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  Subjects -> AERONAUTICS AND SPACE FLIGHT (Total: 121 journals)
Showing 1 - 30 of 30 Journals sorted by number of followers
AIAA Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1188)
SpaceNews     Free   (Followers: 826)
Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 772)
Journal of Propulsion and Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 609)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 493)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 458)
Aviation Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 436)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 428)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 384)
Journal of Aircraft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 335)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 314)
IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 278)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 277)
Gyroscopy and Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 259)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204)
Space Science International     Open Access   (Followers: 198)
Space Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
International Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 82)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
Aerospace     Open Access   (Followers: 60)
Space Safety Magazine     Free   (Followers: 51)
Space Research Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
International Journal of Aeroacoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Aerospace Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Space Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
CEAS Aeronautical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Russian Aeronautics (Iz VUZ)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Artificial Satellites     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Aerospace Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annual of Navigation     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chinese Journal of Aeronautics     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Aerospace Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Space Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aviation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Space Structures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Fatigue of Aircraft Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Satellite Communications Policy and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aeronautical Journal, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Airline and Airport Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Elsevier Astrodynamics Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Air Force Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
COSPAR Colloquia Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Aviation in Focus - Journal of Aeronautical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Space Technology Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Aeronautical Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the Astronautical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Population Space and Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Aviation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Space Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Air Medical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Aerospace Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the American Helicopter Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Aviation Technology, Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
RocketSTEM     Free   (Followers: 6)
New Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Turbo and Jet-Engines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Unmanned Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Civil Aviation High Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cosmic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Aviation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aviation Advances & Maintenance     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Astrodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Life Sciences in Space Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Space and Polity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : Journal of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aerospace technic and technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Investigación Pecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Problemy Mechatroniki. Uzbrojenie, lotnictwo, inżynieria bezpieczeństwa / Problems of Mechatronics. Armament, Aviation, Safety Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASTRA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
npj Microgravity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Astrobiology & Outreach     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Spatial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of KONBiN     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Poder Aéreo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Вісник Національного Авіаційного Університету     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microgravity Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal on Miniaturization for Air and Space Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
MAD - Magazine of Aviation Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Science and Education : Scientific Publication of BMSTU     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mekanika : Jurnal Teknik Mesin i     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technical Soaring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Australasian Society of Aerospace Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transport and Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Aerospace Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spatial Information Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Perspectives of Earth and Space Scientists i     Open Access  

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Journal Cover
Space Science Reviews
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.262
Citation Impact (citeScore): 7
Number of Followers: 97  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1572-9672 - ISSN (Online) 0038-6308
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2652 journals]
  • Do Intrinsic Magnetic Fields Protect Planetary Atmospheres from Stellar
           Winds'
    • Abstract: The accumulation of detailed ion flux measurements from long-lived spacecraft orbiting the solar system’s terrestrial planets have enabled recent studies to estimate the rate of solar wind driven atmospheric ion escape from Venus, Earth, and Mars, as well as the influence of solar wind and solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) ionizing radiation on the atmospheric ion escape rates. Here, we introduce the basic forces and processes of ion escape, review the recent studies of ion escape rates, and provide a general framework for understanding ion escape as a process that can be limited by potential bottlenecks, such as ion supply, solar wind energy transfer, and transport efficiency, effectively determining the state of the ion escape process at each planet. We find that ion escape from Venus and Earth is energy-limited, though exhibit different dependencies on solar wind and EUV, revealing the influence of Earth’s intrinsic magnetic field. In contrast, ion escape from Mars is in a supply-limited state, mainly due to its low gravity, and has likely contributed relatively little to the total loss of the early Martian atmosphere, in comparison to neutral escape processes. Contrary to the current paradigm, the comparisons between the solar system planets show that an intrinsic magnetic dipole field is not required to prevent stellar wind-driven escape of planetary atmospheres, and the presence of one may instead increase the rate of ion escape. Anticipating the atmospheres of the exoplanets that will begin to be characterized over the coming decade, and the need to explain their evolution, we argue that a modern, nuanced, and evidence-based view of the magnetic field’s role in atmospheric escape is required.
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
       
  • Slow-Mode Magnetoacoustic Waves in Coronal Loops
    • Abstract: Rapidly decaying long-period oscillations often occur in hot coronal loops of active regions associated with small (or micro-) flares. This kind of wave activity was first discovered with the SOHO/SUMER spectrometer from Doppler velocity measurements of hot emission lines, thus also often called “SUMER” oscillations. They were mainly interpreted as global (or fundamental mode) standing slow magnetoacoustic waves. In addition, increasing evidence has suggested that the decaying harmonic type of pulsations detected in light curves of solar and stellar flares are likely caused by standing slow-mode waves. The study of slow magnetoacoustic waves in coronal loops has become a topic of particular interest in connection with coronal seismology. We review recent results from SDO/AIA and Hinode/XRT observations that have detected both standing and reflected intensity oscillations in hot flaring loops showing the physical properties (e.g., oscillation periods, decay times, and triggers) in accord with the SUMER oscillations. We also review recent advances in theory and numerical modeling of slow-mode waves focusing on the wave excitation and damping mechanisms. MHD simulations in 1D, 2D and 3D have been dedicated to understanding the physical conditions for the generation of a reflected propagating or a standing wave by impulsive heating. Various damping mechanisms and their analysis methods are summarized. Calculations based on linear theory suggest that the non-ideal MHD effects such as thermal conduction, compressive viscosity, and optically thin radiation may dominate in damping of slow-mode waves in coronal loops of different physical conditions. Finally, an overview is given of several important seismological applications such as determination of transport coefficients and heating function.
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
       
  • Overview of the Chang’e-4 Mission: Opening the Frontier of Scientific
           Exploration of the Lunar Far Side
    • Abstract: China’s Chang’e-4 (CE-4) mission is the first human lander/rover mission on the far side of the Moon. Its probe is composed of a lander, rover, and the Queqiao relay satellite. Queqiao was successfully launched on May 21, 2018, and entered the halo orbit of the L2 point on June 14, becoming the first satellite connecting the Earth and the Moon’s far side. The lander carrying Yutu-2 was successfully launched on December 8, 2018, and landed in the Von Kármán crater (45.5° S, 177.6° E) at 10:26 (UTC+8) on January 3, 2019. The CE-4 probe carried nine science instruments. Four instruments are on the lander: a landing camera (LCAM), a terrain camera (TCAM), a low-frequency radio spectrometer (LFRS), and a lunar lander neutrons and dosimetry (LND) provided by Germany. Four instruments are on the rover: a panoramic camera (PCAM), a visible and near-infrared imaging spectrometer (VNIS), a lunar penetrating radar (LPR), and an advanced small analyzer for neutrals (ASAN) provided by Sweden. The instrument on the relay satellite is the Netherlands-China Low-Frequency Explorer (NCLE). The scientific objectives of the CE-4 mission include (1) performing low-frequency radio-astronomical observations; (2) investigating the geomorphology, mineral compositions and shallow subsurface structure of the landing and roving sites; and (3) detecting the Earth-Moon space environment at the lunar far side. As of February 1, 2020, CE-4 has completed 14 lunar days of scientific exploration after one year of operation. The components, fight, scientific objectives and investigation of CE-4 are introduced in this paper. We also describe the accessibility of the initial archived science data and their preliminary analysis results.
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
       
  • Shock Induced Strong Substorms and Super Substorms: Preconditions and
           Associated Oxygen Ion Dynamics
    • Abstract: It is well known that the interaction between interplanetary (IP) shocks and the Earth’s magnetosphere would generate/excite various types of geomagnetic phenomena. Progresses have been made on the Earth’s magnetospheric response to solar wind forcing in recent years in the aspects associated with magnetospheric substorms. Strong substorms and super substorms could be triggered externally by sudden changes of solar wind dynamic pressures. When a strong substorms (AE > 1000 nT) or super substorms (AE > 2000 nT) occurs, singly charged oxygen ions escaped from the Earth’s ionosphere are found to be a dominated ion population in the magnetotail and in the inner magnetosphere—ring current region. The products of a strong substorms or super substorms- plasmoid, burst bulk flows are also found to contain significant oxygen ions, even substorm injections can be dominated by oxygen ions. Thus, the magnetospheric dynamic must consider the contributions from the heavy oxygen ions. Also, the IP shock induced super substorms associated electromagnetic pulses (dB/dt) would shift the energetic particle (injections) inward and accelerate existing population significantly. Extensive attempts have also been made to understand how the solar wind energy couples with the magnetosphere to excite magnetospheric substorms. The statistical analysis shows that strong substorms (AE > 1000 nT) and super substorms (AE > 2000 nT) triggered by interplanetary shocks are most likely to occur under the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and fast solar wind pre-conditions. In addition, strong substorms after the IP shock arrival are more likely to occur when IMF points toward (away from) the Sun around spring (autumn) equinox, which can be ascribed to the Russell-McPherron effect. Thus, the southward IMF precondition of an interplanetary shock and the Russell-McPherron effect can be considered as precursors of a strong substorm and/or super substorm triggered by IP shocks. Moreover, the average duration of CME sheath region which is just behind the interplanetary shock are found to be about 7 hours. This indicates that southward IMF compressed by shock could last at least 7 hours long in the downstream of the interplanetary shock (sheath region) if a southward IMF pre-condition is present, which explains why the largest substorm often occur in the CME sheath.
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
       
  • BepiColombo Ground Segment and Mission Operations
    • Abstract: The ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury was launched in October 2018. It includes two scientific Mercury orbiters, flying as a single stack during the seven years interplanetary transfer, and as individual spacecraft operated by their respective space Agencies ESA and JAXA once deployed in their respective scientific orbit around Mercury. Three ground segments are closely collaborating on this mission. The European Space Operations Center of the European Space Agency, in Darmstadt, Germany, responsible for mission operations of the composite stack during the interplanetary transfer and of the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) once at Mercury, the JAXA Sagamihara Space Operation Center (SSOC) in Sagamihara, Japan, responsible for Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO) operations throughout the mission, and the European Space Astronomy Center of the European Space Agency, in Villanueva de la Canada, Spain, responsible for MPO scientific archiving and Mercury science operations. The mission benefits from infrastructure and concepts developed on previous interplanetary missions of ESA and JAXA. However, it also includes specific operational challenges, such as electric propulsion, and a complex Mercury Orbit Insertion sequence, exploiting weak stability boundaries, and interleaving three module separations with 15 chemical propulsion manoeuvers to deliver MPO and MMO in their respective science orbits, requiring specific developments and operational approaches. In view of the nominal mission duration of 8.5 years, the mission also requires the adoption of specific measures for knowledge preservation and long-term maintenance.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
       
  • Geodesy, Geophysics and Fundamental Physics Investigations of the
           BepiColombo Mission
    • Abstract: In preparation for the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury, thematic working groups had been established for coordinating the activities within the BepiColombo Science Working Team in specific fields. Here we describe the scientific goals of the Geodesy and Geophysics Working Group (GGWG) that aims at addressing fundamental questions regarding Mercury’s internal structure and evolution. This multidisciplinary investigation will also test the gravity laws by using the planet Mercury as a proof mass. The instruments on the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), which are devoted to accomplishing the GGWG science objectives, include the BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA), the Mercury orbiter radio science experiment (MORE), and the MPO magnetometer (MPO-MAG). The onboard Italian spring accelerometer (ISA) will greatly aid the orbit reconstruction needed by the gravity investigation and laser altimetry. We report the current knowledge on the geophysics, geodesy, and evolution of Mercury after the successful NASA mission MESSENGER and set the prospects for the BepiColombo science investigations based on the latest findings on Mercury’s interior. The MPO spacecraft of the BepiColombo mission will provide extremely accurate measurements of Mercury’s topography, gravity, and magnetic field, extending and improving MESSENGER data coverage, in particular in the southern hemisphere. Furthermore, the dual-spacecraft configuration of the BepiColombo mission with the Mio spacecraft at higher altitudes than the MPO spacecraft will be fundamental for decoupling the internal and external contributions of Mercury’s magnetic field. Thanks to the synergy between the geophysical instrument suite and to the complementary instruments dedicated to the investigations on Mercury’s surface, composition, and environment, the BepiColombo mission is poised to advance our understanding of the interior and evolution of the innermost planet of the solar system.
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
       
  • Correction to: SERENA: Particle Instrument Suite for Determining the
           Sun-Mercury Interaction from BepiColombo
    • Abstract: A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-021-00809-8
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
       
  • Pre-Flight Calibration of the Mars 2020 Rover Mastcam Zoom (Mastcam-Z)
           Multispectral, Stereoscopic Imager
    • Abstract: The NASA Perseverance rover Mast Camera Zoom (Mastcam-Z) system is a pair of zoomable, focusable, multi-spectral, and color charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras mounted on top of a 1.7 m Remote Sensing Mast, along with associated electronics and two calibration targets. The cameras contain identical optical assemblies that can range in focal length from 26 mm ( \(25.5^{\circ }\, \times 19.1^{\circ }\ \mathrm{FOV}\) ) to 110 mm ( \(6.2^{\circ } \, \times 4.2^{\circ }\ \mathrm{FOV}\) ) and will acquire data at pixel scales of 148-540 μm at a range of 2 m and 7.4-27 cm at 1 km. The cameras are mounted on the rover’s mast with a stereo baseline of \(24.3\pm 0.1\)  cm and a toe-in angle of \(1.17\pm 0.03^{\circ }\) (per camera). Each camera uses a Kodak KAI-2020 CCD with \(1600\times 1200\) active pixels and an 8 position filter wheel that contains an IR-cutoff filter for color imaging through the detectors’ Bayer-pattern filters, a neutral density (ND) solar filter for imaging the sun, and 6 narrow-band geology filters (16 total filters). An associated Digital Electronics Assembly provides command data interfaces to the rover, 11-to-8 bit companding, and JPEG compression capabilities. Herein, we describe pre-flight calibration of the Mastcam-Z instrument and characterize its radiometric and geometric behavior. Between April 26 \(^{th}\) and May 9 \(^{th}\) , 2019, ∼45,000 images were acquired during stand-alone calibration at Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) in San Diego, CA. Additional data were acquired during Assembly Test and Launch Operations (ATLO) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Kennedy Space Center. Results of the radiometric calibration validate a 5% absolute radiometric accuracy when using camera state parameters investigated during testing. When observing using camera state parameters not interrogated during calibration (e.g., non-canonical zoom positions), we conservatively estimate the absolute uncertainty to be \(<10\%\) . Image quality, measured via the amplitude of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) at Nyquist sampling (0.35 line pairs per pixel), shows \(\mathrm{MTF}_{\mathit{Nyquist}}=0.26-0.50\) across all zoom, focus, and filter positions, exceeding the \(>0.2\) design requirement. We discuss lessons learned from calibration and suggest tactical strategies that will optimize the quality of science data acquired during operation at Mars. While most results matched expectations, some surprises were discovered, such as a strong wavelength and temperature dependence on the radiometric coefficients and a scene-dependent dynamic component to the zero-exposure bias frames. Calibration results and derived accuracies were validated using a Geoboard target consisting of well-characterized geologic samples.
      PubDate: 2021-02-18
       
  • Correction to: PIXL: Planetary Instrument for X-Ray Lithochemistry
    • Abstract: A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-021-00801-2
      PubDate: 2021-02-17
       
  • Mars Mineralogical Spectrometer (MMS) on the Tianwen-1 Mission
    • Abstract: The Mars Mineralogical Spectrometer (MMS) is a hyperspectral imager onboard the Mars orbiter of Tianwen-1, China’s first Mars exploration mission. MMS consists of 4 subassemblies: an Optical Sensor Unit (OSU), an Electronics Unit (EU), a Calibration Unit (CU), and a Thermal Control Accessories (TCA). With a 0.5 mrad IFOV and a 416-sample cell array for nadir observation, MMS can map the spectral and spatial information of the Martian surface through push-broom scanning, and it can transmit scientific data by hyperspectral mode or multispectral imaging mode through spatial and spectral combination. MMS can perform multi-sample hyperspectral imaging at full spectral resolution (0.379–1.076 μm with 2.73 nm/band, 1.033–3.425 μm at 7.5 nm/band, both spectral ranges at 2.1 km/pixel at 265 km). For the wavelength region of interest, the multispectral mapping mode provides additional options, a subset of 72 bands that are binned to minimum pixel footprints of 265 m/pixel. The major objective of the MMS is to analyze the compositions and distributions of the minerals on Martian surface, in order to characterize its evolution.
      PubDate: 2021-02-17
       
  • Design and Realization of China Tianwen-1 Energetic Particle Analyzer
    • Abstract: The Mars radiation environment, both in past and at present, plays a vital role in the evolution of Martian atmosphere, so it is necessary to detect the background radiation environment both in the Martian atmosphere and the transfer orbit from Earth to Mars. The Tianwen-1 Energetic Particle Analyzer (EPA) is designed to measure and analyze the energetic charged particles emitted to the Martian atmosphere. Mars-EPA consists of two parts: one is the Mars-EPA sensor head and the other is the Mars-EPA electronics system. This paper begins with an introduction of Mars-EPA structure and function of each part, followed by a simulation of how sensor head structure is designed. It then evaluates the performance of detection system using Geant4 software, to whether this sensor is capable of identifying the target particle and proposes a reasonable ground calibration procedure, which allows on overall detection performance to some degree. This Mars-EPA has demonstrated a potentially high capability and configurability which hopefully will shed light on future development of compact energetic detectors in deep space exploration.
      PubDate: 2021-02-16
       
  • The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter
    • Abstract: The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA) is the first European laser altimeter constructed for interplanetary flight. BELA uses a 50 mJ pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 10 Hz with a 20 cm aperture receiver to perform the ranging. The instrument also uses a digital approach for range detection and pulse analysis. The ranging accuracy is expected to be better than 2 metres and ∼20 cm in optimum conditions. With the given, only slightly elliptical, orbit, BELA should return a consistent data set for the most if not all of the planet. The instrument is required to function in an extreme environment with the thermal issues being particularly demanding. Novel solutions have been taken to resolve these issues. BELA is described in detail and its predicted performance outlined on the basis of pre-flight testing.
      PubDate: 2021-02-15
       
  • The Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover Mast Camera Zoom (Mastcam-Z)
           Multispectral, Stereoscopic Imaging Investigation
    • Abstract: Mastcam-Z is a multispectral, stereoscopic imaging investigation on the Mars 2020 mission’s Perseverance rover. Mastcam-Z consists of a pair of focusable, 4:1 zoomable cameras that provide broadband red/green/blue and narrowband 400-1000 nm color imaging with fields of view from 25.6° × 19.2° (26 mm focal length at 283 μrad/pixel) to 6.2° × 4.6° (110 mm focal length at 67.4 μrad/pixel). The cameras can resolve (≥ 5 pixels) ∼0.7 mm features at 2 m and ∼3.3 cm features at 100 m distance. Mastcam-Z shares significant heritage with the Mastcam instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. Each Mastcam-Z camera consists of zoom, focus, and filter wheel mechanisms and a 1648 × 1214 pixel charge-coupled device detector and electronics. The two Mastcam-Z cameras are mounted with a 24.4 cm stereo baseline and 2.3° total toe-in on a camera plate ∼2 m above the surface on the rover’s Remote Sensing Mast, which provides azimuth and elevation actuation. A separate digital electronics assembly inside the rover provides power, data processing and storage, and the interface to the rover computer. Primary and secondary Mastcam-Z calibration targets mounted on the rover top deck enable tactical reflectance calibration. Mastcam-Z multispectral, stereo, and panoramic images will be used to provide detailed morphology, topography, and geologic context along the rover’s traverse; constrain mineralogic, photometric, and physical properties of surface materials; monitor and characterize atmospheric and astronomical phenomena; and document the rover’s sample extraction and caching locations. Mastcam-Z images will also provide key engineering information to support sample selection and other rover driving and tool/instrument operations decisions.
      PubDate: 2021-02-15
       
  • BepiColombo Science Investigations During Cruise and Flybys at the Earth,
           Venus and Mercury
    • Abstract: The dual spacecraft mission BepiColombo is the first joint mission between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to explore the planet Mercury. BepiColombo was launched from Kourou (French Guiana) on October 20th, 2018, in its packed configuration including two spacecraft, a transfer module, and a sunshield. BepiColombo cruise trajectory is a long journey into the inner heliosphere, and it includes one flyby of the Earth (in April 2020), two of Venus (in October 2020 and August 2021), and six of Mercury (starting from 2021), before orbit insertion in December 2025. A big part of the mission instruments will be fully operational during the mission cruise phase, allowing unprecedented investigation of the different environments that will encounter during the 7-years long cruise. The present paper reviews all the planetary flybys and some interesting cruise configurations. Additional scientific research that will emerge in the coming years is also discussed, including the instruments that can contribute.
      PubDate: 2021-02-11
       
  • The Diverse Planetary Ingassing/Outgassing Paths Produced over Billions of
           Years of Magmatic Activity
    • Abstract: The C-H-O-N-S elements that constitute the outgassed atmosphere and exosphere have likely been delivered by chondritic materials to the Earth during planetary accretion and subsequently processed over billions of years of planetary differentiation. Although these elements are generally considered to be volatile, a large part of the accreted C-H-O-N-S on Earth must have been sequestered in the core and mantle, with the remaining part concentrated at the Earth’s surface (exosphere: \(\text{atmosphere} + \text{ocean} + \text{crust}\) ). The likely reason for this is that, depending on the prevailing pressure (P), temperature (T) and oxidation state (oxygen fugacity, fO2) in the planet’s interior, the C-H-O-N-S elements can behave as siderophile, lithophile, refractory, magmatophile, or atmophile. It is not clear if these elements might be sequestered in the interiors of planets elsewhere, since the governing parameters of P-T-fO2 during the diverse magmatic processes controlling magmatic differentiation vary greatly over time and from planet to planet. The magma ocean outgassed the first atmosphere, which was probably also the largest in terms of mass, but its nature and composition remain poorly known. Meanwhile, a significant, but unknown, part of the accreted C-H-O-N-S elements was sequestered in the core. These will probably never be liberated into the atmosphere. A secondary atmosphere was then fuelled by volcanism, driven by mantle convection and most likely enhanced by plate tectonics. The Earth still has active volcanism, and the volume and volatile contents of its magma are closely linked to geodynamics. Earth’s volcanoes have long emitted relatively oxidized gases, in contrast to Mars and Mercury. Mantle oxidation state seems to increase with planetary size, although the role of plate tectonics in changing the Earth’s mantle oxidation state remains poorly understood. Water contents of magma from elsewhere in the solar system are not so different from those produced by the Earth’s depleted mantle. Other elements (e.g. N, S, C) are unevenly distributed. A great diversity of speciation and quantity of magmatic gas emitted is found in planetary systems, with the key inputs being: 1 – degassing of the magma ocean, 2 – mantle oxidation state (and its evolution), and 3 – plate tectonics (vs. other styles of mantle convection). Many other parameters can affect these three inputs, of which planetary size is probably one of the most important.
      PubDate: 2021-02-11
       
  • Multi-model Meteorological and Aeolian Predictions for Mars 2020 and the
           Jezero Crater Region
    • Abstract: Nine simulations are used to predict the meteorology and aeolian activity of the Mars 2020 landing site region. Predicted seasonal variations of pressure and surface and atmospheric temperature generally agree. Minimum and maximum pressure is predicted at \(\text{Ls}\sim 145^{\circ}\) and \(250^{\circ}\) , respectively. Maximum and minimum surface and atmospheric temperature are predicted at \(\text{Ls}\sim 180^{\circ}\) and \(270^{\circ}\) , respectively; i.e., are warmest at northern fall equinox not summer solstice. Daily pressure cycles vary more between simulations, possibly due to differences in atmospheric dust distributions. Jezero crater sits inside and close to the NW rim of the huge Isidis basin, whose daytime upslope (∼east-southeasterly) and nighttime downslope (∼northwesterly) winds are predicted to dominate except around summer solstice, when the global circulation produces more southerly wind directions. Wind predictions vary hugely, with annual maximum speeds varying from 11 to \(19~\text{ms}^{-1}\) and daily mean wind speeds peaking in the first half of summer for most simulations but in the second half of the year for two. Most simulations predict net annual sand transport toward the WNW, which is generally consistent with aeolian observations, and peak sand fluxes in the first half of summer, with the weakest fluxes around winter solstice due to opposition between the global circulation and daytime upslope winds. However, one simulation predicts transport toward the NW, while another predicts fluxes peaking later and transport toward the WSW. Vortex activity is predicted to peak in summer and dip around winter solstice, and to be greater than at InSight and much greater than in Gale crater.
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
       
  • Gravity, Geodesy and Fundamental Physics with BepiColombo’s MORE
           Investigation
    • Abstract: The Mercury Orbiter Radio Science Experiment (MORE) of the ESA mission BepiColombo will provide an accurate estimation of Mercury’s gravity field and rotational state, improved tests of general relativity, and a novel deep space navigation system. The key experimental setup entails a highly stable, multi-frequency radio link in X and Ka band, enabling two-way range rate measurements of 3 micron/s at nearly all solar elongation angles. In addition, a high chip rate, pseudo-noise ranging system has already been tested at 1-2 cm accuracy. The tracking data will be used together with the measurements of the Italian Spring Accelerometer to provide a pseudo drag free environment for the data analysis. We summarize the existing literature published over the past years and report on the overall configuration of the experiment, its operations in cruise and at Mercury, and the expected scientific results.
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
       
  • Editorial: Topical Collection on Auroral Physics
    • PubDate: 2021-02-02
       
  • Correction to: X-Ray Properties of TDEs
    • Abstract: A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-020-00759-7
      PubDate: 2021-02-02
       
  • Small-Scale Dynamic Aurora
    • Abstract: Small-scale dynamic auroras have spatial scales of a few km or less, and temporal scales of a few seconds or less, which visualize the complex interplay among charged particles, Alfvén waves, and plasma instabilities working in the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupled regions. We summarize the observed properties of flickering auroras, vortex motions, and filamentary structures. We also summarize the development of fundamental theories, such as dispersive Alfvén waves (DAWs), plasma instabilities in the auroral acceleration region, ionospheric feedback instabilities (IFI), and the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR).
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
       
 
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