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  Subjects -> AERONAUTICS AND SPACE FLIGHT (Total: 124 journals)
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Frontiers in Aerospace Engineering
Number of Followers: 24  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2325-6796 - ISSN (Online) 2325-6788
Published by Science and Eng Pub Co. Homepage  [34 journals]
  • Grand challenges in intelligent aerospace systems

    • Authors: Kelly Cohen
      PubDate: 2023-09-12T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Enabling technologies for advanced air mobility

    • Authors: Krishna M. Kalyanam, Kelly Cohen
      PubDate: 2023-08-11T00:00:00Z
  • Comparison and synthesis of two aerospace case studies to develop
           human-autonomy teaming requirements

    • Authors: Güliz Tokadlı, Michael C. Dorneich
      Abstract: This paper developed human-autonomy teaming (HAT) characteristics and requirements by comparing and synthesizing two aerospace case studies (Single Pilot Operations/Reduced Crew Operations and Long-Distance Human Space Operations) and the related recent HAT empirical studies. Advances in sensors, machine learning, and machine reasoning have enabled increasingly autonomous system technology to work more closely with human(s), often with decreasing human direction. As increasingly autonomous systems become more capable, their interactions with humans may evolve into a teaming relationship. However, humans and autonomous systems have asymmetric teaming capabilities, which introduces challenges when designing a teaming interaction paradigm in HAT. Additionally, developing requirements for HAT can be challenging for future operations concepts, which are not yet well-defined. Two case studies conducted previously document analysis of past literature and interviews with subject matter experts to develop domain knowledge models and requirements for future operations. Prototype delegation interfaces were developed to perform summative evaluation studies for the case studies. In this paper, a review of recent literature on HAT empirical studies was conducted to augment the document analysis for the case studies. The results of the two case studies and the literature review were compared and synthesized to suggest the common characteristics and requirements for HAT in future aerospace operations. The requirements and characteristics were grouped into categories of team roles, autonomous teammate types, interaction paradigms, and training. For example, human teammates preferred the autonomous teammate to have human-like characteristics (e.g., dialog-based conversation, social skills, and body gestures to provide cue-based information). Even though more work is necessary to verify and validate the requirements for HAT development, the case studies and recent empirical literature enumerate the types of functions and capabilities needed for increasingly autonomous systems to act as a teammate to support future operations.
      PubDate: 2023-07-18T00:00:00Z
  • Platooning in UAM airspace structures: applying trajectory shaping
           guidance law and exploiting cooperative localization

    • Authors: Melody N. Mayle, Rajnikant Sharma
      Abstract: A novel control technique for the platooning of aerial vehicles is here introduced, and its stability is analyzed. The controller applies a missile guidance law that was initially adapted for path-following and subsequently extended to platooning. The positions of all agents within a platoon employing this controller are estimated by exploiting cooperative localization, and these estimated positions are fed back into the controller. Using simulation, the agents within a platoon are demonstrated to follow their desired path and avoid collision, even in environments with intermittent Global Positioning System signals and limited sensing ranges.
      PubDate: 2023-06-12T00:00:00Z
  • Traffic management protocols for advanced air mobility

    • Authors: Christopher Chin, Victor Qin, Karthik Gopalakrishnan, Hamsa Balakrishnan
      Abstract: The demand for advanced air mobility (AAM) operations is expected to be at a much larger scale than conventional aviation. Additionally, AAM flight operators are likely to compete in providing a range of on-demand services in congested airspaces, with varying operational costs. These characteristics motivate the need for the development of new traffic management algorithms for advanced air mobility. In this paper, we explore the use of traffic management protocols (“rules-of-the-road” for airspace access) to enable efficient and fair operations. First, we show that it is possible to avoid gridlock and improve efficiency by leveraging the concepts of cycle detection and backpressure. We then develop a cost-aware traffic management protocol based on the second-price auction. Using simulations of representative advanced air mobility scenarios, we demonstrate that our traffic management protocols can help balance efficiency and fairness, in both the operational and the economic contexts.
      PubDate: 2023-05-17T00:00:00Z
  • Interval observers design for systems with ostensible Metzler system

    • Authors: Dušan Krokavec, Anna Filasová
      Abstract: This paper attempts to resolve the problem concerning the interval observers design for linear systems with ostensible Metzler system matrices. Because system dynamics matrices are partially different from strictly Metzler structures, a solution is achieved by constructing a composed system matrix representation, which combines pre-compensated interval matrix structures fixed with a prescribed region of D-stability and the reconstructed strictly Metzler matrix structure, related to the original interval system matrix parameter definition. A novel design procedure is presented, which results in a strictly positive observer gain matrix and guarantees that the lower estimates of the positive state variables are non-negative when considering the given system structure and the non-negative system state initial values. The design is computationally simple since it is reduced to the feasibility of the set of linear matrix inequalities.
      PubDate: 2023-05-10T00:00:00Z
  • Predicting sUAS conflicts in the national airspace with interacting
           multiple models and Haversine-based conflict detection system

    • Authors: James Z. Wells, Manish Kumar
      Abstract: In this paper, a conflict detection system for small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (sUAS), composed of an interacting multiple model state predictor and a Haversine-distance based conflict detector, is proposed. The conflict detection system was developed and tested via a random recursive simulation in the ROS-Gazebo physics engine environment. The simulation consisted of ten small unmanned aerial vehicles flying along randomly assigned way-point navigation missions within a confined airspace. Way-points are generated from a uniform distribution and then sent to each vehicle. The interacting multiple model state predictor runs on a ground-based system and only has access to current vehicle positional information. It does not have access to the future way-points of individual vehicles. The state predictor is based on Kalman filters that utilize constant velocity, constant acceleration, and constant turn models. It generates near-future position estimates for all vehicles operating within an airspace. These models are probabilistically fused together and projected into the near-future to generate state predictions. These state predictions are then passed to the Haversine distance-based conflict detection algorithm to compare state estimates and identify probable conflicts. The conflicts are detected and flagged based on tunable threshold values which compare distances between predictions for the vehicles operating within the airspace. This paper discusses the development of the random recursive simulation for the ROS-Gazebo framework and the derivation of the interacting multiple model along-with the Haversine-based future conflict detector. The results are presented via simulation to highlight mid-air conflict detection application for sUAS operations in the National Airspace.
      PubDate: 2023-05-10T00:00:00Z
  • Numerical and boundary condition effects on the prediction of detonation
           engine behavior using detailed numerical simulations

    • Authors: Takuma Sato, Caleb Van Beck, Venkat Raman
      Abstract: High-fidelity numerical simulations of an experimental rotating detonation engine with discrete fuel/air injection were conducted. A series of configurations with different feed-plenum pressures but with constant equivalence ratio were studied. Detailed chemical kinetics for the hydrogen/air system is used. A resolution study for the full rotating detonation engine (RDE) system simulation is also conducted. Two kinds of boundary conditions, a total pressure boundary and a constant mass flow rate boundary, are used to assess the effects of the inlet boundary. As mass flow rate is increased, the total pressure boundary causes more error in the axial pressure distribution while the constant mass flow rate gives a better solution for all cases ran. The simulations confirm experimental findings, and reproduce qualitative as well as some of the quantitative trends. These results demonstrate that a) fuel-air mixing is highly non-uniform within the detonation chamber, leading to variations in local equivalence ratio, b) the fuel and oxidizer injectors experience significant backflow as the detonation wave passes over, but recover at different rates which further augments the inefficiencies in mixing, and c) parasitic combustion in the mixing region makes the detonation wave weak by extending the reaction zone across the wave.
      PubDate: 2023-04-26T00:00:00Z
  • Rotating detonation combustors for propulsion: Some fundamental, numerical
           and experimental aspects

    • Authors: Bruno Le Naour, Dmitry Davidenko, Thomas Gaillard, Pierre Vidal
      Abstract: Propulsion systems based on the constant-pressure combustion process have reached maturity in terms of performance, which is close to its theoretical limit. Technological breakthroughs are needed to develop more efficient transportation systems that meet today’s demands for reduced environmental impact and increased performance. The Rotating Detonation Engine (RDE), a specific implementation of the detonation process, appears today as a promising candidate due to its high thermal efficiency, wide operating Mach range, short combustion time and, thus, high compactness. Following the first proofs of concept presented in the 1960s, the last decade has seen a significant increase in laboratory demonstrators with different fuels, injection techniques, operating conditions, dimensions and geometric configurations. Recently, two flight tests of rocket-type RDEs have been reported in Japan and Poland, supervized by Professors Kasahara (Nagoya University) and Wolanski (Warsaw University), respectively. Engineering approaches are now required to design industrial systems whose missions impose efficiency and reliability constraints. The latter may render ineffective the simplified solutions and configurations developed under laboratory conditions. This requires understanding the fundamentals of detonation dynamics relevant to the RDE and the interrelated optimizations of the device components. This article summarizes some of the authors’ experimental and numerical work on fundamental and applied issues now considered to affect, individually or in combination, the efficiency and reliability of the RDE. These are the structure of the detonation reaction zone, the detonation dynamics for rotating regimes, the injection configurations, the chamber geometry, and the integration constraints.
      PubDate: 2023-03-30T00:00:00Z
  • A formulation of industrial conceptual design optimization problem for
           commercial transport airplanes with turboelectric propulsion

    • Authors: Hikaru Takami, Shigeru Obayashi
      Abstract: A conceptual design optimization problem for commercial transport airplanes with turboelectric propulsion, with a reasonable fidelity and comprehensiveness suitable for industrial purposes, is formulated, in order to allow for proper assessment of the benefits of turboelectric propulsion. As a sample problem, we carry out conceptual design optimization of a turboelectric propulsion airplane concept in a conventional tube-and-wing configuration with a turbofan and an associated electric fan on each (i.e., left and right) wing, varying the performance of the turboelectric propulsion devices. The results indicate that proper assessment of the benefits of the turboelectric propulsion can be carried out using the formulated optimization problem. The findings from the sample problem, including notable benefits of the turboelectric propulsion and the performance crossover point where the fuel efficiency of an airplane with conventional propulsion and that of an airplane with turboelectric propulsion cross over, are also presented.
      PubDate: 2023-03-10T00:00:00Z
  • Evaluation of a computational strategy to model transitory injection in
           rotating detonation combustors

    • Authors: Pierre Hellard, Thomas Gaillard, Dmitry Davidenko
      Abstract: The efficiency of a Rotating Detonation Combustor (RDC) strongly depends on the transitory injection process of fresh reactants in the combustion chamber: poor propellant mixing induces losses of combustion efficiency and consequently low detonation speed and unstable detonation propagation. Moreover, dilution of fresh reactants with burnt gases during injection increases the deflagration losses and decreases the pressure gain provided by the detonation. Numerical simulation can help design an efficient injector to reduce these losses. In this study, the modeling strategy previously proposed by ONERA to simulate the transitory injection process is applied to two existing experimental RDC (from Nagoya University and TU Berlin) and one in-development RDC from ONERA. The computational domain represents only one injection element, convenient for a parametric study at low computational cost. A custom initial condition is used to model the expansion process of burnt gases past a detonation wave. The initial condition parameters are discussed and a method is proposed to correctly set them. The TU Berlin RDC is studied in more detail: mixing efficiency up to 70% is obtained, and 5% of deflagration losses are estimated according to the assumptions of the simulation. Based on the numerical results, detonation speed was evaluated at various distances from the injection plane taking into account the heterogeneities of the fresh mixture. The measured speed lies within the predicted range.
      PubDate: 2023-02-23T00:00:00Z
  • A multi-fidelity model management framework for multi-objective aerospace
           design optimisation

    • Authors: Ben Parsonage, Christie Maddock
      Abstract: This paper presents a multi-fidelity meta-modelling and model management framework designed to efficiently incorporate increased levels of simulation fidelity from multiple, competing sources into early-stage multidisciplinary design optimisation scenarios. Phase specific/invariant low-fidelity physics-based subsystem models are adaptively corrected via iterative sampling of high(er)-fidelity simulators. The correction process is decomposed into several distinct parametric/non-parametric stages, each leveraging alternate aspects of the available model responses. Globally approximating surrogates are constructed at each degree of fidelity (low, mid, and high) via an automated hyper-parameter selection and training procedure. The resulting hierarchy drives the optimisation process, with local refinement managed according to a confidence-based multi-response adaptive sampling procedure, with bias given to global parameter sensitivities. An application of this approach is demonstrated via the aerodynamic response prediction of a parametrized re-entry vehicle, subjected to a static/dynamic parameter optimisation for three separate single-objective problems. It is found that the proposed data correction process facilitates increased efficiency in attaining a desired approximation accuracy relative to a single-fidelity equivalent model. When applied within the proposed multi-fidelity management framework, clear convergence to the objective optimum is observed for each examined design optimisation scenario, outperforming an equivalent single-fidelity approach in terms of computational efficiency and solution variability.
      PubDate: 2023-02-07T00:00:00Z
  • Hybrid A* path search with resource constraints and dynamic obstacles

    • Authors: Alán Cortez, Bryce Ford, Indranil Nayak, Sriram Narayanan, Mrinal Kumar
      Abstract: This paper considers path planning with resource constraints and dynamic obstacles for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), modeled as a Dubins agent. Incorporating these complex constraints at the guidance stage expands the scope of operations of UAVs in challenging environments containing path-dependent integral constraints and time-varying obstacles. Path-dependent integral constraints, also known as resource constraints, can occur when the UAV is subject to a hazardous environment that exposes it to cumulative damage over its traversed path. The noise penalty function was selected as the resource constraint for this study, which was modeled as a path integral that exerts a path-dependent load on the UAV, stipulated to not exceed an upper bound. Weather phenomena such as storms, turbulence and ice are modeled as dynamic obstacles. In this paper, ice data from the Aviation Weather Service is employed to create training data sets for learning the dynamics of ice phenomena. Dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) is used to learn and forecast the evolution of ice conditions at flight level. This approach is presented as a computationally scalable means of propagating obstacle dynamics. The reduced order DMD representation of time-varying ice obstacles is integrated with a recently developed backtracking hybrid A∗ graph search algorithm. The backtracking mechanism allows us to determine a feasible path in a computationally scalable manner in the presence of resource constraints. Illustrative numerical results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed path-planning method.
      PubDate: 2023-01-25T00:00:00Z
  • Negotiation of the global grid inspection UAV with random delay
           uncertainty in an information communication network based on a robust
           fault tolerance mechanism

    • Authors: Jie Shen, Wen qi Dong, Zhi-fang Wang, Jing Wang, Yang Wang, Han min Liu, Haiyan Li
      Abstract: To accurately simulate the interference mechanism of information communication between unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the future global grid system, a type of control based on dynamic simulation of the satellite communication network and robust fault tolerance with a stochastic delay uncertain network system is proposed. Based on the imaginary future of the global energy Internet, with unknown information and communication interference, we established a UAV model from sensor to actuator network delay using a robust, fault-tolerant control algorithm and a satellite communication network model that combined the controller’s mathematical model. The simulation results showed improved power transmission capability and communication coverage ability of UAVs by using the network fault-tolerant control mechanism with uncertain network delay and information communication interference. The stability and anti-interference performance was also significantly improved. This algorithm provides a strategy for the future development of global energy Internet.
      PubDate: 2023-01-12T00:00:00Z
  • Fluid and combustion dynamics in dual-mode scramjets

    • Authors: Gyu Sub Lee, Tonghun Lee
      Abstract: Burgeoning technological advancements in practical and efficient hypersonic flight is intertwined with the research and development of airbreathing hypersonic propulsion, specifically dual-mode scramjet (DMS) engines. Due fundamentally to the lack of complete understanding and adequate modeling of the fluid dynamics and combustion processes present in DMSs, a large volume of academic works has been established towards characterizing the physical phenomena present in these engines. Significant differences in flame topologies, fluid interactions, and pressure profiles between scram and ram combustion are observed across these experimental and computational works. A focus on the dynamics responsible for combustion mode transition, choking and the propagation of the pseudoshock, is made, as is a discussion on the theoretical underpinning of the mechanisms behind flow choking and important choking thresholds. Further insight into the fundamental mechanisms and fluid and combustion physics present in DMSs may improve future designs and operability of dual-mode scramjet engines.
      PubDate: 2023-01-05T00:00:00Z
  • Exploring online and offline explainability in deep reinforcement learning
           for aircraft separation assurance

    • Authors: Wei Guo, Yifei Zhou, Peng Wei
      Abstract: Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) has demonstrated promising performance in maintaining safe separation among aircraft. In this work, we focus on a specific engineering application of aircraft separation assurance in structured airspace with high-density air traffic. In spite of the scalable performance, the non-transparent decision-making processes of DRL hinders human users from building trust in such learning-based decision making tool. In order to build a trustworthy DRL-based aircraft separation assurance system, we propose a novel framework to provide stepwise explanations of DRL policies for human users. Based on the different needs of human users, our framework integrates 1) a Soft Decision Tree (SDT) as an online explanation provider to display critical information for human operators in real-time; and 2) a saliency method, Linearly Estimated Gradient (LEG), as an offline explanation tool for certification agencies to conduct more comprehensive verification time or post-event analyses. Corresponding visualization methods are proposed to illustrate the information in the SDT and LEG efficiently: 1) Online explanations are visualized with tree plots and trajectory plots; 2) Offline explanations are visualized with saliency maps and position maps. In the BlueSky air traffic simulator, we evaluate the effectiveness of our framework on case studies with complex airspace route structures. Results show that the proposed framework can provide reasonable explanations of multi-agent sequential decision-making. In addition, for more predictable and trustworthy DRL models, we investigate two specific patterns that DRL policies follow based on similar aircraft locations in the airspace.
      PubDate: 2022-12-13T00:00:00Z
  • A review on the socio-environmental impacts of lithium supply for electric

    • Authors: Melodie Chen-Glasser, Steven C. DeCaluwe
      Abstract: Electrified aircraft have gained traction as a promising approach to emissions abatement in the aviation sector. This transition will require overcoming numerous technical challenges related to increasing battery energy density, as well as logistic challenges related to the lithium supply chain, which is already stressed due to high demand for electric vehicles. We have estimated that lithium demand for electrified aviation may raise lithium demand in the range of 10–250%. The uncertainty in these estimates show the importance of quantifying the impacts of electrified aviation and designing batteries to mitigate additional demand. In addition, most reviews on electrified aviation do not include information on the localized social and environmental impacts caused by lithium demand, despite their importance to enabling technology necessary for emissions reductions. This review seeks to fill this gap by presenting an overview of environmental and social research in context with one another to encourage researchers in the field to consider these dynamics as part of electrified aircraft design. Given that the high energy density batteries necessary to enable large-scale electrification of aircraft are still under development, continued progress in this field should emphasize sustainable governance for lithium extraction and a circular battery economy to reduce social and environmental stressors.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02T00:00:00Z
  • Wind-optimal lateral trajectories for a multirotor aircraft in urban air

    • Authors: Priyank Pradeep, Gano B. Chatterji, Todd A. Lauderdale, Kapil Sheth, Chok Fung Lai, Heinz Erzberger, Banavar Sridhar
      Abstract: The primary motivation for this paper is to quantify the operational benefits (energy consumption and flight duration) of flying wind-optimal lateral trajectories for short flights (less than 60 miles) anticipated in the urban environment. The optimal control model presented includes a wind model for quantifying the effect of wind on the lateral trajectory. The optimal control problem is numerically solved using the direct collocation method. Energy consumption and flight duration flying wind-optimal lateral trajectories are compared with corresponding values obtained flying great-circle paths between the same origin and destination pairs to determine the operational benefits of wind-optimal routing for short flights. The flight duration results for different scenarios are validated using a simulation tool designed and developed at NASA for exploring advanced air traffic management concepts. This research study suggests that for short flights in an urban environment, operational benefits of the wind-optimal lateral trajectories over the corresponding great-circle trajectories in terms of energy consumption and flight duration per flight are dependent on: i) wind field’s spatial variability, ii) wind magnitude, iii) the direction of route relative to the wind field, and iv) cruise segment length. The operational benefits observed in realistic flyable wind scenarios are less than 2.5%; these could be translated to an equivalent of a maximum of 2 min of cruise flight duration savings in the urban air mobility environment. As expected, headwinds and tailwinds along the flight route most significantly impact energy consumption and flight duration.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30T00:00:00Z
  • Bayesian state estimation in partially-observed dynamic multidisciplinary

    • Authors: Negar Asadi, Seyede Fatemeh Ghoreishi
      Abstract: Multidisciplinary systems comprise several disciplines that are connected to each other with feedback coupled interactions. These coupled multidisciplinary systems are often observed through sensors providing noisy and partial measurements from these systems. A large number of disciplines and their complex interactions pose a huge uncertainty in the behavior of multidisciplinary systems. The reliable analysis and monitoring of these partially-observed multidisciplinary systems require an accurate estimation of their underlying states, in particular the coupling variables which characterize their stability. In this paper, we present a probabilistic state-space formulation of coupled multidisciplinary systems and develop a particle filtering framework for state estimation of these systems through noisy time-series measurements. The performance of the proposed framework is demonstrated through comprehensive numerical experiments using a coupled aerostructural system and a fire detection satellite. We empirically analyze the impact of monitoring a single discipline on state estimation of the entire coupled system.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25T00:00:00Z
  • Review of experimental investigations of wings in ground effect at low
           Reynolds numbers

    • Authors: T. Lee, G. Lin
      Abstract: The ground effect-induced large lift increase and lift-induced drag reduction have long been recognized and utilized in the design and construction of wing-in-ground effect (WIG) craft. Various wing planforms have been employed in WIG craft. In this study, the experimental investigations of rectangular wings and delta wings of reverse and regular configurations at low Reynolds numbers are reviewed. For rectangular wings, both chord-dominated and span-dominated ground effects on the aerodynamics, tip vortex, and lift-induced drag are reviewed. For reverse delta wings, in addition to the experimental measurements of the aerodynamics and tip vortex flow at different ground distances, passive flow control utilizing Gurney flap, cropping, and anhedral are reviewed. The impact of ground effect on delta wings is also discussed. Suggestions for future investigations applicable to each wing planform in-ground effect are provided.
      PubDate: 2022-11-15T00:00:00Z
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