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  Subjects -> AERONAUTICS AND SPACE FLIGHT (Total: 124 journals)
Showing 1 - 30 of 30 Journals sorted by number of followers
AIAA Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1058)
SpaceNews     Free   (Followers: 820)
Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 732)
Journal of Propulsion and Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 594)
Aviation Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 442)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 338)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 320)
Advances in Space Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 313)
IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 292)
Journal of Aircraft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 286)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 254)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 213)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Gyroscopy and Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170)
Space Science International     Open Access   (Followers: 151)
Space Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 93)
International Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 87)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
Aerospace     Open Access   (Followers: 76)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 76)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Space Safety Magazine     Free   (Followers: 49)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Space Research Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Aeroacoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Aerospace Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
CEAS Aeronautical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Space Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Aerospace Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Frontiers in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Aerospace Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Russian Aeronautics (Iz VUZ)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Artificial Satellites     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chinese Journal of Aeronautics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Space Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Space Structures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Fatigue of Aircraft Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Satellite Communications Policy and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Aerospace Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Aeronautical Journal, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aviation     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Airline and Airport Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Space Technology Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the Astronautical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Population Space and Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Air Force Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : Journal of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of the American Helicopter Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Aeronautical Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Space Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aerospace technic and technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Aviation Technology, Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Air Medical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Space and Polity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Aviation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aviation in Focus - Journal of Aeronautical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Transport and Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Astrobiology & Outreach     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
RocketSTEM     Free   (Followers: 6)
Civil Aviation High Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cosmic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
New Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Aviation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Life Sciences in Space Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Aerospace Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spatial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of KONBiN     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Unmanned Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Astrodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal on Miniaturization for Air and Space Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Microgravity Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
npj Microgravity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Problemy Mechatroniki. Uzbrojenie, lotnictwo, inżynieria bezpieczeństwa / Problems of Mechatronics. Armament, Aviation, Safety Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia y Poder Aéreo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Aerospace Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASTRA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
MAD - Magazine of Aviation Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Australasian Society of Aerospace Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Investigación Pecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Perspectives of Earth and Space Scientists i     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Вісник Національного Авіаційного Університету     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science and Education : Scientific Publication of BMSTU     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spatial Information Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mekanika : Jurnal Teknik Mesin i     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Xibei Gongye Daxue Xuebao / Journal of Northwestern Polytechnical University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover
Frontiers in Aerospace Engineering
Number of Followers: 24  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2325-6796 - ISSN (Online) 2325-6788
Published by Science and Eng Pub Co. Homepage  [34 journals]
  • Traffic management protocols for advanced air mobility

    • Authors: Christopher Chin, Victor Qin, Karthik Gopalakrishnan, Hamsa Balakrishnan
      Abstract: The demand for advanced air mobility (AAM) operations is expected to be at a much larger scale than conventional aviation. Additionally, AAM flight operators are likely to compete in providing a range of on-demand services in congested airspaces, with varying operational costs. These characteristics motivate the need for the development of new traffic management algorithms for advanced air mobility. In this paper, we explore the use of traffic management protocols (“rules-of-the-road” for airspace access) to enable efficient and fair operations. First, we show that it is possible to avoid gridlock and improve efficiency by leveraging the concepts of cycle detection and backpressure. We then develop a cost-aware traffic management protocol based on the second-price auction. Using simulations of representative advanced air mobility scenarios, we demonstrate that our traffic management protocols can help balance efficiency and fairness, in both the operational and the economic contexts.
      PubDate: 2023-05-17T00:00:00Z
  • Interval observers design for systems with ostensible Metzler system

    • Authors: Dušan Krokavec, Anna Filasová
      Abstract: This paper attempts to resolve the problem concerning the interval observers design for linear systems with ostensible Metzler system matrices. Because system dynamics matrices are partially different from strictly Metzler structures, a solution is achieved by constructing a composed system matrix representation, which combines pre-compensated interval matrix structures fixed with a prescribed region of D-stability and the reconstructed strictly Metzler matrix structure, related to the original interval system matrix parameter definition. A novel design procedure is presented, which results in a strictly positive observer gain matrix and guarantees that the lower estimates of the positive state variables are non-negative when considering the given system structure and the non-negative system state initial values. The design is computationally simple since it is reduced to the feasibility of the set of linear matrix inequalities.
      PubDate: 2023-05-10T00:00:00Z
  • Predicting sUAS conflicts in the national airspace with interacting
           multiple models and Haversine-based conflict detection system

    • Authors: James Z. Wells, Manish Kumar
      Abstract: In this paper, a conflict detection system for small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (sUAS), composed of an interacting multiple model state predictor and a Haversine-distance based conflict detector, is proposed. The conflict detection system was developed and tested via a random recursive simulation in the ROS-Gazebo physics engine environment. The simulation consisted of ten small unmanned aerial vehicles flying along randomly assigned way-point navigation missions within a confined airspace. Way-points are generated from a uniform distribution and then sent to each vehicle. The interacting multiple model state predictor runs on a ground-based system and only has access to current vehicle positional information. It does not have access to the future way-points of individual vehicles. The state predictor is based on Kalman filters that utilize constant velocity, constant acceleration, and constant turn models. It generates near-future position estimates for all vehicles operating within an airspace. These models are probabilistically fused together and projected into the near-future to generate state predictions. These state predictions are then passed to the Haversine distance-based conflict detection algorithm to compare state estimates and identify probable conflicts. The conflicts are detected and flagged based on tunable threshold values which compare distances between predictions for the vehicles operating within the airspace. This paper discusses the development of the random recursive simulation for the ROS-Gazebo framework and the derivation of the interacting multiple model along-with the Haversine-based future conflict detector. The results are presented via simulation to highlight mid-air conflict detection application for sUAS operations in the National Airspace.
      PubDate: 2023-05-10T00:00:00Z
  • Numerical and boundary condition effects on the prediction of detonation
           engine behavior using detailed numerical simulations

    • Authors: Takuma Sato, Caleb Van Beck, Venkat Raman
      Abstract: High-fidelity numerical simulations of an experimental rotating detonation engine with discrete fuel/air injection were conducted. A series of configurations with different feed-plenum pressures but with constant equivalence ratio were studied. Detailed chemical kinetics for the hydrogen/air system is used. A resolution study for the full rotating detonation engine (RDE) system simulation is also conducted. Two kinds of boundary conditions, a total pressure boundary and a constant mass flow rate boundary, are used to assess the effects of the inlet boundary. As mass flow rate is increased, the total pressure boundary causes more error in the axial pressure distribution while the constant mass flow rate gives a better solution for all cases ran. The simulations confirm experimental findings, and reproduce qualitative as well as some of the quantitative trends. These results demonstrate that a) fuel-air mixing is highly non-uniform within the detonation chamber, leading to variations in local equivalence ratio, b) the fuel and oxidizer injectors experience significant backflow as the detonation wave passes over, but recover at different rates which further augments the inefficiencies in mixing, and c) parasitic combustion in the mixing region makes the detonation wave weak by extending the reaction zone across the wave.
      PubDate: 2023-04-26T00:00:00Z
  • Rotating detonation combustors for propulsion: Some fundamental, numerical
           and experimental aspects

    • Authors: Bruno Le Naour, Dmitry Davidenko, Thomas Gaillard, Pierre Vidal
      Abstract: Propulsion systems based on the constant-pressure combustion process have reached maturity in terms of performance, which is close to its theoretical limit. Technological breakthroughs are needed to develop more efficient transportation systems that meet today’s demands for reduced environmental impact and increased performance. The Rotating Detonation Engine (RDE), a specific implementation of the detonation process, appears today as a promising candidate due to its high thermal efficiency, wide operating Mach range, short combustion time and, thus, high compactness. Following the first proofs of concept presented in the 1960s, the last decade has seen a significant increase in laboratory demonstrators with different fuels, injection techniques, operating conditions, dimensions and geometric configurations. Recently, two flight tests of rocket-type RDEs have been reported in Japan and Poland, supervized by Professors Kasahara (Nagoya University) and Wolanski (Warsaw University), respectively. Engineering approaches are now required to design industrial systems whose missions impose efficiency and reliability constraints. The latter may render ineffective the simplified solutions and configurations developed under laboratory conditions. This requires understanding the fundamentals of detonation dynamics relevant to the RDE and the interrelated optimizations of the device components. This article summarizes some of the authors’ experimental and numerical work on fundamental and applied issues now considered to affect, individually or in combination, the efficiency and reliability of the RDE. These are the structure of the detonation reaction zone, the detonation dynamics for rotating regimes, the injection configurations, the chamber geometry, and the integration constraints.
      PubDate: 2023-03-30T00:00:00Z
  • A formulation of industrial conceptual design optimization problem for
           commercial transport airplanes with turboelectric propulsion

    • Authors: Hikaru Takami, Shigeru Obayashi
      Abstract: A conceptual design optimization problem for commercial transport airplanes with turboelectric propulsion, with a reasonable fidelity and comprehensiveness suitable for industrial purposes, is formulated, in order to allow for proper assessment of the benefits of turboelectric propulsion. As a sample problem, we carry out conceptual design optimization of a turboelectric propulsion airplane concept in a conventional tube-and-wing configuration with a turbofan and an associated electric fan on each (i.e., left and right) wing, varying the performance of the turboelectric propulsion devices. The results indicate that proper assessment of the benefits of the turboelectric propulsion can be carried out using the formulated optimization problem. The findings from the sample problem, including notable benefits of the turboelectric propulsion and the performance crossover point where the fuel efficiency of an airplane with conventional propulsion and that of an airplane with turboelectric propulsion cross over, are also presented.
      PubDate: 2023-03-10T00:00:00Z
  • Evaluation of a computational strategy to model transitory injection in
           rotating detonation combustors

    • Authors: Pierre Hellard, Thomas Gaillard, Dmitry Davidenko
      Abstract: The efficiency of a Rotating Detonation Combustor (RDC) strongly depends on the transitory injection process of fresh reactants in the combustion chamber: poor propellant mixing induces losses of combustion efficiency and consequently low detonation speed and unstable detonation propagation. Moreover, dilution of fresh reactants with burnt gases during injection increases the deflagration losses and decreases the pressure gain provided by the detonation. Numerical simulation can help design an efficient injector to reduce these losses. In this study, the modeling strategy previously proposed by ONERA to simulate the transitory injection process is applied to two existing experimental RDC (from Nagoya University and TU Berlin) and one in-development RDC from ONERA. The computational domain represents only one injection element, convenient for a parametric study at low computational cost. A custom initial condition is used to model the expansion process of burnt gases past a detonation wave. The initial condition parameters are discussed and a method is proposed to correctly set them. The TU Berlin RDC is studied in more detail: mixing efficiency up to 70% is obtained, and 5% of deflagration losses are estimated according to the assumptions of the simulation. Based on the numerical results, detonation speed was evaluated at various distances from the injection plane taking into account the heterogeneities of the fresh mixture. The measured speed lies within the predicted range.
      PubDate: 2023-02-23T00:00:00Z
  • A multi-fidelity model management framework for multi-objective aerospace
           design optimisation

    • Authors: Ben Parsonage, Christie Maddock
      Abstract: This paper presents a multi-fidelity meta-modelling and model management framework designed to efficiently incorporate increased levels of simulation fidelity from multiple, competing sources into early-stage multidisciplinary design optimisation scenarios. Phase specific/invariant low-fidelity physics-based subsystem models are adaptively corrected via iterative sampling of high(er)-fidelity simulators. The correction process is decomposed into several distinct parametric/non-parametric stages, each leveraging alternate aspects of the available model responses. Globally approximating surrogates are constructed at each degree of fidelity (low, mid, and high) via an automated hyper-parameter selection and training procedure. The resulting hierarchy drives the optimisation process, with local refinement managed according to a confidence-based multi-response adaptive sampling procedure, with bias given to global parameter sensitivities. An application of this approach is demonstrated via the aerodynamic response prediction of a parametrized re-entry vehicle, subjected to a static/dynamic parameter optimisation for three separate single-objective problems. It is found that the proposed data correction process facilitates increased efficiency in attaining a desired approximation accuracy relative to a single-fidelity equivalent model. When applied within the proposed multi-fidelity management framework, clear convergence to the objective optimum is observed for each examined design optimisation scenario, outperforming an equivalent single-fidelity approach in terms of computational efficiency and solution variability.
      PubDate: 2023-02-07T00:00:00Z
  • Hybrid A* path search with resource constraints and dynamic obstacles

    • Authors: Alán Cortez, Bryce Ford, Indranil Nayak, Sriram Narayanan, Mrinal Kumar
      Abstract: This paper considers path planning with resource constraints and dynamic obstacles for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), modeled as a Dubins agent. Incorporating these complex constraints at the guidance stage expands the scope of operations of UAVs in challenging environments containing path-dependent integral constraints and time-varying obstacles. Path-dependent integral constraints, also known as resource constraints, can occur when the UAV is subject to a hazardous environment that exposes it to cumulative damage over its traversed path. The noise penalty function was selected as the resource constraint for this study, which was modeled as a path integral that exerts a path-dependent load on the UAV, stipulated to not exceed an upper bound. Weather phenomena such as storms, turbulence and ice are modeled as dynamic obstacles. In this paper, ice data from the Aviation Weather Service is employed to create training data sets for learning the dynamics of ice phenomena. Dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) is used to learn and forecast the evolution of ice conditions at flight level. This approach is presented as a computationally scalable means of propagating obstacle dynamics. The reduced order DMD representation of time-varying ice obstacles is integrated with a recently developed backtracking hybrid A∗ graph search algorithm. The backtracking mechanism allows us to determine a feasible path in a computationally scalable manner in the presence of resource constraints. Illustrative numerical results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed path-planning method.
      PubDate: 2023-01-25T00:00:00Z
  • Negotiation of the global grid inspection UAV with random delay
           uncertainty in an information communication network based on a robust
           fault tolerance mechanism

    • Authors: Jie Shen, Wen qi Dong, Zhi-fang Wang, Jing Wang, Yang Wang, Han min Liu, Haiyan Li
      Abstract: To accurately simulate the interference mechanism of information communication between unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the future global grid system, a type of control based on dynamic simulation of the satellite communication network and robust fault tolerance with a stochastic delay uncertain network system is proposed. Based on the imaginary future of the global energy Internet, with unknown information and communication interference, we established a UAV model from sensor to actuator network delay using a robust, fault-tolerant control algorithm and a satellite communication network model that combined the controller’s mathematical model. The simulation results showed improved power transmission capability and communication coverage ability of UAVs by using the network fault-tolerant control mechanism with uncertain network delay and information communication interference. The stability and anti-interference performance was also significantly improved. This algorithm provides a strategy for the future development of global energy Internet.
      PubDate: 2023-01-12T00:00:00Z
  • Fluid and combustion dynamics in dual-mode scramjets

    • Authors: Gyu Sub Lee, Tonghun Lee
      Abstract: Burgeoning technological advancements in practical and efficient hypersonic flight is intertwined with the research and development of airbreathing hypersonic propulsion, specifically dual-mode scramjet (DMS) engines. Due fundamentally to the lack of complete understanding and adequate modeling of the fluid dynamics and combustion processes present in DMSs, a large volume of academic works has been established towards characterizing the physical phenomena present in these engines. Significant differences in flame topologies, fluid interactions, and pressure profiles between scram and ram combustion are observed across these experimental and computational works. A focus on the dynamics responsible for combustion mode transition, choking and the propagation of the pseudoshock, is made, as is a discussion on the theoretical underpinning of the mechanisms behind flow choking and important choking thresholds. Further insight into the fundamental mechanisms and fluid and combustion physics present in DMSs may improve future designs and operability of dual-mode scramjet engines.
      PubDate: 2023-01-05T00:00:00Z
  • Exploring online and offline explainability in deep reinforcement learning
           for aircraft separation assurance

    • Authors: Wei Guo, Yifei Zhou, Peng Wei
      Abstract: Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) has demonstrated promising performance in maintaining safe separation among aircraft. In this work, we focus on a specific engineering application of aircraft separation assurance in structured airspace with high-density air traffic. In spite of the scalable performance, the non-transparent decision-making processes of DRL hinders human users from building trust in such learning-based decision making tool. In order to build a trustworthy DRL-based aircraft separation assurance system, we propose a novel framework to provide stepwise explanations of DRL policies for human users. Based on the different needs of human users, our framework integrates 1) a Soft Decision Tree (SDT) as an online explanation provider to display critical information for human operators in real-time; and 2) a saliency method, Linearly Estimated Gradient (LEG), as an offline explanation tool for certification agencies to conduct more comprehensive verification time or post-event analyses. Corresponding visualization methods are proposed to illustrate the information in the SDT and LEG efficiently: 1) Online explanations are visualized with tree plots and trajectory plots; 2) Offline explanations are visualized with saliency maps and position maps. In the BlueSky air traffic simulator, we evaluate the effectiveness of our framework on case studies with complex airspace route structures. Results show that the proposed framework can provide reasonable explanations of multi-agent sequential decision-making. In addition, for more predictable and trustworthy DRL models, we investigate two specific patterns that DRL policies follow based on similar aircraft locations in the airspace.
      PubDate: 2022-12-13T00:00:00Z
  • A review on the socio-environmental impacts of lithium supply for electric

    • Authors: Melodie Chen-Glasser, Steven C. DeCaluwe
      Abstract: Electrified aircraft have gained traction as a promising approach to emissions abatement in the aviation sector. This transition will require overcoming numerous technical challenges related to increasing battery energy density, as well as logistic challenges related to the lithium supply chain, which is already stressed due to high demand for electric vehicles. We have estimated that lithium demand for electrified aviation may raise lithium demand in the range of 10–250%. The uncertainty in these estimates show the importance of quantifying the impacts of electrified aviation and designing batteries to mitigate additional demand. In addition, most reviews on electrified aviation do not include information on the localized social and environmental impacts caused by lithium demand, despite their importance to enabling technology necessary for emissions reductions. This review seeks to fill this gap by presenting an overview of environmental and social research in context with one another to encourage researchers in the field to consider these dynamics as part of electrified aircraft design. Given that the high energy density batteries necessary to enable large-scale electrification of aircraft are still under development, continued progress in this field should emphasize sustainable governance for lithium extraction and a circular battery economy to reduce social and environmental stressors.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02T00:00:00Z
  • Wind-optimal lateral trajectories for a multirotor aircraft in urban air

    • Authors: Priyank Pradeep, Gano B. Chatterji, Todd A. Lauderdale, Kapil Sheth, Chok Fung Lai, Heinz Erzberger, Banavar Sridhar
      Abstract: The primary motivation for this paper is to quantify the operational benefits (energy consumption and flight duration) of flying wind-optimal lateral trajectories for short flights (less than 60 miles) anticipated in the urban environment. The optimal control model presented includes a wind model for quantifying the effect of wind on the lateral trajectory. The optimal control problem is numerically solved using the direct collocation method. Energy consumption and flight duration flying wind-optimal lateral trajectories are compared with corresponding values obtained flying great-circle paths between the same origin and destination pairs to determine the operational benefits of wind-optimal routing for short flights. The flight duration results for different scenarios are validated using a simulation tool designed and developed at NASA for exploring advanced air traffic management concepts. This research study suggests that for short flights in an urban environment, operational benefits of the wind-optimal lateral trajectories over the corresponding great-circle trajectories in terms of energy consumption and flight duration per flight are dependent on: i) wind field’s spatial variability, ii) wind magnitude, iii) the direction of route relative to the wind field, and iv) cruise segment length. The operational benefits observed in realistic flyable wind scenarios are less than 2.5%; these could be translated to an equivalent of a maximum of 2 min of cruise flight duration savings in the urban air mobility environment. As expected, headwinds and tailwinds along the flight route most significantly impact energy consumption and flight duration.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30T00:00:00Z
  • Bayesian state estimation in partially-observed dynamic multidisciplinary

    • Authors: Negar Asadi, Seyede Fatemeh Ghoreishi
      Abstract: Multidisciplinary systems comprise several disciplines that are connected to each other with feedback coupled interactions. These coupled multidisciplinary systems are often observed through sensors providing noisy and partial measurements from these systems. A large number of disciplines and their complex interactions pose a huge uncertainty in the behavior of multidisciplinary systems. The reliable analysis and monitoring of these partially-observed multidisciplinary systems require an accurate estimation of their underlying states, in particular the coupling variables which characterize their stability. In this paper, we present a probabilistic state-space formulation of coupled multidisciplinary systems and develop a particle filtering framework for state estimation of these systems through noisy time-series measurements. The performance of the proposed framework is demonstrated through comprehensive numerical experiments using a coupled aerostructural system and a fire detection satellite. We empirically analyze the impact of monitoring a single discipline on state estimation of the entire coupled system.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25T00:00:00Z
  • Review of experimental investigations of wings in ground effect at low
           Reynolds numbers

    • Authors: T. Lee, G. Lin
      Abstract: The ground effect-induced large lift increase and lift-induced drag reduction have long been recognized and utilized in the design and construction of wing-in-ground effect (WIG) craft. Various wing planforms have been employed in WIG craft. In this study, the experimental investigations of rectangular wings and delta wings of reverse and regular configurations at low Reynolds numbers are reviewed. For rectangular wings, both chord-dominated and span-dominated ground effects on the aerodynamics, tip vortex, and lift-induced drag are reviewed. For reverse delta wings, in addition to the experimental measurements of the aerodynamics and tip vortex flow at different ground distances, passive flow control utilizing Gurney flap, cropping, and anhedral are reviewed. The impact of ground effect on delta wings is also discussed. Suggestions for future investigations applicable to each wing planform in-ground effect are provided.
      PubDate: 2022-11-15T00:00:00Z
  • Characterization of the low-noise drone propeller with serrated Gurney

    • Authors: Ryusuke Noda, Teruaki Ikeda, Toshiyuki Nakata, Hao Liu
      Abstract: Drones, which have become increasingly popular in recent years, produce a lot of noise due to the movement of their propellers. When flying near humans, especially as in urban situations, noise suppression is critical. It has been demonstrated that noise can be minimized by increasing propeller lift per unit rotation speed and decreasing propeller rotation speed by expanding propeller area or designing the airfoil shape. This study developed a new structure, serrated Gurney flap, by merging the Gurney flap, which is the trailing-edge structure of an airfoil, and the serration, which is the low-noise structure found in an owl feather, and studied its performance through experiments and numerical simulations. The results indicated that the structure can boost the propeller’s lift coefficient while reducing the vortex separation induced by the Gurney flap and suppress propeller noise by slowing the propeller. Further modification of its structure may result in improved efficiency as well as decreased noise level.
      PubDate: 2022-10-14T00:00:00Z
  • Efficacy of an elasto-flexible morphing wing at high lift using
           fluid-structure-interaction simulations

    • Authors: J. Pflüger, M. Von Langsdorff, C. Breitsamter 
      Abstract: The wide field of applications is the driving force behind the scientific interest in unmanned and micro air vehicles. For these aircraft, morphing wing technologies offer the possibility to adapt the aerodynamics to different flight stages. A morphing wing configuration with two elasto-flexible membrane wings is investigated numerically at a low Reynolds number of Re = 264000. The concept enables wing folding over a wide range and it allows the wing to adapt to changing aerodynamic loads. The focus is set on the benefits of the membrane in the high lift regime. Therefore, fluid-structure-interaction simulations are performed for the model equipped with a flexible and with a rigid wing. The comparison of the numerical results to data from previous experimental measurements show a good agreement. Compared with the rigid wing, the elasto-flexible membrane increases the gradient in the linear region and the maximum lift coefficient. In addition, the maximum lift coefficient is shifted to higher angles of attack. For selected wing positions and angles of attack, the aerodynamic behavior of the flexible and the rigid wing are investigated by means of the lift coefficient, the deformation of the membrane, the wall shear stresses and the wing surface pressure distribution. The deformation of the wing surface directly influences the area of flow separation at the extended wing and the separating leading-edge vortex at the folded wing. Both effects increase the generated lift of the wing with a flexible membrane.
      PubDate: 2022-10-13T00:00:00Z
  • Minimal length multi-segment clothoid return paths for vehicles with turn
           rate constraints

    • Authors: Theodore Tuttle, Jay P. Wilhelm
      Abstract: Continuous curvature recovery paths are needed to accurately return a fixed wing autonomous vehicle with turn rate constraints back to a missions path in the correct direction after collision avoidance. Clothoid paths where curvature is linearly dependent to arc length can be used to make multi-segment splines with continuous curvature, but require optimization to ensure that the path is of minimal length while meeting curvature and sharpness limits. The present work considers the problem of returning a fixed wing aircraft back to its original path facing the correct direction after a leaving it during collision avoidance by presenting a method of optimizing a three segment clothoid spline to be of minimal length while meeting fixed wing turn rate constraints and targeting a path function. The impact of this work is enabling accurate path recovery after collision avoidance with minimal length paths that minimize the time spent off a missions planned route, giving better control over time of arrival for the planned route and more time to complete mission objectives.
      PubDate: 2022-10-10T00:00:00Z
  • Grand challenges in aerospace propulsion

    • Authors: Matthew A. Oehlschlaeger
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T00:00:00Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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