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  Subjects -> AERONAUTICS AND SPACE FLIGHT (Total: 124 journals)
Showing 1 - 30 of 30 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74)
Advances in Aerospace Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Space Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 297)
Aeronautical Journal, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aerospace     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309)
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Aerospace technic and technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : Journal of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIAA Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1006)
Air Medical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
Artificial Satellites     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
ASTRA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Astrodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aviation     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Aviation in Focus - Journal of Aeronautical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Aviation Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 415)
Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
CEAS Aeronautical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Chinese Journal of Aeronautics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ciencia y Poder Aéreo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Civil Aviation High Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239)
Cosmic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Fatigue of Aircraft Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Frontiers in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Gyroscopy and Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 254)
IEEE Journal on Miniaturization for Air and Space Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 284)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
International Journal of Aeroacoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 86)
International Journal of Aerospace Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Aerospace Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Aerospace Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Aviation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Aviation Technology, Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Satellite Communications Policy and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Space Structures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Space Technology Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Sustainable Aviation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Investigación Pecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Aeronautical Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Aircraft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 267)
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Airline and Airport Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Astrobiology & Outreach     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168)
Journal of KONBiN     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180)
Journal of Propulsion and Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 572)
Journal of Space Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 705)
Journal of Spatial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the American Helicopter Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the Astronautical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the Australasian Society of Aerospace Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Life Sciences in Space Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
MAD - Magazine of Aviation Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mekanika : Jurnal Teknik Mesin i     Open Access  
Microgravity Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
npj Microgravity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Aerospace Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Perspectives of Earth and Space Scientists i     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Population Space and Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Problemy Mechatroniki. Uzbrojenie, lotnictwo, inżynieria bezpieczeństwa / Problems of Mechatronics. Armament, Aviation, Safety Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 89)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Space Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
RocketSTEM     Free   (Followers: 5)
Russian Aeronautics (Iz VUZ)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Science and Education : Scientific Publication of BMSTU     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Space and Polity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Space Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Space Research Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Space Safety Magazine     Free   (Followers: 50)
Space Science International     Open Access   (Followers: 119)
Space Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
SpaceNews     Free   (Followers: 782)
Spatial Information Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transactions on Aerospace Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transport and Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Unmanned Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Xibei Gongye Daxue Xuebao / Journal of Northwestern Polytechnical University     Open Access  
Вісник Національного Авіаційного Університету     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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CEAS Aeronautical Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.248
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 30  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1869-5582 - ISSN (Online) 1869-5590
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Exploration of the effect of wing component post-buckling on bending-twist
           coupling for nonlinear wing twist

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      Abstract: Abstract A new investigated concept for passive load alleviation is to exploit the nonlinear behavior of wing design components to trigger a deformation which reduce loads once a critical load level is reached. The necessary deformation is a torsional rotation which is supposed to reduce the angle of attack. For this target, wingbox sections are investigated regarding their nonlinear behavior with finite element analysis. Parameter studies feature anisotropic carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) layups for the skins, layups and thicknesses for spars and the presence of stringers. Results show a desired nonlinear progressive bending-torsion coupling for an unstiffened wingbox section, when the upper skin and the rear spar are modified. After modification they are allowed to buckle within the load envelope. The skin has an anisotropic layup. The rear spar needs to be thinner than the front spar. Both modifications result in progressively increasing torsional rotation of the wingbox with increasing load. Stringers are not applied because they limit the nonlinearity which is not desired for the envisioned load alleviation technique.
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
       
  • Global aero-structural design optimization of composite wings with active
           manoeuvre load alleviation

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      Abstract: Abstract In the scope of the DLR project VicToria (Virtual Aircraft Technology Integration Platform), an integrated process for aero-structural wing optimization based on high fidelity simulation methods is continuously developed and applied. Based upon a parametric geometry, flight performance under transonic flight conditions and manoeuvre loads are computed by solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. Structural mass and elastic characteristics of the wing are determined from structural sizing of the composite wing box for essential manoeuvre load cases using computational structural mechanics. Static aeroelastic effects are considered in all flight conditions and active manoeuvre load alleviation is integrated in the process. Global aero-structural wing optimizations are successfully performed for wings with and without active manoeuvre load alleviation. The active manoeuvre load alleviation is introduced with a simplified modelling of control surface deflections using a mesh deformation technique. The minimization of the fuel consumption for three typical flight missions represents the objective function. Wing optimizations are performed for variable and constant wing planform parameters as well as for wings with conventional composite wing box structure and for more flexible wings. The latter is accomplished by introducing modifications of the structural concept and the strain allowable. A significant mass reduction of the optimized wing box is obtained for wings with active manoeuvre load alleviation, resulting in a drop in fuel consumption of about 3%. For wing optimizations with the more flexible wing concept, the active manoeuvre load alleviation shows an additional reduction of the fuel consumption in the order of 2%. The wings with active manoeuvre load alleviation results in optimized wing geometries with increased aspect ratio and reduced taper ratio.
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
       
  • Implementing a system architecture model for automated aircraft cabin
           assembly processes

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      Abstract: Abstract Aircraft manufacturers provide their customers with a number of options for aircraft customization, including a wide variety of pre-qualified optional equipment from which they can select different components according to their requirements. The numerous options cover a variety of engines, navigation systems, and interior cabin designs. This flexibility gives the possibility to the airlines to differentiate their brands. Moreover, a unique cabin interior design leaves an enduring impression on their customers and constitutes their expectations for the upcoming flight. On the other hand, many choices result in many different specifications, long delivery periods, complicated installation procedures such as stopping the running assembly of the cabin, disassembling already installed cabin components, and assembling new cabin models. Therefore, aircraft customization increases the cost and the lead time of the aircraft manufacturing processes and thus decreases the production rates. It is in the best interest of aircraft manufacturers and airlines to automate and optimize the customization processes to make them more time and cost efficient. This paper presents a method for establishing reconfigurable and optimized scheduling for aircraft cabin assembly. The data necessary for calculating the optimal schedule are retrieved from cabin system architecture that is built with semantic web language. The focus is on building a system architecture ontology model for automated scheduling of assembly processes of an aircraft cabin, which opens up the possibility for cabin customization at every assembly step. Moreover, the cabin ontology can be used as a foundation for co-design where each expert of their branch can further upgrade the model. With the algorithm presented in this paper, the ontology can be upgraded with new data, which will automatically correlate with the existing data in the cabin ontology. The knowledge-based ontology model provides a view of the whole chain from design to realization and feedback links to all included parties. Moreover, it gives the possibility for agile changes in the assembly sequence in response to the updated demands of the clients.
      PubDate: 2022-05-21
       
  • Hybrid modeling approach for the tether of an airborne wind energy system

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      Abstract: Abstract The design of controllers for the automatic operation of airborne vehicles is challenging. Especially in the emerging research field of airborne wind energy, where tethered aircraft convert energy from wind at higher altitudes into electricity, the development of robust and safe control systems will be a critical success factor. Typically, these systems consist of one or more controlled aircraft, a ground station, and one or more tethers that transfer aerodynamic forces acting on the wings to the ground. To understand these systems and control them for real-time simulations, suitable tether models must extend the classical flight mechanical models. In this paper, a hybrid approach is presented, combining an elastic spring model with a catenary model of the tether. In particular, for real-time simulations in a model-in-the-loop environment where a static modeling approach is sufficient, this hybrid model is intended to provide an alternative to the commonly used spring models. Furthermore, such a static tether model neglects high-frequency dynamic oscillations that can occur with dynamic lumped mass models. As consequence, the focus is on primary influences such as stiffness and sag due to external loads. The developed hybrid model is analyzed and compared with the spring model for a simulated tethered flight. It can be concluded that this hybrid static model, although subject to strong assumptions such as symmetrical tether sag, represents the tether more accurately. For example, it allows a more precise design of the flight controller before conducting any flight tests. This model can be used as a reasonable alternative to the simple spring model whenever a static modeling approach of the tether is adequate.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
       
  • Interactive trajectory modification and generation with FPCA

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      Abstract: Abstract Moving object analysis is a constantly growing field with numerous concrete applications in terms of traffic understanding, prediction and simulation. While many algorithms and analytic processes exist, there are still areas of investigation with novel trajectory analysis methods. As such, the geometric information analyses data with respect to its statistical distribution along extracted dimensions. This opens new ways of gaining a better understanding of large and complex trajectory data sets while providing flexible data manipulations. In this paper, we report our investigations with the development of an interactive methodology based on the geometric information analytic process where users can analyze trajectories sets, cluster and deform them maintaining the actual statistical properties of the investigated trajectories. As a contribution, this paper shows how Functional Data Analysis can provide novel support for trajectory analyses taking into account the statistical properties of the investigated clusters. We also provide recommendations for efficient usage of the process, considering trajectory registration, initial clustering, trajectory deformation and generation. These recommendations are illustrated with actual examples validated by a domain expert of air traffic flow analysis.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Development and evaluation of an RNP AR approach procedure under tight
           airspace constraints

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      Abstract: Abstract Required navigation performance authorization required (RNP AR) approach (APCH) procedures are a special form of approaches with vertical guidance (APVs) where stricter navigation system requirements in terms of accuracy, integrity and functionalities allow smaller obstacle clearance areas and the use of curved legs in all approach segments. That leads to very flexible approach design possibilities compared to other instrument approach procedures. This paper guides through the development and initial evaluation of an RNP AR approach on runway 15L at Isa Air Base in Bahrain. The establishment of instrument approaches on this runway has been complicated so far because the final approach would have led straight through the controlled traffic region (CTR) of an adjacent air base. We show that entering the CTR, which ends less than 3.3 NM before the runway threshold, can be avoided with an RNP AR approach by employing a curved leg in the final approach segment and the highest possible navigation accuracy of RNP 0.1—two unique features of RNP AR APCH. We then fly and test the developed procedure in an Airbus A320 full-flight simulator under the wind and weather conditions considered by the procedure design rules. The results show that the actual navigation and flight technical performance met the required one under all conditions without the bank angle and effective glide path limits being exceeded. An initial flight test with a Boeing B737-800 showed that the approach can also be flown with sufficient accuracy in practice.
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
       
  • Change of Editor-in-Chief

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      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • Multirotor electric aerial vehicle model identification with flight data
           with corrections to physics-based models

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      Abstract: Abstract Developing standard, well-vetted methods for modeling and simulation, prediction of flying/handling qualities, and control system design is critical for improving safety and quality control of multirotor electric aerial vehicles. This paper explores two methods for modeling the dynamics of a small (56 cm, 1.56 kg) hexacopter at hover and forward flight. The first modeling method was system identification from flight data, the second method was a physics-based blade element model with 10 state Peter-He inflow. Evaluation of the fidelity for both the system-identification and physics-based models was completed by comparison to flight data at hover and forward flight. The results were used to classify the importance of key dynamic building blocks on the model fidelity, such as motor/rotor lag dynamics, inertia, and dynamic inflow.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
       
  • JAXA-ONERA-DLR cooperation: results from rotor optimization in hover

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      Abstract: Abstract A cooperation between JAXA, ONERA and DLR puts the focus on the aerodynamic optimization of helicopter rotors. This paper represents the conclusions from the first phase: optimization of a hovering rotor. The HART-II blade is first investigated with low-fidelity tools and compared against state-of-the art CFD simulations. Afterwards, the chord distribution and twist of the HART-II blade are optimized using the low-fidelity tools as well as CFD. Since the partners observed differences in the outcome of the CFD simulations for the low-fidelity optimized blades, a deeper investigation of the effects of the turbulence modelling approach, elasticity and grid topology is conducted. The findings show that the chosen flight condition is close to the thrust of the maximum Figure of Merit and that the vortex-triggered separation on the outboard sections of the blade has to be modelled correctly. In this study, the blade grids had the most noticeable effect on the results, followed by the turbulence model and elasticity. With respect to the optimization, low-fidelity methods require special care, whereas CFD optimized blades were found to lead to more robust designs, even though they have only been optimized for a single point. This is explained by the more accurate modelling of the stall phenomenon with respect to geometrical changes.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
       
  • Using augmented reality to reduce workload in offshore environments

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      Abstract: Abstract In the offshore environment helicopters are widely used to transport crew and material from and to maritime wind farms. Due to unforeseeable and often inclement weather situations and challenging tasks these missions put a high workload on the helicopter pilots. In this paper two test campaigns are described which assess the utility of an affordable commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) head-mounted display (HMD) to reduce workload for commercial maritime operations. The HMD system was implemented within the air vehicle simulator (AVES) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Three missions were flown with experienced offshore pilots, performed in a realistic scenario. Independent subjective assessments of both workload and situational awareness were obtained. Results from the studies show that the overall workload for all missions decreased and situational awareness increased when using the HMD. Opinions regarding overall benefit and advantages of the system were found to vary between pilots and missions.
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
       
  • Analysis and design of Trajectory-Based Operations under wind forecast
           uncertainty

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      Abstract: Abstract The Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO) concept is a key part of the FAA’s and EUROCONTROL’s programs to make flight operations more efficient and predictable, while maintaining operational flexibility. TBO relies on four-dimensional (4D) trajectories that are managed by specifying a sequence of metering points. Each metering point is associated with a controlled time of arrival (CTA) that must be met by the aircraft within a specified time tolerance. Although the TBO concept has been around for a while, prior literature has not addressed design aspects, such as identifying metering point locations and their impact on the system performance. In this paper, we show how a prior analytical model for TBO can be adapted to account for wind forecast uncertainty, and other operational constraints. We investigate the influence of different system parameters such as wind forecast uncertainty, distance between metering points, and CTA tolerance. The analysis reveals interesting trade-offs between various performance metrics such as throughput, fuel burn and delay. Based on this analysis, we propose a framework for locating metering points to satisfy traffic demand, while being fuel efficient.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Efficient and fair traffic flow management for on-demand air mobility

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      Abstract: Abstract The increased use of drones and air-taxis is expected to make airspace resources more congested, necessitating the use of unmanned aircraft systems traffic management (UTM) initiatives to ensure safe and efficient operations. Typically, strategic UTM involves solving an optimization problem that ensures that proposed flight schedules do not exceed airspace and vertiport capacities. However, the dynamic nature and low lead-time of applications such as on-demand delivery and urban air mobility traffic may reduce the efficiency and fairness of strategic UTM. We first discuss the adaptation of three fairness metrics into a traffic flow management problem (TFMP). Then, with computational simulations of a drone package delivery scenario in Toulouse, we evaluate trade-offs in the TFMP between efficiency and fairness, as well as between different fairness metrics. We show that system fairness can be improved with little loss in efficiency. We also consider two approaches to the integrated scheduling of both high lead-time flights (i.e., flights with a schedule known in advance) and low lead-time flights in a rolling horizon optimization framework. We compare the performance of both approaches for different horizon lengths and under varying proportions of high and low lead-time flights.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Evaluation of the aerodynamic performance of the counter rotating turbo
           fan COBRA by means of experimental and numerical data

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      Abstract: Abstract In the present study, steady numerical simulations performed on the counter rotating turbo fan (CRTF) COBRA are compared with experimental data carried at the CIAM C-3A test-bench in Moscow. For this purpose, a systematic analysis of the measurement uncertainties was performed for the global aerodynamic performances of the CRTF, namely, the massflow, the total pressure ratio, the isentropic efficiency, as well as the torque ratio applied on both fan rows. Several numerical models are investigated to highlight their effects on the aforementioned predicted quantities. Differences in modeling consist in grid resolutions and the use of two turbulence models popular in the turbomachinery community. To match as much as possible the experiment running conditions, the performance map of the CRTF is simulated using the exact measured speed ratio and massflow. The comparisons show good estimations of the numerical simulation over the entire performance map. The main differences between the turbulence models occur at part-speed close to stall conditions. More surprisingly at aerodynamic design point, the importance of the turbulence modeling on the predicted torque ratio has been pointed out.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Dynamic rollover of gyroplanes during landing-cause, prevention

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      Abstract: Abstract While new-generation gyroplanes are very stable during flight, the susceptibility to roll over briefly after touching down is still the issue due to incorrectly applied landing procedure. A tendency to dynamically roll over is also known from helicopters but rarely from airplanes. The main cause for rotary wing aircraft’s risk to rollover is the rotor force which is still relevant after touching down. The triangular wheel system of a gyroplane in combination with high centre of gravity is another factor for gyroplane’s rollover susceptibility during landing. Typical situations provoking a rollover are landings during severe crosswind or taxiing at too high ground speeds with a rotating rotor. Both situations are related to incorrect piloting techniques. In this paper, the forces acting on the gyroplane during landing were investigated to understand the physical principles. Analytical equations were evaluated using the data of a reference gyroplane in combination with a single-track model known from road vehicle dynamics. It appeared that a steering oversensitivity may occur if the pilot moves the stick forward too early after touching down. Non-linear simulations with a validated model of the reference gyroplane confirmed these analyses. Design parameter studies were conducted to analyse the impact on rollover susceptibility. Finally, this study confirmed that a rollover of a gyroplane during landing is most unlikely if the pilot applies the correct technique, which means pulling the control stick back properly after touching down.
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
       
  • Validation of the safety requirements of the landing gear using fault tree
           analysis

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      Abstract: We analyze the functionality of the landing system of a regional aircraft in the extension and cruise flight modes and validate safety requirements through the fault tree analysis. The main landing gear system is captured in the electromechanical–fluidic domain and system behavior is abstracted in an elementary hydraulic circuit. The functional representation is then constructed into a fault tree which allows analysis of the failure propagation originating at different branch terminals, for instance, at the main landing gear actuator which extends the gear and holds it retracted during the cruise, door actuator, door uplocks, and hydraulic power supply. Each component is assigned a failure probability. Each failure mode is abstracted as a top-level event having a probability of failure and through Boolean combinations of component failures in the lower branches. Two reliability aspects considered are the availability to fully lower the landing gear and the integrity of inadvertent gear or door extension while cruising. Architectural changes through undercarriage system reconfiguration and component redundancy have been exploited to improve system failure rates. The analysis determines the overall system failure rate against the flight cycles. The process is agile to accommodate design changes with the evolution of architecture during the systems engineering lifecycle.
      PubDate: 2022-03-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-022-00572-8
       
  • Adaptive sampling strategies for reduced-order modeling

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      Abstract: Abstract Reduced-order models (ROMs) become increasingly popular in industrial design and optimization processes, since they allow to approximate expensive high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in near real-time. The quality of ROM predictions highly depends on the placement samples in the spanned parameter space. Adaptive sampling strategies allow to identify regions of interest, which feature e.g. nonlinear responses with respect to the parameters, and therefore enable the sensible placement of new samples. By introducing more samples in these regions, the ROM prediction accuracy should increase. In this contribution we investigate different adaptive sampling strategies based on cross-validation, Gaussian mean-squared error, two methods exploiting the CFD residual and a two manifold embedding methods. The performance of those strategies is evaluated and measured by their ability to successfully identify the regions of interest and the resulting sample placement in terms of different quantitative statistical values. We further discuss the reduction of the ROM prediction error over the adaptive sampling iterations and show that depending on the adaptive sampling strategy, the number of required samples can be reduced by 35–44% without deteriorating model quality compared to a Halton sequence sampling plan.
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-022-00574-6
       
  • Ducted fans for hybrid electric propulsion of small aircraft

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a method for modeling ducted fan propulsion systems for hybrid-electrically driven small aircraft based on mean line flow analysis methods. Studies of the essential design parameters provide the basis for a discussion of potential advantages when compared to free propellers, as well as possible new fields of application for the ducted fan. A two-seater aircraft, equipped with two ducted fans powered by a combustion engine and additionally by a parallel hybrid electric start-boost drive, is used as a reference application case. The fan performance characteristics are described with the aid of aero mean line flow analysis methods and semi-empirical loss correlations. Physics-based methods are applied to assess the nacelle drag and noise emissions. The combustion engine and electric motor performance are described using maps. The ducted fan design variables are investigated to identify the main trade-offs and favorable designs for the target aircraft mission, with special attention to noise. The results show that the performance of fixed pitch fans benefits strongly from hybridization. Ducted fans can also operate considerably more quietly than is required by current certification standards. The physics-based design method presented here can be used for conceptual design and performance prediction of ducted fan propulsion systems, which may be especially interesting if low noise emissions are required.
      PubDate: 2022-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-022-00573-7
       
  • Design and development of a novel fixed-wing biplane micro air vehicle
           with enhanced static stability

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      Abstract: Abstract A detailed design approach undertaken in the development of “Skylark” is presented in this paper. “Skylark” is a non-conventional fixed-wing biplane Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) with a wingspan and chord length within 150 mm. It is specially designed with the ability to host onboard vision-assisted autonomous navigation systems. Fixed-wing MAV with capabilities of vision assisted autonomous navigation is not reported in the open literature. To stay within the maximum dimensional constraint, flying wing configuration with a low aspect ratio is preferred for MAV design, and therefore, the stability is inadequate due to lower static margin when compared to bigger Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). In this paper, the novel design strategy addresses the major challenges such as high payload-carrying capacity, stability, and onboard processing required for vision-assisted autonomous navigation. The higher payload-carrying capacity is addressed by considering biplane aerodynamic configuration, while the longitudinal static margin is improved by placing the top lifting surface toward the trailing edge. A powerful yet compact and lightweight autopilot is designed to perform image processing algorithms onboard. Detailed design is done based on the requirement of the centre of gravity location by suitable weight distribution. The stability of the designed biplane is validated through several flight tests. The proposed novel design methodology of adding optimal top plane provides flexibility in managing static margin based on mission profile compared to monoplane MAVs.
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-022-00570-w
       
  • Conceptual design of sonic boom stealth supersonic transports

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper introduces a supersonic transport aircraft design model developed in the GENUS aircraft conceptual design environment. A conceptual design model appropriate to supersonic transports with low-to-medium-fidelity methods are developed in GENUS. With this model, the authors reveal the relationship between the sonic boom signature and the lift and volume distributions and the possibility to optimise the lift distribution and volume distribution together so that they can cancel each other at some region. A new inspiring design concept—sonic boom stealth is proposed by the authors. The sonic boom stealth concept is expected to inspire the supersonic aircraft designers to design low-boom concepts through aircraft shaping and to achieve low ground impacts. A family of different classes of supersonic aircraft, including a single-seat supersonic demonstrator (0.47 psf), a 10-passenger supersonic business jet (0.90 psf) and a 50-seat supersonic airliner (1.02 psf), are designed to demonstrate the sonic boom stealth design principles. Although, there are challenges to balance the volume with packaging and control requirements, these concepts prove the feasibility of low-boom low-drag design for supersonic transports from a multidisciplinary perspective.
      PubDate: 2022-01-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-021-00567-x
       
  • Automatic cabin virtualization based on preliminary aircraft design data

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      Abstract: Abstract Preliminary aircraft design and cabin design are essential and well-established steps within the product development cycle for modern passenger aircraft. In practice, the execution usually takes place sequentially, with the preliminary design defining a basic cabin layout and the detail implementation following in a subsequent step. To enable higher fidelity assessment of the cabin early in the design process—for example by means of virtual reality applications—this paper proposes an interface, which can derive detailed 3D geometry of the fuselage from preliminary design data provided in the Common Parametric Aircraft Configuration Schema (CPACS). This is a key step towards integration of cabin analysis and preliminary design in automated collaborative aircraft design chains, not only in terms of passenger comfort, but also manufacturability or crash safety. Like the TiGL Geometry Library for CPACS, the interface presented acts as a parameter engine, which translates data from CPACS into CAD geometry using the Open Cascade Technology library. However, the scope of TiGL is expanded significantly, albeit with an explicit focus on the fuselage, by including more details such as extruded frame and stringer profiles and floor structures. Furthermore, advanced knowledge management techniques are employed to detect and augment missing data. For virtual reality applications, triangulated representations of the CAD geometry can be provided in established exchange formats, creating an interface to common visualization platforms. Additionally, a new evolution of the cabin definition schema in CPACS is presented, to incorporate models of cabin components such as seats or sidewall panels enabling immersive virtual mock-ups.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13272-021-00568-w
       
 
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