiques of the HRA approach (e.g., Hollnagel, 1998) that led to revisions, such as focusing on cognitive functions instead of operator tasks, but not to the basic quantitative risk-estimation approach. Other approaches to assessing risk/safety have wandered down other paths: attempting to capture system complexity from an operator’s perspective (Roth, Mumaw, Lewis, 1994; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2000), or better documenting the many ways in which system operators manage complexity daily to find ways to improve their capacity (Hollnagel, Woods, & Leveson, 2006). These approaches have used different measures than HEPs; e.g., measures of operator performance, measures of interface usability/design, measures of task complexity, and the analysis of system constraints.In this panel, we offer different perspectives on risk/safety assessment as it relates to operator performance in complex systems. Foundational to assessment is deciding the nature of safety and the role of operator performance. Another important question is, as you move away from simple quantitative measures, how do you establish safety thresholds' That is, what guidance can we give to industry and regulators regarding how to measure safety and how to decide that action is required on the basis of safety.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651043
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Managing as a UX Researcher: No Two Paths Are Alike

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      Authors: Zoe Glas, Michael C. Bartha, Rochelle Edwards, Christy Harper, Damla Kerestecioglu, Nizar Saqqar
      Pages: 289 - 293
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 289-293, September 2021.
      New graduates interested in entering industry and individual contributors already in industry have little to no transparency into the life of a research manager. The industry professionals on this panel are all managers who oversee other researchers (and some of whom still continue to perform research themselves). Each manager has a very different set of roles and responsibilities and took a different pathway to arrive at where they are today. They will share insights around what management does and does not entail, discuss various ways one may become a manager (as well as the motivations), and break down types of teams managers may lead throughout their careers.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651041
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Parallel Assessment Tracks for Human-Centered Design (PATH): A Framework
           for Transitioning to a New Health Information Technology System

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      Authors: Jason J. Saleem, Kyle Maddox, Jennifer Herout, Kurt Ruark
      Pages: 294 - 298
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 294-298, September 2021.
      This practice-oriented paper presents a human-centered design (HCD) framework that we developed to perform a comprehensive evaluation of a new health information technology (HIT) system under development, intended to replace a legacy system. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Veteran Crisis Line (VCL) program provides a vital service in crisis intervention and suicide prevention. VCL staff rely on a Customer Relationship Management (CRM) legacy system, Medora. VCL intended to replace Medora with Microsoft Dynamics 365 (D365) CRM system. Due to wide-spread criticism of D365, the VA Human Factors Engineering (HFE) team engaged in a multi-study, mixed-method HCD evaluation to investigate the legacy system and intended replacement in terms of ability to support VCL staff needs. The HCD framework we developed to perform this evaluation may be adapted for other large-scale HIT transitions and may provide human factors practitioners with guidance to make evidence-based decisions to support (or abandon) such transitions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651050
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Provider Perceptions of Telerounding: Implications for Future Study

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      Authors: Kimberly N. Williams, Andrew C. Griggs, Crystal M. Fausett, Richard J. Simonson, Elizabeth H. Lazzara, Joseph R. Keebler
      Pages: 299 - 303
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 299-303, September 2021.
      Telerounding—the use of audio- and video-conferencing software to facilitate meetings between hospitalized patients and providers to discuss a patient’s care plan—has become increasingly utilized in place of traditional in-person rounding as pandemic pressures have necessitated a shift to more remote forms of patient care. The benefits associated with this technology suggest that institutions may choose to continue its use once the pandemic has subsided. However, it is important to understand provider perceptions of this technology to ensure that patients are continually receiving the highest quality care. The purpose of this paper is to assess the current scope of the literature on this topic, provide insights on providers’ perceptions concerning telerounding that are currently reported in the literature, and contribute recommendations for future research.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651013
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Differentiating Laparoscopic Skills of Trainees with Computer Vision Based
           Metrics

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      Authors: Shiyu Deng, Chaitanya Kulkarni, Tianzi Wang, Jacob Hartman-Kenzler, Laura E. Barnes, Sarah Henrickson Parker, Shawn D. Safford, Srijith Rajamohan, Nathan K. Lau
      Pages: 304 - 308
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 304-308, September 2021.
      Context dependent gaze metrics, derived from eye movements explicitly associated with how a task is being performed, are particularly useful for formative assessment that includes feedback on specific behavioral adjustments for skill acquisitions. In laparoscopic surgery, context dependent gaze metrics are under investigated and commonly derived by either qualitatively inspecting the videos frame by frame or mapping the fixations onto a static surgical task field. This study collected eye-tracking and video data from 13 trainees practicing the peg transfer task. Machine learning algorithms in computer vision were employed to derive metrics of tool speed, fixation rate on (moving or stationary) target objects, and fixation rate on tool-object combination. Preliminary results from a clustering analysis on the measurements from 499 practice trials indicated that the metrics were able to differentiate three skill levels amongst the trainees, suggesting high sensitivity and potential of context dependent gaze metrics for surgical assessment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651263
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Research-Based Forensic Analysis of a Vehicle Crash When Limited
           Information is Available: A Case Study

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      Authors: Stephanie A. Whetsel Borzendowski, Leah S. Hartman
      Pages: 309 - 311
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 309-311, September 2021.
      Forensic human factors analyses of personal injuries, including collisions, can be challenging when there is either limited evidence available and/or conflicting accounts of the events leading up to an incident. Gathering objective data under conditions representative of the incident in question can assist human factors practitioners in assessing the plausibility of certain facts and events, particularly in the aforementioned scenarios. The present work is part of the preliminary investigation of a collision in which little information was available about the incident. Data were gathered from nine participants to assist in determining a reasonable timeline of events leading up to impact between a disabled vehicle and a tractor trailer. The importance of reliance on such objective data as part of forensic analyses is discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651233
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A FORENSIC CASE STUDY: Human Factors Issues Involved in a Fall Down an
           Elevator Shaft

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      Authors: Leah S. Hartman, Stephanie A. Whetsel Borzendowski, Alan O. Campbell
      Pages: 312 - 316
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 312-316, September 2021.
      This case study involves a woman (Mrs. V) who was renting a beach property for a vacation with her family. The rental property included a residential elevator that connected the garage to the three different levels of the property. On the second night of the vacation, Mrs. V fell asleep on the first-floor couch. After waking in the early hours of the night, she went to utilize the first-floor restroom. After opening the door, she believed was the restroom, she stepped across the threshold. Unbeknownst to her, she had been able to open the elevator door and fell down the empty shaft. It was determined that a failed locking mechanism allowed her to access the elevator shaft without the car being at the same level. The Human Factors consultants had to address numerous factors including hazard management, warnings, human capabilities navigating in low-level lighting, and the effect of alcohol.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651244
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Embedding Ethical Principles into the Human Factors and Ergonomics
           Society: Interactive Discussion with the Code of Ethics Task Force

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      Authors: S. Camille Peres, Claudia Ziegler Acemyan, Ellen J. Bass, Emily Brunsen, Rosemarie Figueroa Jacinto, Julia (Jules) Trippe, Richard B. Wagner
      Pages: 317 - 320
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 317-320, September 2021.
      The society’s code of ethics was last updated in 2005 and thus needs to be reviewed and updated. To do so, the previous code of ethics was reviewed as well as other documentation particularly with respect to inclusion. The goal of the Code of Ethics Task Force at the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society is to not only review the society’s artefacts but also to recommend suggestions for their improvement with respect to best practices. Further, this Task Force will explore whether and if so how, operating rules should be established to support the Code of Ethics.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651040
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Manned-Unmanned Teaming: Research and Applications Panel

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      Authors: Joseph B. Lyons, Christopher A. Miller, Jay Shively, Nancy J. Cooke, Col. Dan “Animal” Javorsek, Phillip Walker
      Pages: 321 - 325
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 321-325, September 2021.
      This panel will discuss issues related to Manned-Unmanned Teaming (MUMT) technologies. Panelists were selected to represent diverse topics and each will provide a unique perspective on the MUMT challenge space. Joseph Lyons will frame the discussion and introduce the panelists. Each panelist will provide an overview of the MUMT research/applications they are involved in. Chris Miller will discuss an ongoing project looking at MUMT applications broadly across the enterprise and is seeking to identify the core systemic tenants of MUMT and metrics to gauge MUMT effectiveness. Jay Shively will discuss MUMT challenges in the context of UAS operations in the National aerospace. Nancy Cooke will discuss several MUMT research projects that emphasize teaming and associated research challenges. Col. Dan Javorsek will discuss recent MUMT programs at DARPA as well as where MUMT technologies can support Air Force applications. Phillip Walker will discuss the DARPA OFFSET program and human-swarm interactions, including human factor considerations of large swarm demonstration events.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651026
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Do the Branding, Tone, and Mode of Training Materials Influence Consumer
           Understanding of a Partially Automated Driving System'

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      Authors: Jeremiah Singer, James W. Jenness, Brian C. Tefft, Aaron Benson, William J. Horrey
      Pages: 326 - 326
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 326-326, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651058
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Tell Me What I Need To Know: Consumers’ Desire for Information
           Transparency in Self-Driving Vehicles

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      Authors: Earl W. Huff Jr, Siobahn Day Grady, Julian Brinnkley
      Pages: 327 - 331
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 327-331, September 2021.
      Fully autonomous or “self-driving” vehicles are an emerging mobility technology with a host of potential benefits over conventional motor vehicles. Proponents argue that widespread adoption of self-driving vehicles may save countless lives and millions of dollars annually by minimizing the likelihood of deadly vehicle crashes. However, for such benefits to be realized, widespread consumer adoption of self-driving technologies is a prerequisite. Prior research suggests that while consumers are broadly optimistic about the potential of vehicle automation, there are significant concerns that may undermine consumer adoption, such as the transparency of vehicle operation. There is insufficient research into consumers’ desire to understand a self-driving vehicle’s intent and decision-making process and its impact on their willingness to adopt. We conducted a study using a 63-question internet-based survey distributed in the United States to licensed drivers 18 years of age and older (n= 996) to examine consumer preferences of the information transparency of self-driving vehicles. Our findings suggest that middle-aged and older consumers of high household income were generally optimistic about the information sharing behavior and transparency of self-driving vehicles upon availability.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651240
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Studying Battery Range and Range Anxiety for Electric Vehicles based on
           Real Travel Demands

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      Authors: Zhengming Zhang, Renran Tian
      Pages: 332 - 336
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 332-336, September 2021.
      Determination of appropriate battery ranges is critical for developing and utilizing electric cars, which remains an active research topic. In particular, the issues of range anxiety have not been well studied concerning the battery design. Towards these research gaps, this study firstly investigates the baseline battery ranges based on the actual travel data collected from a large-scale longitudinal naturalistic driving study in the Midwestern USA. The occurrences and severity levels of range anxiety are then studied given the baseline, which leads to an augmented optimization model to eliminate such issues. Results show that in the baseline model, 60% of drivers can replace their gas cars entirely with 400-mile battery ranges, and less than 40% can do so with 200-mile battery ranges. Even when all the travel needs are satisfied, the optimal battery ranges can still cause range anxiety issues for all the drivers. An additional 25 miles of battery range can help solve the problem based on the improved optimization results.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651243
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Using Personas with Visual Impairments to Explore the Design of an
           Accessible Self-Driving Vehicle Human-Machine Interface

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      Authors: Julian Brinkley
      Pages: 337 - 341
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 337-341, September 2021.
      Recent reports have suggested that most self-driving vehicle technology being developed is not currently accessible to users with disabilities. We purport that this problem may be at least partially attributable to knowledge gaps in practice-oriented user-centered design research. Missing, we argue, are studies that demonstrate the practical application of user-centered design methodologies in capturing the needs of users with disabilities in the design of automotive systems specifically. We have investigated user-centered design, specifically the use of personas, as a methodological tool to inform the design of a self-driving vehicle human-machine interface for blind and low vision users. We then explore the use of these derived personas in a series of participatory design sessions involving visually impaired co-designers. Our findings suggest that a robust, multi-method UCD process culminating with persona development may be effective in capturing the conceptual model of persons with disabilities and informing the design of automotive system.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651223
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • An Accessible Autonomous Vehicle Ridesharing Ecosystem

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      Authors: Stephen Carvalho, Aaron Gluck, Daniel Quinn, Mengyuan Zhang, Lingyuan Li, Kimberly Groves, Julian Brinkley
      Pages: 342 - 346
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 342-346, September 2021.
      Autonomous ridesharing vehicles provide a potential alternative and affordable mode of transportation for older adults and users with disabilities or special needs, but relatively few studies have investigated the accessibility of autonomous ridesharing applications and vehicles for them. Therefore, a participatory design approach was used to investigate the needs and challenges of this population. This investigation involved interviews, review of past focus group transcripts, literature reviews, and surveys. The findings resulted in a list of user needs to design and build prototypes of accessible technologies as part of an ecosystem for booking and riding in autonomous ridesharing vehicles. The ecosystem of technologies consisted of prototypes of a mobile application, a web application, an in-vehicle human-machine interface, an external human-machine interface, and the vehicle interior design.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651227
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Predicting a Malicious Stop Sign: Knowledge, Exposure, Trust in AI

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      Authors: Scott Mishler, Katherine Garcia, Erin Fuller-Jakaitis, Cong Wang, Bin Hu, Jeremiah Still, Jing Chen
      Pages: 347 - 348
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 347-348, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651239
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Visuospatial Working Memory under Fatigue: Observations with Cerebral
           Hemodynamics and Heart Rate Variability

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      Authors: Rohith Karthikeyan, Joshua Carrizales, Connor Johnson, Ranjana Mehta
      Pages: 349 - 351
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 349-351, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651006
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effects of Spatial Uncertainty on Auditory Vigilance Performance and
           Cerebral Hemodynamics

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      Authors: Lucas J. Hess, Eric T. Greenlee
      Pages: 352 - 352
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 352-352, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651005
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Influence of Cumulative Risk Priming on Security Update Decision Making

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      Authors: Michael Shieh, Prashanth Rajivan
      Pages: 353 - 357
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 353-357, September 2021.
      Installing security updates is one of the important security actions individuals can take to prevent potential cybersecurity threats. The cumulative risk of delaying the installation of security updates over an extended period can be substantial, and yet, people often choose to delay such actions. Past research suggests that people neglect to update because the majority overestimate the cost (e.g., time) of an update and underestimate an attack risk. Utilizing the repeated protective decision paradigm, we conducted a laboratory experiment to examine whether priming people about the cumulative risk of not updating could influence their update speed. Results from our experiment show that communicating cumulative risk would only have a momentary effect on peoples’ update decisions and that people would quickly learn from experience to delay or neglect to update. Our findings highlight the importance of augmenting user habits to improve update decision-making.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651068
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Framework for Measuring Situation Awareness in Cyberspace Operations

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      Authors: Jason H. Wong, Karl Van Orden, Brittany R. Abrams, Rebecca M. Iden, Jake Viraldo
      Pages: 358 - 362
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 358-362, September 2021.
      Critical human factors challenges, including some that are unique to the cyber domain, demand technological solutions to aid operators performing cyber missions. One performance component of particular interest is measuring the situation awareness (SA) of human operators monitoring cyber events (herein called cyber SA). During a literature review, this paper’s authors found several attempts to develop and test measures of cyber SA, but none of the papers presented a framework integrating a formal definition of SA into the cyber domain. By crossing the US Army’s five-plane model of cyberspace operations with Endsley’s three-level model of SA, a formal framework is herein proposed. Using this framework, researchers can develop probe questions suitable for any cyber mission, and their results can be used to measure cyber SA. A sample application of this framework is provided, and future directions are proposed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651059
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Unrealistic Promises and Urgent Wording Differently Affect Suspicion of
           Phishing and Legitimate Emails

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      Authors: McKenna K. Tornblad, Miriam E. Armstrong, Keith S. Jones, Akbar Siami Namin
      Pages: 363 - 367
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 363-367, September 2021.
      Phishing emails have certain characteristics, including wording related to urgency and unrealistic promises (i.e., “too good to be true”), that attempt to lure victims. To test whether these characteristics affected users’ suspiciousness of emails, users participated in a phishing judgment task in which we manipulated 1) email type (legitimate, phishing), 2) consequence amount (small, medium, large), 3) consequence type (gain, loss), and 4) urgency (present, absent). We predicted users would be most suspicious of phishing emails that were urgent and offered large gains. Results supporting the hypotheses indicate that users were more suspicious of phishing emails with a gain consequence type or large consequence amount. However, urgency was not a significant predictor of suspiciousness for phishing emails, but was for legitimate emails. These results have important cybersecurity-related implications for penetration testing and user training.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651277
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Mitigating the Effects of Task Switching in Baggage Screeners

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      Authors: Kevin Zish, Jesse Eisert, Jennifer Blanchard, Daniel Endres, David Band, Kristopher Korbelak, Simone McKnight, Charles McKee
      Pages: 368 - 371
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 368-371, September 2021.
      Using a simulated baggage screening task, we investigated two literature-supported mitigation strategies for reducing the negative effects of task switching, namely less frequent switching and memory support. The study replicates widely reported switching effects on a complex task. The results also show that people can improve performance when provided memory support. When task switching, people can struggle to retrieve the correct task instruction due to the automatic process behind functional memory decay. Memory support reduces the negative effects of functional decay by providing people a reminder.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651201
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Navy Command Decision Making: Basic Research, Applied Research, and
           Transition to Enhance Current and Future Capabilities

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      Authors: Benjamin A. Clegg, Jeffrey G. Morrison, Noelle L. Brown, Karen M. Feigh, Harvey S. Smallman, Christopher D. Wickens
      Pages: 372 - 374
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 372-374, September 2021.
      The emergence of Human Factors as a discipline is often traced to pioneering efforts tackling military issues in World War II. Rapid technological advances raised fundamental questions around human performance. Approaches, solutions, and advances in the science soon spread outside of their original military contexts. Current and emerging technologies, and also new challenges for human-machine systems, means Human Factors remains central to military effectiveness, while producing outcomes with broader potential impact. This panel discussion will examine an array of contributions to the Office of Naval Research program on Command Decision Making. The session will explore methods to understand and enhance decision making through: (1) Addressing gaps that demand further foundational knowledge to produce empirical generalizations, models, and theories as basis for future guidelines, principles, specifications, and doctrine for Navy Command Decision Making; (2) Applications of existing knowledge within specific contexts to address current /future real world Navy decision making challenges.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651044
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • University Implementation of TEACHActive – An Automated Classroom
           Feedback System and Dashboard

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      Authors: Jameel Kelley, Dana AlZoubi, Stephen B. Gilbert, Evrim Baran, Aliye Karabulut-Ilgu, Shan Jiang
      Pages: 375 - 379
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 375-379, September 2021.
      Computer vision has the potential to play a significant role in capacity building for classroom instructors via automated feedback. This paper describes the implementation of an automated sensing and feedback system, TEACHActive. The results of this paper can enable other campuses to replicate a similar system using open-source software and consumer-grade hardware. Some of the challenges discussed include faculty recruitment, IRB procedures, camera-based classroom footage privacy, hardware setup, software setup, and IT support. The design and implementation of the TEACHActive system is being carried out at Iowa State University and is being tested with faculty in classrooms pilots. Preliminary interviews with instructors show a desire to include more active learning methods in their classrooms and overall interest in a system that can perform automated feedback. The primary results of this paper include lessons learned from the institutional implementation process.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651186
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Scientific and Design Understandings of Aesthetics

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      Authors: Dahlia Alharoon, Douglas J. Gillan, Carina Lei
      Pages: 380 - 384
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 380-384, September 2021.
      User Experience (UX) extends the construct of usability by an additional focus on emotion, motivation and aesthetics. An emphasis on aesthetics has been undertaken to a greater extent by design disciplines than by science. The present review examines both design and scientific approaches to aesthetics in order to integrate the two approaches and identify research opportunities that could result in science based design principals. The review of design approaches to aesthetics indicates the primary importance of balance as an element of design. Accordingly, research on the role of balance in producing aesthetic responses from users is a reasonable starting point for a program of research. Additionally, the analysis of aesthetic metrics and individual differences in aesthetic preferences in scientific research are discussed as possible collaboration areas for designers.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651242
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Accessibility Retrofit of a Shared Automated Vehicle: Challenges and
           Lessons Learned

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      Authors: Kamolnat Tabattanon, Clive D’Souza
      Pages: 385 - 389
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 385-389, September 2021.
      Driverless shared automated vehicles (SAVs) have the potential to substantially improve independent mobility for the growing number of older adults and people with disabilities who are unable or ineligible to drive. However, early designs and deployments of SAVs have lacked accommodations for people with disabilities. This article describes a case study where post-production modifications were performed on a commercial electric SAV in an attempt to comply with US accessibility guidelines for conventional vehicles. Findings emphasize the key human factors considerations for physical accessibility and some lessons learned in order to inform the broader conversation about the accessible design of emerging SAVs. The case study highlights the need for considering accessibility and usability early in the design of complex technological systems such as automated vehicles.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651168
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Employing Agent-based Modeling to Mitigate Infectious Disease Spread

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      Authors: Michael Schwartz, Paul Oppold, Boniface Noyongoyo, Peter Hancock
      Pages: 390 - 394
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 390-394, September 2021.
      The current pandemic has tested systems in place as to how to fight infectious diseases in many countries. COVID-19 spreads quickly and is deadly. However, it can be controlled through different measures such as physical distancing. The current project examines through simulation model of the UCF Global building the potential spread of an infectious disease via AnyLogic Personal Learning Edition (PLE) 8.7.0 on a laptop running Windows 10. The goal is to determine the environmental and interpersonal factors that could be modified to reduce risk of illness while maintaining typical business operations. Multiple experiments were ran to see when there is a potential change in infection and spread rate. Results show that increases occur with density between 400 and 500. To curtail the spread it is therefore important to limit contact through physical distancing for it has been proven an effective measure for reducing the spread of viral infections.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651200
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Increasing physical activity among elementary school students during
           distance learning: The StandUp Kids Study

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      Authors: Judith I. Okoro, Brittany Ballen, Melissa Afterman, Carisa Harris Adamson, Michelle M. Robertson
      Pages: 395 - 397
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 395-397, September 2021.
      Sedentary behaviour among primary school students has been associated with unfavourable health outcomes, which have been believed to be exacerbated by distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. We present the methodology used to design and develop interventions to increase physical activity in 4th grade students using a participatory, systems approach while online learning. Preliminary formative evaluation of training has indicated a positive reception by the stakeholders. This study highlights the importance of a systems approach to engage stakeholders in the betterment of our students’ health.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651245
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Human-Centered Design and Research in Deprescribing

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      Authors: Richard J. Holden, Jordan R. Hill, Noll L. Campbell, Yan Xiao, Ayse P. Gurses, Huei-Yen Winnie Chen, Michelle A. Chui
      Pages: 398 - 402
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 398-402, September 2021.
      Deprescribing is the process of withdrawing or replacing medications to improve outcomes and reduce medication-associated risks. Deprescribing, though traditionally the domain of healthcare professionals, is now receiving attention from human factors experts. In turn, the deprescribing community is gaining an appreciation for human-centered design and research. This panel gathers experts in human factors and pharmacy to critically discuss past, current, and future work concerning human-centered design and research in deprescribing. The panel will help formulate the value proposition for human factors in this important area.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651030
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Biomechanical Evaluation of a Human-Robot Collaborative Task in a
           Physically Interactive Virtual Reality Simulation Testbed

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      Authors: Manoj Srinivasan, Syed T. Mubarrat, Quentin Humphrey, Thomas Chen, Kieran Binkley, Suman K. Chowdhury
      Pages: 403 - 407
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 403-407, September 2021.
      In this study, we developed a low-cost simulated testbed of a physically interactive virtual reality (VR) system and evaluated its efficacy as an occupational virtual trainer for human-robot collaborative (HRC) tasks. The VR system could be implemented in industrial training applications for sensorimotor skill acquisitions and identifying potential task-, robot-, and human-induced hazards in the industrial environments. One of the challenges in designing and implementing such simulation testbed is the effective integration of virtual and real objects and environment, including human movement biomechanics. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the movement kinematics (joint angles) and kinetics (center of pressure) of the human participants while performing pick-and-place lifting tasks with and without using a physically interactive VR testbed. Results showed marginal differences in human movement kinematics and kinetics between real and virtual environment tasks, suggesting the effective transfer of training benefits from VR to real-life situations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651267
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Biomechanical Evaluation of Back-Support Exoskeletons during Patient
           Transfers

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      Authors: Jaejin Hwang, Venkata Naveen Kumar Yerriboina, Hemateja Ari, Jeong Ho Kim
      Pages: 408 - 412
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 408-412, September 2021.
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three back-support exoskeletons (FLx ErgoSkeleton, V22 ErgoSkeleton, Laevo V2.5) and patient transfer methods (Squat pivot, stand pivot, scoot) on the musculoskeletal loading and self-reported usability measures during patient transfers between a bed and a wheelchair. In a repeated-measures laboratory study, 20 experienced caregivers (17 females and 3 males) performed a series of 24 bed-to-wheelchair transfer tasks (2 directions × 4 exoskeleton conditions × 3 patient transfer methods). The trunk flexion and lateral flexion angles, bilateral hand pull forces, and muscle activities of the erector spinae were significantly different by exoskeleton conditions and patient transfer methods (p’s < 0.01). The usability measures were significantly affected by exoskeleton designs (p’s < 0.01). There were significant two-way interaction effects on the trunk flexion and lateral flexion angles and muscle activities of the erector spinae (p’s < 0.01). For the squat pivot method, three back-support exoskeletons showed the largest reduction of erector spinae muscle activities (47.4 to 83.5% reference voluntary contractions) compared to no exoskeleton. This indicated the effects of exoskeleton conditions on the trunk postures and erector spinae muscle activities depended on the patient transfer method. More research could be needed to improve the trunk postures and usability of back-support exoskeletons suitable for patient handling.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651067
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Usability and user acceptance of an arm-support exoskeleton in automotive
           assembly: Results of a long-term field evaluation

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      Authors: Sunwook Kim, Maury A. Nussbaum, Marty Smets
      Pages: 413 - 414
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 413-414, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651165
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Muscle Activation Differs Between Individuals During Initial Powered Ankle
           Exoskeleton Adaptation

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      Authors: Yadrianna Acosta-Sojo, Leia Stirling
      Pages: 415 - 418
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 415-418, September 2021.
      Although previous studies have shown that powered exoskeletons reduce muscle activation while walking across participants, less is known about how they impact an individual’s muscle activation. This study examined an individual’s muscle activity during walking with a powered ankle exoskeleton. The designed human-exoskeleton coordination was defined as a decrease in medial gastrocnemius (MGAS) muscle activation with the exoskeleton powered and increase with the exoskeleton unpowered. 60% of the participants were observed to coordinate with the exoskeleton as designed, with 67% showing a decrease in RMS MGAS during adaptation. 60% of the participants showed no change during the de-adaptation, with 47% not returning to baseline metrics by late de-adaptation. Muscle activity differs between individuals in response to the exoskeleton power state and over time within the power state. It is important to consider these different behaviors when integrating exoskeletons into occupational settings as adaptation may be supported by training and experience.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651055
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A preliminary decision tree modeling of factors that determine readiness
           to use exoskeletons in construction

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      Authors: Albert Moore, Sunwook Kim, Divya Srinivasan, Maury A. Nussbaum, Aanuoluwapo Ojelade, Carisa Harris-Adamson, Nancy Gutierrez Contreras, Alan Barr, David Rempel
      Pages: 419 - 420
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 419-420, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651014
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effects of Arm-Support Exoskeletons on Kinematics and Subjective
           Assessments During a Static Task

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      Authors: Aanuoluwapo Ojelade, Denean Kelson, Sunwook Kim, Divya Srinivasan, Marty Smets, Maury A. Nussbaum
      Pages: 421 - 422
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 421-422, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651187
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effects of a Bolster Curvature on an Automobile Seat Fit

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      Authors: Baekhee Lee, Byoung-Keon (Daniel) Park, Kihyo Jung, Jangwoon Park
      Pages: 423 - 426
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 423-426, September 2021.
      Vehicle-seat dimensions measured at specific cross-sections have been historically utilized as shape determinants to evaluate a driver’s seat fit. The present study is intended to quantify the relationships between seat fits and the seat dimensions for designing an ergonomic vehicle seat. Eight seat engineers evaluated seat fits for 54 different driver seats based on their expertise. Five seat dimensions were measured at six cross-sectional planes using a custom-built, computerized program. The best-subset-logistic-regression method was employed to model the relationships between the seat fit and the seat dimensions. As a result, significant seat dimensions, such as insert width, bolster height, and/or bolster curvature, on the subjective seat fit (e.g., loose-fit, right-fit, and tight-fit) were quantified. The developed models showed 98% overall classification accuracy throughout the cross-sectional planes. The models promote a digital design process of an automobile seat, which would increase the efficiency of the process and reduce the development costs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651180
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Towards a Graphical Grammar for Task Analysis Visualization

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      Authors: Glory Creed, Stephen Dorton
      Pages: 427 - 431
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 427-431, September 2021.
      Task Analysis (TA) represents not one standard method, but rather a toolkit of methods that come with a large and complex range of outputs. Due to this fluidity in methods and resultant data, a standard method of analysis and visual data representation does not currently exist. Depending on the research methods used and desired outcomes, some visualization methods may be more appropriate than others. This body of work seeks to demonstrate the need for the establishment of a graphical grammar in this domain. Initial recommendations are provided for visualizing different task analysis methods. This research lays the groundwork towards the development of a full set of visualization best practices to allow practitioners to gain the most insight from their TA methods of choice.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651164
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Design Considerations for the Development of Crowdsourcing Systems

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      Authors: Samantha B. Harper, Stephen L. Dorton, Glory Creed
      Pages: 432 - 436
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 432-436, September 2021.
      We present a case study on factors that affect the usability and User Experience (UX) of a crowdsourcing platform for argumentation. While this particular system is focused on argumentation, we have aimed to abstract our findings such that they are generalizable to other use cases so that others may consider these lessons learned and recommendations for the development of more effective crowdsourcing and collaborative work platforms. Several themes were identified in participant responses about the usability and UX of the crowdsourcing system, including a desire for less structure, the need for additional training, the desire for a streamlined workflow and UI, improved navigation, and the enjoyment of interactions with other users.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651160
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A novel approach for usability evaluation of mobile applications

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      Authors: Junho Park, Maryam Zahabi
      Pages: 437 - 441
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 437-441, September 2021.
      Mobile applications (apps) have been massively developed and released in recent years. In this competitive market, the users’ adoption of the app or satisfaction greatly depends on its usability. Therefore, tech companies and app developers are looking for quick and easy approaches to evaluate the usability of their products early in the design cycle. The objective of this study was to introduce a novel approach combining the capabilities of the gesture-level model (GLM) and heuristic evaluation to assess the usability of mobile apps in early stages of the design cycle and without the need for costly and time-consuming user testing. The approach can be run on a graphical user interface and includes uncertainties regarding user skill level and distraction. Preliminary results suggested that this approach can be used for usability evaluation of mobile apps; however, its validity and generalizability to other domains need to be validated in the future with human-subject experiments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651092
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A human factors analysis of the Stretch mobile manipulator robot

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      Authors: Travis Kadylak, Megan A. Bayles, Leonardo Galoso, Maxwell Chan, Harshal Mahajan, Charles C. Kemp, Aaron Edsinger2, Wendy A. Rogers
      Pages: 442 - 446
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 442-446, September 2021.
      Assistive and mobile robots have potential to support everyday domestic tasks and enable independence for persons in the home. As a first step to evaluating this potential, we assessed the initial unboxing and setup of Hello Robot’s Stretch RE1– a novel mobile manipulator designed for domestic settings. All study procedures took place in the McKechnie Family LIFE Home, which is a smart home research facility on the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign campus. We used subject matter experts (SMEs) and followed human factors principles to consider obstacles users with diverse needs and capabilities (e.g., older adults, persons with mobility disabilities) might encounter during the unboxing process. We then conducted 50 trials of user testing and critical task analyses in the LIFE home to assess the feasibility and usability for different use cases. Research team members controlled Stretch by using a game controller. We used Stretch to manipulate 15 different types of objects that would be part of domestic activities needed to live independently, such as tasks needed for meal preparation. We documented the frequency of errors, time spent manipulating the object, and informal qualitative feedback from teleoperators during and after each trial (using a think-aloud protocol). Implications for future domestic robot design using human factors approaches are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651093
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Pilot Study on Extending the SUS Survey: Early Results

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      Authors: Samantha B. Harper, Stephen L. Dorton
      Pages: 447 - 451
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 447-451, September 2021.
      The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a popular method to measure the subjective usability of a system, due largely to the simplicity and rapidity of both collecting and analyzing data. A drawback is that the SUS generates a single unidimensional usability score from 0-100. Several researchers have amassed larger datasets across multiple projects to allow for analysis on additional methods to glean insights from the SUS survey. Along these lines, we investigate the practical value of extending the SUS survey with additional items such as open text responses, and test underlying assumptions of how SUS results are interpreted. We found that while a lower SUS score does generally correlate to a stronger desire to modify the system, people generally want to make modifications to a system regardless of its usability. Further, we found that the amount of user feedback related to modifications to a system provided predicted subjective usability ratings.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651162
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Exploring the Use of Cognitive Work Analysis in Developing a Nuclear Power
           Plant New-State Vision

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      Authors: Casey R. Kovesdi, Zachary A. Spielman
      Pages: 452 - 456
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 452-456, September 2021.
      The United States nuclear industry needs to identify and implement a new strategy that will lower operating and maintenance costs while maintaining safety for existing plants. The industry must also have a clear and strategic vision of this transformative new state that focuses on ways in which technologies can be integrated to maximize the benefits of technology and people. While there are ongoing efforts in this area, this work discusses how the use of cognitive work analysis may offer further support. This paper provides an overview of cognitive work analysis, as well as the state of current new-state development efforts. The use of cognitive work analysis as a tool to enhance existing practices is presented to ensure the systematic and complete development of a new state vision.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651129
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • User Needs of Smart Home Services

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      Authors: Shabnam FakhrHosseini, Sheng-Hung Lee, John Rudnik, Heesuk Son, Chaiwoo Lee, Joseph Coughlin
      Pages: 457 - 461
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 457-461, September 2021.
      Technological advances have improved the functionality of smart home systems and services, enabling consumers to automate some of in-home tasks, enhance their safety and security, and save energy. Despite improved functionality, user adoption of many available products and services remains low. This phenomenon suggests that smart home technologies may not be meeting the needs of potential users. Furthermore, continued technological advancement combined with changes in people’s lifestyle and attitudes towards in-home technologies require updated investigations to gain a clear view of current user needs. This study presents findings from a set of semi-structured interviews and card-sorting activities with eleven participants from different socio-demographic backgrounds, with a focus on describing ten challenges commonly experienced in the home environment. Possible technological solutions are discussed from the existing unmet needs within the scope of smart and connected homes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651218
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Trust in Automation: Comparison of Automobile, Robot, Medical, and Cyber
           Aid Technologies

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      Authors: Sarah K. Hopko, Ranjana K. Mehta, Anthony D. McDonald
      Pages: 462 - 466
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 462-466, September 2021.
      The adoption and appropriate utilization of automated subsystems is dependent on the acceptance, trust, and reliance in the automated subsystem and the systems as a whole. The differences in trust attitudes between vehicle, robot, medical devices, and cyber aids, as affected by dispositional and learned factors has not been studied. As such this paper employs an anonymous online survey to evaluate the contribution of these factors to trust by technology. The results indicate automation in medical devices are ranked as the most trusted, and the automation trust index is highest for automation in cyber aids, followed by medical devices. Vehicle automation and robot automation are the least trusted technologies by both measures. Furthermore, the largest contributors to trust index included familiarity with the technology, perceived importance and usefulness of the technology, and propensity to trust automation. This study illustrates the importance of considering demographics, attitudes, and experience in trust studies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651179
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Enhancing the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation using ComputerVision

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      Authors: Runyu L. Greene, Guanhua Chen, Ming-Lun Lu, Yu Hen Hu, Robert G. Radwin
      Pages: 467 - 471
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 467-471, September 2021.
      Trunk kinematics (i.e. speed and acceleration), a risk factor associated with low back pain (LBP), is difficult to measure in the field and is not incorporated in popular lifting analysis tools. In this study, computationally efficient computer vision-based methods were used to estimate trunk kinematics from video recordings collected in a previous prospective study. We explored the relationships between trunk kinematics and health outcomes, and if incorporating trunk kinematics into the revised NIOSH Lifting Equation (RNLE) may improve its predictability of LBP risk. Significant correlations between the percentage of LBP and the average trunk speed and acceleration were found. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed using the kinematics variables and the RNLE lifting index (LI) as independent variables to predict the probability that a task was associated with high LBP risk. When trunk kinematics was incorporated to the LI model, the predictability of the model improved significantly (p=0.003).
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651211
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Single-Camera Computer Vision-Based Method for 3D L5/S1 MomentEstimation
           During Lifting Tasks

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      Authors: Hanwen Wang, Ziyang Xie, Lu Lu, Li Li, Xu Xu, Edward P. Fitts
      Pages: 472 - 476
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 472-476, September 2021.
      Excessive low back joint loading during material handling tasks is considered a critical risk factor of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Therefore, it is necessary to understand the low-back joint loading during manual material handling to prevent low-back injuries. Recently, computer vision-based pose reconstruction methods have shown the potential in human kinematics and kinetics analysis. This study performed L5/S1 joint moment estimation by combining VideoPose3D, an open-source pose reconstruction library, and a biomechanical model. Twelve participants lifting a 10 kg plastic crate from the floor to a knuckle-height shelf were captured by a camera and a laboratory-based motion tracking system. The L5/S1 joint moments obtained from the camera video were compared with those obtained from the motion tracking system. The comparison results indicate that estimated total peak L5/S1 moments during lifting tasks were positively correlated to the reference L5/S1 joint moment, and the percentage error is 7.7%.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651065
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Development of a Full-body OpenSim Musculoskeletal Model Incorporating
           Head-mounted Virtual Reality Headset

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      Authors: Quentin Humphrey, Manoj Srinivasan, Syed T. Mubarrat, Suman K. Chowdhury
      Pages: 477 - 481
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 477-481, September 2021.
      In this study, we developed and validated a full-body musculoskeletal model in OpenSim to estimate muscle and joint forces while performing various motor tasks using a virtual reality (VR) system. We compared the results from our developed full-body musculoskeletal model to those from previous studies by simulating kinematic and kinetic data of participants performing pick-and-place lifting tasks using with and without a physically interactive VR system. Results showed that scaling errors between the two environments are comparable, while the overall errors were consistent with previous studies. Overall, the results from the inverse dynamic simulations showed the promise of our developed OpenSim models in determining potential intervention or prevention strategies to reduce the musculoskeletal injury incidences while simulating human-device interaction tasks.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651270
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Occupational Fatigue Risk Assessment and Management System: A Systematic
           Review and Bibliometric Analysis

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      Authors: Mundhir Nasser Al Alawi, Suman Kanti Chowdhury
      Pages: 482 - 483
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 482-483, September 2021.
      An occupational fatigue risk management system (FRMS) framework can aid practitioners to reduce the fatigue-induced human error, poor performance, and the risk of injury in the industrial settings. However, the current state-of-knowledge on different theoretical frameworks of FRMS adopted in various occupational settings has not been systematically mapped in terms of risk factors, industrial sector types, activity types, and interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to review and characterize the previous literature on FRMS available in the ISI Web of Science (WoS) database and applied various bibliometric approaches to explore current state-of-knowledge, emerging trends and future directions. The data for the analyses were collected from the 68 articles published in 24 various journals between 2001 and 2021. The trend showed a rapid increase in FRMS research in the last seven years, especially in healthcare and aviation industries. Future studies should consider environmental stressors while designing a holistic framework of FRMS.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651021
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Determinants of the Fatigue Life of Musculoskeletal Tissues

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      Authors: Sean Gallagher
      Pages: 484 - 488
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 484-488, September 2021.
      While the effects of physical risk factors on MSD development have been a primary focus of musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) research, it is clear that psychological stressors and certain personal characteristics (e.g., aging, sex, and obesity) are also associated with increased MSD risk. The psychological and personal characteristics listed above share a common characteristic: all are associated with disruption of the body’s neuroendocrine and immune responses resulting in an impaired healing process. An impaired healing response may result in reduced fatigue life of musculoskeletal tissues due to a diminished ability to keep pace with accumulating damage (perhaps reparable under normal circumstances), and increased vulnerability of damaged tissue to further trauma owing to the prolonged healing process. Research in engineered self-healing materials suggests that decreased healing kinetics in the presence of mechanical loading can substantially reduce the fatigue life of materials. A model of factors influencing damage accrual and healing will be presented.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651216
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Validation of a Wireless Sensor System for the Estimation of Cumulative
           Lumbar Loads in Occupational Settings

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      Authors: Ivan Nail-Ulloa, Sean Gallagher, Rong Huangfu, Dania Bani-Hani, Nathan Pool
      Pages: 489 - 494
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 489-494, September 2021.
      This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of 3D L5/S1 moment estimates from a wearable inertial motioncapture system during manual lifting tasks. Reference L5/S1 moments were calculated using inversedynamics bottom-up and top-down laboratory models, based on the data from a measurement systemcomprising optical motion capture and force plates. Nine groups of four subjects performed tasks consistingof lifting and lowering 10 lbs. load with three different heights and asymmetry angles. As a measure ofsystem performance, the root means square errors and absolute peak errors between models werecompared. Also, repeated measures analyses of variance were calculated comparing the means and theabsolute peaks of the estimated moments. The results suggest that most of the estimates obtained from thewireless sensor system are in close correspondence when comparing the means, and more variability isobserved when comparing peak values to other models calculating estimates of L5/S1 moments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651078
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Error recovery training literature review: Implications for emergency
           field medicine

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      Authors: Laura G. Militello, Eli Wagner, Jennifer Winner, Christen Sushereba, Jessica McCool
      Pages: 495 - 499
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 495-499, September 2021.
      Training focused on recognizing when a medical procedure has not been implemented effectively may reduce preventable battlefield deaths. Although important research has been conducted about a range of error recovery training strategies, few studies have been conducted in the context of training for high stakes, dynamic domains such as combat medic training. We conducted a literature review to examine how error recovery training has been designed in other contexts, with the intent of abstracting recommendations for designing error recovery training to support military personnel providing emergency field medicine. Implications for combat medic training include: 1) a focus on error management rather than error avoidance, 2) a didactic training component may support training engagement and mental model development, 3) an experiential component may be designed to support perceptual skill development and anomaly detection, and 4) feedback should focus on allowing learners to make errors and encouraging them to learn from errors.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651073
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Patient Safety Risks during On-Demand Telehealth Referrals and
           Implications for Human Factors Research

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      Authors: Kylie M. Gomes, Katharine T. Adams, Ethan Booker, Raj M. Ratwani
      Pages: 500 - 504
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 500-504, September 2021.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly accelerated the adoptionof on-demand telehealth as a way to keep patients and providers safe from viral transmission. However, theconstrained timelines and challenging conditions under which telehealth was implemented along with the factthat many patientsand providers are interacting in a new modality raisesconcerns about the potential for unintended patient safety risks that have yet to be fully understood. With the surge in telehealth patient volumeduringthe pandemic,on demand telehealth has served as a way to triageand refer patients who need additional in-person evaluation and treatment. One safety concern is whether patients who are referred are successfully following through on in-person care referrals as thefailure to seekin-person care may lead to increased risk of delayed or missed diagnosis. This study aimsto evaluate whether patientsare successfully fulfilling their in -person referralsfollowingareferralfromon-demandtelehealth through retrospective analysis of a subset of telehealth referral datafrom a large healthcare system. Of the 911 on-demand telehealth visitswith a referral to in-person care, only 689showed anin-person care encounter following the telehealthvisit and only 75-85% ofmore immediate urgency in-person referrals were fulfilled within the recommended time period of 24 hours. This preliminary data highlights theneed for amore comprehensiveanalysisof the telehealth referral processand the application of human factors methodsto understand and address barriers and risks associated with telehealth referrals and successful follow up.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651089
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Cub Companion: Aiding The Establishment of Trust Between Patients and
           Nurses In Pediatric Oncology Units Via Technology And Augmented Reality

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      Authors: C. R. Hasbrouck, Elizabeth M. Starkey
      Pages: 505 - 509
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 505-509, September 2021.
      The purpose of this study is to investigate the needs of pediatric cancer patients to alleviate some of the stress associated with their treatments and hospitalization. Two pediatric nurses and six parents of children with childhood cancer diagnoses were interviewed to determine the best methods of stress reduction during cancer treatments. Using the information gathered, a qualitative content analysis was conducted using pre-coded themes to determine prevalent ideas throughout the interviews. Themes that emerged for reducing stress included building trust with parents and medical staff, becoming comfortable in a new environment, and distraction during invasive procedures. An augmented reality concept was tested using a medium-fidelity prototype consisting of a customizable teddy bear and Adobe XD mobile application simulation. The evidence collected during interviews and medium-fidelity prototype testing shows great promise for Cub Companion’s ability to provide distraction during treatments and help the child build trust with medical personnel.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651193
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Identifying Tools and Technology Barriers to In-Home Care for Children
           with Medical Complexity

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      Authors: Reid Parks, Nadia Doutcheva, Dhivya Umachandran, Nawang Singhe, Sofia Noejovich, Mary Ehlenbach, Gemma Warner, Carrie Nacht, Michelle Kelly, Ryan Coller, Nicole E. Werner
      Pages: 510 - 514
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 510-514, September 2021.
      Family caregivers use tools and technology to provide care for children with medical complexity (CMC) in the home. It is unclear what barriers families experience when using the tools and technology integral to the care and wellbeing of CMC. Our objective was to identify the barriers family caregivers experience in using tools and technology to provide care to CMC in the home. We used contextual inquiry to interview 30 caregivers in their homes and analyzed our data using a deductive content analysis informed by the patient work system (PWS) model and an inductive content analysis to identify emergent barriers. Through these combined analyses, we identified four categories of barriers families experienced using tools and technology to care for CMC: 1) Access and Cost; 2) Usability, which includes the subcategories Functionality, Tool design, Ease of use, and Reliability; 3) Short-term tool impact; and 4) Long-term tool impact. Our results point to the need for further interventions to reduce or mitigate tools and technology barriers to the in-home care for CMC.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651214
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Engineering Prone Patient Positioning for Spine Surgery to Reduce Risk of
           Clinician Injury

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      Authors: Bethany R. Lowndes, Sarah Kraft, Gladys B. Asiedu, Sandra Woolley, Lynn Loynes, Paul H. Huddleston, M. Susan Hallbeck
      Pages: 515 - 519
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 515-519, September 2021.
      Operating room throughput variability with spinal procedures revealed task inefficiency and potential safety concerns. Using the DMAIC framework (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control), a transdisciplinary team conducted a quality improvement (QI) research project to identify and address safety concerns with prone patient positioning. The main problem with patient positioning was undefined standard practice. Clinicians reported prone patient positioning for spinal surgery patients is physically demanding. Thus, the team conducted a rapid upper limb assessment for injury risk during patient positioning and identified a greater risk of clinician injury in the manual transfer process. The QI research team recommended the mechanical process of rotating patients with the Jackson Table to improve workload for the Surgical Team and developed training and design enhancements to support this workflow. The DMAIC quality framework enabled clinician collaboration with researchers to develop interventions to support a standardized process during prone patient positioning with the Jackson Table.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651274
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Human Factors Considerations in Designing a Portable Dialysis Device:
           Understanding Patients’ and Care Partners’ Needs for Increased
           Mobility

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      Authors: Auður Anna Jónsdóttir, Siena Firestone, Larry Kessler, Ji-Eun Kim
      Pages: 520 - 524
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 520-524, September 2021.
      The objective of this study is to guide the designs of a portable dialysis device that allows patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) greater mobility and flexibility to travel. We gathered patients’ and care partners’ motivations behind their travels along with the barriers they experience when planning an overnight trip. Using a quantitative analysis approach for the open-ended questions along with rank-order of response frequencies, our findings indicate that the majority of the motivations behind participants travel is to visit their family and friends but the participants find themselves either completely hindered or experience significant challenges when planning overnight trips where the designs of current dialysis devices and or the logistics of planning or scheduling treatments in an unfamiliar dialysis center outweigh the enjoyment of traveling. Our results give an estimate of parameters for the largest acceptable size and weight of a portable dialysis device that meets users’ needs. The results of this study help provide the designers of a portable dialysis device with better-targeted solutions to design a device that comfortably supports patients’ mobility and freedom of travel.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651151
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Covid-19 Pandemic Behavioral Response in a Sample of Young Adults

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      Authors: Cristiane K. Brazil, Malgorzata J. Rys
      Pages: 525 - 529
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 525-529, September 2021.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has changed our everyday lives and our behaviors. New effects, such as being afraid of leaving one’s home, have been reported, and people had to adapt their daily lives to cope with social distancing and pandemic guidelines. This study surveyed 115 young adults ages mostly between 18 and 24 to explore personal perceptions about this pandemic, adaptations made, and feelings in response to this pandemic. Results showed a possible link between self-rate health and confidence in recovering if getting this disease. Behavioral modifications reported included changes in shopping patterns, exercising less, and making more video-calls. Loneliness levels seem to have increased for this age-group, and Fear of Missing Out seems to be still taking place, along with some new feelings of Fear of Going Out. This is unlikely the last pandemic to develop. Understanding the impacts of it will be essential to better act and prepare for the future.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651232
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Advancing Equitable and Just Practices in Human Factors and Ergonomics

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      Authors: Rory Lusebrink, Abigail R. Wooldridge, Mia Spiwak
      Pages: 530 - 534
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 530-534, September 2021.
      Marginalized people are disproportionately harmed by systemic social inequities; human factors and ergonomics (HF/E) professionals can address these systemic issues by developing and implementing equitable and just practices. To identify practical steps to transform ergonomic practice, we thematically analyzed two group discussions from a session focused on diversity, inclusion, and justice at the 2019 Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES). We identified 36 recommendations to advance equitable and just practices in HF/E, for both practitioners and academics. HF/E professionals should be particularly mindful about historical harm when engaging with vulnerable populations and take appropriate steps to ensure the safety and well-being of all people. HF/E professionals can do so by building relations with and empowering community members as well as learning methods of engagement from other fields.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651074
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Formation of Data Science Teams based on Scenario Characteristics

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      Authors: Holly A. H. Handley, Candace Eshelman-Haynes
      Pages: 535 - 540
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 535-540, September 2021.
      The objective of this research was to identify a set of attributes to characterize data science scenarios to assists in the formation of an accompanying data science team. The six scenario characteristics were developed in consultation with a Subject Matter Expert (SME) to identify the important aspects of a data science endeavor. Concurrently, a generalizable role by task matrix was developed that captures the high-level data science functions and potential team member roles. This matrix was based on the NATO data science process function definitions, linked to the U.S. Department of Labor social science work activities, and data science role definitions. The mapping of the characteristics to the role by task matrix results in guidelines for forming a data science team; an example scenario with its characteristics and proposed team design is described. This work suggests methods to customize team information for specific data science needs based on scenario attributes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651048
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Broadening Diversity and Inclusivity in Human Factors and Ergonomics

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      Authors: Mia Spiwak, Abigail R. Wooldridge, Rory Lusebrink
      Pages: 541 - 545
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 541-545, September 2021.
      Diversity and inclusivity are important, with demonstrated impact on numerous outcomes, including breadth, creativity, and innovation of work as well as satisfaction and commitment to organizations. The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) Diversity and Inclusion Committee is charged with increasing diversity and inclusiveness within the society and, by extension, within the Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF/E) profession. We conducted a thematic analysis of an alternative format session at the HFES 2019 Annual Meeting, focusing on a breakout session where attendees discussed “Broadening Participation in HF/E.” Participants reported current levels of diversity and inclusion in the HF/E profession are lacking due to a limited early knowledge about the field compounded by resource barriers, which ultimately prevents involvement in outreach activities intended to increase participation. Thoughtfully designed outreach activities and partnerships with relevant organizations and individuals could mitigate these factors, provided outreach activities are designed to be accessible to all.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651184
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Gamma Oscillations Index Sustained Attention in a Brief Vigilance Task

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      Authors: Lorraine Borghetti, Megan B. Morris, L. Jack Rhodes, Ashley R. Haubert, Bella Z. Veksler
      Pages: 546 - 550
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 546-550, September 2021.
      Sustained attention is an essential behavior in life, but often leads to performance decrements with time. Computational accounts of sustained attention suggest this is due to brief disruptions in goal-directed processing, or microlapses. Decreases in gamma spectral power are a potential candidate for indexing microlapses and discriminating between low and high performers in sustained attention tasks, while increases in beta, alpha, and theta power are expected to exhibit compensatory effort to offset fatigue. The current study tests these hypotheses in a 10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Test, a context that eliminates confounds with measuring gamma frequencies. 34 participants (Mage = 22.60; SDage = 4.08) volunteered in the study. Results suggested frontal gamma power declined with time-on-task, indicating reduction in central cognition. Beta power increased with time-on-task, suggesting compensatory effort; however, alpha and theta power did not increase. Additionally, gamma power discriminated between low and high performers, potentially suggesting motivational differences between the groups.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651122
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Online Instruction for Cognitive Systems Engineering: Lessons Learned and
           Opportunities to Pursue

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      Authors: Philip J. Smith, Karen Feigh, Nadine Sarter, David Woods
      Pages: 551 - 555
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 551-555, September 2021.
      One of the impacts of the pandemic has been a rapid increase in the development and offering of online courses focused on cognitive systems engineering. This presents opportunities to:● Identify and share alternative instructional design strategies and more specific instructional tactics tailored to the online environment and learn from each others’ experiences.● Discuss how lessons learned from the design and offering of online courses can not only inform future offerings of online courses but also generalize to in-person courses.● Identify the opportunities created by online instruction to reach a broader audience, not only geographically but also in terms of reaching practitioners whose specializations are outside of human factors.The panelists have expertise and experience in all of these areas. Their perspectives are briefly described below.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651027
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Applying Cognitive Load Theory to Examine STEM Undergraduate Students’
           Experiences in An Adaptive Learning Environment: A Mixed-Methods Study

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      Authors: Dolly Bounajim, Arif Rachmatullah, Madeline Hinckle, Bradford Mott, James Lester, Andy Smith, Andrew Emerson, Fahmid Morshed Fahid, Xiaoyi Tian, Joseph B. Wiggins, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric Wiebe
      Pages: 556 - 560
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 556-560, September 2021.
      This study examined undergraduate STEM students’ experiences using an online introductory computer programming learning environment equipped with an automated hint generation system. Following a convergent parallel mixed methods design, this study utilized both quantitative and qualitative data from student experiential data. Analysis by level of prior knowledge demonstrated that elements of the learning environment did not cater to their learning needs and cognitive architecture. Cognitive Load Theory was used to contextualize system elements against both higher and lower prior experience learners, ultimately pointing to a need to design better scaffolds and hints to the needs of novice CS learners.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651249
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Case report for the learning science evaluation checklist

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      Authors: Siyuan Li, Robert F. Siegle, Scotty D. Craig
      Pages: 561 - 565
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 561-565, September 2021.
      eLearning practitioners are eager to know what factors affect the effectiveness of online learning and how they can implement evidence-based evaluation to examine and improve their organizations. This study adopted the learning sciences evaluation checklist to successfully evaluate a military-based training and learning organization via a semi-structured interview and provide actionable recommendations afterward. The criteria include educational networks, human-centered evaluations, administrator-instructor trust, institution-student trust, organization support-level strategies, support services, humans/technological support infrastructures, and class size flexibility. Seven practitioner take-aways were provided to ease the use of the checklist.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651133
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Scaling team training: Using virtual worlds to support learning in massive
           open online courses

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      Authors: Robert F. Siegle, Nancy J. Cooke, Noah L. Schroeder , Siyuan Li, Scotty D. Craig
      Pages: 566 - 570
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 566-570, September 2021.
      The implementation of electronic team training, e-team training, has been used to teach teamwork skills in a wide array of industries. By using e-team training, organizations have seen the observable benefits of improved team effectiveness, faster response times, and reduction in training costs. Those learning from e-team training have reported additional benefits of improved communication skills, learning team leadership tactics, and an improved satisfaction in their training over traditional team training methods. MOOCs, massive open online course, have yet to incorporate e-team training, due to previous technologies having unscalable, limiting constraints. We reviewed literature on how utilizing e-team training in virtual worlds improves current computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) available in MOOCs, examined the constraints, and give recommendations for the best practices of moving e-team training in virtual worlds to at-scale.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651204
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Developing a Peer Mentorship Program in Human Factors Academia

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      Authors: Emily A. Rickel, Barbara S. Chaparro
      Pages: 571 - 575
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 571-575, September 2021.
      Peer mentorship programs that pair more experienced students (i.e., mentors) with less experienced students (i.e., mentees) can have an effective, positive impact on university students’ personal, academic, and professional outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process and lessons learned in the creation of a peer mentorship program in a Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF/E) academic department. Through a combination of peer networking opportunities and skill development workshops, the mentorship program outlined in this paper aims to promote students’ academic and professional growth. Take-aways that can be utilized by other HF/E academia departments interested in starting or revamping their own peer mentorship programs are included.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651141
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Voice’s Effect on Student Effort Ratings and Recall Performance
           While Under Cognitive Stress

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      Authors: Thomas W. Morris, Hung-Tao M. Chen
      Pages: 576 - 580
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 576-580, September 2021.
      Computer-generated speech is becoming more commonplace in classrooms, so it is important to examine the impact of computer voice on students’ cognition in a variety of learning situations. The current study investigated the effects of voice in a cognitively stressful, audio-only learning situation. In this experiment, 122 college students were recruited to listen to an audio lecture and respond to test questions. Our findings indicated that participants rated the classic voice engine as demanding the most effort and the human voice as demanding the least effort. Students also had the best recall performance in the human voice condition and the worst recall performance in the classic voice condition. Our results indicated that when learners are placed under cognitive stress, the human voice is the superior pedagogical agent. These results contribute to a growing body of research examining modern computer voice as a pedagogical agent.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651070
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • History Trails Assist in the Detection of Hostile Intentions

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      Authors: Colleen E. Patton, Christopher D. Wickens, C.A.P. Smith, Benjamin A. Clegg
      Pages: 581 - 585
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 581-585, September 2021.
      Detecting hostile intentions from movements alone is important in many real world scenarios. The current paradigm investigated how visual history trails might aid in the detection of two hostile movement behaviors on a simple display. Participants controlled movement of an icon representing their own ship, while six other ships moved around them. A single ship displayed one of two target hostile behaviors: shadowing (mimicking usership’s movements) or hunting (approaching the usership). Moving their own ship, participants attempted to identify the hostile ship and behavior with history trails that reflected the past nine movements, and without history trails. Detection accuracy was superior with history trails present. History trails also provided a notable benefit for detecting hunting when the hostile ship started farther away from the usership. History trails may be a suitable aid for improving detection of hostile behaviors, but even in this simplified scenario, detection rates remained far from optimal.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651178
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Novel Auditory Displays in Highly Automated Vehicles: Sonification
           Improves Driver Situation Awareness, Perceived Workload, and Overall
           Experience

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      Authors: Chihab Nadri, Sangjin Ko, Colin Diggs, Michael Winters, V. K. Sreehari, Myounghoon Jeon
      Pages: 586 - 590
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 586-590, September 2021.
      Highly automated driving systems are expected to require the design of new user-vehicle interactions. Sonification can be used to provide contextualized alarms and cues that can increase situation awareness and user experience. In this study, we examined user perceptions of potential use cases for level 4 automated vehicles in online focus group interviews (N=12). Also, in a driving simulator study, we evaluated (1) visual-only display; (2) non-speech with visual display; and (3) speech with visual display with 20 young drivers. Results indicated participants’ interest in the use cases and insight on desired functions in highly automated vehicles. Both audiovisual display conditions resulted in higher situation awareness for drivers than the visual-only condition. Some differences were found between the non-speech and speech conditions suggesting benefits of sonification for both driving and non-driving related auditory use cases. This study will provide guidance on sonification design for highly automated vehicles.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651071
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Usability Evaluation of Telepresence Interfaces for Older Adults

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      Authors: Xian Wu, Jenay M. Beer
      Pages: 591 - 595
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 591-595, September 2021.
      Telepresence has the potential to assist older adults to stay socially connected and to access telehealth. Telepresence was initially created for office use, thus the usability of telepresence for older adults remains unknown and there is a lack of design recommendations, particularly those with an emphasis on users’ age-related needs and limitations. To bridge the gap, this study assessed two telepresence user interfaces (UIs). One UI was designed to mimic common features founds in commercially available telepresence systems. Another UI was designed based on design guidelines for older adults. Each UI was integrated to a virtual driving environment created via Unity. To assess the usability of both UIs, thirty older adults participated in usability testing. Questionnaires and semi-structured interview were administered following each UI test sessions. Results of this study provide insight on what usability features are critical for the aging population to use telepresence, such as high color contrast, automated controls, and consistent icons.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651172
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Impact of Familiarity on Visualizations of Spatial Uncertainty

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      Authors: Jessica K. Witt, Benjamin A. Clegg, Lisa D. Blalock, Amelia C. Warden
      Pages: 596 - 600
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 596-600, September 2021.
      While visualization can support understanding complex phenomena, their effectiveness might vary with the recipient’s familiarity with both the phenomenon and the visualization. The current study contrasted interpretations of simulated hurricane paths using student populations from a high frequency hurricane area versus no local hurricane risk. Non-expert understanding of trajectory predictions was supported via two visualizations: common cones of uncertainty and novel dynamic ensembles. General patterns of performance were similar across the two groups. Participants from the high hurricane risk area did show narrower decision thresholds, in both common and novel visualization formats. More variability was consistently considered possible when viewing the dynamic ensemble displays. Despite greater likelihood of experiences with variability of trajectories outside of forecast paths, greater familiarity tended towards narrower interpretations of the need for evacuations within the variability possible. The results suggest an advantage of dynamic ensembles in grasping uncertainty even in populations familiar with hurricanes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651208
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Ethical Decision Making Under Time Pressure: An Online Study

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      Authors: Sarah Yahoodik, Siby Samuel, Yusuke Yamani
      Pages: 601 - 605
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 601-605, September 2021.
      Although research in Psychology and Philosophy indicates people’s preference for utilitarian ethics, how people respond to ethically fraught scenarios under time pressure is unclear. In this online experiment, 61 participants viewed videos of a simulated automated vehicle (AV) as it drove in the right lane on a four-lane road and were instructed to intervene if they thought that the vehicle should move to the left lane. At a crosswalk, five pedestrian avatars appeared one, two, or three seconds before projected impact either in the path of the vehicle or the left lane, with a single pedestrian appearing in the opposite lane half the time. Participants avoided the group of five (utilitarian response) but were more likely to veer into the group of five pedestrians at one second before impact than longer durations, violating utilitarian ethics under time pressure. This suggests limited ability to respond to ethical scenarios when taking over AV control at short notice.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651166
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • End-user Preference for and Understanding of Hurricane Forecast Graphs

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      Authors: Barbara Millet, Sharanya J. Majumdar, Alberto Cairo, Carolina Diaz, Qinyu Ding, Scotney D. Evans, Kenneth Broad
      Pages: 606 - 610
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 606-610, September 2021.
      Hurricane forecast graphics have the challenging task of communicating information about spatio-temporal uncertainty. This study assesses the impact of graph literacy and graph format on user preference and understanding. In a laboratory setting, we compared user responses to official National Hurricane Center advisory maps and alternative visualizations. Results indicate that prior experience with a visualization drives preference and that graph literacy, visualization format, and tropical cyclone characteristics, in combination, influence interpretations of hurricane forecast track. The findings from this study are expected to inform redesign efforts of hurricane risk communication products.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651142
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Phone-Related Distracted Walking Injuries as a Function of Age and Walking
           Environment

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      Authors: Zheng Haolan, Isabella M. Campbell, Wayne C.W. Giang*
      Pages: 611 - 615
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 611-615, September 2021.
      Using phones while walking has been a factor that has led to accidents and injuries. However, few studies have analyzed the propensity of injuries due to distracted walking for different age groups and in different types of walking environments. This study aims to examine the number of emergency department (ED) visits due to distracted walking across different age groups and walking environments using a publicly available dataset, the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database. The results suggest that there were an estimated 29140 distracted walking injuries between the years 2011-2019. Individuals between 11 and 20 years old had the most injuries, followed by 21 to 30, and 31 to 40. Furthermore, the proportion of estimated injuries that occurred in different walking environments differed across age groups. Safety-orient interventions for future research for stairs and home environments were also recommended in the present study.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651104
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Is Attentional Maintenance the Problem (or something else) with Hazard
           Statement Compliance' An Experimental Investigation Using Eye-Tracking
           Technology

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      Authors: Joseph W. Hendricks, S. Camille Peres, Jonathan Walls
      Pages: 616 - 617
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 616-617, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651145
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Putting Gonuke Into Practice: Considerations for Human Factors Evaluations

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      Authors: Ronald L. Boring, Thomas A. Ulrich, Roger Lew
      Pages: 618 - 622
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 618-622, September 2021.
      The Guideline for Operational Nuclear Usability and Knowledge Elicitation (GONUKE) framework was introduced in 2015 to support human factors evaluations needed for control room upgrades at nuclear power plants. NUREG-0711, the Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model, is used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review human factors activities associated with human-system interfaces at nuclear power plants, and GONUKE is anchored to the phases of development and design in NUREG-0711. This paper addresses five considerations to help users of GONUKE better apply the framework to evaluations for NUREG-0711 and beyond. These five considerations are: (1) GONUKE only specifies evaluation, not design; (2) GONUKE is a framework, not a method or process; (3) GONUKE goes beyond NUREG-0711 requirements; (4) GONUKE application shouldfollow a graded approach; (5) different evaluations are required fo r formative vs. summative phases.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651053
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Navigating operating procedures in everyday work in a petrochemical
           facility: A comparative analysis of WAI and WAD

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      Authors: Atif Mohammed Ashraf, Changwon Son, S Camille Peres, Farzan Sasangohar
      Pages: 623 - 627
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 623-627, September 2021.
      This study proposes a novel coding framework to quantify and categorize the differences between Work-As-Imagined (WAI) and Work-As-Done (WAD) based on the Safety-II perspective. While the Safety-I approach focuses on controlling deviations from Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) as the solution to prevent incidents, this framework aims to describe and code workers’ adaptive behavior while executing their tasks. The proposed framework checks three attributes for each step; “Skip,” “Order,” and “Action” to help decide if WAI aligns with WAD. The framework was tested by applying it to an actual work environment in a petrochemical facility. Initial findings successfully demonstrated the ability of the framework to describe the differences between WAI and WAD.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651210
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Implementing A Human Factors Approach To Rca2: Analysis Of Resultant
           Safety Recommendations

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      Authors: Demetrius Solomon, Laura Wood, Douglas Wiegmann
      Pages: 628 - 632
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 628-632, September 2021.
      Root Cause Analysis and Action (RCA2) guidelines offer fundamental improvements to traditional RCA. Yet, these guidelines lack robust methods to support a human factors analysis of patient harm events and the development of systems-level interventions. We previously described how human factors tools can be integrated into RCA2 to create a robust process called HFACS-RCA2. Prior analyses of qualitative data associated with an 18-month implementation project at a large academic health center indicated that HFACS-RCA2 fosters a more comprehensive human factors analysis of serious patient harm events and the identification of broader system interventions. The present study builds on this prior research by presenting the analysis of actual recommendations extracted from RCA reports. Results corroborate qualitative stakeholder findings that HFACS-RCA2 produced recommendations that were stronger and included more substantive changes compared to former RCA methods.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651265
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effect of Procedural Elements on Trust and Compliance with anImperfect
           Decision Aid

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      Authors: Rebecca L. Pharmer, Christopher D. Wickens, Benjamin A. Clegg, C.A.P Smith
      Pages: 633 - 637
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 633-637, September 2021.
      We sought to establish to what extent incorporating a dichotomized procedural variable (in this case, maritime ‘rules of the road’) and incentives into a decision aiding algorithm would change a previously found non-compliance bias when the algorithm contradicted the known procedure. We also sought to examine the relationship between trust in and dependence on an automated system. An experiment was conducted using a simple, simulated maritime collision avoidance task featuring an imperfect, but highly reliable (87%), decision aid. Adding the dichotomous procedural variable into the algorithms recommendations increased compliance with the system, even for recommendations that violated learned procedures. Performance was still not perfectly calibrated to the actual reliability of the system (underreliance and under-trust). Results also revealed the dissociation between rated trust in, and behavioral dependence on decision aiding automation.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651191
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Decision Deferral in a Human-AI Joint Face-Matching Task: Effects on Human
           Performance and Trust

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      Authors: Pouria Salehi, Erin K. Chiou, Michelle Mancenido, Ahmadreza Mosallanezhad, Myke C. Cohen, Aksheshkumar Shah
      Pages: 638 - 642
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 638-642, September 2021.
      This study investigates how human performance and trust are affected by the decision deferral rates of an AI-enabled decision support system in a high criticality domain such as security screening, where ethical and legal considerations prevent full automation. In such domains, deferring cases to a human agent becomes an essential process component. However, the systemic consequences of the rate of deferrals on human performance are unknown. In this study, a face-matching task with an automated face verification system was designed to investigate the effects of varying deferral rates. Results show that higher deferral rates are associated with higher sensitivity and higher workload, but lower throughput and lower trust in the AI. We conclude that deferral rates can affect performance and trust perceptions. The tradeoffs between deferral rate, sensitivity, throughput, and trust need to be considered in designing effective human-AI work systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651157
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Watch For Failing Objects: What Inappropriate Compliance Reveals About
           Shared Mental Models In Autonomous Cars

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      Authors: Yosef S. Razin, Jack Gale, Jiaojiao Fan, Jaznae’ Smith, Karen M. Feigh
      Pages: 643 - 647
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 643-647, September 2021.
      This paper evaluates Banks et al.’s Human-AI Shared Mental Model theory by examining how a self-driving vehicle’s hazard assessment facilitates shared mental models. Participants were asked to affirm the vehicle’s assessment of road objects as either hazards or mistakes in real-time as behavioral and subjective measures were collected. The baseline performance of the AI was purposefully low (
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651081
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Human Theory of Mind Inference in Search and Rescue Tasks

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      Authors: Huao Li, Keyang Zheng, Michael Lewis, Dana Hughes, Katia Sycara
      Pages: 648 - 652
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 648-652, September 2021.
      The ability to make inferences about other’s mental state is referred to as having a Theory of Mind (ToM). Such ability is the foundation of many human social interactions such as empathy, teamwork, and communication. As intelligent agents being involved in diverse human-agent teams, they are also expected to be socially intelligent to become effective teammates. To provide a feasible baseline for future social intelligent agents, this paper presents a experimental study on the process of human ToM reference. Human observers’ inferences are compared with participants’ verbally reported mental state in a simulated search and rescue task. Results show that ToM inference is a challenging task even for experienced human observers.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651269
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Requirements for Computational Approaches to Analyzing Resilience in
           Human-Machine Teams

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      Authors: Jacob Keller, Martijn IJtsma
      Pages: 653 - 657
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 653-657, September 2021.
      Human-machine teams (HMTs) in complex work domains need to be able to adapt to variable and uncertain work demands. Computational modeling and simulation can provide novel approaches to the evaluation of HMTs performing complex joint activities, affording large-scale, quantitative analysis of team characteristics (such as system architecture and governance protocols) and their effects on resilience. Drawing from literature in resilience engineering, human-automation interaction, and cognitive systems engineering, this paper provides a theoretical exploration of the use of computational modeling and simulation to analyze resilience in HMTs. Findings from literature are summarized in a set of requirements that highlight key aspects of resilience in HMTs that need to be accounted for in future modeling and evaluation efforts. These requirements include a need to model HMTs as joint cognitive systems, the need to account for the interdependent nature of activity, the temporal dynamics of work, and the need to support formative exploration and inquiry. We provide a brief overview of existing modeling and simulation approaches to evaluating HMTs and discuss further steps for operationalizing the identified requirements.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651248
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Interdisciplinary Models and Frameworks for the Study of Artificial Social
           Intelligence

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      Authors: Stephen M. Fiore
      Pages: 658 - 659
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 658-659, September 2021.
      This symposium provides a complementary set of papers exploring frameworks and models for developing artificial social intelligence (ASI) for teams. ASI consists of components of social cognition that support teamwork and more general interpersonal interactions. Although AI is rapidly evolving and fielded in a variety of operational settings, the implementation of such systems is vastly outpacing our ability to understand how to design and develop technologies appropriately. This symposium is meant to help redress this gap. Consisting of scholars representing the cognitive, computational, and organizational sciences, the papers discuss how they integrate theory and methods to inform development of agents capable of complex collaborative processes. Collectively, these papers synthesize perspectives across disciplines in support of an interdisciplinary research approach for ASL The goal is to contribute to research and development in the area of Human- AI- Robot Teaming effectiveness.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651354
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Building a Synthetic Task Environment to Support Artificial Social
           Intelligence Research

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      Authors: Christopher C. Corral, Keerthi Shrikar Tatapudi, Verica Buchanan, Lixiao Huang, Nancy J. Cooke
      Pages: 660 - 664
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 660-664, September 2021.
      To support research on artificial social intelligence for successful teams (ASIST), an urban search and rescue task (USAR) was simulated within Minecraft to serve as a Synthetic Task Environment (STE). The goal for the development of the present STE was to create an environment that provides ample opportunities to allow ASI agents to demonstrate the theory of mind by making inferences and predictions of humans’ states and actions in the USAR task environment, and in the future to intervene to improve teamwork in real-time. This paper describes the STE design background, design potentials and considerations, rich data collection opportunities, and potential usage for more broad research.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651354a
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Supporting Social Interactions In Human-Ai Teams: Profiling Human
           Teammates From Sparse Data

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      Authors: Rhyse Bendell, Jessica Williams, Stephen M. Fiore, Florian Jentsch
      Pages: 665 - 669
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 665-669, September 2021.
      Artificial intelligence has been developed to perform all manner of tasks but has not gained capabilities to support social cognition. We suggest that teams comprised of both humans and artificially intelligent agents cannot achieve optimal team performance unless all teammates have the capacity to employ social-cognitive mechanisms. These form the foundation for generating inferences about their counterparts and enable execution of informed, appropriate behaviors. Social intelligence and its utilization are known to be vital components of human-human teaming processes due to their importance in guiding the recognition, interpretation, and use of the signals that humans naturally use to shape their exchanges. Although modern sensors and algorithms could allow AI to observe most social cues, signals, and other indicators, the approximation of human-to-human social interaction -based upon aggregation and modeling of such cues is currently beyond the capacity of potential AI teammates. Partially, this is because humans are notoriously variable. We describe an approach for measuring social-cognitive features to produce the raw information needed to create human agent profiles that can be operated upon by artificial intelligences.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651354b
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Articulating the Role of Artificial Intelligence in Collective
           Intelligence: A Transactive Systems Framework

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      Authors: Pranav Gupta, Anita Williams Woolley
      Pages: 670 - 674
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 670-674, September 2021.
      Human society faces increasingly complex problems that require coordinated collective action. Artificial intelligence (AI) holds the potential to bring together the knowledge and associated action needed to find solutions at scale. In order to unleash the potential of human and AI systems, we need to understand the core functions of collective intelligence. To this end, we describe a socio-cognitive architecture that conceptualizes how boundedly rational individuals coordinate their cognitive resources and diverse goals to accomplish joint action. Our transactive systems framework articulates the inter-member processes underlying the emergence of collective memory, attention, and reasoning, which are fundamental to intelligence in any system. Much like the cognitive architectures that have guided the development of artificial intelligence, our transactive systems framework holds the potential to be formalized in computational terms to deepen our understanding of collective intelligence and pinpoint roles that AI can play in enhancing it.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651354c
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • SEEV Modeler: A GUI-Based Tool for the SEEV Model Simulation

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      Authors: Hansol Rheem, Kelly S. Steelman, Robert S. Gutzwiller
      Pages: 675 - 679
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 675-679, September 2021.
      The SEEV model of visual scanning offers a quick and easy way of evaluating the attentional demands of various tasks and displays. A SEEV model can be developed without relying on complicated mathematical software or background, making the conceptual model highly accessible. Implementation of SEEV modeling can further be improved by easing the process of running simulations and providing actionable information. In this paper, we showcase the SEEV Modeler, a GUI-based prototype of the computational SEEV model that lowers the technical barriers for human factors practitioners. Furthermore, the prototype’s ability to predict eye movements in dynamic driving scenarios was tested, with an emphasis on the impacts of the attention shifting effort and inhibition of return (IOR) on the model’s prediction performance. The SEEV Modeler produced model fits comparable to those of previous mathematical modeling approaches but also revealed limitations and practical issues to be addressed in the final version.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651276
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Model blindness: A Framework for Understanding how Model-Based Decision
           Support Systems can Lead to Performance Degradation

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      Authors: Sweta Parmar, David A. Illingworth, Rickey P. Thomas
      Pages: 680 - 684
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 680-684, September 2021.
      Model-Based Decision Support Systems (MDSS) are ubiquitous in many high-consequence domains like emergency management and military command and control. This paper proposes a framework of model-blindness imposed by MDSS via filtering relevant information and presenting irrelevant information to the decision-maker, causing performance degradation. The paper also defines novel categories of performance: model-limited, strategy-limited, and context-limited. We propose a theoretical confluence model of operator performance under model blindness and a framework to evaluate model blindness empirically. We report simulation results to demonstrate the impact of model blindness on performance and outline mitigation strategies for designers and developers of MDSS. The recommendations and insights can be used to evaluate the limitations associated with particular MDSS before implementation.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651080
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Graph Convolutional Networks for Exercise Motion Classification

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      Authors: Parian Haghighat, Aden Prince, Heejin Jeong
      Pages: 685 - 689
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 685-689, September 2021.
      The growth in self-fitness mobile applications has encouraged people to turn to personal fitness, which entails integrating self-tracking applications with exercise motion data to reduce fatigue and mitigate the risk of injury. The advancements in computer vision and motion capture technologies hold great promise to improve exercise classification performance. This study investigates a supervised deep learning model performance, Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) to classify three workouts using the Azure Kinect device’s motion data. The model defines the skeleton as a graph and combines GCN layers, a readout layer, and multi-layer perceptrons to build an end-to-end framework for graph classification. The model achieves an accuracy of 95.86% in classifying 19,442 frames. The current model exchanges feature information between each joint and its 1-nearest neighbor, which impact fades in graph-level classification. Therefore, a future study on improved feature utilization can enhance the model performance in classifying inter-user exercise variation.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651255
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Computational Models for Workload Analysis of Driving Tasks

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      Authors: Holly Handley, Deborah Thompson
      Pages: 690 - 694
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 690-694, September 2021.
      This paper describes a methodology to design computational models to evaluate the workload for driving tasks. A computational model was configured for a driving scenario used in a pilot study that included a secondary task at varying levels of difficulty to increase the driver’s workload. The computational model results provided a workload analysis of the concurrent driving tasks. This analysis can be used to explain the experimental findings from subject experiments and to evaluate the workload trade-offs between primary and secondary driving tasks.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651047
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Role of Peripheral Vision in Brake Reaction Time During Safety Critical
           Events

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      Authors: Abhijit Sarkar, Hananeh Alambeigi, Anthony McDonald, Gustav Markkula, Jeff Hickman
      Pages: 695 - 699
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 695-699, September 2021.
      The criticality of a rear end event depends on the brake reaction time (BRT) of the driver. Therefore, distracted driving poses greater threat in such events. Evidence accumulation model (EAM) that uses looming of the lead vehicle as main stimuli has shown significant success in estimating drivers’ BR Ts. It is often argued that drivers collect evidence for braking through peripheral vision, especially during off-road glances, and transition to forward. In this work, we have modeled evidence accumulation as a function of gaze eccentricity for off-road glances while approaching safety critical events. The model is tested with real world crash and near crash event data from SHRP2 naturalistic study. Our model shows that linear relation between gaze eccentricity and evidence accumulation rate during off road glances helps to improve EAM estimation in predicting BRT. We have also shown that brake-light onset does not influence EAM in presence of active looming.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651219
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Validating the Strategic Task Overload Management (STOM) Model Using MATB
           II and Eye-tracking

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      Authors: Garrett M. Zabala, Robert S. Gutzwiller
      Pages: 700 - 704
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 700-704, September 2021.
      Operators can be overloaded and struggle to make sense of and prioritize multiple tasks. Task selection in these cases is of utmost importance. We replicated an experiment using the Multi Attribute Task Battery II (MATB II) for validating a model of strategic task switching (STOM), adding eye tracking measurement, resulting in a new assessment. Task difficulty affected how operators switched tasks, while priority had little to no effect. Newly measured for STOM, eye tracking revealed a link between task difficulty and time spent performing a task but failed to meet predictions for interest and priority effects. The outcome of the validation effort as it relates to the STOM model, as well as eye tracking implications, are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651152
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Impact of Covid-19 on the Use of Laptops by College Students and the
           Effects on Posture and Discomfort

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      Authors: Susan E. Kotowski, Kermit G. Davis
      Pages: 705 - 707
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 705-707, September 2021.
      Over the past year, the Covid-19 pandemic has led to a switch from a majority of classes being taught in-person to a majority being taught online. The switch has led to an increase in the amount of time students are utilizing technology for learning purposes. This study assessed how technology use has changed during the pandemic, particularly related to laptop use, and the postures students work in and the discomfort they’re experiencing while participating in online learning. The results of the survey (n=1,074) found that laptop use is up significantly (used the majority of the time by 70.2% of students), students are working in poor postures (up to 80% working with deviated neck postures), and are experiencing high levels of discomfort (up to ~60% reporting moderate/extreme discomfort in their upper extremities). The results bring to light the urgent need to provide ergonomics education and training for designing good work environments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651278
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Differences in the association between the 2018 ACGIH TLV for Hand
           Activity and carpal tunnel syndrome by gender and age

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      Authors: C Harris-Adamson, A Meyers, R Bonfiglioli, J Kapellusch, AM Dale, M Thiese, N Fethke, EA Eisen, S Bao, B Evanoff, K Hegmann, F Gerr, FS Violante, D Rempel
      Pages: 708 - 709
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 708-709, September 2021.
      The recently revised ACGIH TLV for Hand Activity (TLV2018) is a widely used tool for assessing risk for upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of this analysis was to compare the strength of the exposure-response relationships between the TLV2018 and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) between men and women and across age strata. Heterogeneity of the effect size by sex or age would be important to specialists using the method for prevention of CTS among working populations. Data from two large prospective studies were combined to allow for stratification of exposure-response models assessing the association between the TLV2018 and CTS by gender and age. Results show greater risk for women than men and for younger workers than older workers for TLV2018 values above the action limit. Although the TLV2018 is an effective surveillance tool for estimating increased risk of CTS with increasing exposure, these analyses show that such increase are not homogeneous across sex and age.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651238
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Validation of Fatigue Failure Risk Assessment Tools Against
           Physician-Diagnosed Outcomes

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      Authors: AJ Bandekar, Richard Sesek, Mark Schall, Rong Huangfu, Dania Bani Hani, Sean Gallagher
      Pages: 710 - 714
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 710-714, September 2021.
      Evidence suggests that musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) may be the result of a fatigue failure process in musculoskeletal tissues. Recently risk assessment tools using fatigue failure principles have been developed to evaluate risk of low back disorders (LiFFT), distal upper extremity disorders (DUET), and shoulder disorders (The Shoulder Tool). All have been validated against multiple musculoskeletal disorder outcomes such as joint pain and clinic visits for MSD complaints. This paper provides validation of DUET against occupational physician diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and The Shoulder Tool against diagnosed bicipital tendinosis. Results demonstrated that in both cases the fatigue failure risk assessment tools were significantly associated with physician-diagnosed outcomes in both crude and adjusted analyses (p < 0.01).
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651194
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Comparison of ergonomic risk factors and work-related musculoskeletal
           disorders among dismantler and burners of electronic waste in
           Agbogbloshie, Accra Ghana

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      Authors: Augustine A. Acquah, Clive D’Souza, Bernard J. Martin, John Arko-Mensah, Niladri Basu, Isabella A. Quakyi, Thomas G. Robins, Julius N. Fobil
      Pages: 715 - 719
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 715-719, September 2021.
      Rudimentary methods for electronic waste (e-waste) recycling employed in developing countries are a source of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). A summarized comparison of WRMSDs and preliminary exposure assessment among e-waste dismantlers (D) and burners (B) in Agbogbloshie, Ghana is presented. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate WRMSDs and associated risk factors using the Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire and a newly developed ergonomic assessment tool. Results indicated higher WRMSDs prevalence in the lower back (68% D vs. 52% B; p = 0.172), shoulder (41% D vs. 29% B; p = 0.279) and upper arm (33% D vs 5% B; p = 0.010). Moderate to severe trunk flexion, high force exertion, repetition and vibration were prevalent risk factors among workers and were significantly higher in dismantlers than burners (p ≤ 0.001). Detailed ergonomic studies investigating the relationship between physical exposures and WRMSDs are needed to provide a deeper understanding of WRMSD causation in e-waste workers and more particularly in unstructured, unregulated work.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651256
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Designing for Exploration and Exploitation in Experimental Search and
           Rescue Scenarios

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      Authors: Dylan A. Orth, Michael Buchanan, Ashish Amresh, Cassady Smith, Glenn Lematta, Nancy Cooke, Adam Fouse, Samantha Dubrow
      Pages: 720 - 725
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 720-725, September 2021.
      Exploration and exploitation are commonly cited in search and rescue scenarios to explain the process by which individuals work in a team and gather information about their environment (exploration) and identify potential solutions and adaptations (exploitation) to pursue successful outcomes. In this paper, we discuss exploration and exploitation as critical design features and highlight the importance of balancing them when designing team-based search and rescue missions. To test the proposed design decisions, we developed a usability study that includes two missions wherein teams consisting of three participants are tasked to rescue victims within a Minecraft-based 3D testbed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651009
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Quality improvement study into the effectiveness of the semi-custom,
           prefabricated shoe insert program (Quadrastep System) at reducing
           complaints of discomfort in an industrial setting.

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      Authors: Jeffrey Dow, Pauline Lewis
      Pages: 726 - 731
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 726-731, September 2021.
      A common source of reduced productivity and lost work time in the industrial setting is musculoskeletal discomfort in the feet, knees, hips, and low back. Even when working identical job posts, these symptoms can vary widely between employees, and could potentially be caused by intrinsic foot biomechanics coupled with long-term standing activities. Therefore, to prevent injury and reduce daily discomfort, onesize-fits-all approaches such as anti-fatigue mats or off-the-shelf shoe insoles may be less effective than treating each employee’s specific biomechanical traits. The Quadrastep System is a prefabricated, semi-custom shoe insert system that bridges the gap between more expensive, fully customized orthotics and off-the-shelf options. We studied the effectiveness of the system in a large manufacturing plant by assessing and providing Quadrastep inserts to 28 volunteers. After 2 months of daily wear, 94% of these volunteers said they received some benefit from the inserts, while 52% reported full resolution of daily symptoms.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651007
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Hazard Analysis of Action Loops for Automated Vehicle Remote Operation

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      Authors: Amudha V. Kamaraj, Joshua E. Domeyer, John D. Lee
      Pages: 732 - 736
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 732-736, September 2021.
      One way to compensate for the limitations of automated vehicles is to use a remote operator as a fallback controller. Indeed, this has been proposed for fleet management and intermittent vehicle control. However, existing remote operation applications have demonstrated control challenges, such as latency and bandwidth, that inhibit the effectiveness of human operators. Additionally, human factors challenges arising due to the roles of multiple remote operators managing multiple vehicles further complicates these interventions. This paper uses the Systems Theoretic Process Analysis hazard analysis technique to identify system-level issues related to the remote operation of automated vehicles. Human factors challenges are identified through the lens of two control loops that link remote drivers, dispatchers, and vehicle automation. These control loops reveal familiar challenges, such as situation awareness and mental model mismatches, as well as novel challenges, such as poorly synchronized and misaligned control.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651022
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Cobot And Robot Risk Assessment (CARRA) method: an Automation Level-Based
           Safety Assessment Tool to Improve Fluency in Safe Human Cobot/Robot
           Interaction

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      Authors: Richard T. Stone, Shamika Pujari, Ahmad Mumani, Colten Fales, Mohammed Ameen
      Pages: 737 - 741
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 737-741, September 2021.
      Cobots and robots are integral to automated manufacturing operations. Although there are many studies in the field of industrial robots and cobots to make them safer the number of OSHA accidents due to cobots and robots has not decreased. Even though these cobots are considered inherently safe, they open more probability for accidents because they are not caged. Therefore, it is necessary for the manufacturing industries using cobots to consider the risk involved in human cobot interaction and the ways to attain safety and lower the risk of injury before installing cobots on assembly lines. A user-centric tool was developed to perform an ergonomic risk assessment using process- failure mode effect analysis for different automation levels in human-cobot interaction. The tool suggests recommended actions and various options to eliminate physical injuries. The results provide insights about safety analysis that can be used by manufacturers to improve safe human cobot interaction.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651024
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Smartphone and Digital Home Assistant Use Among Older Adults:
           Understanding Adoption and Learning Preferences

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      Authors: Maurita T. Harris, Kenneth A. Blocker, Wendy A. Rogers
      Pages: 742 - 746
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 742-746, September 2021.
      Smart technologies have increased dramatically within the last decade. Their availability has improved opportunities for productivity, health, and entertainment, and this is especially true for technologies that act as central hubs to link other devices and applications that expand their capabilities (e.g., smartphones and digital home assistants). Older adults may significantly benefit from integrating these devices into their lives to mitigate the various challenges they face with increasing age (e.g., cognitive, mobility changes). To understand the potential of these technologies for this population, we investigated use patterns, learning preferences, and other perceptions related to the adoption of these devices. Seventy older adult participants responded to an online survey regarding their use and preferences with smartphones and digital home assistants. The results informed our understanding of current adoption rates as well as provided key perspectives to inform their design for older adults.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651316
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Autonomous Vehicles, Children’s Mobility, And Family Perspective

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      Authors: Allegra Ayala, Yi-Ching Lee
      Pages: 747 - 751
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 747-751, September 2021.
      This paper presents the current knowledge on ridership scenarios for autonomous vehicles and shuttles within the context of children’s mobility. Perspectives from parents, caregivers, and schools provide a unique use case that needs further attention from vehicle manufacturers and policy regulatory agencies. Social benefits of and barriers to adoption, willingness, and acceptance as well as hypothetical use scenarios are discussed from a family mobility perspective. Relevant accounts from other forms of automation are presented in parallel to highlight the challenges and opportunities for using autonomous and automated vehicles to enhance parent-child mobility practice. Future research opportunities are discussed to highlight the need to better understand barriers to adoption from parent, family, and school perspectives as well as potential practical contributions and real-world implications.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651323
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Dark Patterns: Social Media, Gaming, and E-Commerce

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      Authors: Ilayda Karagoel, Dan Nathan-Roberts
      Pages: 752 - 756
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 752-756, September 2021.
      Dark Patterns are defined as “tricks used in websites and apps that make you do things that you didn’t mean to” (Bringull, 2017). They are implemented to manipulate users with deceptive design tactics using studies on human behavior, and are coined as “anti-user”, since the marginal benefit of corporations are being prioritized over users. This proceeding specifically studies the prevalent dark patterns in the fields of Social Media, Gaming, and E-Commerce platforms. Though Grey et al. initially characterized dark patterns into 12 types of dark patterns (Gray et al., 2018), there are plenty of studies where more categorizations of dark patterns are found in different fields. Finally, this paper sheds light on what could be the next steps for the stakeholders, such as designers, engineers and the overall socio technical system, to better regulate dark patterns in order to minimize user concerns, as well as reduce unethical design practices.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651317
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Is Virtual Reality Streaming Ready for Remote Medical Education'
           Measuring Latency of Stereoscopic VR for Telementoring

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      Authors: Kerem C. Celebi, Shannon K. T. Bailey, Micheal W. Burns, Kunal Bansal
      Pages: 757 - 761
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 757-761, September 2021.
      Telementoring in healthcare education has been used successfully to teach technical skills and clinical reasoning when in-person instruction is not feasible; however, previous technology for telementoring had limitations such as narrow field-of-view and high latency. Novel virtual reality (VR) livestreaming technology may address issues in traditional 2-dimensional (2D) systems by expanding the field of view while streaming with low latency. Low latency streaming of video and audio is necessary for smooth communication between a medical specialist and remote trainees. If latency is low between the instructor and the remote trainees, conversations can be held without a noticeable delay, supporting synchronous instruction and collaboration. This research reports the first latency test results of a novel VR system that livestreams stereoscopic video and audio to remote VR headsets. Results showed the one-way audio and video latency was less than half a second, confirming the viability of live VR for medical telementoring.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651332
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • What Is the Relationship between Online Sex Workers and Cybersecurity'

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      Authors: Stephanie Do, Dan Nathan-Roberts
      Pages: 762 - 766
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 762-766, September 2021.
      Although online sex work has become more accessible to people of all socio-economic statuses, labor practices and work safety have not improved since the widespread use of the internet. One way that we can help empower sex workers is to understand their motivations and experiences when using the internet. In a survey conducted by Sanders et al. (2017), the highest crime that 56.2% sex workers experienced was being threatened or harassed through texts, calls, and emails. Because there is no theory application to date on this marginalized group, three theories were proposed. This literature review highlights the need to explore why sex workers, as end-users, should be included in the user cybersecurity defense conversation, such as the cybercrimes that they face, their relationship with law enforcement, and what other factors affect their safety.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651304
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Understanding Learning Environments, Personality, and Proctoring During
           Mandatory Remote Delivery

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      Authors: Nancy J. Stone
      Pages: 767 - 770
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 767-770, September 2021.
      To evaluate students’ online learning environments, the relationship between personality and online learning success, and students’ perceptions about online proctoring during mandatory remote delivery due to the pandemic, students responded to an online survey. Learning environments generally included houses and rarely included on-campus housing. The specific room type was predominantly the bedroom. Only conscientiousness was related positively to anticipated semester GPA. The positive relationship between anticipated and overall GPA supports the notion that more conscientious students tend to be successful in online learning situations, as online education was rated as slightly ineffective. A majority of students did not see a need for online proctoring due to the inability or time required to search for materials, which would only harm one’s performance. There is a need to research further the impact of the study environment, relationship of the students’ personality to learning success, and consequences of online proctoring during remote learning.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651325
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Exploring Association between Perceived Usability of Dosimetry Quality
           Assurance Checklist and Perceived Cognitive Workload of Dosimetrists in
           Clinical Settings

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      Authors: Karthik Adapa, Prithima Mosaly, Fei Yu, Carlton Moore, Shiva Das, Lukasz Mazur
      Pages: 771 - 775
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 771-775, September 2021.
      Usability and cognitive workload (CWL) are multidimensional constructs that describe user experience, predict performance, and inform system design. The relationship between the subjective measures of these constructs has not been adequately explored, especially in healthcare delivery settings where suboptimal usability of electronic health records and CWL of healthcare professionals are among the major contributing factors to medical errors. This study quantifies the perceived usability of a dosimetry quality assurance (QA) checklist and the perceived CWL of dosimetrists in radiation oncology clinical settings of an academic medical center and investigates the association between perceived usability and perceived CWL. Findings suggest that our institutional dosimetry QA checklist has suboptimal usability, but the associated CWL is acceptable. Further, the correlation analysis reveals that perceived usability and perceived CWL are non-overlapping constructs and may be jointly employed to reduce the risk of healthcare professionals committing medical errors.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651285
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Combined Model of Technology Use and Medical Adherence in eHealth
           Technology Implementation

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      Authors: Bijita Devkota, Fernando Montalvo, Daniel S. McConnell, Janan A. Smither
      Pages: 776 - 780
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 776-780, September 2021.
      eHealth applications are expected to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of healthcare systems by providing improved medical information flow between medical providers and patients. Although the technology is expected to empower patients, lower treatment costs, and provide real-time collection of health data, individuals may be apprehensive about the use and efficacy of eHealth technologies. Medical professionals are often unaware of human factors technology acceptance or usability models which impact the use of medically focused technology, such as eHealth applications. Similarly, human factors professionals are often unaware of treatment adherence models which map the relationship of illness factors and individual differences to treatment protocols. The present paper presents a theoretical approach through which technology acceptance and usability models should be combined with medical treatment adherence models to ensure that eHealth applications are used properly and effectively.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651295
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Remote Synthetic Testbed For Human-Robot Teaming: An Iterative Design
           Process

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      Authors: Margaret Wong, Akudasuo Ezenyilimba, Alexandra Wolff, Tyrell Anderson, Erin Chiou, Mustafa Demir, Nancy Cooke
      Pages: 781 - 785
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 781-785, September 2021.
      Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) missions often involve a need to complete tasks in hazardous environments. In such situations, human-robot teams (HRT) may be essential tools for future USAR missions. Transparency and explanation are two information exchange processes where transparency is real-time information exchange and explanation is not. For effective HRTs, certain levels of transparency and explanation must be met, but how can these modes of team communication be operationalized' During the COVID-19 pandemic, our approach to answering this question involved an iterative design process that factored in our research objectives as inputs and pilot studies with remote participants. Our final research testbed design resulted in converting an in-person task environment to a completely remote study and task environment. Changes to the study environment included: utilizing user-friendly video conferencing tools such as Zoom and a custom-built application for research administration tasks and improved modes of HRT communication that helped us avoid confounding our performance measures.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651336
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Dynamics of Trust in Automation and Interactive Decision Making during
           Driving Simulation Tasks

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      Authors: Lucero Rodriguez Rodriguez, Carlos Bustamante Orellana, Jayci Landfair, Corey Magaldino, Mustafa Demir, Polemnia G. Amazeen, Jason S. Metcalfe, Lixiao Huang, Yun Kang
      Pages: 786 - 790
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 786-790, September 2021.
      As technological advancements and lowered costs make self-driving cars available to more people, it becomes important to understand the dynamics of human-automation interactions for safety and efficacy. We used a dynamical approach to examine data from a previous study on simulated driving with an automated driving assistant. To maximize effect size in this preliminary study, we focused the current analysis on the two lowest and two highest-performing participants. Our visual comparisons were the utilization of the automated system and the impact of perturbations. Low-performing participants toggled and maintained reliance either on automation or themselves for longer periods of time. Decision making of high-performing participants was using the automation briefly and consistently throughout the driving task. Participants who displayed an early understanding of automation capabilities opted for tactical use. Further exploration of individual differences and automation usage styles will help to understand the optimal human-automation-team dynamic and increase safety and efficacy.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651288
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • “Welcome to your Daily Wellness Check”: The Proposed Evaluation of a
           SMS-based Conversational Agent for Managing Health and Wellbeing

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      Authors: Liam Kettle, Yi-Ching Lee
      Pages: 791 - 795
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 791-795, September 2021.
      University students tend to sacrifice healthy lifestyles in favor of academic and financial gain. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to online schooling and reduced access to healthcare resources. To mitigate these pressures, artificial intelligence conversational agents (CA) have addressed mental wellness in the general population but are yet to address physical well-being. Therefore, a CA that can address barriers and improve physical and mental well-being by cultivating healthy behaviors is desired. This research is designed to evaluate the feasibility and user experience of a text-based CA on addressing student barriers for a healthy lifestyle using evidence-based theories including the Theory of Planned Behavior and Motivational Interviewing over a two-week timeframe. Data collection has been paused due to the pandemic; results are expected to show positive impacts on well-being outcomes compared to an information-only control group and support the implementation of CAs to those with less accessibility to healthcare resources.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651297
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effect of Individual Differences in Fear and Anxiety on Face Perception of
           Human and Android Agents

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      Authors: Sarah Schroeder, Kurtis Goad, Nicole Rothner, Ali Momen, Eva Wiese
      Pages: 796 - 800
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 796-800, September 2021.
      People process human faces configurally—as a Gestalt or integrated whole—but perceive objects in terms of their individual features. As a result, faces—but not objects—are more difficult to process when presented upside down versus upright. Previous research demonstrates that this inversion effect is not observed when recognizing previously seen android faces, suggesting they are processed more like objects, perhaps due to a lack of perceptual experience and/or motivation to recognize android faces. The current study aimed to determine whether negative emotions, particularly fear of androids, may lessen configural processing of android faces compared to human faces. While the current study replicated previous research showing a greater inversion effect for human compared to android faces, we did not find evidence that negative emotions—such as fear—towards androids influenced the face inversion effect. We discuss the implications of this study and opportunities for future research.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651303
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Developing a new human-autonomy team cohesion Scale

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      Authors: Catherine Neubauer, Daniel E. Forster, Jordan Blackman, Shan Lakhmani, Sean M. Fitzhugh, Andrea Krausman, Kristin E. Schaefer, Samantha Berg, Ericka Rovira
      Pages: 801 - 806
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 801-806, September 2021.
      Cohesion is an important construct in understanding human-autonomy team dynamics and effectiveness, yet methods to adequately measure this construct are still being developed. Here we describe the initial steps of the development of a new human-autonomy team cohesion scale: item development, content validation, and preliminary scale item evaluation. The initial item pool was developed resulting in 134 items and underwent content validation with subject matter experts to reduce the item pool to 82. For the content validation, participants watched a set of video clips displaying examples of high and low human-autonomy team cohesion and rated the clips using the new human-autonomy team cohesion scale. Preliminary results revealed that our new human-autonomy team cohesion scale is a reliable and valid measure of cohesion in these contexts. Additionally, ratings for the high cohesion clips were somewhat higher than the low cohesion clips. Further analyses will determine if each of the items are contributing to the overall validity of the scale and will be further evaluated for possible removal.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651324
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Towards a Conceptual Framework of Comprehensive Video Game Player
           Profiles: Player Models, Mental Models, and Behavior Models

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      Authors: Jessica Williams, Rhyse Bendell, Stephen M. Fiore, Florian Jentsch
      Pages: 807 - 811
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 807-811, September 2021.
      Current approaches to player profiling are limited in that they typically employ only a single one of numerous of available techniques shown to have utility for categorizing and explaining player behavior. We propose a more comprehensive Video Game Player Profile Framework that considers the demographic, psychographic, mental model, and behavioral modeling approaches shown to be effective for describing gamer populations. We suggest that our proposed approach can improve the efficacy of video game player profiles by grounding data-driven techniques in game analytics with the theoretical backing of demographic, psychometric, and psychographic measurements. We provide an overview of our proposed framework, discuss the usage and relevance of each component technique, and provide a proof-of-concept demonstration with archived data.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651343
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Team Role Experience and Orientation Dimensions in Predicting Team
           Performance in a Spaceship Bridge Simulation

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      Authors: Crystal M. Fausett, Richard J. Simonson, Andrew C. Griggs, Joseph R. Keebler
      Pages: 812 - 816
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 812-816, September 2021.
      Team roles have been suggested to be a key predictor of team performance metrics, however, there is little research in this area. We introduce a structural equation model of the relationship between team composition as measured by Team Role Experience and Orientation (TREO) dimensions and team performance metrics in a co-operative spaceship simulation game. The results of the model indicate that variance in team composition operationalized as team roles and mediated by resources accounts for 52.5% of the team’s performance, however, the influence of team roles is minimally predictive. These results call into question the predictive validity of team roles as measured by TREO dimensions when applied as a team input variable. Our investigation suggests further study into team roles’ predictive ability on team performance is needed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651305
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Paying Attention to Trust: Exploring the Relationship Between Attention
           Control and Trust in Automation

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      Authors: Claire Textor, Richard Pak
      Pages: 817 - 821
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 817-821, September 2021.
      As automation continues to pervade people’s lives, it is critical to understand the reasons why some interactions are successful while others fail. Previous research attempting to explain this variability in HAI through individual differences in working memory has been mixed. Research in cognitive psychology has demonstrated the importance of attention control as a fundamental mechanism underlying higher-order cognition. In the realm of automation, early work has demonstrated a link between attention control and performance (Foroughi et al., 2019). The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the relationship between attention control and attitudes towards automation, particularly trust. Our results found attention control to be correlated with propensity to trust and negative attitudes towards robots. These results encourage further inquiry into the role of attention control in HAI.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651309
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Assessing Video Game Satisfaction of Gamers with Disabilities

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      Authors: Carmen Van Ommen, Barbara S. Chaparro
      Pages: 822 - 826
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 822-826, September 2021.
      According to a survey conducted by the CDC, it is estimated that 26% of Americans are living with a disability. Of those with disabilities in the United States, it is estimated that 33 million play video games. People with disabilities face many barriers in gaming, which is likely to impact game satisfaction. Measuring game satisfaction among this population can be problematic if the scale is not adapted to their needs, which can vary significantly based on the disability. To understand how best to assess game satisfaction among these populations, we discuss the issues people with cognitive, sensory, and/or motor disabilities may face when completing assessment scales and then use the validated Game User Experience Satisfaction Scale (GUESS) as a framework for understanding the game design issues that may impact satisfaction.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651319
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Design Heuristics For In-Crisis Users

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      Authors: Miriam Binman
      Pages: 827 - 832
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 827-832, September 2021.
      Any interface designed for in-crisis users needs to address their state of mind and physiological arousal. However, to date no clear guidance exists for the specific needs of in-crisis users. An opportunity to redesign a regional domestic abuse website inspired us to adapt Nielsen’s 10 heuristics by including three heuristics for in-crisis users, specifically domestic abuse victims. Given the lack of research we used existing research to address users’ cognitive and motor processing impairments during high anxiety and arousal. To see how well current domestic abuse websites follow these heuristics, we evaluated a pseudo-randomly selected set of 98 domestic abuse helplines. The result showed overall poor results. Irrelevant information, poor readability, and failure to highlight crucial information were among the main contributors for the poor assessment. The data illustrates the need for improved design guidelines to create a safe and effective option for in-crisis users.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651335
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Inter-individual variability in a repetitive lifting task

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      Authors: Emmanuel Tetteh, Pramiti Sarker, Colten Fales, Jeff Mettler, Gary Mirka
      Pages: 833 - 837
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 833-837, September 2021.
      Trunk kinematics directly impact the biomechanical loading of the tissues of the low back. Quantifying the variability in trunk kinematics may provide deeper insights into biomechanical loading and low back injury risk. Inter-lifter variability in trunk kinematics was assessed as twenty participants performed a repetitive lifting task at three levels of the NIOSH Lifting Index. Trunk kinematics were captured and Levene’s test of homogeneity of variance was used to test the hypothesis that variance in kinematic parameters increased as a function of level of lifting index. Results showed considerable levels of variability in all kinematics parameters, and for sagittal range of motion, mean sagittal velocity, transverse range of motion, and mean transverse velocity the variance was significantly affected (p
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651284
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Human-Centered Modeling Applications In Intelligent Manufacturing Systems

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      Authors: Itzel Guillen, Fernando Montalvo
      Pages: 838 - 842
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 838-842, September 2021.
      Industrial Internet of Things technologies, software algorithms, and advanced machine-learning systems are capable of extracting up-to-the-minute data from internal manufacturing industry processes which contain a wealth of useful and actionable information for various decision-making stages, including leadership-level strategic planning. While manufacturing data are often used to control quality, improve process efficiency, or to ensure that all manufacturing stations have the necessary tools and parts, this information also contains a wealth of data related to human factors that is not easily identified. By integrating human factors data into a causal modeling approach, this paper presents ways in which latent data can be used to aid in human-centered management of industrial systems. Information processing theory and causal modeling are presented as potential methods of incorporating human factors into modern data analytics. This research highlights ways to integrate human factors IIoT data into the overall company human factors’ planning and decisions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651292
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Gaze and pupil size variability predict difficulty-level and safe
           intersection crosses in a driving simulator

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      Authors: Matthew S. Martin, Brandon Huard-Nicholls, Aaron P. Johnson
      Pages: 843 - 847
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 843-847, September 2021.
      Western populations are ageing. With age comes an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and fragility that leads to higher fatal car crashes. This study develops a driving simulation paradigm that seeks to detect unsafe drivers, particularly among older drivers with MCI. The paradigm includes repeated urban intersection crossings at three difficulty levels while eye movements are tracked. The internal validity of this part of the paradigm was tested with young adults (N = 7). Results indicated that the simulator tests elicited unsafe driving behaviors that varied across difficulty and avoided ceiling and floor effects. Eye movement metrics associated with cognitive load also varied with difficulty and predicted safe crosses. The strongest predictors were gaze transition entropy, gaze variability, and pupil size entropy. These findings indicate internal validity of the tests. Future research should test the external validity of this paradigm with a larger, more diverse sample.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651289
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Car Crash Speed Estimates Not Biased by Leading Questions

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      Authors: N. Raghunath, A.A. Fultz, C.A. Sanchez
      Pages: 848 - 853
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 848-853, September 2021.
      Individuals’ recollections of events have been shown to be susceptible to external factors, especially when it comes to speed estimations. This study explored the impact of perceptually disfluent presentations and presentation modalities of car crashes on observers’ estimations of speed, in addition to the testing the currently accepted effect of leading questions on the same. Participants viewed videos or images of car crashes, presented in higher or lower visual quality, and reported how fast the vehicles were traveling when they “made contact” or “smashed into” each other. Results showed that neither question phrasing, visual quality, nor presentation modality of car crashes affected speed estimates. Individuals who believe cars to travel at higher speeds, however, in general estimated higher speeds when viewing car crash images, especially when presented in lower visual quality. These findings suggest that a combination of external factors may influence event recall depending on individual’s pre-existing beliefs about car speeds, and should be considered prior to obtaining eyewitness accounts.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651302
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • If You’re Happy and You Know it Stay Alert: The Effects of Lighting on
           Vigilance Performance and Affective State

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      Authors: Lauren E. Monroe, Samantha L. Smith
      Pages: 854 - 858
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 854-858, September 2021.
      Vigilance, or sustained attention tasks involve detecting critical signals, embedded amid more frequent neutral signals, over an extended period of time. A decline in performance, engagement, and arousal over time, as well as high workload and stress, are common outcomes of such tasks. Exposure to broad-spectrum or short wavelength bright light has been found to positively impact alertness, speed of information processing, and mood, but has not been extensively explored in the vigilance domain. The present study explored whether a light therapy lamp could mitigate the negative vigilance outcomes found in both performance and affective state. Results indicated that the therapy light did not prevent a decline in detection of critical signals over time, nor significantly impact workload, sleepiness, or subjective stress state compared to a dim light condition. However, mood questionnaire results suggest that lighting may impact separate constructs of arousal and tiredness, warranting further research.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651314
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Financial Orientated Heuristic Evaluation for Hand Tools 2021 HFES
           International Annual Meeting

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      Authors: Zhonglun Wang, Richard Stone, Joseph Kim, Steffen Baumann
      Pages: 859 - 863
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 859-863, September 2021.
      The goal of purchasing hand tools is to improve financial outcomes for buyers. These financialgains can come from multiple aspects of hand tools, such as increased productivity, improved product quality, and decreased injury rate. Based on a literature review, current hand tool purchasingdecisions are frequently made by professionals without specialized scientific backgrounds; however, the hand tool selection methods they receive are solely based on ergonomic evaluations. Heuristic evaluation, created by Nielsen & Molich (1990), has been proven effective in discoveringusability issues quickly. Combined with the knowledge from hand tool evaluation literature andNielsen & Molich’s (1990) heuristic evaluation platform, two versions of financially orientatedhand tool heuristic evaluations were created: a buyer version and a seller version. The buyer versionhelps hand tool buyers make financially orientated purchasing decisions; the designer version helpsquickly assess the financial viability of the hand tool design under review.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651312
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Simplifying Dialysis Through User-Centered Design and Sensor-Based
           Interactions on the Tablo Hemodialysis System

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      Authors: Brittany Lim, Amy Kerdok
      Pages: 864 - 867
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 864-867, September 2021.
      Hemodialysis is a complicated process that comes with many risks to both the user and the patient. The Tablo Hemodialysis System demonstrates how applying user-centered approaches to design could greatly improve device usability, and in turn, user and patient safety. Even with the Covid-19 pandemic creating unexpected hurdles to this approach, Tablo’s sensor-based technology offers a unique solution to ensure that user needs continue to be met.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651318
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Takeover Request Design in Automated Driving: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Kevin Joel Salubre, Dan Nathan-Roberts
      Pages: 868 - 872
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 868-872, September 2021.
      Autonomous vehicles (AV) with “level 3” automation and above are expected to take full longitudinal and lateral control, which relinquishes the driver from manual control and allows for engagement with non-driving-related tasks. Despite the advance nature of a level 3 vehicle, system limitations can occur, and the driver is expected to re-engage in manual driving at a moment’s notice. Current literature has been focused on takeover performance during a takeover request (TOR) and the effects of multimodal warnings, but there is little consensus on how modality stimulus is presented. This systematic review summarizes the current designs and implementations of TORs of level 3 AVs and above. Identified themes in the review were categorized into three sections: non-driving-related tasks, driving scenarios, and takeover modality. A summary of how researchers utilized these themes in the current literature are discussed as well as implications and further research.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651296
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • “Human Error” Isn’t Enough. Marine Accident Evaluation Methods: A
           Systematic Review

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      Authors: Alexandria D. Ward, Dan Nathan-Roberts
      Pages: 873 - 877
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 873-877, September 2021.
      The commercial shipping industry continues to be responsible for a vast majority of the world’s trade, yet it remains behind similar transport industries in terms of safety and accident prevention. The regulation of safety systems and naval architecture have led to significantly fewer accidents, but human error remains a constant factor and has been identified as the most likely cause of a marine accident. A systematic review of the methods used to investigate latent factors regarding human error in marine accidents has been conducted in an effort to further examine casual factors which lead to human error. Widely accepted methods or modified methods from other high-risk industries such as Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) and Bayesian Networks have been utilized, but few have taken into account all of the sociotechnical macroergonomics of such a complex industry, leaving significant research and engineering potential.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651310
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Comparison of Presentation Mediums for the Study of Trust in Autonomous
           Vehicles

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      Authors: Katherine Garcia, Ian Robertson, Philip Kortum
      Pages: 878 - 882
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 878-882, September 2021.
      The purpose of this study is to compare presentation methods for use in the validation of the Trust in Selfdriving Vehicle Scale (TSDV), a questionnaire designed to assess user trust in self-driving cars. Previous studies have validated trust instruments using traditional videos wherein participants watch a scenario involving an automated system but there are strong concerns about external validity with this approach. We examined four presentation conditions: a flat screen monitor with a traditional video, a flat screen with a 2D 180 video, an Oculus Go VR headset with a 2D 180 video, and an Oculus Go with a 3D VR video. Participants watched eight video scenarios of a self-driving vehicle attempting a right-hand tum at a stop sign and rated their trust in the vehicle shown in the video after each scenario using the TSDV and rated telepresence for the viewing condition. We found a significant interaction between the mean TSDV scores for pedestrian collision and presentation condition. The TSDV mean in the Headset 2D 180 condition was significantly higher than the other three conditions. Additionally, when used to view the scenarios as 3D VR videos, the headset received significantly higher ratings of spatial presence compared to the condition using a flatscreen a 2D video; none of the remaining comparisons were statistically significant. Based on the results it is not recommended that the headset be used for short scenarios because the benefits do not outweigh the costs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651320
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Learning Affordances: Theoretical Considerations for Design of Immersive
           Virtual Reality in Training and Education

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      Authors: Gregory McGowin, Stephen M. Fiore, Kevin Oden
      Pages: 883 - 887
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 883-887, September 2021.
      Technological advances have led to a rapid increase in the implementation of virtual reality (VR) across multiple sectors of society. Further, we are seeing more researchers explore how the technology can be used to promote learning and training in a variety of domains. But there is a problematic gap between development of VR for training and education and learning theory to ensure its efficacy. We address this need by providing a theoretical lens through which to evaluate existing research in VR. We consider technology developments that have made VR more sophisticated and draw from research in the learning and cognitive sciences to evaluate their utility as learning affordances. With this, we examine existing research as a way to illustrate the practical value of theoretical evaluation. We conclude with a discussion how this theoretical framing can point the way for both better designed studies to accelerate learning and training as well as for more innovative adaptations for accelerating learning in immersive virtual reality.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651293
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Neuromuscular Analysis Of Various Release Mechanisms In Archery: A Study
           Of The Preparatory Response Between Trigger And Back-Tension Releases

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      Authors: Richard T. Stone, Colten Fales, Hunter Sabers, Elizabeth Cavanah, Joseph Kim
      Pages: 888 - 893
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 888-893, September 2021.
      Archery was originally a tool for hunting but since has been transformed into a sport. Archery technology has evolved with little focus as to its effect on humans. Archery requires high levels of concentration and static muscle activity, which has not been analyzed to be successful. By observing the muscle activity in the bow arm and measuring the vibration effects from the bow, it was determined a presence of an impact to the human arm, which the human then creates anticipation for and braces against. To mitigate this anticipation, another technology was introduced to create a surprise factor in the shooting. To reduce the frequency of archers bracing up for the shot, knowledge of when the shot is going off was taken away. It was observed that the new technology did introduce a surprise factor, but it did not reduce the occurrences of preparatory muscle activation in the human arm.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651308
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Meta-Review of Learning Research in Immersive Virtual Reality

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      Authors: Gregory McGowin, Stephen M. Fiore, Kevin Oden
      Pages: 894 - 898
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 894-898, September 2021.
      Research and development in virtual reality (VR) continues to influence all sectors of society. This has been particularly the case in the application of VR for learning and training. Due to the affordability of VR, it increasingly is providing a safe and cost-effective technology for studying learning and training. In this paper, we summarize findings from recent compilations of research in virtual reality that examined VR and learning. From this, we identify a set of recommendations distilled from these reviews in order to help the training research community structure their research based upon the extent empirical base. Our goal is to help the training community more effectively explore VR as a technology for learning.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651326
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Do touchscreens make intelligent personal assistants more usable' An
           initial usability study

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      Authors: Fernando Montalvo, Jacquelyn Schreck, Kendahl Krause, Jordan Sasser, Daniel S. McConnell, Janan A. Smither
      Pages: 899 - 903
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 899-903, September 2021.
      Intelligent personal assistants (IPAs) have gained in popularity over the last decade. However, while the devices have been adopted in over a quarter of US households, users often fail to engage with the devices regularly once the initial novelty use wears off and users fail to find new and useful ways in which to interact with the devices. One way companies improve both the usability of the devices and a user’s conceptual model of what an IPA is capable of is through the use of built-in touchscreen displays which can offer passive suggestions to users, increasing knowledge of available features and interactions. We compared two standalone IPAs to test if including a touchscreen on the device improved usability and perceived usefulness. Results indicate that touchscreen displays do not necessarily improve the usability, perceived usefulness, or perceived task effectiveness of an IPA device.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651283
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Best Practices for Reducing Interface Errors in Electronic Medical Records

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      Authors: Paige Lawton, Janel Ingraham, Beth Blickensderfer
      Pages: 904 - 907
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 904-907, September 2021.
      As Electronic Medical Records (EMR) become increasingly prevalent, the application of human factors principles is essential to facilitate efficiency and usability of these systems and, in turn, to reduce adverse patient outcomes due to user errors relating to the EMR. This paper describes five “best practices” found in the literature which aim to prevent error in the use of Electronic Medical Records. These practices are: Watermarking, Information Control and Management, Hybrid Systems, Cross-Checking Methodology, and Interface Modification. The paper describes each practice and examines the research underlying each approach. Although some practices may be easier to apply than others, they all merit further research and have potential for error prevention on a large scale.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651294
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Individuation Based Usability of a Customized E-commerce Platform

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      Authors: Steven Ford, Jordan Schotz, Fernando Montalvo
      Pages: 908 - 912
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 908-912, September 2021.
      The usability of interfaces is critical in commerce, as it can lead to increased productivity and revenue. However, employees often have different needs from a system based on their role within the company. Hancock, Hancock, and Warm (2009) suggested that applied scientists should embrace person-specific interactions as the world moves ever more toward individual customization. Magento is an open-source e-commerce platform that can be tailored to the needs of respective companies. In conjunction with a retail plant and flower sales company in Clearwater, Florida, we assessed the usability of a custom Magento interface, focusing on each employee’s individual needs in the organization using heuristic evaluation, usability assessment, and structured interviews.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651306
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Engagement and time perception in virtual reality

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      Authors: Tyler Read, Christopher A. Sanchez, Raffaele De Amicis
      Pages: 913 - 918
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 913-918, September 2021.
      Virtual reality (VR) is a simulation tool that is being used extensively to study the effects of training and perception. However, several studies have shown that some aspects of perception within VR are not always accurate. The present study investigates the perception of time within a VR environment by asking for retrospective time judgments of the length of VR experiences. These environments varied in both the level of interaction with the VR environment, and also the spatial properties of the environment itself. The judged length of time did not significantly differ between conditions based on the level of activity in the environment. However, the spatial properties of the VR environment did produce significantly different time estimations. This finding suggests that careful attention should be paid to what and how users are trained or evaluated in VR.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651337
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Efficacy of Virtual Reality Training for Pilots: A Review of Links between
           User Presence, Search Task Performance, and Collaboration within Virtual
           Reality

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      Authors: William T. Walters, Jamiahus Walton
      Pages: 919 - 922
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 919-922, September 2021.
      The impact of user presence on both collaboration and search task performance within virtual reality is not fully understood. The purpose was to review existing literature and determine what research has been conducted on user presence in virtual reality (VR), as well as what research has been conducted on how user presence in virtual reality influences a user’s communication abilities and performance on search tasks. The need for alternative means of pilot training, specifically the possibility of utilizing virtual reality, and the importance of understanding collaboration and search task performance for this training method were outlined. Future research into the efficacy of VR as a training tool for pilots should aim to fill in this gap and seek to understand how user presence in VR influences both communication and search task performance in a virtual cockpit environment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651347
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Beat the Bots: Exploring the Effects of Placebo Manipulation on
           Performance During Video Gameplay

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      Authors: Sean Brantley, Michael Wilkinson, Jing Feng
      Pages: 923 - 927
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 923-927, September 2021.
      This study investigates placebos and video games’ usefulness as psychological research tools. One proposed underlying mechanism of the placebo effect is participants’ expectations. Such expectation effects exist in sports psychology and healthcare domains, but inconsistent findings have emerged on whether similar effects impact a participants’ cognitive performance. Concurrently, using video games as task environments is an emerging methodology relating to expertise and large-scale behavioral data collection. Therefore, this study examines the expectancy effect induced by researcher instructions on in-game performance. The instructional expectancy condition for this study is in-game successes framed using emoting (e.g., emoting under the pretense of subsequent performance increases) versus a control group. Preliminary results showed no evidence of different in-game performance between expectancy conditions. Potential mechanisms that could have led to a lack of effect were discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651311
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A preliminary classification of different tasks that make use of
           uncertainty visualizations

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      Authors: Mahtab Eskandar, Wayne C.W. Giang
      Pages: 928 - 932
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 928-932, September 2021.
      Individuals often struggle with tasks that involve uncertainty. Uncertainty visualizations are a type of cognitive aid that provides uncertainty information to help people with performing these tasks. However, the literature has shown that uncertainty visualizations differ in the extent they improve individuals’ task performance. We hypothesize that differences in the tasks can account for some of this variability. In this study, we aimed to create an initial classification of task types based on studies on uncertainty visualizations by reviewing a diverse set of recent research involving uncertainty visualizations. We classified the experimental tasks found in these papers into four groups: uncertainty assessment, forecasting, decision making, and metacognition. Then, we reviewed the result of the experiments in terms of the similarities and differences in the use of uncertainty visualizations within and between tasks. This classification serves as a starting point for further research into the effective design of visualizations of uncertainty.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651281a
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Formative Modeling of Foster Care Work: A Cognitive Work Analysis Approach

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      Authors: Connor Wurst, Huei-Yen Winnie Chen, Kenneth Joseph
      Pages: 933 - 937
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 933-937, September 2021.
      In this paper we present the promise of the Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) methodology, particularly abstraction hierarchy modeling, in the foster care domain. There is increasing interest in applying machine learning decision aids to foster care decision making, but that interest is accompanied by concerns that those aids may perpetuate systemic bias or be largely context-blind. Modeling the work conducted at different levels of the domain offers unique insights into where bias may enter the system as well as possible design implications for these future decision aids. This project models two major areas of work in the domain, management of individual cases and management of overall programs offered. These work areas are then considered in the first 3 levels of the abstraction hierarchy to display the promise that this model can hold for the domain in future work, particularly when supported with more naturalistic studies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651023
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Characteristics that Predict Phishing Susceptibility: A Review

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      Authors: McKenna K. Tornblad, Keith S. Jones, Akbar Siami Namin, Jinwoo Choi
      Pages: 938 - 942
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 938-942, September 2021.
      Phishing attack countermeasures have previously relied on technical solutions or user training. As phishing attacks continue to impact users resulting in adverse consequences, mitigation efforts may be strengthened through an understanding of how user characteristics predict phishing susceptibility. Several studies have identified factors of interest that may contribute to susceptibility. Others have begun to build predictive models to better understand the relationships among factors in addition to their prediction power, although these studies have only used a handful of predictors. As a step toward creating a holistic model to predict phishing susceptibility, it was first necessary to catalog all known predictors that have been identified in the literature. We identified 32 predictors related to personality traits, demographics, educational background, cybersecurity experience and beliefs, platform experience, email behaviors, and work commitment style.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651330
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Human Factors Considerations for Patients: A Cursory Review of Telehealth
           Guidelines

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      Authors: Sarah A. Powers, Kimberly N. Perry, Amanda J. Ashdown, Matthew Pacailler, Mark W. Scerbo
      Pages: 943 - 947
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 943-947, September 2021.
      During the COVID-19 pandemic, changes to telehealth laws and policies enabled more patients to meet with their healthcare providers remotely. The rapid implementation of telehealth has resulted in providers and patients interacting remotely with few existing standards or guidelines. Additionally, a cursory search of telehealth guidelines for patients revealed overly broad recommendations related to technology, security, and environmental requirements. Although researchers have recommended some human factors considerations for guidelines, these recommendations were rarely implemented in the guidelines we reviewed. Therefore, human factors professionals can contribute further by implementing best practices for telehealth appointments to create evidence-based standardized guidelines. Some initial areas to focus on include accessibility for patients, overcoming typical telehealth barriers, and addressing a wider diversity of patients.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651340
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Myoelectric Control: an alternative to Mirror Therapy

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      Authors: Kouadio Niamba, Frank Schieber, Megan McCray
      Pages: 948 - 950
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 948-950, September 2021.
      Evidence suggests that fifty to eighty percent (50-80%) of amputees conserve sensation in their missing limb after removal due to the presence of associated nerve endings. Most importantly, a large percentage of amputees experience episodic pain in the missing limb. This physiological phenomenon called phantom limb pain (PLP) has shown resistance to pharmaceutical treatments, but can be treated through mirror therapy. However, mirror therapy only yields temporary results and does not apply to bilateral amputees. Overcoming these challenges are the objectives of the present study. Using a surface electromyographic signal classification approach, this investigation intends to simulate the control of a missing limb within an immersive virtual environment. We predict that replacing mirror therapy with a more immersive “virtual therapy” can serve as a prolonged psychological solution to phantom limb pain.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651346
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Development and evaluation of an Agricultural Cumulative Risk Evaluation
           System (ACRES): An ergonomic tool usability study across various lifting
           and postural assessment systems for novice users

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      Authors: Colten Fales, Richard T. Stone, Esraa Saleh Abdelall, Steffen Baumann
      Pages: 951 - 955
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 951-955, September 2021.
      This paper aims to compare agreeance of four of most commonly used ergonomics assessment tools as well as introduce the Agriculture Cumulative Risk Evaluation Systems (ACRES), a tool that assesses both lifting and posture. ACRES discretizes factors to evaluate ergonomic risk. Participants lacked substantial experience with ergonomic tools, but were given instruction guides for each tool and tasked with evaluating various lifting and repetitive tasks to help evaluate initial perceptions. Results showed that REBA, QEC, and ACRES all had significant correlations with a more linear relationship between REBA and ACRES than REBA and QEC. The NIOSH lifting equation and the Snook and Cirello tables were too different to have significant correlation whereas ACRES was able to correlate with RNLE. In all cases REBA and the RNLE were found to be more difficult to use to novices and ACRES was perceived to be more appropriate for the lifting tasks.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651341
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Reexamination of Coacting Observers in Vigilance: In What Way Are Two
           Heads Better Than One'

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      Authors: Eric T. Greenlee, Lindsay Rice
      Pages: 956 - 957
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 956-957, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651329
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effect of Driver Distraction on Vehicle Speed Control

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      Authors: M.S. Emily Parcell, M.S. Shivani Patel, Cameron Severin, Yoona Cho, Alex Chaparro
      Pages: 958 - 962
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 958-962, September 2021.
      Performing a secondary task while driving impairs various performance measures, including speed control. Distraction is associated with reductions in driving speed; however, this is often based on global measures of performance, such as course completion time or mean speed. This study investigated how a secondary task affected granular speed variation. Participants (N=16, ages 18-43) performed a secondary task of mentally subtracting pairs of numbers while negotiating a simulated road course. Various driving performance measures were obtained but only results for longitudinal velocity are reported. The results reveal that drivers exhibited significant increases and decreases (>2+/- SD) in vehicle speed under distraction, with participants showing a stronger tendency to decrease their speed (60% of the observed speed violations). This may explain why global measures of driving speed under distraction reveal a slowing down. These results may increase our understanding of the nuanced effects of distraction on driving and be useful for predicting/diagnosing distracted driving behavior.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651331
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Smartphone display size can influence perceptual judgments

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      Authors: C.A. Sanchez, T. Read, A. Crawford
      Pages: 963 - 967
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 963-967, September 2021.
      Classic research in perception has suggested that visual context can impact how individuals perceive object characteristics like physical size. The current set of studies extends this work to an applied setting by examining whether smartphone display size can impact the perception of objects presented on smartphones. Participants viewed several target items, on two different sized virtual device displays based on actual consumer devices and were asked to make simple judgments of the size of presented objects. Results from both experiments confirm that display size impacts perceived size, such that larger displays cause users to significantly underestimate the size of objects moreso than smaller displays. This is the first study to confirm such an effect, and suggests that beyond aesthetics or cost, one’s personal choice of device might have additional performance consequences.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651334
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Multidimensional Scaling Approach to Technology Categorization

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      Authors: Sidney T. Scott-Sharoni, Rachel E. Stuck, Bruce N. Walker
      Pages: 968 - 971
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 968-971, September 2021.
      The increasing reliance on and advancement of technology requires an in-depth exploration into how users interact with mechanical and virtual devices. To explore how individuals categorize different technologies, we conducted a multidimensional scaling (MDS) study to analyze the perceived similarity or dissimilarity between technologies. In the exploratory study on 23 devices, we found items rated similarly based on two dimensions – technological sophistication and size. Technology categorization, specifically with the use of MDS, is an under investigated approach in human factors that, through further exploration, may yield a better understanding of users’ mental models and acceptance, with utility for both designers and researchers.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651322
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Understanding Aggressive Driving: The Role of Personality and Individual
           Differences

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      Authors: Enilda M. Velazquez, Mustapha Mouloua
      Pages: 972 - 976
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 972-976, September 2021.
      The goal of the present study was to examine the role of personality and individual differences on aggressive driving. It was hypothesized that personality and individual differences would be significantly related to aggressive driving behavior. A sample of n = 252 participants from a southeastern university and surrounding community were required to complete a series of driving questionnaires; the ADBQ, DBQ, and CFQ-D; and a series of personality questionnaires; the IPIP-NEO-PIR and BFI. Our results indicated that personality factors and individual differences significantly predicted aggressive driving outcomes. These results provided a preliminary personality based characteristic profile of the aggressive driver. These results also support the use of trait anger and trait cooperation independently from the subscales they are derived from (Neuroticism and Agreeableness) to predict aggressive driving behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651345
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Influence of the Big Five on Driving Frequency During the Early Phase of
           the COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: Kyle Hickerson, Yi-Ching Lee
      Pages: 977 - 981
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 977-981, September 2021.
      Our objective was to examine how the Big Five personality traits affected driving behavior during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data was collected online via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Chi-Squared Tests with bootstrapping revealed a significant pandemic effect on driving frequency with a moderate effect size. However, insignificant results of the Big Five were found relative to the weekly driving frequency. Simple Correspondence Analysis was used to examine patterns between the Big Five and driving frequency graphically. Individuals high in Agreeableness, Openness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism were more likely to drive less frequently and therefore comply with isolation guidelines. However, there were conflicting results in Neuroticism. Some of the High and Medium Low groups were grouped closely with lower driving frequencies. To explain this result, there may be a mediating or moderating factor that was not captured in this analysis, which requires more research to examine.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651321
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Effect of Emotion and V2i Communication on Driver Perception of Av

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      Authors: Allegra Ayala, Yi-Ching Lee
      Pages: 982 - 985
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 982-985, September 2021.
      As autonomous vehicles (AVs) become more prevalent on the roadways, accompanying driving technologies are being developed. V2I communication systems are one such development, allowing the dissemination of crucial information to drivers. As more AVs are introduced on the road, understanding driver perception of AVs is crucial not only for user acceptance, but non-user acceptance as well. The use of V2I systems may be helpful in bridging the gap between users and non-users by making all drivers more informed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651327
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Effects of Physical and Psychological Stress on Task Load Assesment
           and Grammatical Reasoning Among Special Forces Soldiers

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      Authors: Kari Kallinen, Tommi Ojanen
      Pages: 986 - 987
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 986-987, September 2021.
      We examined the effects of a stressful training course exercise on soldiers stress hormone (cortisol levels), subjective workload and grammatical reasoning. Saliva samples, Baddeley 3-minute reasoning test and NASA-TLX workload assessment were collected 10 minutes before the course (PRE measurement), immediately after the course (POST measurement) and 12 and 20 minutes after the course (Recovery 1 and Recovery 2 measurements). Workload was lowest in PPE-measurement, highest in POST-measurement immediately after the course and declined near to the PRE level during the recovery measurements. The levels of cortisol concentrations and grammatical reasoning test scores followed the same trend.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651338
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Assessing Collaborative Explanations of AI using Explanation Goodness
           Criteria

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      Authors: Tauseef Ibne Mamun, Kenzie Baker, Hunter Malinowski, Rober R. Hoffman, Shane T. Mueller
      Pages: 988 - 993
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 988-993, September 2021.
      Explainable AI represents an increasingly important category of systems that attempt to support human understanding and trust in machine intelligence and automation. Typical systems rely on algorithms to help understand underlying information about decisions and establish justified trust and reliance. Researchers have proposed using goodness criteria to measure the quality of explanations as a formative evaluation of an XAI system, but these criteria have not been systematically investigated in the literature. To explore this, we present a novel collaborative explanation system (CXAI) and propose several goodness criteria to evaluate the quality of its explanations. Results suggest that the explanations provided by this system are typically correct, informative, written in understandable ways, and focus on explanation of larger scale data patterns than are typically generated by algorithmic XAI systems. Implications for how these criteria may be applied to other XAI systems are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651307
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Challenges of Evaluating the Usability of Augmented Reality (AR)

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      Authors: Jessyca L. Derby, Barbara S. Chaparro
      Pages: 994 - 998
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 994-998, September 2021.
      Augmented reality (AR) is a new and emerging technology that could benefit from evaluating its usability to better the user’s experience with the device or application. This is often done through usability testing and heuristic evaluations. However, AR technology presents some challenges when completing these usability evaluations. Practitioners need to keep in mind the hardware limitations of AR devices that may not be present with other computerized technology, consistency of the users’ environment plays a larger role in the AR experience, recognize that a novelty effect may occur and affect subjective scores, and choose heuristic sets that will best evaluate AR applications. Practitioners need to be aware of these challenges and overcome them to accurately assess the usability of these products to gain insights about what should be changed to make the overall experience with the product better.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651315
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Using Performance Predictions to Evaluate Two-factor Authentication Setup
           Processes

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      Authors: Shivam Pandey, Tewodros Taffese
      Pages: 999 - 1003
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 999-1003, September 2021.
      Low user adoption due to usability issues during setup is one of the primary challenges facing two-factor authentication implementations. A method which could quickly provide performance predictions for two-factor authentication setup processes would help create opportunities for iterative improvements during the design phase. These improvements can lead to increased human performance in the two-factor authentication setup processes once implemented and may help address some of the usability challenges that plague two-factor authentication user adoption efforts. Various software-based prediction tools can help simulate human performance and analyze underlying usability issues. The challenge is to evaluate human performance quickly and iteratively in two-factor authentication setup processes to help improve the usability of the processes during the design phase. We demonstrate rapid software-based performance predictions for three two-factor authentication setup processes and compare them to previously published human performance data for insights.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651328
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Using Cost Efficient Augmented Reality Glasses in Anatomical
           Identification

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      Authors: Q. Krause, B. McCrory
      Pages: 1004 - 1008
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1004-1008, September 2021.
      Augmented Reality (AR) is an emerging technology capable of integrating visual technology with the physical world in novel ways. AR uses may range from education delivery to the operating room. This study sought to evaluate cost-effective AR glasses compared to a traditional computer screen when identifying anatomical structures in a chest radiograph (X-ray). The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the Vuzix Blade AR technology is feasible for use in the medical field to identify anatomical structures. Novice undergraduate and graduate students (n = 14) were recruited to participate in this feasibility study. Radio-graphic images were compiled, and subjects were asked to identify 12 anatomical structures on each image. Images were randomly assigned to identify structures using either the AR glasses or a traditional computer screen for each set. Images were viewed randomly by each subject using a crossover design to compare traditional computer screen vs. AR screen. Subjects identified statistically fewer anatomical structures using the AR glasses compared to using the traditional computer screen (p
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651333
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Development of a Team Role Behavior Observation Tool: Insights and
           Considerations for Future Research

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      Authors: Andrew C. Griggs, Jordan E. Rogers, Logan M. Gisick, Elizabeth H. Lazzara, Joseph R. Keebler, Tara N. Cohen
      Pages: 1009 - 1014
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1009-1014, September 2021.
      Today’s workforce is dependent on teams. Organizations are interested in positively influencing antecedents to team effectiveness such as team composition. While many factors have been studied thoroughly concerning team composition and effectiveness, team roles have not received comparable attention. Team roles refer to groups of generalizable, goal-directed behaviors that support team performance. Current team role assessments are reliant on surveys and peer ratings. To explore avenues that would enable comparisons between survey-based measures of team roles with benchmarks of observable behavior, we developed a behavior observation tool based on a team role taxonomy known as Team Role Experience and Orientation (TREO). We present the first iteration of this tool based on our review of team role literature, results of an inter-rater reliability assessment, and discuss its potential impact concerning future research and organizational utility. More work is needed to develop a construct-valid behavioral team role assessment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651282a
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A Decision Support Tool for Assessing Trust in an Enterprise Data Sharing
           Partner

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      Authors: Mark F. St. John, M. Dustin Young
      Pages: 1015 - 1019
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1015-1019, September 2021.
      Enterprises need to trust that data they share with other enterprises is not exploited maliciously and cause harm. We describe the development and evaluation of a decision support tool for assessing trust in a partner enterprise. The tool is composed of ten statements spanning four well-established organizational trust factors: ability, integrity, benevolence, and vulnerability. Users rate the statements about a partner enterprise and then rate their trust in the partner enterprise. The tool focuses users on these trust factors and mentally prepares them to make the trust rating. As a first evaluation of the tool, participants read 25 statements each about enterprises in three fictional countries and rated their trust without the tool, using only their intuitions. Then they rated three more enterprises while using the tool. The tool led to trust ratings that were significantly closer to the constructed, expected ratings, and participants rated the tool as useful.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651064
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Imperfect Automation Schema - Evidence for Increased Trust in Human
           Support Agents

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      Authors: Tobias Rieger, Eileen Roesler, Dietrich Manzey
      Pages: 1020 - 1020
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1020-1020, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651069
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Do Users Know When to Buy Decision Support and How to Use it'

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      Authors: Yoav Ben-Yaakov, Yuval Bitan, Joachim Meyer
      Pages: 1021 - 1021
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1021-1021, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651120
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effects of Time Pressure and User Ratings for Online Shopping

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      Authors: Jeremiah G. Ammons, Cody Parker, Jing Chen*
      Pages: 1022 - 1023
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1022-1023, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651134
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Nodes Afford Connection: A Pilot Study Examining the Design and Use of a
           Graphical Modeling Language

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      Authors: Zachary H. Pugh, Douglas J. Gillan
      Pages: 1024 - 1028
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1024-1028, September 2021.
      External representations such as diagrams facilitate reasoning. Many diagramming systems and notations are amenable to manipulation by actual or imagined intervention (e.g., transposing terms in an equation). Such manipulation is constrained by user-enforced constraints, including rules of syntax and semantics which help preserve the representation’s validity. We argue that the concepts of affordances and signifiers can be applied to understand such representations, and we suggest the term graphical affordance to refer to rule-constrained syntactic manipulation of an external representation. Following this argument, we examine a graphical modeling language in terms of these graphical affordances, and we present a pilot study examining how participants interact with the modeling language. Preliminary results suggest that using the modeling language, as opposed to prose representation, influences user behavior in a manner aligned with the graphical affordances and signifiers of the modeling language.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651150
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Studying Robot Vacuums Using Online Retailer Reviews to Understand
           Human-Automation Interaction

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      Authors: Kenan Carames, Kinting Mui, Amin Azad, Wayne C.W. Giang*
      Pages: 1029 - 1033
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1029-1033, September 2021.
      Robot vacuums are a type of every-day automation and may serve as a possible domain for studying human-automation interactions. Online reviews of four models of autonomous robot vacuums, representing different levels of price and automation, were collected from multiple retailers to understand user interactions and issues encountered. Using a thematic analysis, reviews were categorized into three themes: prior experience with robot vacuums, navigation, and mapping, and troubleshooting issues. The results suggested that new users were more satisfied with their robots than experienced users. Furthermore, price and brand name may influence users’ mental models of their vacuums. Owners of more expensive vacuums appeared less willing to change their behavior to accommodate the vacuum’s limitations. These findings suggest that robot vacuums may be a useful gateway domain for understanding everyday-users’ interactions with automation, and that online reviews are a potential source of information on user experiences.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651106
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Ethics Education of Human Factors Engineers for Responsible AI Development

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      Authors: Esa M. Rantanen, John D. Lee, Katherine Darveau, Dave B. Miller, James Intriligator, Ben D. Sawyer
      Pages: 1034 - 1038
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1034-1038, September 2021.
      This panel discussion is third in a series examining the educational challenges facing future human factors and ergonomics professionals. The past two panels have focused on training of technical skills in data science, machine learning, and artificial intelligence to human factors students. This panel discussion expands on these topics and argues for a need of new and broader training curricula that include ethics for responsible development of AI-based systems that will touch lives of everybody and have widespread societal impacts.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651038
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Being Bold: How HFES Can Encourage Responsible, Timely and Participative
           Ergonomics to Address Societal Issues

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      Authors: Abigail R. Wooldridge, Courtney C. Rogers, Christopher R. Reid, Rupa S. Valdez, Mica Endsley, Richard J. Holden, Carolyn M. Sommerich, Andrew Thatcher
      Pages: 1039 - 1043
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1039-1043, September 2021.
      Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E) is a systems discipline focused on jointly optimizing human well-being and overall system performance. Societal problems, including but not limited to health inequity, racism, poverty, and (lack of) sustainability, are inherently systems problems that involve humans, and so recent work has argued that HF IE can and should contribute to addressing these issues. This panel will bring together leaders of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) to discuss if and how HFES can encourage and support responsible, timely, and participative ergonomics to address societal issues. The session will be highly interactive as the organizers will moderate discussion to reflect on the progress the science and Society (i.e., HFES) have made in this space, identify areas for improvement, and creatively consider future actions to ensure our science and Society are responding to these issues in an ethical manner.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651035
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Turning HART into HEART: Human Emotional AI/Robot Teaming

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      Authors: Myounghoon Jeon
      Pages: 1044 - 1048
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1044-1048, September 2021.
      The advancement of technology requires a new teaming dynamic between humans and AI/robots. As emotions and affect are critical in forming human-human relationships, they are also expected to have a significant impact on human-AI/robot team dynamics. However, little research has been conducted on the effects of emotions on this relationship and team performance. In this perspective paper, I propose turning HART (human-AI/robot teaming) into HEART (human-emotional AI/robot teaming) and demonstrate its potential effects. To this end, existing frameworks on emotion research are introduced, followed by a brief literature survey on emotional AI/robot research and its potential applications to HART. Finally, further considerations are discussed. I hope this paper can spark lively discussions on a new legitimate framework, HEART, to more accurately understand and predict human behavior and team performance in HART settings.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651136
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effects of Human-Likeness on Robot Use in High-Risk Environments

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      Authors: Nathan L. Tenhundfeld, Hannah M. Barr, Emily O’Hear, Andrew Atchley, Jenna E. Cotter
      Pages: 1049 - 1053
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1049-1053, September 2021.
      Previous research has shown that the design of robots can impact the level of trust, liking, and empathy that a user feels towards a robot. Additionally, this empathy can have direct impacts on users’ interactions with the system. Existing research has looked at how empathy can influence user willingness to, for example, put the robot in harm’s way or to destroy the robot. However, these studies have been inherently reliant upon narrative driven manipulations, which may result in experimental demands which could have influenced the results. As such, we provide a human-likeness manipulation in order to evaluate the impacts of design which may evoke empathy, on use of robots in high-risk environments. Results indicate no significant difference in robot use between conditions. These results are in conflict with previous research. More research is needed to understand when users are/are not willing to use a robot in a high-risk environment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651061
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Appearance is not Everything - Relevant Feature Combinations for
           Human-Robot Interaction

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      Authors: Kim Klüber, Linda Onnasch
      Pages: 1054 - 1055
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1054-1055, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651117
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Anthropomorphism and Trust In Human-Autonomy Team Communication Dynamics

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      Authors: Myke C. Cohen, Mustafa Demir, Erin K. Chiou, Nancy J. Cooke
      Pages: 1056 - 1056
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1056-1056, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:41:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651231
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Theoretical Considerations for Social Learning between a Human Observer
           and a Robot Model

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      Authors: Boyoung Kim, Elizabeth Phillips
      Pages: 1057 - 1061
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1057-1061, September 2021.
      Robots are entering various domains of human societies, potentially unfolding more opportunities for people to perceive robots as social agents. We expect that having robots in proximity would create unique social learning situations where humans spontaneously observe and imitate robots’ behaviors. At times, these occurrences of humans’ imitating robot behaviors may result in a spread of unsafe or unethical behaviors among humans. For responsible robot designing, therefore, we argue that it is essential to understand physical and psychological triggers of social learning in robot design. Grounded in the existing literature of social learning and the uncanny valley theories, we discuss the human-likeness of robot appearance and affective responses associated with robot appearance as likely factors that either facilitate or deter social learning. We propose practical considerations for social learning and robot design.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651264
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Usability issues with electronic health records: Is it even worth it for
           human factors practitioners'

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      Authors: Swaminathan Kandaswamy, James Won, Dean Karavite, Aaron Z Hettinger
      Pages: 1062 - 1064
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1062-1064, September 2021.
      Despite the need for addressing usability issues within Electronic Health Records (EHR), health care organizationshave struggled to systemically involvehuman factors practitioners (HFP). Thereare several challenges to supporting EHR-related work as HFP. Simple design changes mayhavedependencies or create downstream consequences that are not typical of other software systems, or not be feasible to change without overhaul of functionality from theEHR vendor. This panel will present successes and lessons learned bya group of HFP embeddedin healthcare systemswho have extendedexperience working on EHR configurationand design changes. They will discuss challengesand strategies in adopting human factorstechniquesto improve EHR design and related outcomes. By the end of the panel, audience members will learn not only howhuman factors is having animpact in this aspect ofhealthcare delivery, but also learn approaches that may be applicable to other complextechnical systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651036
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Towards standardized metrics for measuring takeover performance in
           conditionally automated driving: A systematic review

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      Authors: Yining Cao, Feng Zhou, Elizabeth M. Pulver, Lisa J. Molnar, Lionel P. Robert, Dawn M. Tilbury, X. Jessie Yang
      Pages: 1065 - 1069
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1065-1069, September 2021.
      A particular concern with SAE Level 3 automated vehicles is the takeover transition from the automated vehicle to the driver. Prior research has employed a wide range of metrics for measuring takeover performance. However, the lack of a set of standard metrics for measuring takeover performance makes it difficult to consolidate findings and summarize the influence of different factors. This article presents a review of the metrics employed in empirical literature examining takeover transitions in Level 3 automated driving and proposes a framework for standardizing the objective takeover performance metrics.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:40:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651213
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Automated Vehicle Takeover: A Pilot Study on the Effects of Age, Physical
           exercise, and Takeover Request Modality on Post-Takeover Performance

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      Authors: Gaojian Huang, Brandon J. Pitts
      Pages: 1070 - 1070
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1070-1070, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:37:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651012
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Look Up! An Eye-Tracking Study on Situation Awareness During Automated
           Vehicle Takeover

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      Authors: Nade Liang, Jing Yang, Kwaku O. Prakah-Asante, Reates Curry, Mike Blommer, Radhakrishnan Swaminathan, Denny Yu, Brandon J. Pitts
      Pages: 1071 - 1071
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1071-1071, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651146
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Advanced vehicle technology: Mapping mental model accuracy and system
           exposure to driver behavior

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      Authors: Aaron Benson, Joanne But, John Gaspar, Cher Carney, William J. Horrey
      Pages: 1072 - 1076
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1072-1076, September 2021.
      Advanced driver assistance systems have potential to increase safety and comfort for drivers; however, drivers need to understand the capabilities and limitations of these systems to use them appropriately. This study sought to explore how the quality (accuracy) of drivers’ mental models of adaptive cruise control (ACC) impacted their behavior and interactions while using the system. Seventy-eight participants drove in a high-fidelity driving simulator while operating an ACC system, in normal conditions and while interacting with the system interface. Participants with stronger (more accurate) mental models glanced to the road ahead more often during normal conditions early on compared to drivers were less accurate mental models; however, these differences diminished with increased system exposure. Glance behavior while interacting with the system and time to complete the interactions were less effected by the strength of the participant’s mental model. Results are discussed in the context of driver education and training.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:44:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651086
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Driver Attention And The Built Environment Initial, Findings From A
           Naturalistic Driving Study

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      Authors: Patricia Tice, Sudipta Dey Tirtha, Naveen Eluru
      Pages: 1077 - 1081
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1077-1081, September 2021.
      Maintaining driver attention is critical in multimodal urban spaces where risks to vulnerable users are not borne by the drivers that impose them. However, without an understanding of what it is within the built environment that elicits appropriate driver attention, it will be difficult to reduce the escalating tide of pedestrian fatalities we currently are experiencing. This study uses eye glance data from a naturalistic driving study tabulated for on-task vs. off-task driving and detailed tabulations of environmental variables to identify which features within the built environment have a significant impact on driver attention. An econometric utility model was generated that identified corridor pavement width, reduced drivewayspacing, and linearly aligned street trees as design features that have a positive impact on driver attention.One-way streets, undelineated parking or unstriped bicycle lanes reduce drivers need to attend. Recommendations for maintaining driver attention within urban spaces are included.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:39:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651271
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effects of unreliable automation and takeover time budget on young
           drivers’ mental workload

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      Authors: Farzaneh Shahini, Junho Park, Maryam Zahabi
      Pages: 1082 - 1086
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1082-1086, September 2021.
      Young drivers are involved in a significantly higher number of crashes than any other age group. Highly automated vehicles are expected to improve traffic safety and reduce human errors; however, driver needs to take over in situations where the automation fails. A driving simulation study was conducted with twenty-eight young drivers to investigate the effects of unreliable automation, different takeover time budgets (TOTBs), and secondary tasks on mental workload during takeover situations. Mental workload was measured using a combination of physiological and secondary task performance measures. Results suggested that when faced with critical incidents, young drivers experienced lower mental workload under 10s of TOTB as compared to 5s or 8s of TOTB especially when they were engaged in a demanding secondary task. In addition, drivers experienced higher mental workload when regaining the control of the vehicle in the automated mode than the manual driving condition.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:38:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651125
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Different System Error Rates in Augmented Reality Interface Affected
           Cognitive Stress

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      Authors: Kiana Kia, Jaejin Hwang, Hakim Ishak, James Wilson, In-Sop Kim, Jay Kim
      Pages: 1087 - 1088
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1087-1088, September 2021.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:43:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651182
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effect of body-gender transfer in virtual reality on the perception of
           sexual harassment

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      Authors: Linfeng Wu, Karen B. Chen, Edward P. Fitts
      Pages: 1089 - 1093
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 1089-1093, September 2021.
      While sexual harassments are inappropriate behaviors in the society, the interpretation of and sensitivity toward sexual harassment can vary by individual. Differences across individuals, such as gender, may influence whether one interprets an action to be sexually harassing or not. Virtual reality technology enables human behavior assessment without interfacing with physical danger. The present work examined whether gender and body-gender transfer in VR influenced the perception of sexually harassing behaviors, and explored the utility of emerging technology in increasing one’s awareness of behaviors that may be considered sexually harassing. Participants (n=12) embodied in virtual characters of different genders and experienced seven sexually harassing scenarios in an immersive virtual environment in random order. In general, participants provided higher rating to the sensitivity toward sexual harassment in the VR harassment scenarios than those scenarios described on paper. There was an increase in participants’ sensitivity toward sexual harassment after experiencing sexual harassment scenarios from the perspective of the victim in VR. Participants perceived higher level of sexual harassment when they embodied in female avatars, which suggested there was an effect of VR with body-gender transfer on perception of sexual harassment. There were gender differences in awareness of harassing behaviors in VR environment, and VR may be a training method to narrow gender gap and increase awareness toward sexual harassment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T09:42:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181321651094
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effects of Head-locked Augmented Reality on User’s Performance and
           Perceived Workload

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