Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 214 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (9 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (26 journals)
    - RAILROADS (10 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (9 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (43 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (117 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (117 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 53 of 53 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 111)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 16)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Supply Chain Management Science (JSCMS)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research (EJTIR)     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transport History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Mobility in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Mobilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Logistics & Sustainable Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transport and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Open Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Transport Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
World Electric Vehicle Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Public Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Big Data Analytics in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Transportation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
eTransportation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Danish Journal of Transportation Research / Dansk Tidsskrift for Transportforskning     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Transport Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Decision Making : Applications in Management and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Transport Infrastructure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Maritime Transport Research     Open Access  
Communications in Transportation Research     Open Access  
IET Smart Cities     Open Access  
Journal on Vehicle Routing Algorithms     Hybrid Journal  
Transportation in Developing Economies     Hybrid Journal  
Vehicles     Open Access  
Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering     Open Access  
Transportation Systems and Technology     Open Access  
LOGI ? Scientific Journal on Transport and Logistics     Open Access  
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
IFAC-PapersOnLine     Open Access  
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access  
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Logistique & Management     Hybrid Journal  
IATSS Research     Open Access  
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
World Electric Vehicle Journal
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2032-6653
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 131: Optimizing Public Charging: An Integrated
           Approach Based on GIS and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis

    • Authors: Ali Khalife, Tu-Anh Fay, Dietmar Göhlich
      First page: 131
      Abstract: The rise in electric vehicle uptake has reshaped the German mobility landscape at unprecedented speed and scale. While public charging is pivotal to growing the electric vehicle market, municipalities can play a crucial role in accelerating the energy transition in transport. This research aims to assist municipalities in planning their strategic rollouts of public charging infrastructure in size and location. In the first step, charging demand is estimated based on four development scenarios in 2030 of EV adoption and public charging. In a second step, a geospatial analysis was performed on the study area. Supply and demand criteria were considered to reflect the attractiveness of each location on a grid map. While the supply criteria represent constraints related to infrastructure availability, the demand criteria are categorized into three dimensions: residential, commercial, and leisure. The prioritization of demand criteria was derived from the municipality’s input using the analytical hierarchy process method to reflect its strategy. After obtaining the suitability index map, a cluster analysis was performed using a k-means clustering algorithm to ensure adequate geographical coverage of the charging network. Finally, the proposed charging stations in each scenario were allocated to the top-scoring locations, establishing a municipal public charging network.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080131
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 132: Electric Vehicle Simulations Based on
           Kansas-Centric Conditions

    • Authors: Tyler Simpson, George Bousfield, Austin Wohleb, Christopher Depcik
      First page: 132
      Abstract: Range anxiety is a significant contributor to consumer reticence when purchasing electric vehicles (EVs). To alleviate this concern, new commercial EVs readily achieve over 200 miles of range, as found by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However, this range, measured under idealized conditions, is often not encountered in real-world conditions. As a result, this effort describes the simplest model that incorporates all key factors that affect the range of an EV. Calibration of the model to EPA tests found an average deviation of 0.45 and 0.57 miles for highway and city ranges, respectively, among seven commercial EVs. Subsequent predictions found significant losses based on the impact of road grade, wind, and vehicle speed over a Kansas interstate highway. For cabin conditioning, up to 57.8% and 37.5% losses in range were found when simulating vehicles at 20 °F and 95 °F, respectively. Simulated aging of the vehicle battery pack showed range losses up to 53.1% at 100,000 miles. Model extensions to rain and snow illustrated corresponding losses based on the level of precipitation on the road. All model outcomes were translated into an Excel spreadsheet that can be used to predict the range of a generic EV over Kansas-centric roads.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080132
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 133: Thermal Analysis of Coupled Resonant Coils for
           an Electric Vehicle Wireless Charging System

    • Authors: Chunming Wen, Qing Xu, Minbo Chen, Zhanpeng Xiao, Jie Wen, Yunyun Luo, Xiaohui Zhao, Yuanxiong Liang, Kairong Liang
      First page: 133
      Abstract: Electric vehicles use wireless energy transmission to obtain energy, which can effectively avoid the shortcomings of traditional methods. As the carrier of radio energy transmission and reception, the high temperature of the coil triggers the degradation of wireless transmission performance and the aging of the coil, which may cause fire and other safety problems in serious cases. This paper studied the temperature distribution of the magnetically coupled coil model for electric vehicles. Based on the study of the basic law of heat transfer, the coil model was established using ANSYS software, and the boundary conditions and relevant parameters were set. After many simulation experiments and comparisons, it was finally determined that the transmitting coil and the receiving coil were the same sizes, the inner diameter of the coil was 100 mm, the outer diameter of the coil was 181 mm, and the coupling distance between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil was set to 60 mm. Coil models were simulated and analyzed using different materials. The simulation results show that after 30 min of system operation, the material chosen from the temperature range may have been gold, silver, copper, or aluminum, but from the comprehensive consideration of cost and performance, the material of the coil in the model was finally set to copper. Copper was the best material; its temperature maximum was 74.952 °C and lower than the safety value of 80 °C. It is hoped that this study will provide a reference for wireless charging coil design.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080133
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 134: Research on Automatic Driving Path Tracking
           Control of Open-Pit Mine Transportation Vehicles with Delay Compensation

    • Authors: Zhiyong Lei, Xiaolong Ma, Xiwen Yuan, Chuan He
      First page: 134
      Abstract: The transportation environment of the open-pit mine is complex, the steering actuator of the mine vehicle has a large delay and poor response accuracy, and there are a lot of bumpy roads, large undulating ramps, and narrow-area curves in the mining area. These road sections seriously reduce the tracking accuracy of the mine vehicle path. Tracking control presents great challenges. Therefore, this study first conducts a simulation comparison study on commonly used path tracking methods such as pure pursuit control, Stanley control, and model predictive control (MPC), and then designs a path tracking control strategy for automatic driving of open-pit mine transportation vehicles based on the MPC algorithm. Finally, the proposed control strategy was verified through actual mining vehicle tests. The results showed that the maximum lateral deviation obtained by the MPC-based path tracking control strategy was reduced from 0.55 m to 0.08 m under the C-shaped reference path compared with the traditional method. Under the S-shaped reference path, the lateral deviation is reduced from 0.4 m to 0.16 m.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080134
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 135: Development of the State of Warranty (SOW) for
           Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Mikel Arrinda, Denis Sánchez, Mikel Oyarbide, Haritz Macicior, Ander Zubiria
      First page: 135
      Abstract: There is an exponential increase in electric vehicles on the road that need a follow up in terms of warranty. The proposed state of warranty (SOW) is a metastate that qualitatively describes the warranty fulfillment level of an electric vehicle. All the relevant warranty information is synthesized in a single merit while maintaining the level of detail through the qualitative substates. The developed SOW is calculated with a rule-based logic of an expert system that evaluates the quantitative value of three substates: the remaining warranty, the remaining health and the remaining useful warranty. The SOW provides a synthesized and user-friendly description of the warranty fulfillment state while providing quantitative detailed information of the most relevant features of each of the different maintenance methodologies.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080135
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 136: Pathways to Carbon-Free Transport in Germany
           until 2050

    • Authors: Till Gnann, Daniel Speth, Michael Krail, Martin Wietschel, Stella Oberle
      First page: 136
      Abstract: The transport sector has to be widely decarbonized by 2050 to reach the targets of the Paris Agreement. This can be performed with different drive trains and energy carriers. This paper explored four pathways to a carbon-free transport sector in Germany in 2050 with foci on electricity, hydrogen, synthetic methane, or liquid synthetic fuels. We used a transport demand model for future vehicle use and a simulation model for the determination of alternative fuel vehicle market shares. We found a large share of electric vehicles in all scenarios, even in the scenarios with a focus on other fuels. In all scenarios, the final energy consumption decreased significantly, most strongly when the focus was on electricity and almost one-third lower in primary energy demand compared with the other scenarios. A further decrease of energy demand is possible with an even faster adoption of electric vehicles, yet fuel cost then has to be even higher or electricity prices lower.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080136
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 137: Comparative Study of Permanent Magnet,
           Conventional, and Advanced Induction Machines for Traction Applications

    • Authors: Tayfun Gundogdu, Zi-Qiang Zhu, Ching Chuen Chan
      First page: 137
      Abstract: This paper investigates and compares the torque-generating capabilities and electromagnetic performance of advanced non-overlapping winding induction machines (AIM), conventional induction machines (CIM), and interior-permanent magnet (IPM) machines for electric vehicle (EV) applications. All investigated machines are designed based on the specifications of the Toyota Prius 2010 IPM machine. The steady-state and flux-weakening performance characteristics are calculated by employing the 2D finite element method and MatLab, and the obtained results are quantitatively compared. Furthermore, the torque-generating capabilities of three machines are investigated for different electric loadings, and the machine having the highest torque-generating capability is determined as AIM. Moreover, the major parameters affecting the torque-generating capability, such as magnetic saturation and magnet demagnetization, are examined in depth.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080137
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 138: Numerical Simulation of Cooling Plate Using
           K-Epsilon Turbulence Model to Cool down Large-Sized Graphite/LiFePO4
           Battery at High C-Rates

    • Authors: Satyam Panchal, Krishna Gudlanarva, Manh-Kien Tran, Münür Sacit Herdem, Kirti Panchal, Roydon Fraser, Michael Fowler
      First page: 138
      Abstract: In this paper, an analogous study of the velocity and temperature profiles inside microchannel cooling plates (with hydraulic diameter of 6 mm), placed on a large pouch-type LiFePO4 battery, is presented using both the laboratory and simulation techniques. For this, we used reverse engineering (RE), computed tomography (CT) scanning, Detroit Engineering Products (DEP) MeshWorks 8.0 for surface meshing of the cold plate, and STAR CCM+ for steady-state simulation. The numerical study was conducted for 20 A (1C) and 40 A (2C) and different operating temperatures. For experimental work, three heat flux sensors were used and were intentionally pasted at distributed locations, out of which one was situated near the negative tab (anode) and the other was near the positive tab (cathode), because the heat production is high near electrodes and the one near the mid body. Moreover, the realizable k-ε turbulence model in STAR CCM+ is used for simulation of the stream in a microchannel cooling plate, and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations under constant current (CC) discharge load cases are studied. Later, the validation is conducted with the lab data to ensure sufficient cooling occurs for the required range of temperature. The outcome of this research work shows that as C-rates and ambient temperature increase, the temperature contours of the cooling plates also increase.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080138
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 139: Charging Electric Vehicles Today and in the
           Future

    • Authors: Jennifer Leijon, Cecilia Boström
      First page: 139
      Abstract: It is expected that more vehicles will be electrified in the coming years. This will require reliable access to charging infrastructure in society, and the charging will include data exchange between different actors. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of recent scientific literature on different charging strategies, including for example battery swapping, conductive- and inductive charging, and what data that may be needed for charging of different types of electric vehicles. The methodology of the paper includes investigating recent scientific literature and reports in the field, with articles from 2019 to 2022. The contribution of this paper is to provide a broad overview of different charging strategies for different types of electric vehicles, that could be useful today or in the coming years. The literature review shows that data utilized for charging or discharging includes for example information on the battery, temperature, electricity cost, and location. It is concluded that the preferred charging strategy for an electric vehicle may depend on the type of electric vehicle and when, where, and how the vehicle is used.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080139
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 140: Wireless Power Transfer Positioning System with
           Wide Range Direction-Guided Based on Symmetrical Triple-U Auxiliary Pad

    • Authors: Yi Yang, Guimei Cao, Ge Zhang, Shiyun Xie
      First page: 140
      Abstract: An important area of research in electric vehicle wireless power transfer systems is the detection of the secondary pad, which is vital evidence to determine whether the vehicle is in the effective charging area. However, the detection based on sensors mostly will reconstruct the vehicle structure and has a limit on versatility in all kinds of vehicles and the applicability of magnetic couplers and the influence on the primary pad. Therefore, an auxiliary pad structure and corresponding positioning method for offset estimation utilizing the existing inverter and secondary pad in the vehicle system are proposed. Firstly, to satisfy the needs of different positioning heights and avoid the effect on the primary pad, a triple-U positioning auxiliary pad is designed to assist positioning. Secondly, the direction-guided trajectory and detection algorithm are proposed to modify the vehicle location in real-time after analyzing the corresponding equivalent mutual inductance feature trajectory, according to the magnetic field characteristics of various typical magnetic couplers intervened by the proposed triple-U auxiliary pad. Finally, a prototype system is built to validate the applicability and feasibility of the triple-U auxiliary pad, where the positioning accuracy is within 10 mm, and the maximum recognizable recognition range can reach 300 mm × 300 mm, and the direction-guided trajectory is accurate, which can satisfy the actual positioning requirements of electric vehicles.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080140
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 141: Research on the Trajectory Tracking of Adaptive
           Second-Order Sliding Mode Control Based on Super-Twisting

    • Authors: Shaoyi Bei, Hongzhen Hu, Bo Li, Jing Tian, Haoran Tang, Zhenqiang Quan, Yunhai Zhu
      First page: 141
      Abstract: This article focuses on the trajectory tracking problem in the actuation control section of autonomous vehicles. Based on a two-degrees-of-freedom dynamics model, this paper combines adaptive preview control with a second-order sliding mode control method to develop a new control method. By designing an objective function based on lateral deviations, road boundaries, and the corresponding characteristics of the overall vehicle motion, the method adaptively adjusts the preview time to obtain the ideal yaw rate and then uses a second-order sliding mode control algorithm named Super-Twisting to calculate the steering wheel angle. Combining the low-pass filter with this controller can effectively suppress the chattering caused by the switching of the sliding mode plane while proposing a concept of smoothing based on gradient derivative, the smoothness after filtering is one-seventeenth of that before filtering, whereas the phase plane is used to prove its effectiveness and stability, it can be seen from the phase diagrams that all the state points are in the stable region. A joint simulation model of Matlab/Simulink and Carsim was built to verify the control effectiveness of the controller under the double-shift road, and the simulation results show that the designed controller has good control effect and high tracking accuracy. Meanwhile, the simulation model is also used for other simulations, firstly, simulation comparison tests were carried out with the Model Predictive Control algorithm at speeds of 36 and 54 km/h, compared to the MPC controller, the tacking accuracy of the ST controller has improved to 64.42% and 51.02% at 36 and 54 km/h; secondly, taking simulation of the designed controller against a conventional sliding mode controller based on isokinetic law of convergence, compared to the CSMC controller, the tracking accuracy of the ST controller has improved 41.78% at 54 km/h, and the smoothness of the ST controller is one-nineteenth of that of the CSMC controller; thirdly, carrying out simulations on parameter uncertainties, and replacing parameter uncertainty with Gaussian white noise, the maximum tracking error at 36 and 54 km/h did not exceed 0.3 m, and tracking remains good. Small fluctuations in the steering wheel angle do not affect the normal actuation of the actuator.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080141
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 142: Experimental Validation of an Automated Approach
           for Estimating the Efficiency and Heat Balance of Gearboxes Based on an
           Electrified Heavy Commercial Vehicle Axle

    • Authors: Roland Uerlich, Sven Köller, Gordon Witham, Theo Koch, Lutz Eckstein
      First page: 142
      Abstract: Freight transport accounts for about half of all distances travelled in Europe. Therefore, freight transport is one of the decisive factors for reducing greenhouse gases and air pollutants. For this reason, the electrification of road freight transport is being promoted as part of the project “BEV Goes eHighway—[BEE]”. The data basis for the modelling used in this project is an electric drive axle for a heavy commercial vehicle, which was developed in the “Concept-ELV2” project. Based on the results of the previous project, the methodological tools that were developed are presented in this paper. These allow a wide range of possible powertrain topologies to be considered at the concept stage of development based on an estimation of future system characteristics. For this purpose, the components are automatically designed taking into account the mutual influence of the requirements and are evaluated in the context of the holistic system. This publication focuses on the efficiency and thermal evaluation of the transmission stages of the addressed electric drive units and validates the developed models using a pototypically designed electric commercial vehicle axle.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080142
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 143: Why Do Pricing Rules Matter' Electricity
           Market Design with Electric Vehicle Participants

    • Authors: Felipe Maldonado, Andrea Saumweber
      First page: 143
      Abstract: The energy transition, a process in which fossil fuels are being replaced by cleaner sources of energy, comes with many challenges. The intrinsic uncertainty associated with renewable energy sources has led to a search for complementary technologies to tackle those issues. In recent years, the use of electric vehicles (EVs) has been studied as an alternative for storage, leading to a much more complex market structure. Small participants are now willing to provide energy, helping to keep the desired balance of supply and demand. In this paper, we analyse the electricity spot market, providing a model where EVs decide to participate depending on the underlying conditions. We study pricing rules adapted from versions currently in use in electricity markets, and focus on two of them for our experimental settings: integer programming (IP) and extended locational marginal (ELM) pricing. We particularly pay attention to the properties those prices might satisfy, and numerically test them under some scenarios representing different levels of participation of EVs and an active demand side. Our results suggest that IP pricing generally derives larger individual uplift payments and further produces public prices that are not well aligned with the final payments of market participants, leading to distortions in the market.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080143
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 144: Carbon Emission Reduction by Echelon Utilization
           of Retired Vehicle Power Batteries in Energy Storage Power Stations

    • Authors: Wei Yu, Yan Zheng, Yongqiang Zhang
      First page: 144
      Abstract: With the enhancement of environmental awareness, China has put forward new carbon peak and carbon neutrality targets. Electric vehicles can effectively reduce carbon emissions in the use stage, and some retired power batteries can also be used in echelon, so as to replace the production and use of new batteries. How to calculate the reduction of carbon emission by the echelon utilization of retired power batteries in energy storage power stations is a problem worthy of attention. This research proposes a specific analysis process, to analyze how to select the appropriate battery type and capacity margin. Taking the BYD power battery as an example, in line with the different battery system structures of new batteries and retired batteries used in energy storage power stations, emissions at various stages in different life cycles were calculated; following this in carbon emission, reduction, by the echelon utilization of the retired power battery, was obtained. Finally, the overall carbon emissions that might be reduced by echelon utilization in the future were calculated according to the BYD’s battery loading volume and China’s total power battery loading volume in 2021. This research provides a quantitative analysis idea for the carbon emission reduction of power battery echelon utilization. Using this method could improve the process of echelon utilization, optimize the supply chain of power batteries, drive the development of the new-energy vehicle industry, and explore new business models, so as to achieve the environmental protection goal of carbon neutrality.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080144
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 145: Smart Tool Development for Customized Charging
           Services to EV Users

    • Authors: Alberto Zambrano Galbis, Moisés Antón García, Ana Isabel Martínez García, Stylianos Karatzas, Athanasios Chassiakos, Vasiliki Lazari, Olympia Ageli
      First page: 145
      Abstract: E-mobility is a key element in the future energy systems. The capabilities of EVs are many and vary since they can provide valuable system flexibility services, including management of congestion in transmission grids. According to the literature, leaving the charging process uncontrolled could hinder some of the present challenges in the power system. The development of a suitable charging management system is required to address different stakeholders’ needs in the electro-mobility value chain. This paper focuses on the design of such a system, the TwinEV module, that offers high-value services to electric vehicles (EV) users. This module is based on a Smart Charging Tool (SCT), aiming to deliver a more user-central and cooperative approach to the EV charging processes. The methodology of the SCT tool, as well as the supportive optimization algorithm, are explained thoroughly. The architecture and the web applications of TwinEV module are analyzed. Finally, the deployment and testing results are presented.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080145
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 146: Impact of Climate Change on the Energy
           Consumption of Passenger Car Vehicles

    • Authors: Samuel Hasselwander, Anton Galich, Simon Nieland
      First page: 146
      Abstract: The energy consumption of passenger vehicles is affected by the physical properties of the environment. The ambient temperature in particular has a significant impact on the operating energy consumption. To quantify the impact of a changed climate on vehicles with different drivetrain systems, we set up a model that calculates the change in energy demand with respect to multiple global warming levels. In particular, the effect of rising temperatures on the energy consumption of battery electric vehicles and vehicles with internal combustion engines was investigated. Our results indicate that climate change will likely lead to a rise in energy consumption of vehicles with an internal combustion engine. This is mostly due to the increase in cabin climatization needs caused by the higher ambient temperatures. At a global warming level (GWL) of 4.0 °C, the calculated annual energy consumption on average is 2.1% higher than without taking the climate-change-related changes in temperature into account. Battery electric vehicles, on the other hand, are expected to have a lower overall energy consumption (up to −2.4% at 4 °C GWL) in cold and moderate climate zones. They benefit from the lower heating needs during winter caused by global warming.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080146
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 147: Design and Performance Analysis of Super
           Highspeed Flywheel Rotor for Electric Vehicle

    • Authors: Pengwei Wang, Tianqi Gu, Binbin Sun, Ruiyuan Liu, Tiezhu Zhang, Jinshan Yang
      First page: 147
      Abstract: The optimal design of a super highspeed flywheel rotor could improve flywheel battery energy density. The improvement of flywheel battery energy density could enhance the performance of the flywheel lithium battery composite energy storage system. However, there are still many problems in the structure, material and flywheel winding of super highspeed flywheels. Therefore, in this paper, electric flywheel energy and power density parameters are designed based on CPE (Continuous Power Energy) function and vehicle dynamics. Then, according to the design index requirements, the structure, size and material of the electric flywheel rotor are designed. Furthermore, the numerical analysis model of stress and displacement of multi-ring interference fit flywheel rotor under plane stress state is established. On this basis, the influence laws of flywheel rotor wheel flange numbers and interlaminar interference on stress distribution of flywheel rotor are analyzed, and the assembly form of wheel flange is determined. Finally, the stress check of the flywheel rotor is completed. The results show that the super highspeed flywheel rotor designed in this paper meets vehicle dynamics requirements in terms of energy storage and power. In terms of strength, it meets the design requirements of static assembly stress and dynamic stress at maximum speed.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080147
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 148: State-of-Health Estimate for the Lithium-Ion
           Battery Based on Constant Voltage Current Entropy and Charging Duration

    • Authors: Laijin Luo, Chaolong Zhang, Youhui Tian, Huihan Liu
      First page: 148
      Abstract: An accurate state-of-health (SOH) estimation is vital to guarantee the safety and reliability of a lithium-ion battery management system. In application, the electrical vehicles generally start charging when the battery is at a non-zero state of charge (SOC), which will influence the charging current, voltage and duration, greatly hindering many traditional health features to estimate the SOH. However, the constant voltage charging phase is not limited by the previous non-zero SOC starting charge. In order to overcome the difficulty, a method of estimating the battery SOH based on the information entropy of battery currents of the constant voltage charging phase and charging duration is proposed. Firstly, the time series of charging current data from the constant voltage phase are measured, and then the information entropy of battery currents and charging time are calculated as new indicators. The penalty coefficient and width factor of a support vector machine (SVM) improved by the sparrow search algorithm is utilized to establish the underlying mapping relationships between the current entropy, charging duration and battery SOH. Additionally, the results indicate the adaptability and effectiveness of the proposed approach for a battery pack and cell SOH estimation.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080148
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 149: Parametric Optimisation of a Direct Liquid
           Cooling–Based Prototype for Electric Vehicles Focused on Pouch-Type
           Battery Cells

    • Authors: Manex Larrañaga-Ezeiza, Gorka Vertiz Navarro, Igor Galarza Garmendia, Peru Fernandez Arroiabe, Manex Martinez-Aguirre, Joanes Berasategi Arostegui
      First page: 149
      Abstract: In this work, a numerical optimisation process is applied to improve the fluid dynamical aspect of an innovative direct liquid cooling strategy for lithium-ion–based HEV/EV. First, the thermofluidic numerical model of the battery cell defined by means of CFD computational tools was validated with experimental tests. Then, a comparison between different flow patterns was developed to analyse the influence of the fluid distribution geometry. Finally, a parametric multi-objective optimisation process was implemented arranged by a two-level full factorial design. Considering as input variables the height of the fluid, the number of cooling channels, the number of distributors, and the flow rate, the optimal relationship between the thermal performance of the battery cell, the volumetric energy density of the system, and the power consumption of the strategy was obtained. As a result, the energy density of the system was maximised, and the power consumption was reduced while keeping the cell temperature within the optimal range.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080149
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 150: Characterisation of Norwegian Battery Electric
           Vehicle Owners by Level of Adoption

    • Authors: Nina Møllerstuen Bjørge, Odd André Hjelkrem, Sahar Babri
      First page: 150
      Abstract: In this paper we investigate differences between groups of Norwegian electric vehicle owners, sorted by their adoption level. The grouping is based on adoption theory and the share of battery electric vehicles in new car sales numbers. We investigate Norwegian adopters’ preferences, values, and motivations for choosing a battery electric vehicle. The main data source is a yearly survey between 2015 and 2020 amongst Norwegian electric vehicle drivers. The motivation of the study is to reveal different choices by the adopter groups, contributing to policy recommendations and incentives for other countries. However, the Norwegian case might be a special one, having economic advantages which many other countries do not have access to. We assess the validity of the results and policy recommendations by analysing the results of a survey amongst the Nordic countries on investment choices concerning battery electric vehicles.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080150
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 151: Simulation-Based Evaluation of Charging
           Infrastructure Concepts: The Park and Ride Case

    • Authors: Markus Fischer, Cornelius Hardt, Jörg Elias, Klaus Bogenberger
      First page: 151
      Abstract: In this study, a framework regarding park and ride facilities is presented and demonstrated to evaluate different approaches of charging concepts. The innovation in this study is that the framework can be used to evaluate arbitrary conductive charging concepts on a detailed level and on the basis of real usage data. Thus, the results can be broken down to the level of individual charging events and charging points. Among other factors, the study considers the expected growth in electric vehicles, the construction and operating costs for the investigated charging infrastructure, and the impact of heterogeneous electric vehicle fleets with different vehicle-specific charging powers. Since both technological and economic perspectives are considered in the framework, the study is relevant for all decision makers involved in the development and operation of charging infrastructure. The results in the investigated case of park and ride facilities show a high potential for cost-efficient low-power charging concepts. Thus, significantly higher energy volumes could be transmitted and better economic results could be achieved by the investigated low-power approaches. Especially for heterogeneous electric vehicle fleets, the number of available charging points appears to be more important than the charging power of the individual charging points in this case.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080151
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 152: Peak Shaving for Electric Vehicle Charging
           Infrastructure—A Case Study in a Parking Garage in Uppsala, Sweden

    • Authors: Alexander Wallberg, Carl Flygare, Rafael Waters, Valeria Castellucci
      First page: 152
      Abstract: The need for a more flexible usage of power is increasing due to the electrification of new sectors in society combined with larger amounts of integrated intermittent electricity production in the power system. Among other cities, Uppsala in Sweden is undergoing an accelerated transition of its vehicle fleet from fossil combustion engines to electrical vehicles. To meet the requirements of the transforming mobility infrastructure, Uppsala municipality has, in collaboration with Uppsala University, built a full-scale commercial electrical vehicle parking garage equipped with a battery storage and photovoltaic system. This paper presents the current hardware topology of the parking garage, a neural network for day-ahead predictions of the parking garage’s load profile, and a simulation model in MATLAB using rule-based peak shaving control. The created neural network was trained on data from 2021 and its performance was evaluated using data from 2022. The performance of the rule-based peak shaving control was evaluated using the predicted load demand and photovoltaic data collected for the parking garage. The aim of this paper is to test a prediction model and peak shaving strategy that could be implemented in practice on-site at the parking garage. The created neural network has a linear regression index of 0.61, which proved to yield a satisfying result when used in the rule-based peak shaving control with the parking garage’s 60 kW/137 kWh battery system. The peak shaving model was able to reduce the highest load demand peak of 117 kW by 38.6% using the forecast of a neural network.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080152
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 153: Design of an Intelligent Platoon Transit System
           towards Transportation Electrification

    • Authors: Hong Gao, Ang Li, Jiangbo Wang, Kai Liu, Li Zhang
      First page: 153
      Abstract: The full implementation of electric public transport is a key step for the transport industry to move toward electrification and achieve carbon neutrality. However, in the face of time-varying demands and high-quality service requirements, traditional transit systems are difficult to ascend as the preferred mode of travel due to the constraints of fixed vehicle capacity and multiline transfers. With the advent of modular vehicle technology, it is becoming more realistic to develop an entirely new transportation system based on electric modular vehicles (EMVs). This study proposes a novel intelligent platoon transit system (IPTS), and its overall concept and operating mode are elaborated at a strategic level. In particular, the electrical, modular, and autonomous platoon transit system should be designed to achieve adaptive adjustment of capacity and possible en route transfers, which significantly improves the convenience, flexibility, and economy of public transport. We also design three application scenarios with varying demands during multistage development to bridge the gap in traditional buses. The key issues and case applicability of the three scenarios are discussed.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080153
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 154: A Study on Additive Manufacturing for
           Electromobility

    • Authors: Dirk Schuhmann, Christopher Rockinger, Markus Merkel, David K. Harrison
      First page: 154
      Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) offers the possibility to produce components in a resource-efficient and environmentally friendly way. AM can also be used to optimise the design of components in mechanical and physical terms. In this way, functionally integrated, lightweight, highly efficient, and innovative components can be manufactured with the help of additive manufacturing in terms of Industry 4.0. Furthermore, requirements in the automotive industry for drivetrain components are increasingly being trimmed in the direction of efficiency and environmental protection. Especially in electromobility, the topic of green efficiency is an essential component. Exhaust emission legislation and driving profiles for evaluating vehicles are becoming increasingly detailed. This offers the potential to apply the advantages of AM to vehicle types such as conventional, utility vehicles, and nonroad mobile machinery (NRMM), independent of the electrical drivetrain technology (hybrid or fully electrical). AM also allows for us to produce optimally adapted components to the respective requirements and use cases. In this review, the intersections of AM and electromobility are illuminated, showing which solutions and visions are already available for the different vehicle types on the market and which solutions are being scientifically researched. Furthermore, the potential and existing deficit of AM in the field of electromobility are shown. Lastly, new and innovative solutions are presented and classified according to their advantages and disadvantages.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080154
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 155: Heterogeneous Impact of Electrification of Road
           Transport on Premature Deaths from Outdoor Air Pollution: A Macroeconomic
           Evidence from 29 European Countries

    • Authors: Emad Kazemzadeh, Matheus Koengkan, José Alberto Fuinhas, Mônica Teixeira, Alexandre Mejdalani
      First page: 155
      Abstract: One of the biggest problems associated with vehicles that use internal combustion engines is that they cause elevated levels of pollution in the places they travel through, especially if they cause congestion. However, it is not only the level, but also probably the concentration of gases emitted by internal combustion engines in the places where they move around that is particularly lethal. Can the road transport sector’s electrification mitigate premature deaths from outdoor air pollution' Our main hypothesis is that replacing internal combustion engine vehicles with electrical ones contributes to mitigating people’s exposure to high concentrations of air pollution. To answer the research question, a panel of 29 European countries, from 2010 to 2020, using the method of moments quantile regression and ordinary least squares, was examined. Results support the concept that economic growth, renewable energy consumption, and electric vehicles in all quantiles have a negative impact on premature mortality due to air pollution. These impacts are higher on premature mortality in lower quantiles, but gradually decrease with increasing quantile levels. The results also reveal that methane emissions, in all quantiles except 10th, have a negative effect on premature mortality. Nitrous oxide emissions positively impact premature mortality in all quantiles except the 10th, and this impact increases at high quantiles. Fine particulate matter positively impacts premature mortality in all quantiles, with the same at all levels. The ordinary least squares, used as a robustness check, confirm that economic growth, renewable energy consumption, and methane emissions have reduced impacts on premature mortality due to outdoor air pollution. However, nitrous oxide emissions and fine particulate matter increase premature mortality. These results reinforce the importance of policymakers implementing policies for road electrification.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080155
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 156: In Memoriam: Dr.-Ing. Walter Lachenmeier
           (1945–2022)—Reflections on a Life between Research Funding
           Administration, Electric Vehicle Development and Technology Transfer

    • Authors: Dirk W. Lachenmeier
      First page: 156
      Abstract: These memoirs about Walter Lachenmeier (1945–2022) concentrate on his activities as head of the engineering sciences group of the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG), for which he worked from 1977 to 2007, and his following scientific activities in electric vehicle research and development, including a review of his patents in this area, which encompass topics from enhancement of the performance and lifetime of lithium-ion batteries, their arrangement, connection and configuration, as well as efficiency increase in supply and storage of energy.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-14
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080156
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 157: Analysis of Electric Vehicle Battery State
           Estimation Using Scopus and Web of Science Databases from 2000 to 2021: A
           Bibliometric Study

    • Authors: Swarnkar, Harikrishnan, Singh
      First page: 157
      Abstract: This paper presents a bibliometric analysis of battery state estimation in electric vehicles. In this paper, a quick study is performed on the top global research contributors, funding agencies, and affiliate universities or institutes performing research on this topic while also finding the top keyword searches and top authors based on the most citations in the field of electric vehicles. Trend analysis is done by using the SCOPUS and Web of Science (WOS) databases (DB) from the period of 2000 to 2021. Battery state estimation plays a major role in the battery present state based on past experience. Battery available charge and health knowledge is a must for range estimation and helps us acknowledge if a battery is in useful condition or needs maintenance or replacement. A total of 136 documents in SCOPUS and 1311 documents in Web of Science were analyzed. Through this bibliometric analysis, we learn the top authors, country, publication journal, citation, funding agency, leading documents, research gap, and future trends in this research direction. The author Xiong Rui has the most publications, and he is working at the Beijing Institute of Technology, China. The most common institution is the Beijing Institute of Technology, and China is the most highly contributing country in this research. Most of the publications are conference types in SCOPUS DB and article types in WOS DB. The National Natural Science Foundation of China provides the most funding. The journal Energies has the most publications related to this field. The most cited works are by the authors M.A. Hannan and L.G. Lu in SCOPUS and WOS DB, respectively. A statistical analysis of the top ten countries’ productivity results is also discussed.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-15
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13080157
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 109: Fuzzy Yaw Rate and Sideslip Angle Direct Yaw
           Moment Control for Student Electric Racing Vehicle with Independent Motors
           

    • Authors: Laith Sami Sawaqed, Israa Hasan Rabbaa
      First page: 109
      Abstract: In this paper, a new concurrent yaw rate, sideslip angle, and longitudinal-velocity direct yaw moment control (DYC) strategy is proposed to improve the handling and stability of a rear-wheel drive student electric racing vehicle (EV) equipped with two independent motors. In order to control these three parameters concurrently, three control schemes are developed: three fuzzy controllers, three optimized PID controllers, and two fuzzy controllers for the yaw rate and sideslip angle with a PID for longitudinal velocity. The EV dynamic behavior for the different control schemes is compared by using a nonlinear model of the EV. This model consists of three main parts: vehicle dynamics, wheel dynamics, and tire dynamics. Simulations under a circular-path driving scenario show that the proposed fuzzy controllers can effectively reduce the consumed energy by 10%, track the desired speed and path, and enhance the vehicle’s behavior and stability while maneuvering by decreasing both the yaw rate and sideslip angle deviation.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070109
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 110: Sizing of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle with
           the Hybrid Energy Storage System

    • Authors: Jian Tu, Zhifeng Bai, Xiaolan Wu
      First page: 110
      Abstract: For plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), using a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) instead of a single battery system can prolong the battery life and reduce the vehicle cost. To develop a PHEV with HESS, it is a key link to obtain the optimal size of the power supply and energy system that can meet the load requirements of a driving cycle. Since little effort has been dedicated to simultaneously performing the component sizing of PHEV and HESS, this paper proposes an approach based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to simultaneously determine the sizes of the engine, motor, battery and supercapacitor (SC) in a PHEV with HESS. The drivetrain cost is minimized in a different all-electric range (AER)—and depends on the battery type—while ensuring the driving performance requirements. In addition, the effects of the power system and drive cycle on the component sizes were analyzed and compared. The simulation results show that the cost of the PHEV drivetrain with the Ni-MH battery/SC HESS is reduced by up to 12.21% when compared to the drivetrain with the Li-ion battery/SC HESS. The drivetrain cost is reduced by 8.79% when compared to analysis-based optimization. The type of power supply system and drive cycle can significantly affect the optimization results.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070110
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 111: Design of a Data Security Access Control
           Algorithm for the Electric Vehicle Internet of Vehicles Based on
           Blockchain Technology

    • Authors: Jia Miao
      First page: 111
      Abstract: The data transmission in the vehicle network is easily interfered with by the outside world, which makes the security of data access difficult to provide in order to meet the actual needs. Therefore, a data security access control algorithm for an electric vehicle network based on blockchain technology is proposed. Using the double-chain architecture of analliance chain-private chain in a blockchain, the distributed database of data communication for vehicle networking is constructed. In the process of vehicle network communication, the longshort-term memory neural network is introduced to analyze the risk of communication behavior. A generator and discriminator are used to avoid communication risk behavior and realize secure access to data. The experimental results show that the success rate of data tampering is lower than 0.09 when this design method is used to deal with external intrusion, and it has high security.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070111
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 112: Comparative Study of BLDC Motor Drives with
           Different Approaches: FCS-Model Predictive Control and Hysteresis Current
           Control

    • Authors: Mohamed Azab
      First page: 112
      Abstract: The control techniques of the brushless DC (BLDC) motor have gained a large amount of interest in recent years, with their use being implemented in order to achieve a high-performance drive, including quick transient response and high-quality waveforms at the steady state. This paper provides a comparative study between three control schemes of BLDC motors: the direct power control scheme using a finite control set model predictive control (FCS-MPC) approach, the stator current controlled scheme using an FCS-MPC approach, and the stator current controlled scheme using ON–OFF hysteresis current controllers. The three systems were studied and investigated under the same operating conditions. The comparative study included investigating the performance of the BLDC drive in both steady state and transient operations. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed on the results obtained with each control scheme. The obtained results demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the three investigated schemes in controlling the motor speed to the desired value under sudden load changes and achieving satisfactory quick transient responses. However, the results indicate the superiority of the direct power control scheme using an FCS-MPC approach over the others in terms of its minimum torque ripple, lowest torque and speed pulsations, minimum active and reactive power ripples, and high-quality waveforms of the stator currents drawn by the motor with minimum THD.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070112
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 113: Improved Model Predictive Current Control of NPC
           Three-Level Converter Fed PMSM System for Neutral Point Potential
           Imbalance Suppression

    • Authors: Guozheng Zhang, Qiyuan Liu, Jian Wang, Chen Li, Xin Gu
      First page: 113
      Abstract: For the neutral point clamped (NPC) three-level converter fed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) system, the performance of the conventional model predictive current control (MPCC) algorithm will be deteriorated if the amplitude of the neutral point potential (NPP) is large. Additionally, the adjustment process of the weighted coefficients of the conventional MPCC algorithm is complex because of numerous control terms in the cost function. To solve the above issues, an improved MPCC algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, Newtonian iteration is used to transfer the stator current into stator voltage in the cost function. Then, the NPP term in the conventional cost function can be eliminated by introducing the partition control of the NP potential, which also eliminates the whole adjustment process of weighting coefficients. Finally, based on the amplitude of the NPP, the amplitude and phase angle of medium and small vectors are modified to improve the control performance of the torque and flux. Experimental results show that the fluctuation of the neutral point potential can be suppressed rapidly. Meanwhile, the performance of the torque, flux and current are also improved compared with the conventional MPCC.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070113
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 114: Analysis of the THD and Common-Mode Voltage of
           the Three-Phase Boost-Buck EV Traction Inverter

    • Authors: Yongjie Han, Yuan Zhu, Deliang Wu
      First page: 114
      Abstract: A three-phase boost-buck inverter (BBI) comprised of three identical boost-buck DC/DC converter modules is presented for an EV traction inverter application. It allows the step-up and/or step-down of the battery pack voltage according to the operating condition of the traction motor so that the overall performance can be optimized, which is essential for EVs with relatively low and varying battery voltages such as a hybrid EV or fuel-cell EV. It also features low switching losses, low harmonic distortion in the output current, and reduced common-mode voltage and/or current. A detailed analysis and performance evaluation of the BBI compared to the conventional technology demonstrate its feasibility in EV traction applications. The functionality and performance of the boost-buck inverter are verified with simulation and experimental results.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070114
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 115: Modelling Electric Vehicle Charge Demand:
           Implementation for the Greek Power System

    • Authors: Stavros G. Mitrakoudis, Minas C. Alexiadis
      First page: 115
      Abstract: The emerging popularity of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) is creating new connections between the transportation and electric sectors, and PEV charging will bring new opportunities and challenges to a system of growing complexity. The electrification of transport will increase energy security, reduce carbon emissions, and improve local air quality. The actual expansion of electric vehicles (EVs) will depend on several factors: the evolution of autonomy, the acquisition price, the charging process and infrastructure, etc. This paper provides a guide for simulating the accumulative load profile for EV charging on a national level. The importance of all the parameters and variables involved (deterministic or stochastic) is investigated. Detailed tables and references concerning the distribution of values and the composition of the EV fleet are provided. A multivariate probabilistic model is developed considering the EV classes, weekly and seasonal driving patterns, charging strategies, battery capacities, consumption per EV, etc., leading to an accurate estimation of aggregated EV charging demand. Finally, a net-metering scheme is proposed, in which a photovoltaic (PV) system of a certain size will be able to provide the annual energy needs of the first 10,000 EVs in the Greek market.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070115
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 116: From Traditional to Electrified Urban Road
           Networks: The Integration of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and GIS as a
           Tool to Define a Feasibility Index—An Italian Case Study

    • Authors: Claudia Nodari, Maurizio Crispino, Emanuele Toraldo
      First page: 116
      Abstract: To achieve sustainable development in the road sector, the use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) appears as a positive response to transport emissions. Among the available technologies, dynamic charging seems to overcome the main weakness points of EVs, even if it requires that traditional roads (t-roads) be equipped with a system providing electricity for EVs. Thus, so-called electrified roads (e-roads) must be implemented into the urban road networks. Since it is not possible to electrify all roads simultaneously, and also to consider the demand needs of citizens, a selection criterion is essential. This research describes and develops a simple, self-explanatory, repeatable, and adaptable selection criterion aimed at helping city managers in prioritizing the roads of an urban network to be upgraded from t-road to e-road status. This method belongs to the so-called Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems (MC-SDSS)—processes useful for solving spatial problems through the integration of multicriteria analysis (Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process, F-AHP) with a geo-referenced data management and analysis tool (GIS). The developed algorithm is based on several criteria related to the infrastructure/transport, social and environmental areas. The result of the implemented method is a Feasibility Index (FI), able to prioritize the roads most eligible to be upgraded as e-roads, as also verified by its application on the urban area of Milan (Italy).
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070116
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 117: Optimization Model of Electric Vehicles Charging
           and Discharging Strategy Considering the Safe Operation of Distribution
           Network

    • Authors: Mengjiao Zou, Ye Yang, Mingguang Liu, Wen Wang, Heping Jia, Xiaofeng Peng, Shu Su, Dunnan Liu
      First page: 117
      Abstract: Against the background of carbon neutrality, the power dispatching operation mode has undergone great changes. It not only gradually realizes the coordinated control of source–grid–load–storage, but also strives to realize the multi-level coordination of the transmission network, distribution network and microgrid. Disorderly charging and discharging of large-scale electric vehicles (EVs) will have a great negative impact on the distribution network, but aggregating EVs and guiding them to charge and discharge in an orderly manner will play a positive role in delaying investment in the distribution network. Therefore, it is urgent to adopt an effective scheduling control strategy for electric vehicle charging and discharging. First, a variety of indexes were set to analyze the influence of EVs access on distribution network and the correlation between the indexes. Then, by defining the EVs penetration rate and the load simultaneous rate, the charging load planning of EVs was calculated. Based on the simultaneous load rate, the regional electricity load plan was calculated, and a configuration model of distribution capacity suitable for charging loads in different regions was constructed. Finally, an optimal dispatch model for electric vehicles considering the safety of distribution network was proposed and the distribution transformer capacity allocation model was used as the optimization target constraint. Compared with most optimized dispatch models used to maximize aggregator revenues and reduce peak-to-valley differences and load fluctuations in distribution networks, this model could effectively reduce unnecessary investment while meeting regional distribution transformer needs and maintaining distribution network security. Taking the improved IEEE 34-bus systems as an example, the simulation analysis was carried out and the investment demand of distribution network under the condition of disordered and orderly charge and discharge was compared. The results show that the proposed optimal scheduling method can effectively reduce the load fluctuation of distribution network, keep the voltage offset within the allowable voltage deviation range, and can effectively delay the investment of distribution network.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070117
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 118: Design and Optimization of Lightweight
           Lithium-Ion Battery Protector with 3D Auxetic Meta Structures

    • Authors: Michael Alfred Stephenson Biharta, Sigit Puji Santosa, Djarot Widagdo, Leonardo Gunawan
      First page: 118
      Abstract: This research study involves designing and optimizing a sandwich structure based on an auxetic structure to protect the pouch battery system for electric vehicles undergoing ground impact load. The core of the sandwich structure is filled with the auxetic structure that has gone through optimization to maximize the specific energy absorbed. Its performance is analyzed with the non-linear finite element method. Five geometrical variables of the auxetic structures are analyzed using the analysis of variance and optimized using Taguchi’s method. The optimum control variables are double-U hierarchal (DUH), the cross-section’s thickness = 2 mm, the length of the cell = 10 mm, the width of the cell = 17 mm, and the bending height = 3 mm. The optimized geometries are then arranged into three different sandwich structure configurations. The core is filled with optimized DUH cells that have been enlarged to 200% in length, arranged in 11 × 11 × 1 cells, resulting in a total dimension and mass of 189 × 189 × 12 mm and 0.75 Kg. The optimized sandwich structure shows that the pouch battery cells can be protected very well from ground impact load with a maximum deformation of 1.92 mm, below the deformation threshold for battery failure.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070118
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 119: Unifying Criteria for Calculating the Levelized
           Cost of Driving in Electro-Mobility Applications

    • Authors: Diego Arias-Cazco, Heraldo Rozas, Diego Jimenez, Marcos E. Orchard, Claudio Estevez
      First page: 119
      Abstract: The Levelized Cost of Driving (LCOD) calculates how much it costs to drive a vehicle, per kilometer, over the vehicle lifespan, and it is typically measured in USD/km. LCOD has been widely applied to assess and compare the performance of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Internal Combustion engine Vehicles (ICVs). Unfortunately, there is no common methodology to establish how to compute LCOD. As authors use different criteria to determine which elements are relevant in LCOD, it is difficult to compare results. To overcome this issue, we re-introduce the LCOD concept, where the most relevant expenditures and incomes are included. This novel LCOD definition also incorporates key elements that are sometimes neglected, such as the second life of batteries in EVs, EV battery degradation models, and stochastic models, to characterize daily operation. The proposed methodology is applied to assess the cost of using EVs as taxis in the city of Quito, Ecuador.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070119
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 120: Multi-Objective Optimization with Mayfly
           Algorithm for Periodic Charging in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    • Authors: Sandrine Mukase, Kewen Xia
      First page: 120
      Abstract: Wireless energy transfer (WET) is a revolutionary method that has the power to tackle the energy and longevity challenges in wireless sensor networks (WSN). This paper uses a mobile charger (MC) to discover the procedure of WET based on a wireless sensor network (WSN) for a periodic charging technique to maintain the network operational. The goal of this work is to lower overall system energy consumption and total distance traveled while increasing the mobile charger device vacation time ratio. Based on an analysis of total energy consumption, a new metaheuristic called mayfly algorithm (MA) is used to achieve energy savings. Instead of charging all nodes at the same time in each cycle, in our strategy, the mobile charger charges only energy-hungry nodes due to their levels of energy. In this strategy, when the first node reaches the calculated minimum energy, it notifies the base station (BS), which computes all nodes that fall under threshold energy and sends the MC to charge all of them to the maximum energy level in the same cycle. Mathematical results show that the mayfly algorithm can considerably decrease the charging device’s total energy consumption and distance traveled while maintaining performance because it can keep the network operational with less complexity than other schemes.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070120
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 121: Analysis, Design and Realization of a Wireless
           Power Transfer Charger for Electric Vehicles: Theoretical Approach and
           Experimental Results

    • Authors: Issam Bentalhik, Abdellah Lassioui, Hassan EL Fadil, Tasnime Bouanou, Aziz Rachid, Zakariae EL Idrissi, Ahmed Mohamed Hamed
      First page: 121
      Abstract: Wireless power transfer (WPT) chargers are promising solutions for charging electric vehicles (EVs). Due to their advantages such as ease and safety of use, these chargers are increasingly replacing conductive ones. In this paper, we first provide a detailed analysis to illustrate the effect of varying parameters on the operation of the WPT charger. Secondly, we present the main design steps of the charger elements while respecting the recommendations of the SAEJ2954 standard in terms of operating frequency, efficiency and misalignments. Regarding the design of the ground-side and vehicle-side coils, we propose three different circular geometries whose parameters are determined using an iterative approach. The latter is compared with a finite element analysis performed under Ansys Maxwell software showing the convergence between theoretical calculations and the simulation results. Finally, an experimental prototype with a power of 500 W is realized. In addition, different test scenarios are performed to validate the proposed design approach. In this respect, an efficiency of 90% is obtained for a power of 500 W and a distance between coils of 125 mm. Moreover, the test of the charger in the most unfavorable operating case (misalignments of Δx = 70 mm, Δy = 10 mm and Δz = 150 mm) gives an efficiency of 83.5%, which remains above the limit of the SAEJ2954 standard.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070121
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 122: EVB-Supportive Energy Management for Residential
           Systems with Renewable Energy Supply

    • Authors: Xinan Yang, Thanet Chitsuphaphan, Hongsheng Dai, Fanlin Meng
      First page: 122
      Abstract: This study examines the potential role that an Electric Vehicle Battery (EVB) can play in Home Energy Management System (HEMS) based on a future development on the performance and costs of batteries. The value of EVB in an HEMS with different home connection settings and energy consumption/storage/generation capacities are investigated to advise the optimal future HEMS setups. Solar PV are considered as the residential renewal energy supply, which is the main resource of uncertainty of the system. A novel forecasting model is deployed which incorporates geographical information, solar radiation forecast and weather-related conditions into an exponential-based method to simulate day-ahead solar PV output. Optimal flows of energy and usage of storage (batteries) are then captured by a Stochastic Programming (SP) model and solved by CPLEX. Managerial insights and optimal designs of the HEMS are drawn based on the results obtained.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070122
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 123: Dynamic Performance Enhancement of a
           Direct-Driven PMSG-Based Wind Turbine Using a 12-Sectors DTC

    • Authors: Abdullah Eial Awwad
      First page: 123
      Abstract: This paper focuses on the performance analysis, modeling, and control of permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)-based wind energy conversion. This work analyzes controllers for the machine-side converter (MSC) and grid-side converter (GSC) and presents a new direct torque control (DTC) scheme based on a 12-sectors polygonal DTC for variable speed control of the PMSG. The proposed method solves the drawbacks faced by conventional six-sectors DTC control. The proposed method utilizes 12 sectors of 30° each compared to 60° in the conventional 6-sectors DTC. The 12-sectors technique was applied to voltages and flux vectors to increase the degrees of freedom for the selection of optimal vectors and, thus, reduce the torque ripple. This work analyzed the aforementioned DTC methods using MATLAB/Simulink, comparing the dynamic response of the proposed 12-sectors DTC with the conventional 6-sectors DTC control, and the results verified the effectiveness of the proposed DTC control.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070123
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 124: State-Feedback Control of Interleaved
           Buck–Boost DC–DC Power Converter with Continuous Input Current
           for Fuel Cell Energy Sources: Theoretical Design and Experimental
           Validation

    • Authors: Mohamed Koundi, Zakariae El Idrissi, Hassan El Fadil, Fatima Zahra Belhaj, Abdellah Lassioui, Khawla Gaouzi, Aziz Rachid, Fouad Giri
      First page: 124
      Abstract: It is well known that the classical topologies of Buck–Boost converters drain pulsating current from the power source. These pulsating currents entail acceleration of the aging rate of the fuel cell. In this paper, we are considering a Buck–Boost DC–DC converter topology featuring continuous input current. The converter interleaved structure ensures the substantial increase in power density compensating power losses related to the converter switching nature. The control objective is to enforce the DC-bus voltage to track its desired value despite load uncertainties and to ensure adequate current sharing between the different parallel modules of the fuel cell interleaved Buck–Boost converter (FC-IBBC). The point is that the internal voltage of the fuel cell is not accessible for measurement. Therefore, the state-feedback control, which consists of nonlinear control laws, is designed on the basis of a nonlinear model of the FC-IBBC system. We formally prove that the proposed controller meets its objectives, i.e., DC-bus voltage regulation and equal current sharing. The theoretical proof relies on the asymptotic stability analysis of the closed-loop system using Lyapunov stability tools. The theoretical results are well confirmed both by simulation, using MATLAB®/Simulink®, and by experimental tests using DS 1202 MicroLabBox.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070124
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 125: Effect of Having Solar Panels on the Probability
           of Owning Battery Electric Vehicle

    • Authors: Mats Gezelius, Reza Mortazavi
      First page: 125
      Abstract: Greenhouse gas emissions, produced by various sectors, including transportation, are significantly impairing the environment and drive climate change. Battery electric vehicles are increasingly seen as a way to alleviate these problems, but they must be charged with electricity produced through environmentally friendly methods. This paper investigates a possible relationship between battery electric vehicles and solar photovoltaic panels using ENABLE.EU household survey data from ten European countries in autumn 2017–spring 2018. Based on the estimates from a recursive bivariate probit model, it is found that the probability that a household owns a battery electric vehicle increases significantly if said household owns solar photovoltaic panels. This suggests that a policy encouraging the home charging of battery electric vehicles using solar photovoltaic panels that includes an energy storage facility could speed up the transition to the use of these vehicles.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070125
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 126: EV Senseless Orderly Charging Technology for
           High User Participation Rate in Residential Area

    • Authors: Ye Yang, Wenjun Duan, Wen Wang, Xiaoqing Zhang, Xiaofeng Peng, Qingwen Han, Yao Li, Shuaihua Li, Shiqiao Gao
      First page: 126
      Abstract: Private cars are the most active and important incremental factor in the electric vehicle market and are expected to account for 80% of the new energy vehicle sales market by 2030. As the most common charging scenario for private cars, orderly charging in the community can optimize the distribution load curve by dynamically adjusting charging time and power of electric vehicles, so as to achieve peak-load shaving and turn electric vehicles into a friendly load to the distribution grid. However, after the traditional orderly charging strategy was released, the complexity of the operation on the user’s side was a heavy strike to the user’s willingness to participate in orderly charging, resulting in the quite low participation rate and insufficient demonstration of the characteristics of EV’s elastic power demand. To solve this issue, the paper proposes a senseless orderly charging strategy with user charging demand prediction and substation capacity constraint considered to minimize user charging fee or maximize service provider revenue. After a five-month practical application, the proposed strategy was found to effectively improve the user participation rate in orderly charging and to regulate electric vehicles as an elastic load to meet the grid demand.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070126
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 127: Layout Evaluation of New Energy Vehicle Charging
           Stations: A Perspective Using the Complex Network Robustness Theory

    • Authors: Peipei Zhang, Juan Chen, Lilan Tu, Longteng Yin
      First page: 127
      Abstract: At present, the new energy vehicle industry is developing rapidly, but the relative lag in the development of its supporting infrastructure, especially charging stations, has become a bottleneck that restricts the development of the electric vehicle industry. In this paper, we propose a model for constructing a network of new energy vehicle charging facilities based on complex network theory and analyze the operation and the rationality of the layout of the new energy vehicle (NEV) charging stations in Wuhan and Hangzhou, respectively. The results show that the current layout of new energy vehicle charging stations in the city is relatively reasonable, but the allocation of charging pile resources is unreasonable. Our results of the virtual charging station network constructed by adding new charging station nodes show that the change in network structure helps to enhance the performance of the charging station system.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070127
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 128: An Early Warning Protection Method for Electric
           Vehicle Charging Based on the Hybrid Neural Network Model

    • Authors: Xiaoyu Zheng, Dexin Gao, Zhenyu Zhu, Qing Yang
      First page: 128
      Abstract: During the charging process of the electric vehicle (EV), a spontaneous combustion accident may occur due to overheating of the battery, causing personal danger and property damage. To address the charging safety of EVs, this paper proposes a new hybrid EV charging process early warning protection method by combining Convolutional Long-Short Term Memory (ConvLSTM), the sliding window method, and the residual analysis method. The method is fully trained by extracting the deep features of EV charging data through ConvLSTM, eliminating the influence of erroneous transmission data through the sliding window method, and setting a reasonable warning threshold through the residual analysis method. The cross-validation results showed that among the four training sets, the ConvLSTM model of training, set three, had the highest prediction accuracy compared with the CNN, LSTM, BiLSTM and CNN-LSTM models, with RMSE reaching 0.029, MAPE reaching 11.37, and r2 reaching 0.89. Training set one had the worst prediction in the four training sets, and after using it to set the warning threshold, the alarm task was completed five sampling points earlier. Therefore, the hybrid model can quickly complete the safety warning task, thereby ensuring the safety of EV charging.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070128
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 129: Simultaneity Factors of Public Electric Vehicle
           Charging Stations Based on Real-World Occupation Data

    • Authors: Christopher Hecht, Jan Figgener, Dirk Uwe Sauer
      First page: 129
      Abstract: Charging of electric vehicles may cause stress on the electricity grid. Grid planners need clarity regarding likely grid loading when creating extensions. In this paper, we analyse the simultaneity factor (SF) or peak power of public electric vehicle charging stations with different recharging strategies. This contribution is the first of its kind in terms of data quantity and, therefore, representativeness. We found that the choice of charging strategy had a massive impact on the electricity grid. The current “naive” charging strategy of plugging in at full power and recharging until the battery is full cause limited stress. Price-optimised recharging strategies, in turn, create high power peaks. The SFs varied by strategy, particularly when using several connectors at once. Compared to the SF of a single connector in naive charging, the SF decreased by approximately 50% for groups of 10 connectors. For a set of 1000 connectors, the SF was between 10% and 20%. Price-optimised strategies showed a much slower decay where, in some cases, groups of 10 connectors still had an SF of 100%. For sets of 1000 connectors, the SF of price-optimised strategies was twice that of the naive strategy. Overall, we found that price optimisation did not reduce electricity purchase costs by much, especially compared to peak-related network expansion costs.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070129
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 130: Research on 3D Point Cloud Data Preprocessing
           and Clustering Algorithm of Obstacles for Intelligent Vehicle

    • Authors: Pengwei Wang, Tianqi Gu, Binbin Sun, Di Huang, Ke Sun
      First page: 130
      Abstract: Environment perception is the foundation of the intelligent driving system and is a prerequisite for achieving path planning and vehicle control. Among them, obstacle detection is the key to environment perception. In order to solve the problems of difficult-to-distinguish adjacent obstacles and easy-to-split distant obstacles in the traditional obstacle detection algorithm, this study firstly designed a 3D point cloud data filtering algorithm, completed the point cloud data removal of vehicle body points and noise points, and designed the point cloud down-sampling method. Then a ground segmentation method based on the Ray Ground Filter algorithm was designed to solve the under-segmentation problem in ground segmentation, while ensuring real time. Furthermore, an improved DBSCAN (Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Application with Noise) clustering algorithm was proposed, and the L-shaped fitting method was used to complete the 3D bounding box fitting of the point cloud, thus solving the problems that it is difficult to distinguish adjacent obstacles at close distances caused by the fixed parameter thresholds and it is easy for obstacles at long distances to split into multiple obstacles; thus, the real-time performance of the algorithm was improved. Finally, a real vehicle test was conducted, and the test results show that the proposed obstacle detection algorithm in this paper has improved the accuracy by 6.1% and the real-time performance by 13.2% compared with the traditional algorithm.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13070130
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 94: Electric Vehicle Public Charging Infrastructure
           Planning Using Real-World Charging Data

    • Authors: Benedict J. Mortimer, Christopher Hecht, Rafael Goldbeck, Dirk Uwe Sauer, Rik W. De Doncker
      First page: 94
      Abstract: The current increase of electric vehicles in Germany requires an adequately developed charging infrastructure. Large numbers of public and semi-public charging stations are necessary to ensure sufficient coverage. To make the installation worthwhile for the mostly private operators as well as public ones, a sufficient utilization is decisive. An essential factor for the degree of utilization is the placement of a charging station. Therefore, the initial site selection plays a critical role in the planning process. This paper proposes a charging station placement procedure based on real-world data on charging station utilization and places of common interest. In the first step, we correlate utilization rates of existing charging infrastructure with places of common interest such as restaurants, shops, bars and sports facilities. This allows us to estimate the untapped potential of unexploited areas across Germany in a second step. In the last step, we employ the resulting geographical extrapolation to derive two optimized expansion strategies based on the attractiveness of locations for electric vehicle charging.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13060094
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 95: Research on Electric Vehicle Electromagnetic
           Protection Considering Radiation of Two Wireless Chargers

    • Authors: Wenting Mou, Mai Lu
      First page: 95
      Abstract: To evaluate the electromagnetic exposure safety of multiple wireless charging vehicles charging simultaneously and explore simple, effective electromagnetic protection methods, in this paper, car model, wireless charger model, and human body models were established by using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The influence of different relative positions of two wireless chargers on magnetic induction strength (B) in simulation space when two cars are charging simultaneously and the influence of different car body materials on a driver’s body surface B and internal induced electric field strength (E) were analyzed. The simulation results showed that the maximum value of B in the car when two wireless chargers work simultaneously was 1.30 times that when a single wireless charger works. The maximum value of simulation space B could be reduced by 24.23% by staggering the front and rear positions of the two wireless chargers. The use of aluminum alloy car body could reduce the maximum value of human body surface B of the driver in the car by 99.76%. The B of the driver’s body surface in the aluminum alloy car body combined with the staggering method of two chargers was the smallest, which was 42.86% of that when the two chargers were not staggered, and its electromagnetic exposure level was 1.33% of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection public exposure limit. The results showed that the protection method is effective.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13060095
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 96: Integration of Electric Vehicles into Microgrids:
           Policy Implication for the Industrial Application of Carbon Neutralisation
           in China

    • Authors: Andrew Yang Wu, Yui-Yip Lau, Ju-Ai Wu
      First page: 96
      Abstract: With the dynamic development of renewable energies, energy storage devices, and electric vehicles, microgrids have been playing an increasingly vital role in smart power grids. Under the recent development of carbon neutralisation, microgrid systems containing multiple clean energy sources have become significant modules for energy conservation and emission reduction. Considering technological and environmental elements, we investigated the economic operation of microgrids with the integration of electric vehicles. In this paper, carbon trading mechanisms and operation scheduling strategies are analysed in the simulation models. Then, transaction costs and power balance are discussed. Industrial applications and policy implications are also presented.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13060096
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 97: Research on Active Obstacle Avoidance of
           Intelligent Vehicles Based on Improved Artificial Potential Field Method

    • Authors: Jing Tian, Shaoyi Bei, Bo Li, Hongzhen Hu, Zhenqiang Quan, Dan Zhou, Xinye Zhou, Haoran Tang
      First page: 97
      Abstract: In the study of autonomous obstacle avoidance of intelligent vehicles, the traditional artificial potential field method has the problem that the vehicle may fall into the local minima and lead to obstacle avoidance failure. Therefore, this paper improves the traditional potential field function. Based on the vehicle dynamics model, a strategy of jumping out of local minima based on smaller steering angles is proposed. By finding a smaller steering angle and setting a suitable jump out step length, the intelligent vehicle is enabled to jump out of the local minima. Simulation experiments by MATLAB show that the improved method can jump out of the local minima. By comparing the planned trajectories of the traditional method and the improved method in static and dynamic obstacles situations, the trajectory planned by the improved method is smooth and the curvature is smaller. The planned trajectory is tracked by the Carsim platform, and the test results show that the improved method reduces the front steering wheel angle while the intelligent vehicle satisfies the vehicle dynamics constraints during active obstacle avoidance, which verifies the stability and rationality of the improved method.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13060097
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 98: An Exploring Human Resource Development in Small
           and Medium Enterprises in Response to Electric Vehicle Industry
           Development

    • Authors: Chadatan Osatis, Chonticha Asavanirandorn
      First page: 98
      Abstract: Transitioning the automotive industry from internal combustion engines (ICE) to electric vehicles (EV) has arisen as a critical challenge for global countries in achieving human resource development, owing to the need of new labor skills and replacement of automation systems. By applying a case study of Thailand’s automotive industry in response to this challenge, we aimed to plot out the trajectory of changes involved in the industry’s workforce during its transition with a central focus on Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), in order to make sound suggestions to the government on how to build an effective policy for industry growth. An exploratory research design was adopted for the investigation. Both primary and secondary sources were collected. Interviews with key stakeholders, including official agencies, organizations in the business sector, and academic institutions, were conducted in a semi-structured format to collect as primary data. Meanwhile, secondary data were gathered from reports and other scholarly contributions that are relevant. All of the data that were collected were subjected to qualitative methods of analysis, including content and theme analysis. We found that the advances in technology and associated skills have posed challenges to the SMEs for the workforce relocations in terms of occupational shifts and skill development, with engineering demand potentially growing 10% while low labor skills declined by nearly 70%. We emphasized that without effective policies for establishing EV roadmap and coordination practices between public and private stakeholders, this transition would have a detrimental effect on the workforce development of SMEs, which would ultimately have a harmful impact on the automotive industry and the economy.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13060098
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 99: An Energy-Based Assessment of Expected Benefits
           for V2H Charging Systems through a Dedicated Dynamic Simulation and
           Optimization Tool

    • Authors: Carlo Villante, Stefano Ranieri, Francesco Duronio, Angelo De Vita, Michele Anatone
      First page: 99
      Abstract: Electricity from renewable energy sources represents the most promising way to decarbonize energy systems. A grid connection of car Electricity Storage Systems (ESSs) represents an opportunity to tackle issues regarding electricity production non-programmability, only if sufficiently smart bi-directional Vehicle to Grid technologies (V2G) are widely implemented. Fully Bi-directional grid capabilities are still poor and must be increased, both physically and in terms of management and billing possibilities (in the so-called smart-grid paradigm). However, some V2G technologies may be already implemented in smaller individual contexts: so-called Vehicle to Home, V2H technologies. Starting from these considerations, within the frame of an Italian publicly funded research project, the authors categorized and described many possible application contexts and developed an open-source dynamic simulation (fully available under request for the scientific community) to identify most promising conditions. To this aim, they also synthetized and tested an effective energy optimization algorithm which will soon be implemented on a prototypal wireless V2H device, built by ENEA in cooperation with Cassino University, in Italy. The performances of the system were assessed evaluating electricity auto-consumption and home auto-feeding ratios. Simulations show that very relevant performances can be obtained, up to the values 69% for electricity auto-consumption and 82% of home auto-feeding.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13060099
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 100: Path Planning and Guidance Laws of a Formula
           Student Driverless Car

    • Authors: Solange D. R. Santos, José Raul Azinheira, Miguel Ayala Botto, Duarte Valério
      First page: 100
      Abstract: Autonomous driving has been a topic of great interest in several areas, of which motor racing is no exception. The aim of this work is the autonomous control of the future Formula Student Lisboa vehicle, by implementing different strategies for control and path planning, with the purpose of minimising race lap times. These strategies are tested in simulation, using a realistic model of the prototype. The approach followed involves the decoupling of the lateral and longitudinal subsystems and obtaining the reference path using artificial potential fields, combined with a two-pass algorithm developed to generate a speed profile. In this way, a sub-optimal solution is reached that adequately portrays the expected behaviour of a human driver while respecting traction conditions. The process of generating the speed reference requires prior knowledge of the track layout. This assumption is then eased for obstacle avoidance, i.e., for a scenario where, in addition to the track limits, unknown static obstacles are present. A decoupled control approach is followed controlling each of the two subsystems individually.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13060100
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 101: A 5G-Based VR Application for Efficient Port
           Management

    • Authors: Yi Han, Wenhao Wang, Nanxi Chen, Yi Zhong, Ruichun Zhou, Haoyu Yan, Jun Wang, Yulei Bai
      First page: 101
      Abstract: In recent years, the throughput of cargo ports has increased rapidly. It is urgent to improve the operating efficiency of ports for its increasing demands. Both industry and academia have shown great interest in adopting 5G and Virtual Reality (VR) technologies to improve the efficiency and safety of industrial operations. However, such technologies have not been well explored in port operations. This paper proposes a 5G-based VR smart port to support intelligent management for five typical port operations. The overall architecture of the smart port and its key processes, major advantages, and limitations are discussed in this paper. An application of the proposed smart port system is demonstrated. The performance study based on network Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of user Experience (QoE) proves the feasibility of the proposed architecture. The architecture supports efficient interaction in real-time, making comprehensive decisions, and staff training. The smart port architecture is suitable for tasks of high working intensity and can dramatically increase operational efficiency.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13060101
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 102: Evaluation of a Back-up Range Extender and Other
           Heavy-Duty BEV-Supporting Systems

    • Authors: Lennarth Zander, Pontus Svens, Henrik Svärd, Petter Dahlander
      First page: 102
      Abstract: Electric powertrains in terms of battery electric vehicles (BEV) are considered to be very interesting for heavy truck transportations. The challenge is the need for very large onboard energy and batteries. Long-term fuel cells (FCs) are considered an interesting support system for heavy-duty BEV, but in the short term, a range extender (REX) is also interesting. A heavy-duty BEV with 970 kWh batteries installed can handle 27% of all possible missions for the Scania fleet considering daily recharging. The back-up range extender (BUREX) can expand this figure to 55% utilized 20 days per year. If a customer has a few very energy-demanding use cases each year and does not want to pay for all the batteries needed, the BUREX may be an especially good option. The BUREX reduces life-cycle CO2 emissions, irrespective of the generation mix of the grid supplying the electricity used in vehicle manufacturing and battery charging. The BUREX reuse of the existing electric components of the BEV powertrain enables the installation of a 10% larger battery pack while being 80% less costly. The BUREX also adds redundancy to the BEV concept while recharging infrastructure improves, especially in rural places. These results indicate that the BUREX concept is a powerful short-term solution that could enable greater use of HD FC and BEV trucks while charging infrastructure and FC technologies gradually become more mature.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13060102
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 103: Towards Green Driving: A Review of Efficient
           Driving Techniques

    • Authors: Maram Bani Younes
      First page: 103
      Abstract: The exponential increase in the number of daily traveling vehicles has exacerbated global warming and environmental pollution issues. These problems directly threaten the continuity and quality of life on the planet. Several techniques and technologies have been used and developed to reduce fuel consumption and gas emissions of traveling vehicles over the road network. Here, we investigate some solutions that assist drivers to follow efficient driving tips during their trips. Advanced technologies of communications or vehicle manufacturing have enhanced traffic efficiency over road networks. In addition, several advisory systems have been proposed to recommend to drivers the most efficient speed, route, or other decisions to follow towards their targeted destinations. These recommendations are selected according to the real-time traffic distribution and the context of the road network. In this paper, different high fuel consumption scenarios are investigated over the road networks. Next, the details of efficient driving techniques that were proposed to tackle each case accordingly are reviewed and categorized for downtown and highway driving. Finally, a set of remarks and existing gaps are reported to researchers in this field.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13060103
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 104: The Vertical Force Estimation Algorithm Based on
           Smart Tire Technology

    • Authors: Tianli Gu, Bo Li, Zhenqiang Quan, Shaoyi Bei, Guodong Yin, Jinfei Guo, Xinye Zhou, Xiao Han
      First page: 104
      Abstract: The real-time monitoring of the vertical force of the tire is the basis for ensuring the driving safety, handling stability, fuel economy and the riding comfort of the vehicle. An algorithm for the vertical force of the tire estimation based on the combination of intelligent tire technology and neural network theory is herein proposed. Firstly, the finite element model of the 205/55/R16 radial tire was established by ABAQUS and the validity of the finite element model was verified through static experiment and dynamic experiment. Secondly, the effects of inflation pressure, speed, load and tread wear on the tire contact patch length and the radial displacement at the virtual acceleration sensor were analyzed based on the finite element analysis method and control variable method. Finally, three kinds of the vertical force prediction algorithms based on the GA-BP neural network algorithm were established, and the network performance of each prediction model was tested. The results show that the vertical force prediction model with inflation pressure and the peak value of radial displacement as the characteristic input parameters has the highest prediction accuracy and the shortest calculation time. At the same time, the mathematical formula of the Model 3 was built.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13060104
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 105: Electric Vehicle Range Estimation Using
           Regression Techniques

    • Authors: Moin Ahmed, Zhiyu Mao, Yun Zheng, Tao Chen, Zhongwei Chen
      First page: 105
      Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs) are an attractive alternative to conventional vehicles powered by internal combustion engines due to their low carbon footprint, low running cost, and higher energy efficiency. However, currently, they suffer from a lower range than conventional vehicles, which induces range anxiety for consumers. This work explores the EV parameters that strongly impact range using data-driven techniques. A detailed dataset of the technical specifications of commercial EV models manufactured from 2008 to 2021 was collected through web mining. Strong correlations were observed between range and battery capacity, top speed, curb weight, and acceleration (with Pearson coefficients of 0.90, 0.79, 0.70, and −0.84, respectively). Furthermore, regression algorithms were trained and tested on this dataset, with the lowest root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 31.4 km obtained from support vector machine regression. With a mean EV range in the test set of 364.5 km, an RMSE of 31.4 km equates to around 8.6% accuracy. Additionally, simple linear relationships between EV range and EV model, battery, and performance parameters were determined that may be useful to EV consumers in calculating range.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13060105
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 106: Lane Line Identification and Research Based on
           Markov Random Field

    • Authors: Fang Ding, Aiguo Wang, Qianbin Zhang
      First page: 106
      Abstract: In view of the poor robustness and low accuracy in lane line identification based on digital image processing, this paper proposes a Markov random field intelligent algorithm based on machine learning to identify lane lines. The complete lane line identification steps are as follows: First, high-quality traffic scenario images are created by means of image preprocessing, which includes image graying, grayscale transformation, and the extraction of regions of interest (ROIs). Then, the images are modeled according to Markov random field theory, and model reasoning is performed based on the binary graph cut method. In the reasoning process, to achieve accurate lane line segmentation, i.e., the optimal solution of the model, the energy potential function is introduced to optimize the binary graph cut method. Finally, the lane line pixel label is marked according to the segmentation result. The experiments showed that the algorithm could accurately segment the lane line pixels after only 10 iterations, indicating that the identification method has good performance in both reasoning speed and identification accuracy, which takes account of both accuracy and real-time processing, and can meet the requirements of lane recognition for lightweight automatic driving systems.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13060106
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 107: On the Development and Experimental Validation
           of a Novel and Intuitive Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
           Controller for Electric Vehicle Application

    • Authors: Muhammad Nur Yuniarto, Indra Sidharta, Yohanes Yohanes, Yoga Uta Nugraha
      First page: 107
      Abstract: This paper discusses the process of developing a novel and robust algorithm for an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor controller. This is necessary for the simplification of the setting of control parameters and maintaining the proper operation of the motor. A 3D torque lookup table was used in which two inputs were considered, i.e., accelerator movements and the motor rotational speed. These two inputs allowed the lookup table to generate a specified torque at any motor rotation, which was then fed-forward to the field-oriented control and space vector pulse width modulation algorithm. Modeling, simulation, and experimental tests were performed to design and validate the proposed controller. The experimental validation shows that the proposed controller worked as intended. This was indicated by its ability to control the motor to obtain a 7% higher torque output than in the simulation in the constant torque region. In the field-weakening region, the controller could make the motor reach a maximum speed of 5500 RPM. There was only an 8% difference compared to the simulation (6500 RPM). In terms of maximum power generated, the controller was able to match the simulation output with only a 5% difference.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13060107
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 108: Implementation of Driving Cycles Based on
           Driving Style Characteristics of Autonomous Vehicles

    • Authors: Xucheng Duan, Ferdinand Schockenhoff, Alexander Koch
      First page: 108
      Abstract: The standardized driving cycles, which are used around the globe for the development and homologation of automobiles, consist of a series of speed points versus time, to represent typical driving conditions and to exclude the influence of a human driver. However, with respect to autonomous vehicles (AVs), the driving style is defined in driving algorithms as a characteristic of the vehicle. Therefore, driving style should be considered in driving cycles. In this research, using MATLAB/Simulink® we developed the AVDC (Autonomous Vehicle Driving Cycle) Tool, which is capable of generating driving cycles based on driving style characteristics. The autonomous vehicles being investigated drive in a simulated environment along a straight road amongst other traffic vehicles, applying standard cycles to ensure the representativeness of generated autonomous cycles. The autonomous vehicle is piloted by adaptive cruise control (ACC) for car-following and free driving. Overtake logic decides whether passing will be attempted. Driving style is defined by four aspects—comfort, safety, swiftness, and economy—and determines the control parameters in the driving algorithm. The driving cycles generated by the AVDC Tool for a variety of driving styles show diverse characteristics, thus indicating the effective representation of various driving styles.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13060108
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 71: Digital Implementation of LCC Resonant Converters
           for X-ray Generator with Optimal Trajectory Startup Control

    • Authors: Zhennan Zhao, Shanlu Zhang, Lei Li, Shengfang Fan, Cheng Wang
      First page: 71
      Abstract: High voltage LCC resonant converters have been widely used in X-ray imaging systems in automobile nondestructive testing (NDT) applications. Low ripple voltage waveforms with fast-rising time under no-overshoot response are required for safety in such applications. The optimal state trajectory control (OTC) based on the state plane model is one of the most effective control methods to optimize transient response. Dynamic variations of the resonant voltages/currents are described as corresponding trajectories on the state plane. The transient relations can be determined by evaluating the geometric relationships of the trajectories. However, the LCC resonant converter has more state variables, resulting in more complex calculations that make the state trajectory control challenging. Furthermore, the startup duration is the most demanding process of the state trajectory control. In this paper, a digital implementation based on a hybrid controller built in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is proposed for LCC resonant converters with optimal trajectory startup control. A coordinated linear compensator is employed to control the switching frequency during steady-state conditions, hence eliminating the steady-state error. The experimental results were conducted on a 140-kV/42-kW LCC resonant converter for an X-ray generator. It achieves a short rising time of output voltage with no additional current or voltage stress in the resonant tank during startup compared to the conventional digital implementation control.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050071
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 72: Permanent Magnet or Additional Electromagnet
           Compensation Structures of End Electromagnet Module for Mid-Low Speed
           Maglev Train

    • Authors: Yunfeng He, Qinfen Lu
      First page: 72
      Abstract: In the mid-low speed Maglev train, the levitation force produced by end electromagnets is influenced by the train speed due to the eddy current effect, especially the front-end electromagnets at high speed. In this paper, the eddy current effect of front-end electromagnets is calculated by an analytical method, which is validated by the Finite Element method (FEM). To compensate a decrease of levitation force, two improved structures of end electromagnet modules are designed and compared. One is the permanent magnet compensation structure, designed by inserting a piece of permanent magnet (PM), and called the PM hybrid structure, and the other is an additional electromagnet compensation structure, which adopts five electromagnets, and called the five-coil structure. In terms of comparison, the five-coil structure can not only produce a high enough levitation force, but can also be easily manufactured. Its effectiveness is verified by the prototype application.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050072
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 73: Development and Simulation of Real-Time Early
           Warning Protection System for Electric Vehicle Charging Based on a
           Two-Layer Protection Model

    • Authors: Linru Jiang, Taoyong Li, Bowen Li, Xiaohong Diao, Jing Zhang
      First page: 73
      Abstract: With the increase of fire problems of new energy vehicles (EVs), more and more attention has been paid to charging safety. Firstly, the charging safety problems and protection strategies in the power grid are summarized from the grid side, the charging equipment side, the vehicle side, and the operation platform side, and a solution for the vehicle side charging safety protection is proposed. Secondly, with regards to building a charging early warning protection system architecture, a real-time protection strategy for EV charging is proposed; a battery temperature difference, battery voltage ramp rate, and current ramp rate are proposed; and a double-layer protection model of an active protection layer and a big data protection layer is established based on the real-time monitoring of 27 parameters. Finally, by building a physical simulation platform of the early warning system, the simulation and verification are carried out based on the BYD Han model. The system was demonstrated in the State Grid Tianjin Electric Power Company of China. The results show that the system can realize the charging real-time early warning and deal with it in time when the battery charging is abnormal, which has practical application value for the popularization and development of EVs.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050073
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 74: Cycling Infrastructure for All EPACs
           Included'

    • Authors: Nikolaas Van den Steen, Bas de Geus, Jan Cappelle, Lieselot Vanhaverbeke
      First page: 74
      Abstract: A modal shift to electric pedal-assisted cycles (EPACs) can help with reaching the transport emission goals of the European Green Deal. With the rising sales of EPACs in Europe, a lack of appropriate (electric) cycling infrastructure remains a major barrier for many potential users. This paper discusses the results of a survey about the requirements of (potential) cyclists to design a better cycling infrastructure. The differences in requirements for non-cyclists vs. cyclists and electric cyclists vs. conventional cyclists are discussed using statistical analysis. The key findings are that cyclists and non-cyclists both require wide quality cycling infrastructure with safe crossing points, secure bicycle parking and smart traffic lights. Non-cyclists’ requirements significantly differ from cyclists’ on 12 items, of which rain cover while cycling and parking spots for the car are the most noteworthy. There is (but) one significant difference between the requirements of EPAC users and conventional cyclists: the need for charging points for EPACs along the cycle route.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050074
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 75: Thermal Analysis of Automobile Drive Axles by the
           Thermal Network Method

    • Authors: Xinfei Ning, Mingzhang Chen, Zijian Zhou, Yuwen Shu, Wei Xiong, Yang Cao, Xuebing Shang, Zixi Wang
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Excessive temperature is detrimental to the operation stability of the automobile drive axle. It is necessary to judge whether the highest temperature exceeds the limited dangerous temperature and study the effects of key factors on reducing the temperature. In this study, the temperature field distribution (TFD) of the automobile drive axle is revealed using the thermal network method (TNM). Compared with the experimentation and finite element analysis (FEA), the TNM is more convenient for obtaining the temperature. Subsequently, the highest temperature of the automobile drive axle is clear and applied to judge whether the highest temperature exceeds the limited dangerous temperature. On the basis of the TNM, the structure and parameter effects of the automobile drive axle on reducing the temperature are studied, which improves the operation stability and working life. Several conclusions can be drawn. The highest temperatures of two-axle and planetary automobile drive axles are both located in the motor. Compared with the two-axle drive axle, the highest temperature of the planetary drive axle is obviously lower. Therefore, in terms of the planetary drive axle, the possibility of exceeding the limited dangerous temperature is lower. In addition, on the premise of ensuring the normal operation, the motor output power, the friction coefficient among teeth, the helical angle of the gear, and the thermal transfer coefficient of the lubricating oil can be optimized to be lower for reducing the temperature of the automobile drive axle.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050075
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 76: LMS/RLS/OCTAVE Vibration Controls of Cold Orbital
           Forging Machines for Improving Quality of Forged Vehicle Parts

    • Authors: Mingzhang Chen, Xinfei Ning, Zijian Zhou, Yuwen Shu, Yun Tang, Yang Cao, Xuebing Shang, Xinghui Han
      First page: 76
      Abstract: Cold orbital forging (COF) as an advanced incremental metal-forming technology has been widely used in processing vehicle parts. During the COF process, the vibration on the COF machine injures the service life of the machine and the quality of the forged part. The study of the vibration control of the COF machine is therefore necessary. In this study, the dynamic model of the COF machine is established, and the vibration performances of some key positions are obtained using Matlab&Simulink software. Subsequently, the vibration performances are effectively verified by conducting a vibration test experiment. Based on the dynamics model of the COF machine and Matlab&Simulink software, least-mean-squares (LMS), recursive least-squares (RLS) and OCTAVE vibration-control algorithms are applied to reduce the vibration. Comparing the vibration performances of the COF machine, these vibration-control algorithms are useful for reducing the vibration of the machine, which improves the service life of the machine and the quality of the forged part. Based on the vibration performances of the COF machine, the effects of LMS and RLS vibration controls are better than the OCTAVE, and they also obviously reduce the vibration of the COF machine. The vibration-control algorithms are first to be applied to reduce the vibration of the COF machines in this study, which will be beneficial to future research on the vibration controls of metal-forming machines and other mechanical systems.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050076
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 77: Location of Electric Vehicle Charging Piles Based
           on Set Coverage Model

    • Authors: Yingying Liang, Xiangyun Fei, Jianlu Li, Xiao He, He Gu
      First page: 77
      Abstract: Electric vehicles are rapidly popping up in the market as a new alternative to fossil fuels, in order to reduce carbon emissions in urban areas. However, the improper placement of charging piles has impeded the development of electric vehicles. In this paper, 12 indicators from 4 categories, namely economy, environment, cost, and service quality are selected to form an index system for evaluating the location of electric vehicle charging piles. The entropy weight-TOPSIS method is also applied for the same purpose. On the basis of the evaluation, this paper proposes a set coverage model and adopts a greedy heuristic algorithm to find out the optimal location of charging piles. Finally, the paper verifies the reasonability and feasibility of this model by studying the existing location of electric vehicle charging piles in northeast China. The evaluation is based on the Liaoning Province Electric Vehicle Big Data Supervision Platform, which has data that are official and scientifically based. The set coverage model proposed, based on the evaluation, is a new solution to finding out the optimal location of electric vehicle charging piles across China. This study aims to provide a theoretical basis for the development of this new energy industry.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050077
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 78: A New Hybrid Ant Colony Optimization Based PID of
           the Direct Torque Control for a Doubly Fed Induction Motor

    • Authors: Said Mahfoud, Aziz Derouich, Najib El Ouanjli, Nguyen Vu Quynh, Mahmoud A. Mossa
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Due to its advantages, the Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller has been the most widely used controller in the industrial sector. It allows linear systems to have good performance, but if the system is subjected to physical variation conditions, the system’s behavior becomes non-linear, in which case the PID controller is insufficient. The use of the PID controller for speed control in rotating machines, such as the doubly fed induction motor (DFIM) is widely used, but the non-linearity of the machine parameters allows for undesirable behaviors, resulting in overshoots and torque ripples. For this reason, several techniques have been adopted to increase the DTC’s robustness. One finds the integration of artificial intelligence as optimization algorithms. These algorithms are used to generate gains close to the optimum, converging the behavior of the DFIM to its optimum. In this work, an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm was proposed to adjust the PID controller gains of the DTC control to control the DFIM, using a combined weighting cost function, to obtain efficient torque and speed control. This paper presents a new hybrid structure resulting from the intelligent ACO-DTC control implemented on Matlab-Simulink. The performance results extracted from the simulation showed the effectiveness of the intelligent ACO-DTC control, which provides satisfactory performance in terms of rapidity, stability, precision, and torque ripples compared to the conventional DTC.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050078
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 79: Evaluation of the Prospects for the Admission of
           Electric Multicopters to Operation at Airports, Subject to the Joint Use
           of Modern Methods of Ensuring Safety of the Movement

    • Authors: Alexey V. Shvetsov
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are a promising means of optimizing existing and developing new technological processes at modern airports. At present, in most countries of the world, airports are still closed to UAVs. To allow UAVs to operate at the airport, it is necessary to solve the problem of ensuring the safety of their movement. In this paper, we consider modern methods for ensuring the safety of the movement of electric multicopters (EMs), which are a type of UAV that, according to its technical characteristics, can be operated at the airport in various applications, including for transportation or monitoring on the territory of the airport. To allow EMs to work at the airport, this paper proposes the joint use of two methods of ensuring traffic safety developed in recent years. The results of the conducted expert evaluation show that such a solution can be considered as the key to the approval of EMs for operation at airports.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050079
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 80: Applications of Battery Management System (BMS)
           in Sustainable Transportation: A Comprehensive Approach from Battery
           Modeling to Battery Integration to the Power Grid

    • Authors: Sagar B S, Santoshkumar Hampannavar, Deepa B, Bansilal Bairwa
      First page: 80
      Abstract: The growing oil demand and serious environmental concerns have promoted the concept of the usage of electric vehicles (EVs) across the globe. EVs can be integrated into the grid for power transaction and to support the grid requirements, thereby drawing the attention of researchers, policy makers and industries. EVs are not only a transportation tool but also act as a distributed source or load. The EV battery plays a prominent role in grid integration and sustainable transportation. The monitoring and control aspect of the battery management system (BMS) plays a vital role in the successful deployment and usage of EVs. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model (ECM) of battery is proposed and analyzed that describes the battery behavior at various temperatures, considering the internal resistance of the battery. A stochastic model was developed for the battery ageing and replacement to ensure that systematic replacement of batteries based on the calendar ageing was performed. A reliability assessment of EV accessibility and availability was carried out by using Markov chain. A case study of a Diesel-renewable powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station (EVCS) in a micro-grid was carried out that suits the requirement of large-scale EV fleet integration to the grid for power transaction. The holistic approach of BMS was considered for the sustainable transportation and grid integration
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050080
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 81: Competitiveness Evaluation of Electric Bus
           Charging Services Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    • Authors: Yinghan Sun, Jiangbo Wang, Cheng Li, Kai Liu
      First page: 81
      Abstract: The premise of the large-scale operation of electric buses corresponds to efficient charging service guarantees. Recent research on charging stations mainly aims to obtain the construction location and construction sequence through optimization methods or decision-making methods. This research has considered the aspects of geography, charging efficiency, economic efficiency, and emergency response capacity. The increase of charging stations will lead to competition among charging stations, unbalanced use of charging facilities, and unnecessary loss of electricity to the power grid. In fact, few studies pay attention to the actual operation of existing charging stations. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a scientific, comprehensive, and efficient charging services evaluation framework to support the actual operation of charging stations. Based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), this paper designs a multi-level indicator evaluation framework, which includes 6 first-level indicators and 20 s-level indicators. The first-level indicators are cutting peak and filling valley (A1), location and scale (A2), intelligent technology (A3), equipment efficiency (A4), operating income (A5), and reliability (A6). Through the questionnaire survey of ten experts in related fields, we understood the importance and attention of these indicators. The results show that the weights of indicators of location and scale index (A2) and reliability (A6) are high, which are 0.2875 and 0.2957, respectively. The least concerned indicator is equipment utilization efficiency (A4), at a weight of 0.0531. According to the actual data of charging stations in Zhengzhou, China, the comprehensive competitiveness of several charging stations is evaluated by the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). The result shows that station 1 has the highest comprehensive competitiveness, followed by station 2 and station 7. The evaluation framework proposed in this paper comprehensively considers a variety of factors. The combination of AHP and TOPSIS can reduce the uncertainty in experts’ evaluation of the service of the charging station.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050081
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 82: Modeling and Simulation of Traction Power Supply
           System for High-Speed Maglev Train

    • Authors: Ziyu Zou, Mengfei Zheng, Qinfen Lu
      First page: 82
      Abstract: The electromagnetic suspension high-speed maglev train system uses long-stator linear synchronous motors (LLSMs) as levitation and traction mechanisms. In this paper, the modeling and simulation of the traction power supply system for the maglev train are performed. The simulation models include transformers, converters, variable-length cables and LLSMs of both two sides and two ends; meanwhile, the corresponding control and segmented power supply strategies, including the two-step method and three-step method, are implemented. Based on the system model, the operational performance of the high-speed maglev power supply control system is verified, and the fault performances under open circuit and short circuit are also analyzed. The whole simulation modeling and results have important reference significance for the research of high-speed maglev technology.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050082
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 83: Real-Time Estimation of PMSM Rotor Flux Linkage
           for EV Application under Steady State and Free-Running Conditions

    • Authors: Bisheng Wen, Kan Liu, Jing Zhou, Shichao Zhou, Wei Hu, Yongdan Chen, Chao Huang, Qing Huang
      First page: 83
      Abstract: A method for real-time estimation of rotor flux linkage of permanent-magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) under both steady state and free-running conditions is proposed in this paper. At steady state, a method for the estimation of rotor flux linkage is proposed based on the injection of variable-period zero-voltage perturbation, of which the accuracy is irrespective of the influence of voltage-source inverter (VSI) nonlinearity. Moreover, for the estimation of rotor flux linkage under free-running condition, due to system inertia after shutdown or fault in the motor driver, an effective approach using history data recorded at different transients of rotor speeds is developed, which has eliminated the influence of VSI nonlinearity during the modeling process. The proposed two methods are experimentally validated on a down-sized PMSM prototyped for electric vehicle application, which shows good performance for the estimation of rotor flux linkage under both steady state and free-running conditions.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050083
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 84: Electric Vehicle Deployment and Integration in
           the Saudi Electric Power System

    • Authors: Sulaiman A. Almohaimeed
      First page: 84
      Abstract: The demand for electricity in Saudi Arabia has grown in the last few years due to the growth in the economy and the population. The country has invested in many solutions such as promoting renewable energy and shifting to generation mix to respond to this growing demand. However, Electric Vehicles (EVs) are used as an important factor in achieving the Saudi Vision 2030 in its environmental and economical parts. This work gives an overview on the Saudi electrical energy system and then investigates the impact EVs technology in the electricity sector in Saudi Arabia and its relevant consequences. A statistical analysis is used to quantify the number of EVs, travelled distance and traffic congestions, and State of Charge (SOC). The data were used to implement a daily load profile for EVs for a large population of vehicles. The obtained results show that the EVs peak loads occur during the late evening and early morning at different means. Interestingly, the work shows that the peak periods of EVs occur during the off-peak times of the daily load curve. This means that a large population of EVs can offer more flexibility and improvement to the electric grid, and the summative EV load of a large population of vehicles has a smooth pattern and will not affect the national electric system.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050084
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 85: Metrological Validation of Pixhawk Autopilot
           Magnetometers in Helmholtz Cage

    • Authors: Noelia Fariñas-Álvarez, Fermín Navarro-Medina, Higinio González-Jorge
      First page: 85
      Abstract: The use of drones is very extended for multiple applications. Some of them impose attitude and navigation requirements that need appropriate measurements. Pixhawk is an open-source autopilot used on board drones that includes a magnetometer as part of its inertial measurement unit. A testing facility based on a Helmholtz cage is used to evaluate the metrological features of different magnetometer units. The first test induces a magnetic field rotation around six different Pixhawk magnetometers, simulating changes in attitude and course for a drone. The data show a standard deviation higher than 250 mG, in comparison with the standard deviation of 30 mG in the standard gaussmeter model HMR2300. The second test is focused on the stability of the magnetometer, where the Helmholtz cage simulates a certain flight altitude and course. Values obtained from Pixhawk magnetometers range between 25 mG and 116 mG for the highest peak-to-peak magnetic field amplitude, while the standard gaussmeter range is only between 1.3 mG to 5.4 mG. Considering these results, it is possible to determine the limitations of the Pixhawk autopilot magnetometer, both in terms of manufacturing tolerances and measuring stability. Therefore, users should be very careful when using this type of autopilot in professional applications that require precision and safety.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050085
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 86: Novel Hybrid Thermal Management System for
           High-Power Lithium-Ion Module for Electric Vehicles: Fast Charging
           Applications

    • Authors: Danial Karimi, Hamidreza Behi, Joeri Van Mierlo, Maitane Berecibar
      First page: 86
      Abstract: Lithium-ion capacitors (LiC) are hybrid energy storage systems (ESS) combining the advantages of lithium-ion batteries and electric double-layer capacitors, including longer lifetime, high power, and energy densities. LiCs are popular for high-power applications where fast charge and discharge driving profiles are demanded from electric vehicles (EV). However, LiCs generate excess heat when they are exposed to fast charging/discharging profiles. Therefore, a robust thermal management system (TMS) is crucial, in order to ensure reliable operation. In this study, a novel hybrid TMS based on air-cooling system assisted phase change materials (PCM), heat pipes, and a heat sink is proposed for an LiC module under a 150 A continuous current profile. A very thin aluminum heat sink and flat copper heat pipes were added to the PCM to increase its thermal conductivity. An experimental test bench of the proposed TMS was developed, and the temperature distribution of the module for each of the individual LiC cells was studied. The maximum temperature of the module under natural convection, when there was not any cooling system, reached almost 59.8 °C. The experimental results showed that after using the proposed hybrid TMS, the hottest cell reached 36.18 °C while the coldest cell reached 35.54 °C. Therefore, 39.5% improvement could be seen during the whole charge and discharge process after 3000 s. Moreover, the temperature difference within the module, of four LiCs, was around 0.64 °C, which was exceptional.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050086
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 87: A Cross-Layer Approach MAC/NET with Updated-GA
           (MNUG-CLA)-Based Routing Protocol for VANET Network

    • Authors: Ali Hashim Abbas, Ahmed Jamal Ahmed, Sami Abduljabbar Rashid
      First page: 87
      Abstract: Nowadays, technology is developed rapidly in communication technology. Several new technologies have been introduced due to the evolution of wireless communication and this provided the way to communicate among vehicles, using a Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANETs). Routing in VANETs becomes most challenging because of the huge mobility and dynamical topology changes, which lead to reduced efficiency in the network. The core idea of this network is to increase the efficiency during the process of the communication. The most suited routing protocol for VANETs is Geographic routing, for the reason that it provides higher scalability and low overheads. The major challenges in VANETs are the selection of best neighbor in dynamically changing VANET topology. Furthermore, to provide better QoS needful actions are essential. In this paper, we introduced a new MAC/NET with Updated Genetic Algorithm—A Cross Layer Approach, (MNUG-CLA) based on a MAC layer and network layer to overcome the drawbacks of the network. In the network layer, a new neighbor discovery protocol is developed to select the best next hop for the dynamically varying network. In the MAC layer, in order to improve the quality, multi-channel MAC model is introduced for instantaneous transmission from various service channels. For overall optimal path selection, we used an updated GA algorithm. The performance was demonstrated through the use of an extensive simulation environment, NS-2. The simulation results prove that this protocol provides better results, in terms of energy efficiency, energy consumption and successive packet transmission, when compared with the earlier approaches.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050087
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 88: Study of the Effects of Current Imbalance in a
           Multiphase Buck Converter for Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Iván Alfonso Reyes-Portillo, Abraham Claudio-Sanchéz, Jorge Alberto Morales-Saldaña, Jesús Darío Mina-Antonio, Edgardo Marvel Netzahuatl-Huerta, Luisana Claudio-Pachecano, Mario Ponce-Silva, Ericka Reyes-Sánchez
      First page: 88
      Abstract: The excessive use of fossil fuels has caused great concern due to modern environmental problems, particularly air pollution. The above situation demands that different areas of research aim at a sustainable movement to reduce CO2 emissions caused by non-renewable organic fuels. A solution to this problem is the use of Electric Vehicles (EV) for mass transportation of people. However, these systems require high-power DC/DC converters capable of handling high current levels and should feature high efficiencies to charge their batteries. For this application, a single-stage converter is not viable for these applications due to the high current stress in a switch, the low power density, and its low efficiency due to higher switching losses. One solution to this problem is Multiphase Converters, which offer high efficiency, high power density, and low current ripple on the battery side. However, these characteristics are affected by the current imbalance in the phases. This paper is focused on the study of the effects of the current imbalance in a Multiphase Buck Converter, used as an intermediate cover between a power supply and the battery of an EV. Analyzing the efficiency and thermal stress parameters in different scenarios of current balance and current imbalance in each phase.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050088
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 89: Research on the Performance Comparison of Two
           Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles with Typical Energy Management Strategies

    • Authors: Hao Lan, Qiuyu Ma, Zhen Chang, Dan Wang, Tianlei Zheng
      First page: 89
      Abstract: In the development of actual vehicles, manufacturers usually adopt a simplified control strategy to ensure the reliability of the control strategy based on the application scenarios. There are two main working modes for the fuel cell system in fuel cell electric vehicles in China. One is the stepped power type, and the other is the following power type. Therefore, the analysis and comparison of these two typical working modes in the power test of fuel cell electric vehicles helps determine how the fuel cell system works in the actual vehicle and how to choose energy management strategies in different application scenarios. We do the actual tests to explore how the two typical control strategies perform in actual vehicles. These two typical control strategies show different characteristics in the same test. It shows that the energy management strategies should be adopted according to the application scenarios and optimization goals. In the stepped power control strategy, the fluctuation of the fuel cell system and the frequency of starting and stopping are significantly reduced, which is beneficial to the durability of the fuel cell system. Compared with the stepped control strategy, the fluctuation of the output power of fuel cell electric vehicles with the following power control strategy increased significantly. At the same time, a simplified state of charge (SOC) test method is proposed. Due to the particularity of the stepped power control strategy, the change of capacity can be used to replace the change of SOC. For the following power control strategy, the change of electric energy can be used instead of SOC changes.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050089
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 90: Policy Evolution and Intensity Evaluation of the
           Chinese New Energy Vehicle Industry Policy: The Angle of the Dual-Credit
           Policy

    • Authors: Liangui Peng, Ying Li
      First page: 90
      Abstract: The dual-credit policy advances the process of vehicle electrification; however, few studies have reviewed the policy preferences and development trends of the Chinese new energy vehicle industrial policy at different stages from the development angle of the dual-credit policy. This article reviews the policy evolution of the Chinese new energy vehicle industrial policy based on the 2T model (time and types) and evaluates the policy intensity of different industrial policies by PI index. The results find that the Chinese new energy vehicle industry policy is divided into three development periods: 2004–2008—promotion policy and technological policy; 2009–2013—financial policy; and 2014–2020—charging infrastructure policy. The early policy preference for new energy vehicles was not found to be significant. Financial policies have significantly stimulated the development of the new energy vehicle industry, and the implementation of the charging infrastructure policy is late. The policy intensity of the promotion policy is the strongest, followed by the technological policy, and the policy intensity of the charging infrastructure is the weakest. The policy intensity of the financial policy will weaken in the later period. The promulgation of the dual-credit policy reflects the continuity and synergy of policy development.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050090
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 91: An Inductor-Based and Capacitor-Free Bipolar
           Pulse Converter with Overvoltage Protection

    • Authors: Jianzhi Xu, Xingjian Yang, Hui Zhao, Jian Qiu, Kefu Liu
      First page: 91
      Abstract: The inductor-based and capacitor-free bipolar pulse converter can be applied to electric vehicle charging and realize an efficient and reliable charging-control strategy. Inductor-based converters can avoid the converter failure caused by the failure of energy storage capacitors and improve the reliability. An overvoltage protection scheme based on active clamping topology is used to protect this converter when the load impedance is too large. This overvoltage protection can take effect in an extremely short time (~50 ns) with little energy wasted. Furthermore, mathematical analyses of the proposed topology are presented and simulations based on LTspice are made, showing the feasibility and reliability of this circuit. Moreover, calculation of the power loss on MOSFETs is presented. A 201 W prototype converter with an efficiency of 83% is presented, and experimental results show that the converter can work reliably. This manuscript also proves the feasibility and application prospect of using this current-source-based converter for EV charging.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050091
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 92: Effect of Different Types of Electric Drive Units
           on the Energy Consumption of Heavy Commercial Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Metin Yildirim, Serpil Kurt
      First page: 92
      Abstract: The increasing demand for electric vehicles (EVs) in the transportation industry, especially for efficient battery–electric trucks, has led to an increase in studies on the efficiency or energy consumption of commercial vehicles. In this paper, average energy consumption was investigated in terms of the effect of different transmission types in vehicle models considering three routes, and the effect of the number of gears on energy consumption for each transmission type was analyzed. Target performance specifications and packaging were also evaluated. The optimal design could be identified in terms of transmission type, the number of gears, vehicle performance, and packaging. Vehicle models with two types of electric drive units (EDUs) were developed in a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Driving cycles were obtained from collected road load data of municipal, intercity, and regional areas operated by heavy-duty trucks using nCode software. The battery model was developed based on the electric circuit network (ECN) modeling technique. The main research purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of multispeed and multimodal EDUs and the number of gears on the energy consumption of heavy commercial electric vehicles from actual road conditions in Turkey. The three-speed EDU was the optimal design, providing 7.83, 7.26, and 7.21% less energy consumption on the three routes, compared with three-mode electric drive units. Consequently, the energy consumption difference was 7.5% for combined real road conditions.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050092
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 93: Potentials of Brushless Stator-Mounted Machines
           in Electric Vehicle Drives—A Literature Review

    • Authors: Hillary C. Idoko, Udochukwu B. Akuru, Rong-Jie Wang, Olawale Popoola
      First page: 93
      Abstract: Brushless stator-mounted traction motors, which are new and emerging, have many potential applications in the electrified transport industry. Brushless stator-mounted machines (BSSMs), with the so-called flux modulation (FM) effects, use asynchronous field harmonics to realize energy conversion by altering the basic principle for conventional machine design which requires the stator and rotor to have the same pole number. The machines show promise of meeting the challenging requirements of electric vehicle (EV) traction motors. Therefore, in this paper, a review is undertaken on the state-of-the-art and potentials of the BSSMs for EV drives. The focus on BSSMs is due to their suitability for high-speed high torque density performance, as well as possessing suitable heat dissipation and flux weakening capabilities. The study is used to first rehash and discuss the design and excitation topologies, operating principles, and some emerging trends based on the basic BSSM variants, e.g., the doubly salient machine, flux reversal machine, and flux switching machine, while also undertaking a bibliometric synthesis on relevant studies highlighting the design and performance candidature of these niche BSSMs in EV applications, especially when compared to the well-developed Prius–IPM motor.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050093
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 58: The Capacity of Battery-Electric and Plug-in
           Hybrid Electric Vehicles to Mitigate CO2 Emissions: Macroeconomic Evidence
           from European Union Countries

    • Authors: Matheus Koengkan, José Alberto Fuinhas, Mônica Teixeira, Emad Kazemzadeh, Anna Auza, Fatemeh Dehdar, Fariba Osmani
      First page: 58
      Abstract: The decarbonisation of the transportation sector is crucial to reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This study analyses evidence from European countries regarding achievement of the European Commission’s goal of achieving carbon neutrality by 2050. Using panel quantile econometric techniques, the impact of battery-electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on CO2 emissions in twenty-nine European Union (EU) countries from 2010–2020 was researched. The results show that BEVs and PHEVs are capable of mitigating CO2 emissions. However, each type of technology has a different degree of impact, with BEVs being more suited to minimizing CO2 emissions than PHEVs. We also found a statistically significant impact of economic development (quantile regression results) and energy consumption in increasing the emissions of CO2 in the EU countries in model estimates for both BEVs and PHEVs. It should be noted that BEVs face challenges, such as the scarcity of minerals for the production of batteries and the increased demand for mineral batteries, which have significant environmental impacts. Therefore, policymakers should adopt environmentally efficient transport that uses clean energy, such as EVs, to reduce the harmful effects on public health and the environment caused by the indiscriminate use of fossil fuels.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040058
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 59: Modification of Cycle Life Model for Normal Aging
           Trajectory Prediction of Lithium-Ion Batteries at Different Temperatures
           and Discharge Current Rates

    • Authors: Xinyu Jia, Caiping Zhang, Leyi Wang, Weige Zhang, Linjing Zhang
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Battery life is of critical importance for the reliable and economical operation of electric vehicles (EVs). Normal aging accounts for more than 80% of the battery available cycle range. Accurate and robust battery life models of normal aging are essential for battery health management systems and life evaluation before accelerated aging. Capacity recovery, test errors and accelerated aging all affect life model building during normal aging. Therefore, this paper proposes an improved life model based on wavelet transform (WT) signal processing to accurately predict the decline trend of the battery in the normal aging stage. In this paper, the capacity recovery, test noise and capacity diving in the aging trend are effectively removed by wavelet transform. We obtained an optimized life model through the analysis of the model structure and the analysis of the parameter sensitivity of the life model. The particle swarm algorithm (PSO) is employed to identify the parameters of the empirical models with the normal aging data extracted by the WT. Through verification, it is found that the modified cycle life model proposed in this paper can accurately predict the normal aging trajectory of batteries under different discharge rates and temperatures. The prediction error of the improved life model for normal aging is 1.09%.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040059
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 60: Flux-Adjustable Permanent Magnet Machines in
           Traction Applications

    • Authors: Zicheng Zhou, Hao Hua, Ziqiang Zhu
      First page: 60
      Abstract: This paper overviews the recent advances in flux-adjustable permanent magnet (PM) machines for traction applications. The flux-adjustable PM machines benefit from the synergies of the high torque density and high efficiency in conventional PM machines as well as the controllable air-gap field in wound-field machines, which are attractive for the traction applications requiring enhanced capabilities of speed regulation and uncontrolled voltage mitigation. In general, three solutions have been presented, namely the hybrid excited (HE), the mechanically regulated (MR), and the variable flux memory (VFM) machines. Numerous innovations were proposed on these topics during the last two decades, while each machine topology has its own merits and demerits. The purpose of this paper is to review the development history and trend of the flux-adjustable PM machines, with particular reference to their topologies, working mechanism, and electromagnetic performance.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040060
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 61: Life-Cycle CO2-Equivalent Emissions of Cars
           Driven by Conventional and Electric Propulsion Systems

    • Authors: Mario Hirz, Thu Trang Nguyen
      First page: 61
      Abstract: As an important trend in the automotive industry, electrification of propulsion systems has potential to significantly reduce greenhouse-gas emissions of the transportation sector. Whereas electric vehicles do not produce exhaust emissions during driving, the impact of electricity provision for charging batteries, as well as the impact of vehicle production play an essential role in a holistic consideration of the carbon footprint. The paper introduces a comprehensive evaluation of greenhouse gas-emission-related factors of cars driven by different propulsion technologies, considering the entire product life cycle. This comprises vehicle production, including battery system, electric powertrain and other relevant components, the car’s use phase under consideration of different electricity mixes and the end-of-life phase. The results of the study give insights of influencing factors on life-cycle-related carbon-dioxide-equivalent emissions of cars driven by combustion engines, hybrid powertrains and battery-electric propulsion systems. In addition, a comparison of actual mass-production cars is made and the total life-cycle carbon footprints are discussed under different boundary conditions of electric power supply. In this way, the article comprehensively introduces an automotive life-cycle assessment and provides fundamental information, contributing to an objective discussion of different propulsion technologies.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040061
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 62: Driving Behavior and Decision Mechanisms in
           Emergency Conditions

    • Authors: Ying Lyu, Yiteng Sun, Tianyao Zhang, Debao Kong, Zheng Lv, Yujie Liu, Zhenhai Gao
      First page: 62
      Abstract: In this article we used simulator experiments to explore the intelligent mechanisms of human decision-making. Three types of typical emergency scenarios were used in the experiment, in which Scenario 1 was used to analyze the driver’s choice to protect themselves or to protect pedestrians in emergency situations. Scenario 2 was compared with Scenario 1 to verify whether the driver’s avoidance behavior to protect pedestrians was instinctive or selective. Scenario 3 was to verify whether the driver would follow the principle of damage minimization. The driver’s decisions and actions in emergency situations, from the cumulative frequency of time to collision (TTC) to the maximum steering wheel angle rate during the experiments, were recorded. The results show that the driver was not just instinctively avoiding the immediate obstacle, but more selectively protecting pedestrians. At the same time, the time taken up by the driver’s instinctive avoidance response also had a negative impact on decision-making. The actual decisions of the driver were analyzed to provide a basis for building up the ethical decision-making of autonomous vehicles.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040062
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 63: IPTVisual: Visualisation of the Spatial Energy
           Flows in Inductive Power Transfer Systems with Arbitrary Winding Shapes

    • Authors: Cheng Zhang, Xiaoyun Chen, Kunyu Chen, Deyan Lin
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Mid-ranged wireless power transfer by induction or inductive power transfer (IPT), including the strong magnetic resonance method, has been widely adopted, in numerous applications where wires are restricted. The energy flow in space, of course, is invisible to engineers. The windings are often required to be irregular shapes to accommodate the industrial designs of the products, thus, a visualisation method for energy transfer paths could greatly help the design and optimization of such systems. A time-efficient methodology, including the model, analysis and plot of the three-dimensional energy flow for IPT systems, is proposed in this paper. Algorithms of fast describing arbitrarily shaped windings are proposed and the time complexities are evaluated. A software tool, IPTVisual, is developed. It takes the inputs of key coordinates of the windings, the assignments of voltage and/or current sources, any compensation capacitors and auxiliary circuits, and the required observation points to generate the 3D models of the windings and the Poynting vectors, rendered in web browsers for the most extendable compatibility. Several example scenarios have been tested and the results match with the expected operations.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040063
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 64: On the Analysis and Torque Enhancement of
           Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet Machines in Electric Power Steering
           Systems

    • Authors: Anis Abdelkefi, Amal Souissi, Imen Abdennadher, Ahmed Masmoudi
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Modern road vehicles are more and more often being equipped with electric actuators. These are intended to play critical roles in passengers comfort and safety. Among the electrified components onboard road vehicles, one can distinguish electric power steering (EPS) systems, which have been the subject of intensive investigations covering both design and control aspects. The abilities of several AC motor topologies to fulfil the EPS systems’ requirements have been assessed by a large scientific community in both academia and industry. The present work was aimed at the prediction of the electromagnetic features of the flux-switching permanent magnet machines (FSPMMs), with an emphasis on the air gap flux density. The latter was firstly formulated while neglecting the slotting effect at both sides of the air gap. Then, stator and rotor permeance functions, taking into account the slotting effect and the PM flux concentrating arrangement, were incorporated into the derived flux density spatial repartition. Moreover, the accuracy of the latter was improved through two dedicated correction functions that take into account the rotor position and the magnetic saturation. The last part of the paper presents a simple approach to enhance the developed torque of FSPMMs in an attempt to meet the EPS requirements.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040064
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 65: A Multi-Criteria Analysis and Trends of Electric
           Motors for Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Hicham El Hadraoui, Mourad Zegrari, Ahmed Chebak, Oussama Laayati, Nasr Guennouni
      First page: 65
      Abstract: The interest in electric traction has reached a very high level in recent decades; there is no doubt that electric vehicles have become among the main means of transport and will be the first choice in the future, but to dominate the market, a lot of research efforts are still devoted to this purpose. Electric machines are crucial components of electric vehicle powertrains. The bulk of traction drive systems have converged in recent years toward having some sort of permanent magnet machines because there is a growing trend toward enhancing the power density and efficiency of traction machines, resulting in unique designs and refinements to fundamental machine topologies, as well as the introduction of new machine classes. This paper presents the technological aspect of the different components of the electric powertrain and highlights the important information on the electric vehicle’s architecture. It focuses on a multi-criteria comparison of different electric motors utilized in the electric traction system to give a clear vision to allow choosing the adequate electrical motor for the desired application. The proposed comparative analysis shows that the induction motor better meets the major necessities of the electric powertrain, whereas the permanent magnet synchronous motor is nonetheless the most used by electric vehicle manufacturers.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040065
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 66: On Unintentional Demagnetization Effect of
           Switched Flux Hybrid Magnet Memory Machine

    • Authors: Jingjing Feng, Hui Yang, Yongsheng Ge, Wei Zhang
      First page: 66
      Abstract: This paper investigates the unintentional demagnetization (UD) characteristics of low-coercive-force (LCF) permanent magnets (PMs), in switched flux hybrid magnet memory machines (SF-HMMMs). Although the LCF PM field is magnetically in parallel to the magnetic fields produced by the NdFeB PM, as well as the armature reaction in the investigated machines, the UD phenomenon of LCF PMs still possibly occurs, particularly, under on-load operation due to the magnetic saturation effect. First, the UD effect is revealed by the frozen permeability method (FPM), and analytically explained via a magnetic circuit model. Various UD types are then identified with the finite-element (FE) method, coupled with a virtual linear hysteresis curve (VLHC) of LCF PM and FPM. In addition, the dimension and grade of the LCF PM are designed with the aid of VLHC, in order to prevent the UD effect. Finally, a fabricated SF-HMMM prototype is tested to verify the theoretical analyses.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040066
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 67: Efficient Multi-Phase Converter for E-Mobility

    • Authors: Suresh Sampath, Zahira Rahiman, Sharmeela Chenniappan, Elango Sundaram, Umashankar Subramaniam, Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban
      First page: 67
      Abstract: The recent growth of battery-powered applications has increased the need for high-efficiency step-up dc-dc converters. The step-up conversion is commonly used in several applications, such as electric vehicle (EV); plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV); photovoltaic (PV) systems; uninterruptible power supplies (UPS); and fuel cell systems. The input current is shared among inductors by paralleling the converters; resulting in high reliability and efficiency. In this paper; a detailed analysis for reducing power loss and improving efficiency is discussed. In continuous conduction mode; the converters are tested with a constant duty cycle of 50%. The multi phase interleaved boost converter (MPIBC) is controlled by interleaved switching techniques; which have the same switching frequency but phases are shifted. The efficiency of the six phase IBC model is 93.82% and 95.74% for an input voltage of 20 V and 200 V, respectively. The presented six phase MPIBC is validated by comparing it with the existing six phase IBC. The result shows that the presented converter is better than the existing converter. The prototype of the two phase and six phase IBC is fabricated to test the performance. It is found that the output power at the load end is highest for the 5 kHz switching frequency.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040067
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 68: Research on the Influence of Liquid on Heat
           Dissipation and Heating Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Battery Thermal
           Management System

    • Authors: Chuanwei Zhang, Jing Huang, Weixin Sun, Xusheng Xu, Yikun Li
      First page: 68
      Abstract: A battery thermal management system (BTMS) with functions of heat dissipation and heating by using only one liquid and one structure was studied, and a design for a new type of thermal management device structure was proposed. To find the influence factors of the BTMS on heat dissipation and heating characteristics, we selected and simulated three parameters: inlet size, liquid flow rate, and temperature. The convective heat transfer coefficient h and the Nusselt number Nu were used to analyze the influence of inlet size and liquid velocity on heat transfer intensity. The results show that: (1) In the temperature environment of 298 K with different discharge rates, a pipe diameter of 10 mm is the best size of the BTMS; (2) The increase in flow rate can increase the convective heat transfer coefficient h and the Nusselt number Nu. When the flow rate is 0.02 m/s, the growth rate of h and Nu is the largest; (3) The higher the fluid temperature, the faster the temperature of the battery pack increases in cold environments, but the uneven surface temperature of the battery is also more obvious.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040068
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 69: An Obstacle Detection Algorithm Suitable for
           Complex Traffic Environment

    • Authors: Guantai Luo, Xinwei Chen, Wenwei Lin, Jie Dai, Peidong Liang, Chentao Zhang
      First page: 69
      Abstract: For the task of obstacle detection in a complex traffic environment, this paper proposes a road-free space extraction and obstacle detection method based on stereo vision. The proposed method combines the advantages of the V-disparity image and the Stixel method. Firstly, the depth information and the V-disparity image are calculated according to the disparity image. Then, the free space on the road surface is calculated through the RANSAC algorithm and dynamic programming (DP) algorithm. Furthermore, a new V-disparity image and a new U-disparity image are calculated by the disparity image after removing the road surface information. Finally, the height and width of the obstacles on the road are extracted from the new V-disparity image and U-disparity image, respectively. The detection of obstacles is realized by the height and width information of obstacles. In order to verify the method, we adopted the object detection benchmarks and road detection benchmarks of the KITTI dataset for verification. In terms of the accuracy performance indicators quality, detection rate, detection accuracy, and effectiveness, the method in this paper reaches 0.820, 0.863, 0.941, and 0.900, respectively, and the time consumption is only 5.145 milliseconds. Compared with other obstacle detection methods, the detection accuracy and real-time performance in this paper are better. The experimental results show that the method has good robustness and real-time performance for obstacle detection in a complex traffic environment.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040069
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 70: A State-of-Charge Estimation Method Based on
           Multi-Algorithm Fusion

    • Authors: Aihua Tang, Peng Gong, Jiajie Li, Kaiqing Zhang, Yapeng Zhou, Zhigang Zhang
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Lithium-ion power batteries are widely used in the electric vehicle (EV) industry due to their high working voltage, high energy density, long cycle life, low self-discharge rate, and environmental protection. A multi-algorithm fusion method is proposed in this paper to estimate the battery state of charge (SOC), establishing the Thevenin model and collecting the terminal voltage residuals when the extended Kalman filter (EKF), adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF), and H infinite filter (HIF) estimate the SOC separately. The residuals are fused by Bayesian probability and the weight is obtained, and then the SOC estimated value of the fusion algorithm is obtained from the weight. A comparative analysis of the estimation accuracy of a single algorithm and a fusion algorithm under two different working conditions is made. Experimental results show that the fusion algorithm is more robust in the whole process of SOC estimation, and its estimation accuracy is better than the EKF algorithm. The estimation result for the fusion algorithm under a Dynamic Stress Test (DST) is better than that under a Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC) test. With the emergence of cloud batteries, the fusion algorithm is expected to realize real vehicle online application.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040070
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
 
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