Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 216 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (9 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (26 journals)
    - RAILROADS (10 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (9 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (39 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (123 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (123 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 53 of 53 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Mobilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Asian Transport Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Danish Journal of Transportation Research / Dansk Tidsskrift for Transportforskning     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Decision Making : Applications in Management and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 14)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
eTransportation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
IET Smart Cities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IFAC-PapersOnLine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronic Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Big Data Analytics in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of KONES     Open Access  
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 280)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sustainable Mobility     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Transport History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal on Vehicle Routing Algorithms     Hybrid Journal  
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
LOGI ? Scientific Journal on Transport and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Logistics & Sustainable Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Logistique & Management     Hybrid Journal  
Mobility in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Open Transportation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering     Open Access  
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue Marocaine de Management, Logistique et Transport     Open Access  
Romanian Journal of Transport Infrastructure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Transport and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transport Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Transport technic and technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation in Developing Economies     Hybrid Journal  
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Transportation Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Transportation Systems and Technology     Open Access  
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transportrecht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Urban Development Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Vehicles     Open Access  
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
World Electric Vehicle Journal     Open Access  
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
World Electric Vehicle Journal
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2032-6653
Published by MDPI Homepage  [233 journals]
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 52: Magnetic Gears and Magnetically Geared Machines
           with Reduced Rare-Earth Elements for Vehicle Applications

    • Authors: Ali Al-Qarni, Ayman EL-Refaie
      First page: 52
      Abstract: This paper covers a new emerging class of electrical machines, namely, Magnetic Gears (MGs) and Magnetically Geared Machines (MGMs). This particular kind of gears/machines is capable of either scaling up or down the revolutions-per-minute to meet various load profiles as in the case of mechanical gearboxes, but with physical isolation between the rotating components. This physical isolation between the rotational components leads to several advantages in favor of MGs and MGMs over mechanical gearboxes. Although MGs and MGMs can potentially provide a solution for some of the practical issues of mechanical gears, MGs and MGMs have two major challenges that researchers have been trying to address. Those challenges are the high usage of rare-earth Permanent Magnet (PM) materials and the relatively complex mechanical structure of MGs and MGMs, both of which are a consequence of the multi-airgap design. This paper presents designs that reduce the PM rare-earth content for Electric Vehicles (EVs). Additionally, the paper will ensure having practical designs that do not run the risk of permanent demagnetization. The paper will also discuss some new designs to simplify the mechanical structure.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020052
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 53: Flexibility-Enhancing Charging Station to Support
           the Integration of Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Iliana Ilieva, Bernt Bremdal
      First page: 53
      Abstract: This paper discusses the Inspiria charging station facility in Norway, which enables various charging point operators to offer different charging systems for different purposes and needs. The charging station can be considered a specific case of a shared economy, as users share the same infrastructure and much of the same space. By utilizing new technology and the differences in charging needs in an innovative way, the power requirements for charging can be controlled and the severity of high-load periods can be reduced—both within the charging station’s system and outside it. Using historical traffic data from the Inspiria charging station’s area and Monte Carlo simulations, this study investigated the impact of charging on the grid—both in the current period and in the future. Attention was paid to the impact associated with the usage of superfast chargers. The possibility of containing grid disturbances through utilization of local flexibility was investigated. Finally, we investigated the benefits that the charging station model brings to charging point operators and car owners. The research reported provides support for ambitions for accelerated roll-out and increased density of cost-effective charging points, the wider implication of which concerns the transition to fossil-free transport and the utilization of locally generated, renewable energy.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020053
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 54: A Review of Range Extenders in Battery Electric
           Vehicles: Current Progress and Future Perspectives

    • Authors: Manh-Kien Tran, Asad Bhatti, Reid Vrolyk, Derek Wong, Satyam Panchal, Michael Fowler, Roydon Fraser
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Emissions from the transportation sector are significant contributors to climate change and health problems because of the common use of gasoline vehicles. Countries in the world are attempting to transition away from gasoline vehicles and to electric vehicles (EVs), in order to reduce emissions. However, there are several practical limitations with EVs, one of which is the “range anxiety” issue, due to the lack of charging infrastructure, the high cost of long-ranged EVs, and the limited range of affordable EVs. One potential solution to the range anxiety problem is the use of range extenders, to extend the driving range of EVs while optimizing the costs and performance of the vehicles. This paper provides a comprehensive review of different types of EV range extending technologies, including internal combustion engines, free-piston linear generators, fuel cells, micro gas turbines, and zinc-air batteries, outlining their definitions, working mechanisms, and some recent developments of each range extending technology. A comparison between the different technologies, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each, is also presented to help address future research needs. Since EVs will be a significant part of the automotive industry future, range extenders will be an important concept to be explored to provide a cost-effective, reliable, efficient, and dynamic solution to combat the range anxiety issue that consumers currently have.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020054
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 55: Heat Transfer Enhancement of Liquid Cooled Copper
           Plate with Oblique Fins for Electric Vehicles Battery Thermal Management

    • Authors: Abdullh Mansur Aldosry, Rozli Zulkifli, Wan Aizon Wan Ghopa
      First page: 55
      Abstract: As the automotive industry progresses, electric vehicles (EV) grow with increasing demand throughout the world. Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) battery and lithium-ion (Li-ion) are widely used in EV due to their advantages such as impressive energy density, good power density, and low self-discharge. However, the batteries must be operated within their optimum range for safety and good thermal management to enable a longer lifespan, lower costs, and improve safety for EV batteries. The need for a liquid cold plate (LCP) to be used in EV batteries is now highly reliable on the distribution of the required temperature rather than only standard cooling systems. The fins arrangement in the LCP would likewise impact the cooling efficiency of the EV battery. The main objective of this paper is to determine the heat transfer enhancement of liquid cold plate systems with the oblique fin and different types of liquid coolants. In the experimental test, two liquid types are used namely G13 ethylene glycol and distilled water in five steps, 10% ethylene glycol, 100% distilled water, 75% ethylene glycol + 25% distilled water, 50% ethylene glycol + 50% distilled water, and 25% ethylene glycol + 75% distilled water. Three different flow rates have been utilized which are 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 GPM to maximize the productivity of flowing fluid and heat transferring with the gate door valve. The LCP encompasses the inline configuration of the oblique fin, which is able to enhance the heat transfer rate from the heater to the liquid cold plate. A GPM of 0.7 reached the least surface temperature for the battery in the three different flow levels. The LCP is capable of sustaining the ambient surface temperatures of the batteries just under the permissible 50 °C operating temperature, which indicates that the developed LCP with the oblique fin may perhaps become an effective option for the thermal control of EV batteries.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020055
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 56: Potential Analysis of E-Scooters for Commuting
           Paths

    • Authors: Fabian Edel, Simon Wassmer, Mira Kern
      First page: 56
      Abstract: The mobility needs of society are constantly increasing, resulting in congested urban areas. New mobility concepts such as e-scooters can help to reduce traffic. In particular, commuting paths, which generally remain within a specific distance, are short and manageable via an intermodal travel chain. In combination with public transport, commuting paths could be beneficial. To evaluate the potential of e-scooters used with commuting paths, a literature research focusing on mobility behavior and characteristics was conducted. In addition, an end-user survey was used to identify the ecological and economical potential for typical work routes. The research results indicate that both the mobility preferences of the users, e.g., acceptance of intermodal travel, and the technical specification of e-scooters, e.g., speed and range, meet the needs of commuting. The assessment of typical work routes shows that the use of e-scooters for the first and last mile, in combination with public transport, is highly beneficial. Furthermore, e-scooters have the potential to provide individual advantages in the areas of travel time and costs. From an ecological perspective, CO2-equivalent emissions may also be reduced for some users depending on the substituted modes.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020056
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 57: Temperature Prediction of PMSMs Using
           Pseudo-Siamese Nested LSTM

    • Authors: Yongping Cai, Yuefeng Cen, Gang Cen, Xiaomin Yao, Cheng Zhao, Yulai Zhang
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs) are widely used in electric vehicles due to their simple structure, small size, and high power-density. The research on the temperature monitoring of the PMSMs, which is one of the critical technologies to ensure the operation of PMSMs, has been the focus. A Pseudo-Siamese Nested LSTM (PSNLSTM) model is proposed to predict the temperature of the PMSMs. It takes the features closely related to the temperature of PMSMs as input and realizes the temperature prediction of stator yoke, stator tooth, and stator winding. An optimization algorithm of learning rate combined with gradual warmup and decay is proposed to accelerate the convergence during the training and improve the training performance of the model. Experimental results reveal the proposed method and Nested LSTM (NLSTM) achieves high accuracy by comparing with other intelligent prediction methods. Moreover, the proposed method is slightly better than NLSTM in temperature prediction of PMSMS.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020057
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 58: Comparative Study on Hybrid Excitation Flux
           Switching Motors without and with Variably Magnetizable Permanent Magnets
           for Electrified Vehicle Propulsion

    • Authors: Takeshi Okada, Takashi Kosaka, Hiroaki Matsumori, Nobuyuki Matsui
      First page: 58
      Abstract: A demand for high efficiency traction motors has been accelerated by the promotion of electrified vehicles, such as battery and fuel cell electric vehicles. As a part of development of the high efficiency traction motor, this paper reports a comparative study on two kinds of hybrid excitation flux switching motors (HEFSM) as a variable flux machine. One is the conventional HEFSM, which consists of a stator with constantly magnetized-permanent magnets, field excitation coils (FECs) and three-phase armature windings, and a rotor with salient poles like a switched reluctance motor. The other is a HEFSM employing variably magnetizable-permanent magnets (VM-PMs) that replace a part in the FEC slot area in the conventional one. Based on the variable magnetization nature of VM-PMs, the latter HEFSM promises that the replacement of magnetomotive force (mmf) of FECs with that of the VM-PMs makes the motor efficiency better at both low- and high-speed under the low-torque condition, that is, at both urban driving or highway cruising. To verify that, finite element analysis- (FEA)-based design simulations, as well as experimental performance evaluations for the two kinds of HEFSM, were conducted under reasonable dimensional and electrical constraints. As a result, it is shown that the latter HEFSM can achieve higher motor efficiency at the low-torque and high-speed region while keeping the motor efficiency at the low-torque and low-speed region.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020058
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 59: Improving the Autonomy of a Mid-Drive Motor
           Electric Bicycle Based on System Efficiency Maps and Its Performance

    • Authors: Ivan Arango, Carlos Lopez, Alejandro Ceren
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Around the world, the e-bike has evolved from a recreational and sports object to an increasingly used means of transportation. Due to this, improving aspects such as range and energy efficiency has become very relevant. This article presents experimental models for the components’ efficiency of a mid-drive motor e-bike (charger; battery; and controller, motor, and reduction gears subsystem), and integrates them with previously elaborated models for the chain transmission system, thus generating an overall efficiency map of the e-bike. The range of the electric bicycle is analyzed by integrating the efficiency map of the system and its performance mathematical model, aiming to determine the per unit of distance battery energy consumption. The above-mentioned calculations are applied to develop a management strategy that can determine the optimal assistance level and chain transmission ratio, maximizing range and leaving speed unaffected. The driving strategy was compared against other driving techniques using computational analysis, this allowed for the observation of the proposed strategy improving the system’s range by reducing the battery energy consumption.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020059
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 60: Leveraging User Preferences to Develop Profitable
           Business Models for Electric Vehicle Charging

    • Authors: Felix Röckle, Thimo Schulz
      First page: 60
      Abstract: To design profitable business models for electric vehicle (EV) charging it is necessary to understand user preferences. For this purpose, prior literature is analyzed to develop a conceptual framework linking a company’s assets, the surrounding value network, and user preferences. Then, survey insights from two EV charging projects (ultra-E, SLAM) are summarized to illustrate user preferences in this area. Based on this data, the framework is eventually visualized by applying it to four case studies from the EV charging market. Based on the case studies, the following six key findings are derived: 1. Companies that have a very strong position in one of the three resource classes that define the quality-of-service provision (physical assets, digital assets, brand image) demand a higher price for fast charging. 2. Utility companies leverage their existing customer base. 3. New to the industry firms leverage their brand image to enter the market. 4. Selling below cost is not sustainable. 5. Sharp price distinctions reflect the power balance within the value network. 6. Power plays may result in a fragmented market.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020060
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 61: Advanced Control Method of 5-Phase Dual
           Concentrated Winding PMSM for Inverter Integrated In-Wheel Motor

    • Authors: Kan Akatsu, Keita Fukuda
      First page: 61
      Abstract: This paper presents some techniques for driving novel 5 phase dual winding PMSM (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor) for the in-wheel motor. The motor realizes winding change over characteristics that can expand driving area from high-torque mode to high-speed mode due to the dual winding construction. However, the dual winding structure makes a high-current ripple due to high coupling between windings. The paper proposes some control methods to reduce the current ripple, including inverter career ripple. The paper also presents harmonics current injection, such as the 3rd harmonics current injection method, to reduce the torque ripple and generate higher torque.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020061
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 62: Who Is Liable When a Driverless Car Crashes'

    • Authors: Muhammad Uzair
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Autonomous vehicles (AVs) will revolutionize mobility in the future. However, accidents will still happen and it will affect the practices of today’s tort laws. This work discusses all those aspects which should be considered in order to find out who is liable, i.e., an operator, owner, manufacturer, government entity, software provider, network provider, original equipment manufacturer (OEM), etc., as traditional tort rules will not help to find out the liability in case of an AV accident. The work comprehensively discusses different liabilities ranging from legal, civil, operator, criminal, moral, product, insurance, etc., to find out who is liable in case of an AV accident, as compared to the existing literature which generally discusses one or two aspects only. The work also presents the current state of legislation and discusses legal challenges to the lawmakers, insurance companies, consumer, and manufacturers, etc. The future mobility models and different scenarios of AV accidents have also been discussed in terms of legal liability and third party insurance claims. The role of regulatory bodies and different challenges has also been discussed along with recommendations. Finally, the work also proposes a new novel liability attribute model with a particular focus on ethical issues. The research proposes that liability should be attributed in such a way that it benefits everyone and everybody feels justified in case of an AV accident. The research also concludes that product liability will be the major issue in terms of insurance issues and the manufacturer should be held liable for product failure unless other evidence favors the manufacturer.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020062
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 63: Standardisation of UK Electric Vehicle Charging
           Protocol, Payment and Charge Point Connection

    • Authors: Keith Chamberlain, Salah Al-Majeed
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Standardisation is fundamental to ensuring that new technologies develop and grow unhindered by manufacturer-led standards. Dismissing this vital issue can have a detrimental effect on society regarding adopting new technologies, particularly when government targets and regulations are crucial for their success. We have witnessed competing global industries struggle for dominance, such as Betamax versus VHS, where each had a similar user outcome, but the confusion of differing formats slowed growth. We analyse emerging standards for electric vehicle rapid charging and investigate how standardisation challenges affect stakeholders by reviewing the existing literature on single-mode and polymodal harmonisation. By assimilating existing evidence, we then develop a new understanding of the science behind multi-model standardisation (MMS) approaches. Our literature review reveals three primary standardisation issues: (1) charge connections, (2) car to charger communication protocols, and (3) charge payment methods. We then analyse each mode type’s benefit, observing how each example contributes to the overall outcome, and suggest that their impact depends on car to charger handshake timing and intuitive user interaction. Using a structured survey of 282 respondents, we analyse end-user satisfaction for factors affecting growth in the EV sector and compare these findings with the factors identified during our literature review. We consequently articulate a programme for future research to understand EV rapid charger standardisation better, proposing recommendations for vested stakeholders that embrace sponsors in societal, technological and scientific transformation.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020063
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 64: Engineering Project: The Method to Solve
           Practical Problems for the Monitoring and Control of Driver-Less Electric
           Transport Vehicles in the Underground Mines

    • Authors: Shuai Li, Guojun Wang, Haoxuan Yu, Xinmin Wang
      First page: 64
      Abstract: With the continuous development of Artificial Intelligence technology and Internet of Things engineering, more and more driver-less vehicles have been developed and put into industrial production. The birth of driver-less vehicles undoubtedly brings new vitality to a large amount of industries, particularly in transportation. For the mining industry, transportation is undoubtedly an extremely important link in the whole production process. If the driver-less vehicles can be applied to the underground mines, it can not only improve the production and transportation capacity of the whole mine but also can reduce the occurrence of many mine safety accidents. ZigBee WSN technology can play a greater role in the narrow environment such as underground mines according to the relevant literature; this concept paper, similar to an engineering project plan, mainly tries to integrate the ZigBee WSN technology and the communication-based train control (CBTC) system to explore the possibility of the driver-less vehicles to be used in the underground mines, which aims to solve practical engineering problems for the engineering projects. As the mining engineers, we put forward the concept of this integrated system in this concept paper, but we need to continue to work hard for the future of the underground mines. This concept paper serves as a guide to Tossing out a brick to get a jade gem, and it has a few implications for the development of underground mine transportation.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020064
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 65: Retraction: Jang et al. Lateral Handling
           Improvement with Dynamic Curvature Control for an Independent Rear Wheel
           Drive EV. World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7, 238–243

    • Authors: World Electric Vehicle Association
      First page: 65
      Abstract: The journal retracts the article, “Lateral handling improvement with dynamic curvature control for an independent rear wheel drive EV” [...]
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020065
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 66: Retraction: Loiselle-Lapointe et al. Chevrolet
           Volt On-Road Test Programs in Canada Part 1: Effects of Drive Cycle,
           Ambient Temperature and Accessory Usage on Energy Consumption and Electric
           Range. World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7, 142–153

    • Authors: World Electric Vehicle Association
      First page: 66
      Abstract: The journal retracts the article, “Chevrolet Volt on-road test programs in Canada part 1: Effects of drive cycle, ambient temperature and accessory usage on energy consumption and electric range” [...]
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020066
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 67: Comparing Options to Electrify Heavy-Duty
           Vehicles: Findings of German Pilot Projects

    • Authors: Daniel Speth, Simon Árpád Funke
      First page: 67
      Abstract: While the electrification of passenger vehicles is in full swing, for the decarbonization of heavy-duty trucks still various challenges exist. Especially the high energy consumption in combination with high daily driving ranges makes battery electric operation much more difficult than for passenger cars. Accordingly, a broad set of different drivetrains is discussed, inter alia hydrogen trucks, catenary hybrid trucks and synthetic fuels. One main advantage of the direct use of electricity in trucks is the high energy efficiency. Still, for heavy duty trucks different concepts for electrification do exist. Here, we compare battery electric trucks with a fast charging option, full electric catenary trucks and battery swap trucks. For a broad perspective, we use seven different comparative dimensions ranging from total cost of ownership to more qualitative but not less important aspects such as necessity of standardization, which would reduce manufacturer’s decision-making freedom. We base our comparison on findings from German pilot projects. While battery electric trucks or battery swap are advantageous since they can be operated in niche operations and thus allow a demand driven rollout of charging infrastructure, catenary infrastructure needs high investments upfront which entails financial risks, but allows for lowest cost if utilized to capacity.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020067
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 68: Retraction: Kwon et al. Cooperative Control
           Algorithm for Friction and Regenerative Braking Systems Considering
           Temperature Characteristics. World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7, 287–298

    • Authors: World Electric Vehicle Association
      First page: 68
      Abstract: The journal retracts the article, ”Cooperative control algorithm for friction and regenerative braking systems considering temperature characteristics” [...]
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020068
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 69: Retraction: Roche et al. An Accessible Pre-Design
           Calculation Tool to Support the Definition of EV Components. World Electr.
           Veh. J. 2015, 7, 101–113

    • Authors: World Electric Vehicle Association
      First page: 69
      Abstract: The journal retracts the article, “An accessible pre-design calculation tool to support the definition of EV components” [...]
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020069
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 70: Proposed Model of Sustainable Resource Management
           for Smart Grid Utilization

    • Authors: Haider Ali Tauqeer, Faisal Saeed, Muhammad Hassan Yousuf, Haroon Ahmed, Asad Idrees, Muhammad Haseeb Khan, Hasan Ertaza Gelani
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Automation and modernization of the grid with the availability of micro-grids including non-conventional sources of energy are the main constituent of smart grid technology. Most energy demand is fulfilled by fossil fuel-based power plants. Inadequacy of fuel resources, higher operating costs, and ever-increasing carbon emissions are the primary constraints of fossil fuels-operated power plants. Sustainable energy resource utilization in meeting energy demand is thought to be a preferred solution for reducing carbon emissions and is also a sustainable economic solution. This research effort discusses an accurate mathematical modeling and simulation implementation of a sustainable energy resource model powered by solar, grid, and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and focuses on the energy management of the model. In the proposed model, despite energy resources being sustainable, consumer side sustainability is achieved by using electrical charging vehicles (ECVs) to be integrated with sustainable resources. The proposed energy resource management (ERM) strategy is evaluated by simulating different operating conditions with and without distributed energy resources exhibiting the effectiveness of the proposed model. PEMFC is incorporated in the model to control fluctuations that have been synchronized with other energy resources for the distribution feeder line. In this proposed model, PEMFC is synchronized with grid and solar energy sources for both DC and AC load with ERM of all sources, making the system effective and reliable for consumer-based load and ECVs utilization.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020070
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 71: What Increases Consumers’ Purchase Intention of
           Battery Electric Vehicles from Chinese Electric Vehicle
           Start-Ups'Taking NIO as an Example

    • Authors: Qianling Jiang, Wei Wei, Xin Guan, Dexin Yang
      First page: 71
      Abstract: As environmental and energy issues are becoming more and more serious, China has seen the birth of a number of electric vehicle start-ups (EVSUs). Although there has been a dozen or so studies about consumers’ purchase intention of battery electric vehicles, few of them were about electric vehicle start-ups. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the factors that influence consumers’ purchase intention of electric vehicles from Chinese electric vehicle start-ups (CEVSUs). This study establishes a theoretical model of the factors that influence consumers’ purchase intentions of electric vehicles from CEVSUs through brand identity, brand image, brand awareness, and perceived risk. The analysis results of 332 valid questionnaires show that the factors that affect consumers’ purchase intention of electric vehicles from CEVSUs include brand identity, brand image, and perceived risk. Brand image will be affected by brand recognition, brand awareness, and perceived risk. The perceived risk will be affected by brand awareness and brand identity. Brand awareness will be affected by brand identity, but brand awareness will not directly affect purchase decisions. The conclusions of this study can be used as a reference for the government, consumers, or practitioners in the electric vehicle industry to promote the sales of electric vehicles to achieve low-carbon transportation, and also to help Chinese start up brands to take a larger share of the domestic market.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020071
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 72: Evaluating China’s Passenger Vehicle Market
           under the Vehicle Policies of 2021–2023

    • Authors: Shiqi Ou, Rujie Yu, Zhenhong Lin, Xin He, Jessey Bouchard, Steve Przesmitzki
      First page: 72
      Abstract: China is well known for its determination on large-scale vehicle electrification, which currently is mainly driven by fuel economy and electric vehicle policies mixed with the extensive charging infrastructure support and monetary incentives from the government. This study adopted the New Energy and Oil Consumption Credits (NEOCC) model 2020 version, a vehicle policy analysis tool developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in order to systematically quantify the potential impacts of the “Passenger Cars Corporate Average Fuel Consumption and New Energy Vehicle Credit Regulation”, which is a revised version released in June 2020 for the timeframe 2021–2023, the so-called dual credit policy (2021–2023). It was found that, under the dual credit policy (2021–2023), the sales of hybrid electric vehicles could reach 0.91 million by the end of 2023, which would increase much faster than they did in 2018–2020. The annual sales share of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) could reach 11.7%, and the PEV stocks could achieve 11.70 million by the end of 2023 if it keeps the expansion to the level of how it was in 2017. In addition, the BEVs with long electric range (such as 400 km) and the plug-in hybrid electric SUVs could be the most popular PEV types.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020072
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 73: Agent-Based Modeling Framework for Electric
           Vehicle Adoption Transition in Indonesia

    • Authors: Dita Novizayanti, Eko Agus Prasetio, Manahan Siallagan, Sigit Puji Santosa
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Currently, the adoption of electric vehicles (EV) draws much attention, as the environmental issue of reducing carbon emission is increasing worldwide. However, different countries face different challenges during this transition, particularly developing countries. This research aims to create a framework for the transition to EV in Indonesia through Agent-Based Modeling (ABM). The framework is used as the conceptual design for ABM to investigate the effect of agents’ decision-making processes at the microlevel into the number of adopted EV at the macrolevel. The cluster analysis is equipped to determine the agents’ characteristics based on the categories of the innovation adopters. There are 11 significant variables and four respondents’ clusters: innovators, early majority, late majority, and the uncategorized one. Moreover, Twitter data analytics are utilized to investigate the information engagement coefficient based on the agents’ location. The agents’ characteristics which emerged from this analysis framework will be used as the fundamental for investigating the effect of agents’ specific characteristics and their interaction through ABM for further research. It is expected that this framework will enable the discovery of which incentive scheme or critical technical features effectively increase the uptake of EV according to the agents’ specific characteristics.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12020073
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 4: Dual Battery Control System of Lead Acid and
           Lithium Ferro Phosphate with Switching Technique

    • Authors: Muhammad Nizam, Hari Maghfiroh, Fuad Nur Kuncoro, Feri Adriyanto
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The increase in electric vehicles needs to be supported by the existence of reliable energy storage devices. The battery, as an energy storage system, has its advantages and disadvantages. The combination of different battery types is chosen since the battery is one of the energy storage systems with mature technology and low life cycle cost. A solution that can be proposed to cover the weakness of each battery is the use of the Dual Battery System (DBS). In this project, a dual battery control system with a combination of Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) and Lithium Ferro Phosphate (LFP) batteries was developed using the switching method. Battery selection switching is determined by the specification and operational set point of the battery used. The experimental testing was carried out. The result of the research conducted showed that the current sensor accuracy was 83.75% and the voltage sensor accuracy was 94.25% while the current sensor precision value was 64.91% and the voltage sensor precision was 99.74%. The use of a dual battery system can save energy in a VLRA battery compare with a single VLRA battery by up to 68.62%, whereas in LFP battery by up to 29.48%. This means it gives the advantages of longer distances of traveling in electric vehicles.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010004
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 5: A Driving Cycle for a Fuel Cell Logistics Vehicle
           on a Fixed Route: Case of the Guangdong Province

    • Authors: Su Zhou, Jie Jin, Yuehua Wei
      First page: 5
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is to develop a representative driving cycle for fuel cell logistics vehicles running on the roads of Guangdong Province for subsequent energy management research and control system optimization. Firstly, we collected and preliminarily screened the 42-day driving data of a logistics vehicle through the remote monitoring platform, and determined the vehicle characteristic signal vector for analysis. Secondly, the principal component analysis method is used to reduce the dimensionality of these characteristic parameters, avoiding the linear correlation between them and increase the comprehensiveness of the upcoming clustering. Next, the dimensionality-reduced data are fed to a clustering machine. K-means clustering method is used to gather the segmented road sections into highway, urban road, national highway and others. Finally, several segments are chosen in accordance to the occurrence possibility of the four types of road conditions, minimizing the deviation with the original data. By joining the segments and using a moving average filtering window, a typical driving cycle for this fuel cell logistics vehicle on a fixed route is constructed. Some statistical methods are done to validate the driving cycle.The effectiveness analysis shows the driving cycle we constructed has a high degree of overlap with the original data. This positive result provides a solid foundation for our follow-up research, and we can also apply this method to develop other urban driving cycles of fuel cell logistics vehicle.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010005
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 6: Eco-Driving for Different Electric Powertrain
           Topologies Considering Motor Efficiency

    • Authors: Alexander Koch, Tim Bürchner, Thomas Herrmann, Markus Lienkamp
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Electrification and automatization may change the environmental impact of vehicles. Current eco-driving approaches for electric vehicles fit the electric power of the motor by quadratic functions and are limited to powertrains with one motor and single-speed transmission or use computationally expensive algorithms. This paper proposes an online nonlinear algorithm, which handles the non-convex power demand of electric motors. Therefore, this algorithm allows the simultaneous optimization of speed profile and powertrain operation for electric vehicles with multiple motors and multiple gears. We compare different powertrain topologies in a free-flow scenario and a car-following scenario. Dynamic Programming validates the proposed algorithm. Optimal speed profiles alter for different powertrain topologies. Powertrains with multiple gears and motors require less energy during eco-driving. Furthermore, the powertrain-dependent correlations between jerk restriction and energy consumption are shown.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010006
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 7: Modeling and Experimental Investigation of Thermal
           Comfort and Energy Consumption in a Battery Electric Bus

    • Authors: Francesco Cigarini, Tu-Anh Fay, Nikolay Artemenko, Dietmar Göhlich
      First page: 7
      Abstract: In battery electric buses (e-buses), the substantial energy consumption of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system can cause significant reductions of the available travel range. Additionally, HVAC systems are often operated at higher levels than what required for the thermal comfort of the passengers. Therefore, this paper proposes a method to experimentally investigate the influence of the HVAC system on the energy consumption and thermal comfort in a 12m e-bus. An appropriate thermal comfort model is identified and the required climatic input parameters are selected and measured with self-developed sensor stations. The energy consumption of the e-bus, the state of charge (SoC) of the battery and the available travel range are measured by an embedded data logger. Climatic measurements are then performed with heating on and off on a Berlin bus line in winter conditions. The results show that the energy consumption of the e-bus is increased by a factor of 1.9 with heating on, while both the SoC and travel range are reduced accordingly. Comparing the thermal comfort with heating on and off, a decrease from “comfortable” to “slightly uncomfortable but acceptable” is observed.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010007
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 8: A High Frequency Self-Reconfigurable Battery for
           Arbitrary Waveform Generation

    • Authors: Rémy Thomas, Ghislain Despesse, Sylvain Bacquet, Eric Fernandez, Yan Lopez, Prince Ramahefa-Andry, Léandro Cassarino
      First page: 8
      Abstract: This article presents an innovative self-reconfigurable battery (SRB) architecture, which is able to generate directly at its output any waveform signals. Thanks to that specific characteristic of the proposed system, it is even possible to dispense with any AC charger. Although the individual ability of each cell in the battery pack to perform an efficient active cell balancing has been already studied in the literature, the system presented in this article is the first of its kind. This article describes a real prototype of a high frequency SRB of 128 cells and demonstrates that it can be charged without any dedicated charger directly on the electrical grid, by generating a sinusoidal waveform voltage, while perfectly balancing the cells in real time.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010008
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 9: Rotor Position Estimation Approaches for
           Sensorless Control of Permanent Magnet Traction Motor in Electric
           Vehicles: A Review

    • Authors: Yong Li, Hao Wu, Xing Xu, Xiaodong Sun, Jindong Zhao
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Permanent magnet traction motor has the advantages of high efficiency, high power density, high torque density and quick dynamic response, which has been widely used in the traction field of electric vehicle. The high-performance control of permanent magnet traction motor depends on accurate rotor position information, which is usually obtained by using mechanical position sensors such as hall sensor, encoder and rotary transformer. However, the traditional mechanical sensor has the disadvantages of high cost, large volume and poor anti-interference ability, which limits the application of permanent magnet motor. The sensorless control technology is an effective way to solve the above-mentioned problem. Firstly, the sensorless control techniques of permanent magnet motor are classified. The sensorless control techniques of permanent magnet motor for rotor initial position, zero-low speed range, medium-high speed range and full speed range are deeply described and compared. Finally, the development trend of sensorless control technology of permanent magnet traction motor is prospected.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010009
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 10: Performance Analysis of a Novel High Frequency
           Self-Reconfigurable Battery

    • Authors: Rémy Thomas, Fanny Lehmann, Jérôme Blatter, Ghislain Despesse, Vincent Heiries
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Self-reconfigurable battery architectures have gained a lot of interest recently in the literature, with more and more advanced functionalities. This paper describes the performance analysis of our proposed High Frequency Self-Reconfigurable Battery (HF SRB). To evaluate specific features with long-term dependencies of our system, a full functional behavioral simulator was developed. A comparison with a real 128-level HF SRB validated the simulator operation. The balancing performances obtained on vehicle test cycles showed the cell capacity discrepancy that the HF SRB is capable of handling in a single complete charge or discharge cycle. The magnitude of this gap demonstrated the extent to which the HF SRB is capable of operating with second life cells or even different chemistry mixes.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010010
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 11: Charging and Discharging Strategies of Electric
           Vehicles: A Survey

    • Authors: Claude Ziad El-Bayeh, Khaled Alzaareer, Al-Motasem I. Aldaoudeyeh, Brahim Brahmi, Mohamed Zellagui
      First page: 11
      Abstract: The literature covering Plug-in Electric Vehicles (EVs) contains many charging/discharging strategies. However, none of the review papers covers such strategies in a complete fashion where all patterns of EVs charging/discharging are identified. Filling a gap in the literature, we clearly and systematically classify such strategies. After providing a clear definition for each strategy, we provide a detailed comparison between them by categorizing differences as follows: complexity; economics and power losses on the grid side; ability to provide ancillary services for integrity of the power grid; operation aspects (e.g., charging timing); and detrimental impact on the EV, the power grid, or the environment. Each one of these comparison categories is subdivided into even more detailed aspects. After we compare the EV charging/discharging strategies, we further provide recommendations on which strategies are suitable for which applications. Then, we provide ratings for each strategy by weighting all aspects of comparison together. Our review helps authors or aggregators explore likely choices that might suit the specific needs of their systems or test beds.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010011
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 12: Comparative Study of Dual PM Vernier Machines

    • Authors: Huan Qu, Zi Qiang Zhu, Toru Matsuura, Dusan Ivanovic, Takashi Kato, Kensuke Sasaki, Jim Greenough, Bob Bateman, David A. Stone, Martin P. Foster, Javier Riedemann
      First page: 12
      Abstract: In this paper, two types of dual permanent magnet (PM) machines, i.e., stator slot dual-PM (SSDPM) machine and split-tooth dual-PM (STDPM) machine, are investigated and compared. Both machines have consequent pole structure with Halbach array PMs. Their difference lies in the position of stator PM. The SSDPM machine has Halbach array PMs in the stator slots, while the STDPM machine has PMs between the split teeth. Torque characteristics, i.e., average torques and torque ripples, of different slot/pole number combinations of the two machines are compared. The 24 stator slots/20 rotor slots/4 armature pole pair (24S20R4Pa) SSDPM machine with distributed windings and the 24 stator slots/10 rotor slots/4 armature pole pair (12S20R4Pa) STDPM machine with concentrated windings are compared under both open-circuit and on-load conditions. The results show that the SSDPM machine is more competitive by delivering higher torque density and higher power density.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010012
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 13: Flux-Modulated Permanent Magnet Machines:
           Challenges and Opportunities

    • Authors: Qingsong Wang, Xing Zhao, Shuangxia Niu
      First page: 13
      Abstract: High torque density is a desirable feature of electrical machines used in traction applications, such as electric vehicle (EV)/hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) propulsion, wind turbines, more electric aircrafts, etc. The flux-modulated permanent magnet (FMPM) machine is considered as one of the most promising candidates to achieve high torque density. The incorporated gearing effect is ideal in reducing the rotating speed and amplifying the output torque of the FMPM machines. This paper aims at a comprehensive review of the topology evolution of the FMPM machines. Based on different structures, the FMPM machines are grouped into four categories: surface-type FMPM machines, spoke-type FMPM machines, partitioned stator FMPM machines, and bidirectional FMPM machines. The operating principles, advantages, drawbacks, and major applications of the FMPM machines are discussed in detail. In the end, the current state of the art, opportunities, challenges, and future trends of the FMPM machines are discussed. Therefore, this paper offers a systematic guidance on the selection and design of the FMPM machines.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010013
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 14: Electric Vehicle Charging Fault Monitoring and
           Warning Method Based on Battery Model

    • Authors: Yuanxing Zhang, Taoyong Li, Xiangwu Yan, Ling Wang, Jing Zhang, Xiaohong Diao, Bin Li
      First page: 14
      Abstract: With the development of electric vehicles in China, the fault monitoring and warning systems for the charging process of electric vehicles have received the industry’s attention. A method for the monitoring and warning of electric vehicle charging faults based on a battery model is proposed in this paper. Through online estimation of the state of charge of the power battery model and battery electromotive force, parameters such as battery state of charge, voltage, and temperature can be adjusted in real time to simulate the charging response of the power battery, which can simulate power batteries of different types, specifications, and parameters. During the charging process, CAN (Controller Area Network) bus monitoring technology is used to receive and analyze the charging information of the charger, as well as the battery charging information and battery charging demand information. The charging response information simulated by the battery model is compared with the battery charging state information, and the charging state information of the charger is compared with the battery charging demand information to determine whether the charging process is normal. When it is judged that a charging fault occurs, a fault warning signal is sent. This method can identify more than 10 types of faults, including the failure of the BMS (Battery Management System) function. The comparison and analysis of actual charging accident data and power battery model data verifies the feasibility of the charging fault monitoring method proposed in this paper.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010014
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 15: Social Aspects of Electric Vehicles
           Research—Trends and Relations to Sustainable Development Goals

    • Authors: Vasja Omahne, Matjaz Knez, Matevz Obrecht
      First page: 15
      Abstract: E-mobility sustainability assessment is becoming more comprehensive with research integrating social aspects without focusing only on technical, economic, and/or environmental perspectives. The transportation sector is indeed one of the leading and most challenging greenhouse gas polluters, and e-mobility is seen as one of the potential solutions; however, a social perspective must be further investigated to improve the perception of and acceptance of electric vehicles. This could consequently lead to the European Green Deal’s holy grail: faster decarbonization of the transportation sector. Another way to achieve it is by promoting more comprehensive sustainable development goals. Therefore, this paper combines a systematic review of recent research with research emphasis focused on social aspects of electric vehicles and their interconnection with specific UN Sustainable Development Goals. By knowing the current research focus mainly related with “perception” of electric vehicles and assessing their social “impact” as well as an emerging area of “user experience” and their relations with UN Sustainable Development Goals enables better insight on the current and future directions of electric vehicle social sustainability research. The current priority is identified as “climate actions”. Increasingly important “sustainable cities and communities” shows potential for becoming one of the future research, policy, and community priorities.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010015
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 16: Electric Vehicle Ultra-Fast Battery Chargers: A
           Boost for Power System Stability'

    • Authors: Fabio Mandrile, Davide Cittanti, Vincenzo Mallemaci, Radu Bojoi
      First page: 16
      Abstract: As a consequence of the exponential growth of the electric vehicle (EV) market, DC fast-charging infrastructure is being rapidly deployed all around the world. Ultra-fast charging (UFC) stations are starting to pose serious challenges to the electric power system operation, mostly due to their high peak power demand and unregulated discontinuous operation. To address these issues, local energy storage can be installed, ensuring a smoother grid power absorption profile and allowing to provide grid-supporting features. In this work, a control solution for the grid-side AC/DC converter of next-generation EV UFC stations is proposed. A virtual synchronous compensator (VSC) control algorithm is implemented, in order to lessen the impact of the charging station on the utility and to provide the full spectrum of grid ancillary services (i.e., frequency regulation, reactive power compensation, harmonic reduction, short circuit current generation, etc.). The proposed control strategy is verified experimentally on a downscaled 15 kVA three-phase inverter, emulating the grid front-end of the charging station.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010016
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 17: VSI Nonlinearity Compensation of a PMSM Drive
           System Using Deadbeat Prediction Based Current Zero-Crossing Detection

    • Authors: Jing Zhou, Kan Liu, Juan Li, Longfei Li, Wei Hu, Rongjun Ding
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Due to the nonlinearities of the voltage-source inverter (VSI) in a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) drive system, there is always an error between the reference voltage and the actual output voltage. To compensate the voltage error, many schemes have been proposed based on the phase current polarity. However, due to factors such as current clamping, measurement noises, and control system delay, the accuracy of the detected current polarity is relatively low, especially when the current is around zero, which would therefore affect the compensation performance. To solve this issue, a deadbeat prediction-based current zero-crossing detection method (DP-CZD) is proposed in this paper. With the proposed method, the measured three-phase currents are replaced by the predicted three-phase currents in terms of the polarity determination, when the absolute value of the phase current is within the threshold range. Compared with the conventional phase current polarity detecting methods, the proposed method can greatly improve the accuracy of detected current polarity due to its smooth transient waveform, and consequently, contributes to the much higher accuracy and lower total harmonic distortion (THD) in the compensation of VSI nonlinearity, which is verified through a prototype surface-mounted PMSM.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010017
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 18: Multi-Criteria, Co-Evolutionary Charging
           Behavior: An Agent-Based Simulation of Urban Electromobility

    • Authors: Lennart Adenaw, Markus Lienkamp
      First page: 18
      Abstract: In order to electrify the transport sector, scores of charging stations are needed to incentivize people to buy electric vehicles. In urban areas with a high charging demand and little space, decision-makers are in need of planning tools that enable them to efficiently allocate financial and organizational resources to the promotion of electromobility. As with many other city planning tasks, simulations foster successful decision-making. This article presents a novel agent-based simulation framework for urban electromobility aimed at the analysis of charging station utilization and user behavior. The approach presented here employs a novel co-evolutionary learning model for adaptive charging behavior. The simulation framework is tested and verified by means of a case study conducted in the city of Munich. The case study shows that the presented approach realistically reproduces charging behavior and spatio-temporal charger utilization.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 19: Integrated Charger-Inverter for High-Performance
           Electric Motorcycles

    • Authors: Vu Tran Tuan, Matheepot Phattanasak, Sangkla Kreuawan
      First page: 19
      Abstract: A high-performance electric motorcycle (HPEM) integrated charger-inverter (ICI) with an induction motor (IM) is proposed in this article. Typical components are shared in drive and charge modes, resulting in savings of weight, volume, and cost. A two-stage ICI for AC induction motor powertrain with power factor correction (PFC) and battery charger functions is considered. Despite high voltage ripple on the DC link, a high bandwidth nonlinear controller can reject such a drawback and adequately provide a constant current or constant voltage charging process. The simulation results of 7 kW ICI are provided to validate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed system. Finite element analysis (FEA) determines the torque and losses of IM in charging mode.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010019
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 20: Beyond the State of the Art of Electric Vehicles:
           A Fact-Based Paper of the Current and Prospective Electric Vehicle
           Technologies

    • Authors: Joeri Van Mierlo, Maitane Berecibar, Mohamed El Baghdadi, Cedric De Cauwer, Maarten Messagie, Thierry Coosemans, Valéry Ann Jacobs, Omar Hegazy
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Today, there are many recent developments that focus on improving the electric vehicles and their components, particularly regarding advances in batteries, energy management systems, autonomous features and charging infrastructure. This plays an important role in developing next electric vehicle generations, and encourages more efficient and sustainable eco-system. This paper not only provides insights in the latest knowledge and developments of electric vehicles (EVs), but also the new promising and novel EV technologies based on scientific facts and figures—which could be from a technological point of view feasible by 2030. In this paper, potential design and modelling tools, such as digital twin with connected Internet-of-Things (IoT), are addressed. Furthermore, the potential technological challenges and research gaps in all EV aspects from hard-core battery material sciences, power electronics and powertrain engineering up to environmental assessments and market considerations are addressed. The paper is based on the knowledge of the 140+ FTE counting multidisciplinary research centre MOBI-VUB, that has a 40-year track record in the field of electric vehicles and e-mobility.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010020
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 21: An Overview of Parameter and Cost for Battery
           Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Adrian König, Lorenzo Nicoletti, Daniel Schröder, Sebastian Wolff, Adam Waclaw, Markus Lienkamp
      First page: 21
      Abstract: The launch of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and autonomous vehicles (AVs) on the global market has triggered ongoing radical changes in the automotive sector. On the one hand, the new characteristics of the BEV powertrain compared to the combustion type have resulted in new central parameters, such as vehicle range, which then become an important selling point. On the other hand, electric components are as yet not optimized and the sensors needed for autonomous driving are still expensive, which introduces changes to the vehicle cost structure. This transformation is not limited to the vehicle itself but also extends to its mobility and the necessary infrastructure. The former is shaped by new user behaviors and scenarios. The latter is impacted by the BEV powertrain, which requires a charging and energy supply infrastructure. To enable manufacturers and researchers to develop and optimize BEVs and AVs, it is necessary to first identify the relevant parameters and costs. To this end, we have conducted an extensive literature review. The result is a complete overview of the relevant parameters and costs, divided into the categories of vehicle, infrastructure, mobility, and energy.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010021
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 22: Comparative Study of Consequent-Pole
           Switched-Flux Machines with Different U-Shaped PM Structures

    • Authors: Ya Li, Hui Yang, Heyun Lin
      First page: 22
      Abstract: This paper presents a comparative study of two consequent-pole switched-flux permanent magnet (CP-SFPM) machines with different U-shaped PM arrangements. In order to address the flux barrier effect in a sandwiched SFPM machine, two different alternate U-shaped PM designs are introduced to improve the torque capability, forming two CP-SFPM machine topologies. In order to reveal the influence of different magnet designs on the torque production, a simplified PM magneto-motive force (MMF)-permeance model is employed to identify the effective working harmonics in the two CP-SFPM machines. The torque contributions of the main working harmonics are subsequently quantified by a hybrid finite-element (FE)/analytical method. Multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) optimization is then employed to optimize the design parameters of the proposed CP-SFPM machines. In addition, the electromagnetic characteristics of the CP-SFPM machines with two U-shaped PM arrangements are investigated and compared by the FE method. Finally, a 6/13-pole CP-SFPM machine with an optimally selected U-shaped PM structure is manufactured and tested to validate the FE analyses.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 23: Segmentation of Passenger Electric Cars Market in
           Poland

    • Authors: Jakub Kubiczek, Bartłomiej Hadasik
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Striving to achieve sustainable development goals and taking care of the environment into the policies of car manufacturers forced the search for alternative sources of vehicle propulsion. One way to implement a sustainable policy is to use electric motors in cars. The observable development of the electric car market provides consumers with a wide spectrum of choices for a specific model that would meet their expectations. Currently, there are 53 different electric car models on the primary market in Poland. The aim of the article was to present the performed market segmentation, focused on identifying the similarities in the characteristics of electric car models on the Polish market and proposing their groupings. Based on the classification by the hierarchical cluster analysis algorithm (Ward’s method, squared Euclidean distance), the market division into 2, 3, and 4 groups was proposed. The Polish EV market segmentation took place not only in terms of the size and class of the car but primarily in terms of performance and overall quality of the vehicle. The performed classification did not change when the price was additionally included as a variable. It was also proposed to divide the market into 4 segments named: Premium, City, Small, and Sport. The segmentation carried out in this way helps to better understand the structure of the electric car market.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010023
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 24: Analytical Model for the Design of Axial Flux
           Induction Motors with Maximum Torque Density

    • Authors: Georgii Baranov, Alexander Zolotarev, Valerii Ostrovskii, Timur Karimov, Alexander Voznesensky
      First page: 24
      Abstract: This article proposes a mathematical model of an axial flux induction motor (AFIM) with one stator and one rotor. The model is based on the expression for the electromagnetic torque, which presents a function of two independent variables: the axial length of the stator core and the flux density in the air gap. This allows calculating the main dimensions of the motor with the highest possible torque density. Thus, developed model is suitable for designing the motor of specified volume with maximum torque, and solving the inverse problem of minimizing the machine volume with the specified torque. The detailed output of the model and the results of the calculations for the low-power engine powered by voltage of 7.35 V (RMS) are given. The results are validated using FEM in ANSYS software: with the outer motor diameter of 0.11 m, the flux density in it reaches 1.2 T.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010024
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 25: Interdisciplinary Analysis of Social Acceptance
           Regarding Electric Vehicles with a Focus on Charging Infrastructure and
           Driving Range in Germany

    • Authors: Amelie Burkert, Heiko Fechtner, Benedikt Schmuelling
      First page: 25
      Abstract: A variety of measures are currently being taken on both the national and international levels in order to mitigate the negative effects of climate change. The promotion of electric mobility is one such measure for the transport sector. As a key component in a more environmentally-friendly, resource-saving, and efficient transport sector, electric mobility promises to create better sustainability. Several challenges still need to be met to exploit its full potential. This requires adapting the car technology, the value chain of vehicles, loads on the electricity network, the power generation for the drive, traffic, and charging infrastructure. The challenges to this endeavor are not only technical in nature, but they also include social acceptance, concerns, and economic, as well as ecological, aspects. This paper seeks to discuss and elucidate these problems, giving special focus to the issues of driving range, phenomenon of range anxiety, charging time, and complexity of the charging infrastructure in Germany. Finally, the development of social acceptance in Germany from 2011 to 2020 is investigated.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010025
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 26: Research on Stator Slot and Rotor Pole
           Combination and Pole Arc Coefficient in a Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet
           Machine by the Finite Element Method

    • Authors: Liyan Guo, Huimin Wang
      First page: 26
      Abstract: A surface-mounted permanent magnet (SPM) machine is widely used in many auxiliary parts of an electric vehicle, so its design level directly influences the performance of the electric vehicle. In the design process of the SPM machine, selecting the appropriate stator slot and rotor pole combination and pole arc coefficient is a necessary and important step. Therefore, in this paper, a 750 W machine is set as an example to research stator slot and rotor pole combinations and pole arc coefficients for the SPM machine. First, the design schemes of machines adopting different stator slot and rotor pole combinations are determined according to the winding coefficient, stator size, and electromagnetic performance requirements. Further, finite element models of SPM machines with different stator slot and rotor pole combinations are established by Ansys Maxwell. On this basis, the back electromotive force (back EMF), cogging torque, electromagnetic torque, and loss and efficiency of SPM machines are calculated and compared to select the better stator slot and rotor pole combinations. Further, effects of pole arc coefficient on cogging torque and electromagnetic torque are also researched to guide the selection of the pole arc coefficient in the design process of the SPM machine. Conclusions achieved in this paper will provide guidance for design of the SPM machine.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010026
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 27: Study on the Prediction of Lane Change Intention
           of Intelligent Vehicles in the Network Environment

    • Authors: Shuaishuai Liu, Di Tan, Shilin Hong, Hongxun Fu
      First page: 27
      Abstract: The prediction of lane change intention of vehicles is an important part of the decision planning and control systems of intelligent vehicles. In the dynamic and complex traffic environment, the behaviors of traffic participants interact and influence each other. In lane change prediction, it is necessary to study the predicted vehicle and surrounding vehicles as an interactive correlation system. Otherwise, great errors are made in the motion prediction. Based on this, the motion state of the predicted vehicle, the position relationship between the predicted vehicle and lane, as well as the motion state of vehicles around the predicted vehicle are considered systematically in this paper, and the prediction of lane change intention of vehicles is studied. The influence of the three above-mentioned factors on the prediction of lane change intention is analyzed in this paper. On the basis of screening the prediction features of lane change intention, the lane change intention of vehicles is predicted by a feed-forward neural network. The data collected by the virtual driving experiment platform are divided into a training set, a verification set, and a test set. The neural network parameters of vehicles’ lane change intentions are identified by a training set, and the effect of prediction is tested by a verification set and a test set. The results show that the accuracy of the prediction model is high. The model is compared with the model of common features at the present stage and the model based on a Support Vector Machine, and the results show that the accuracy of the prediction model proposed in this paper was improved by 6.4% and 2.8%, respectively, compared with the two models. Finally, the virtual driving experiment platform was used to predict the lane change intention of the front vehicle and the vehicle in the left adjacent lane. The results show that, based on the same model and input features, the lane change intention of the front vehicle and the vehicle in the left adjacent lane can be predicted by the model at 2.8 s and 3.4 s before the lane change, and the model is a certain generality for the prediction of lane change intention of adjacent vehicles.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010027
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 28: Design and Implementation of Reduced Grid Impact
           Charging Station for Public Transportation Applications

    • Authors: Marco di Benedetto, Fernando Ortenzi, Alessandro Lidozzi, Luca Solero
      First page: 28
      Abstract: This paper deals with the complete design procedure, implementation and control software realization for a multi-converter charging station with reduced grid impact due to local electromechanical energy storage. In particular, energy storage is accomplished by a dedicated flywheel designed and built for this purpose. The proposed charging station was designed for ultra-fast charging procedures presenting a strongly reduced impact on the electrical grid. Modes of operations are described with reference to pure electric buses in public transportation applications.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010028
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 29: A Procedure to Estimate Air Conditioning
           Consumption of Urban Buses Related to Climate and Main Operational
           Characteristics

    • Authors: Matteo Corazza, Valentina Conti, Antonino Genovese, Fernando Ortenzi, Maria Pia Valentini
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Public Transport (PT) planning requires a detailed evaluation of the fleet energy consumption, usually depending on the specific characteristics of the bus service network. These include topography, climate and operational features. In this work, we focus on the additional air conditioning (AC) energy consumption, proposing a method to evaluate the extra energy consumption based not only on climate variables, but also on the PT planned service. Results are presented for a large part of the provincial capitals and regions of Italy, and clearly show that overconsumption for air conditioning are significantly affected by the daily mileage distribution, with large variance even when climatic conditions are similar. The mileage data are extracted from GTFS databases, widely available for PT applications. The developed tool allows us to apply this methodology to any urban and extra-urban area. Reference AC consumption related to climate conditions are derived from a measurement campaign hold in Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy) during September 2018, within the National Research Program on the Electric System. A discussion on how to optimize the use of climatic data is also presented, resulting in the choice to use Heat Index as unique independent variable for air conditioning energy consumption calculation. A methodology to compute the Heat Index from climatic variables for large domains as, for instance, the Italian regions, was also developed.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010029
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 30: Conceptual Design Optimization of Autonomous
           Electric Buses in Public Transportation

    • Authors: Aditya Pathak, Silvan Scheuermann, Aybike Ongel, Markus Lienkamp
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Autonomous electric buses (AEB) have widely been envisioned in future public transportation systems due to their large potential to improve service quality while reducing operational costs. The requirements and specifications for AEBs, however, remain uncertain and strongly depend on the use case. To enable the identification of the optimal vehicle specifications, this paper presents a holistic design optimization framework that explores the impacts of implementing different AEB concepts in a given set of routes/network. To develop the design optimization framework, first, a multi-objective, multi-criteria objective function is formulated by identifying the attributes of bus journeys that represent overall value to the stakeholders. Simulation models are then developed and implemented to evaluate the overall performance of the vehicle concepts. A genetic algorithm is used to find the concepts with the optimal trade-off between the overall value to the stakeholders and the total cost of ownership. A case study is presented of a single bus line in Singapore. The results show an improvement in the waiting time with the use of a smaller sized AEB with a capacity of 20 passengers. However, the costs and emissions increase due to the requirement of a larger fleet and the increase in daily distance traveled compared to a 94-passenger capacity AEB.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010030
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 31: Techno-Economic Analysis and Environmental Impact
           of Electric Buses

    • Authors: Nurizyan Khairiah Yusof, Pg Emeroylariffion Abas, T. M. I. Mahlia, M. A. Hannan
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Electric vehicles are a leading candidate in the clean energy market. This paper aims to analyse the feasibility of the deployment of electric buses (EB) based on the existing bus routes in Brunei, by the use of life cycle cost analysis and the analysis of the parameters that influence the overall life cycle cost. The findings from the study revealed that EB are significantly more expensive than diesel buses (DB), with their acquisition and maintenance costs contributing substantially to their overall life cycle cost. In order to promote EB deployment, the government needs to look simultaneously into providing subsidies for EB and imposing taxes on DB, the provision of charging infrastructure, and ensuring maintenance capability, as well as increasing the current subsidised diesel price. It was also shown that increasing the cost of diesel to the average US diesel price of USD$3.101/L, an initial subsidy of USD$67,586 towards the purchase of EB, and a tax of USD$67,586 for the purchase of DB would allow EB to compete in the market, with the amount of tax and subsidy being gradually reducible over time, as EB and battery technology becomes more mature. From an environmental perspective, the emissions from EB come out higher than the emissions from DB. The efficiency of electric power generation needs to be enhanced, and renewable energy sources and the adoption of carbon capture technology need to be explored in order to exploit the full benefit of EB and ensure more environmentally sustainable bus operation.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010031
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 32: Multi-Phase Fractional-Slot PM Synchronous
           Machines with Enhanced Open-Circuit Fault-Tolerance: Viable Candidates for
           Automotive Applications

    • Authors: Elyes Haouas, Imen Abdennadher, Ahmed Masmoudi
      First page: 32
      Abstract: This paper deals with the winding arrangement of multi-phase fractional-slot permanent magnet (PM) synchronous machines (FSPMSMs), with emphasis on the enhancement of their open-circuit fault-tolerance capability. FSPMSMs are reputed by their attractive intrinsic fault-tolerance capability, which increases with the number of phases. Of particular interest is the open-circuit fault-tolerance capability, which could be significantly enhanced through the parallel connection of the coils or suitable combinations of the coils of each phase. Nevertheless, such an arrangement of the armature winding is applicable to a limited set of slot-pole combinations. The present work proposes a design approach that extends the slot-pole combinations to candidates that are characterized by a star of slots including three phasors per phase and per winding period. It has the merit of improving the tolerance against open-circuit faults along with an increase in the winding factor of multi-phase machines. Special attention is paid to characterization of the coil asymmetry required for the phase parallel arrangement. A case study, aimed at a finite element analysis (FEA)-based investigation of the open-circuit fault-tolerance of a five-phase FSPMSM, is treated in order to validate the analytical prediction.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010032
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 33: Analysis of Stator-Slot Circumferentially
           Magnetized PM Machines with Full-Pitched Windings

    • Authors: Huan Qu, Han Yang, Zi Qiang Zhu
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Stator-slot circumferentially magnetized PM machines (SSCMPMMs) have high fault-tolerant capability. In this paper, the SSCMPMMs with full-pitched windings and different stator slot/rotor pole numbers are investigated, together with the influence of key geometric parameters. It shows that the 12 stator-slots 7 rotor-poles (12S7R) machine delivers the highest torque. It is then compared with the SSCMPMM with tooth-coil windings. The results show that when they have the same active length, the 12S7R machine delivers significantly higher torque and higher efficiency. Furthermore, when the machine length is over around 140 mm, the 12S7R machine is more advantageous in producing high torque and high efficiency. A prototype is manufactured and tested to validate the theoretical analyses.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010033
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 34: An Approach to Reliability, Availability and
           Maintainability Analysis of a Plug-In Electric Vehicle

    • Authors: Bipul Kumar Talukdar, Bimal Chandra Deka
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Electric vehicle technologies have seen rapid development in recent years. However, Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) related concerns still have restricted large-scale commercial utilization of these vehicles. This paper presents an approach to carry out a quantitative RAM analysis of a plug-in electric vehicle. A mathematical model is developed in the Markov Framework incorporating the reliability characteristics of all significant electrical components of the vehicle system, namely battery, motor, drive, controllers, charging unit, and energy management unit. The study shows that the vehicle’s survivability can be increased by improving its components’ restoration rates. The paper also investigates the role of a charging station on the availability of the vehicle. It illustrates how the grid power supply’s reliability influences the operational effectiveness of a plug-in electric vehicle. The concepts that are presented in the article can support further study on the reliability design and maintenance of a plug-in electric vehicle.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010034
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 35: Neural Network- and Fuzzy Control-Based Energy
           Optimization for the Switching in Parallel Hybrid Two-Wheeler

    • Authors: Supriya Kalyankar-Narwade, Ramesh Kumar Chidambaram, Sanjay Patil
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Optimization of a two-wheeler hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a typical challenge compared to that for four-wheeler HEVs. Some of the challenges which are particular to two-wheeler HEVs are throttle integration, smooth switching between power sources, add-on weight compensation, efficiency improvisation in traffic, and energy optimization. Two power sources need to be synchronized skillfully for optimum energy utilization. A prominent variant of HEV is that it easily converts conventional scooters into parallel hybrids by “Through-the-Road (TTR)” architecture. This paper focuses on three switching control strategies of HEVs based on the state of charge, fuzzy logic, and neural network. Further, to optimize energy usage, all these control strategies are compared. Energy management control for the TTR model is developed with vehicle parameters in the Simulink environment and simulated using the “World Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle” (WMTC) drive cycle. The multivariable input model is presented with a fuzzy rule-based hybrid switching control. A similar system is also modeled with a neural network-based decision control and the observations are tabulated for the fuel economy and energy management. Simulation results show that the neural network-based optimization results in minimal energy consumption among all three hybrid operations.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010035
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 36: E-Engine for a Long-Tail Boat, an Application in
           ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations)-Design and Comparison with
           Internal Combustion Engine

    • Authors: Vu Tran Tuan, Phuong Nguyen Huy, Surasak Phoemsapthawee, Sangkla Kreuawan
      First page: 36
      Abstract: An Electric propulsion (E-propulsion) system for ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) long-tail boat is proposed in this article. It offers several advantages over a traditional internal combustion engine propulsion system. Besides low noise and zero-emission, characteristics of electric engine (E-engine) allow regenerative braking and starting the propeller in the water. A design of E-engine has been achieved through finite element analyses and lump-parameter thermal simulations. It shows better performances than Honda GX270 internal combustion engine in terms of volume, weight, torque, and power. A full scale prototype of E-engine was manufactured. Experiments have been conducted on an engine test bench. Torque, power, efficiency and temperatures were well aligned with the simulation results.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010036
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 37: Testing and Analysis Fault of Induction Motor for
           Case Study Misalignment Installation Using Current Signal with Energy
           Coefficient

    • Authors: Supachai Prainetr, Satean Tunyasrirut, Santi Wangnipparnto
      First page: 37
      Abstract: An induction motor is a key device for an industrial machine. The installation misalignment of the motor will result in derating problems and energy consumption that is generally used to analyze signal faults using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method. Problems with the rotor affect the non-stationary signal and FFT can be utilized to analyze this problem inefficiently. This paper proposed the testing and analysis of faults in an eccentric rotor at different levels using the stator current detection technique and the calculation of the energy signal coefficient via the wavelet decomposition (WD) method. The experimental results showed that an increase in eccentricity had a linear relation with the energy signal, where R2 was 80.81%. Moreover, the test results illustrated that the proposed method was more efficient than FFT and applicable to motor fault analysis and application in the industrial.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010037
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 38: State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery
           for Electric Vehicles Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    • Authors: Venkatesan Chandran, Chandrashekhar K. Patil, Alagar Karthick, Dharmaraj Ganeshaperumal, Robbi Rahim, Aritra Ghosh
      First page: 38
      Abstract: The durability and reliability of battery management systems in electric vehicles to forecast the state of charge (SoC) is a tedious task. As the process of battery degradation is usually non-linear, it is extremely cumbersome work to predict SoC estimation with substantially less degradation. This paper presents the SoC estimation of lithium-ion battery systems using six machine learning algorithms for electric vehicles application. The employed algorithms are artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), linear regression (LR), Gaussian process regression (GPR), ensemble bagging (EBa), and ensemble boosting (EBo). Error analysis of the model is carried out to optimize the battery’s performance parameter. Finally, all six algorithms are compared using performance indices. ANN and GPR are found to be the best methods based on MSE and RMSE of (0.0004, 0.00170) and (0.023, 0.04118), respectively.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010038
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 39: On Modeling the Cost of Ownership of Plug-In
           Vehicles

    • Authors: Karim Hamza, Kenneth P. Laberteaux, Kang-Ching Chu
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Plug-in vehicles (PEVs), which include battery-only electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have steadily grown in sales amidst various incentive programs, but much speculation exists on when PEVs would become cost-competitive without incentives. This research adopts a bottom-up approach for estimation of purchase cost, and total cost of ownership (TCO). Baseline predictions, as well as sensitivity analysis (with more favorable conditions for PEVs) are generated for 2030. Results show that the five-year TCO of some PEVs could be less than an equivalent-sized conventional internal combustion-engine (CICE) vehicle, but only in the more optimistic scenarios where the cost of batteries and motors decrease more rapidly than the baseline prediction, and when combined with either higher gasoline prices or longer annual distance travelled. However, without subsidies or incentives, purchase cost parity between PEVs and CICEs was not realized in any of the considered 2030 scenarios.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010039
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 40: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of World Electric
           Vehicle Journal in 2020

    • Authors: World Electric Vehicle Journal Editorial Office World Electric Vehicle Journal Editorial Office
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that World Electric Vehicle Journal maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...]
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010040
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 41: Assessing Finite Control Set Model Predictive
           Speed Controlled PMSM Performance for Deployment in Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Abhishek Murali, Razia Sultana Wahab, Chandra Sekhar Reddy Gade, Chitra Annamalai, Umashankar Subramaniam
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs) have the main advantage of using sustainable forms of energy to operate and can be integrated into electrical power grids for better energy management. An essential part of the EV propulsion system is the type of motor used to propel the EV. Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) have found extensive use due to various advantages such as high power density, excellent torque-to-weight ratio and smooth speed profile over the entire torque range. The objective of this paper was to improve the dynamic response in the speed profile for different driving conditions essential in EVs. This was done by using the finite control set model predictive control (FCS-MPC) algorithm for PMSM and by comparing and evaluating the control strategies of a PMSM used in an EV by taking two case studies. The classical control, namely field-oriented control (FOC), of PMSMs is slow to adopt the dynamic changes in the system. The proposed FCS-MPC algorithm for PMSMs provides an improved dynamic response and a good steady-state response for the different driving conditions shown in both cases. In addition, the Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) is used to evaluate the FCS-MPC-controlled PMSM to depict its superior performance by matching its speed profile. The results are verified in the hardware in the loop strategy using OPAL-RT. Both the results confirm that the FCS-MPC algorithm, when compared with the conventional FOC, is superior in aspects of steady-state and dynamic responses for various torque and speed profiles.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010041
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 42: Stability Control for Electric Vehicles with Four
           In-Wheel-Motors Based on Sideslip Angle

    • Authors: Kun Yang, Danxiu Dong, Chao Ma, Zhaoxian Tian, Yile Chang, Ge Wang
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Tire longitudinal forces of electrics vehicle with four in-wheel-motors can be adjusted independently. This provides advantages for its stability control. In this paper, an electric vehicle with four in-wheel-motors is taken as the research object. Considering key factors such as vehicle velocity and road adhesion coefficient, the criterion of vehicle stability is studied, based on phase plane of sideslip angle and sideslip-angle rate. To solve the problem that the sideslip angle of vehicles is difficult to measure, an algorithm for estimating the sideslip angle based on extended Kalman filter is designed. The control method for vehicle yaw moment based on sliding-mode control and the distribution method for wheel driving/braking torque are proposed. The distribution method takes the minimum sum of the square for wheel load rate as the optimization objective. Based on Matlab/Simulink and Carsim, a cosimulation model for the stability control of electric vehicles with four in-wheel-motors is built. The accuracy of the proposed stability criterion, the algorithm for estimating the sideslip angle and the wheel torque control method are verified. The relevant research can provide some reference for the development of the stability control for electric vehicles with four in-wheel-motors.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010042
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 43: Bicycle Speed Modelling Considering Cyclist
           Characteristics, Vehicle Type and Track Attributes

    • Authors: Xingchen Yan, Xiaofei Ye, Jun Chen, Tao Wang, Zhen Yang, Hua Bai
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Cycling is an increasingly popular mode of transport as part of the response to air pollution, urban congestion, and public health issues. The emergence of bike sharing programs and electric bicycles have also brought about notable changes in cycling characteristics, especially cycling speed. In order to provide a better basis for bicycle-related traffic simulations and theoretical derivations, the study aimed to seek the best distribution for bicycle riding speed considering cyclist characteristics, vehicle type, and track attributes. K-means clustering was performed on speed subcategories while selecting the optimal number of clustering using L method. Then, 15 common models were fitted to the grouped speed data and Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, Akaike information criterion, and Bayesian information criterion were applied to determine the best-fit distribution. The following results were acquired: (1) bicycle speed sub-clusters generated by the combinations of bicycle type, bicycle lateral position, gender, age, and lane width were grouped into three clusters; (2) Among the common distribution, generalized extreme value, gamma and lognormal were the top three models to fit the three clusters of speed dataset; and (3) integrating stability and overall performance, the generalized extreme value was the best-fit distribution of bicycle speed.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010043
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 44: An Intelligent Adaptive Neural Network Controller
           for a Direct Torque Controlled eCAR Propulsion System

    • Authors: Gururaj Banda, Sri Gowri Kolli
      First page: 44
      Abstract: This article deals with an intelligent adaptive neural network (ANN) controller for a direct torque controlled (DTC) electric vehicle (EV) propulsion system. With the realization of artificial intelligence (AI) conferred adaptive controllers, the torque control of an electric car (eCAR) propulsion motor can be achieved by estimating the stator reference flux voltage used to synthesize the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) for a DTC scheme. The proposed ANN tool optimizes the parameters of a proportional integral (PI) controller with real-time data and offers splendid dynamic stability. The response of an ANN controller is examined over standard drive cycles to validate the performance of an eCAR in terms of drive range and energy efficiency using MATLAB simulation software.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010044
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 45: Analysis of Coil Parameters and Comparison of
           Circular, Rectangular, and Hexagonal Coils Used in WPT System for Electric
           Vehicle Charging

    • Authors: Tasnime Bouanou, Hassan El Fadil, Abdellah Lassioui, Ouidad Assaddiki, Sara Njili
      First page: 45
      Abstract: In this paper, the major factors that affect the performance of wireless power transfer systems, such as coil inner radius and coil number of turns, are discussed. A comparison of three coil shapes covering the coreless case, the case with ferrite, and the case with ferrite and aluminum is also carried out. Another comparison is proposed by addressing the combination of different coil shapes in the wireless power transfer (WPT)system. The analysis covers the coupling coefficient, the mutual inductance, and the self-inductance. Due to the complexity of calculating these parameters, the finite element analysis (FEA) method is adopted by using the Ansys Maxwell software. An introduction to the typical WPT system for electric vehicle charging is also presented.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010045
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 46: Barriers and Drivers of Transition to Sustainable
           Public Transport in the Philippines

    • Authors: Charmaine Samala Guno, Angelie Azcuna Collera, Casper Boongaling Agaton
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Electrification of public utility vehicles plays a vital role in the transition towards a more sustainable transport system. However, the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) encounters varying challenges ranging from financing issues, government policies, and public acceptance. Using the Philippines as a case, this research applies political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental (PESTLE) analysis to determine how different drivers affect the adoption of EVs in the public transport system from various transport stakeholders’ vantage points. Survey results identified economic and technological factors as the main barriers to the adoption of electric public transport. This includes high investment and operational costs, lack of charging infrastructure, issues in driving range and use in different terrains, and the availability of EV parts and repair stations. On the other hand, the main enabler is the significant public support for the modernization of the public transport system through EVs, backed up by policy and legal drivers. For a zero-emission public transport system, this study recommends that the government should invest in sustainable sources of energy, develop more public infrastructure, diversify the transport sector, fund the development of locally made EVs, and initiate a massive information campaign in educating the public of its advantages.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010046
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 47: Fault Diagnosis Method of DC Charging Points for
           EVs Based on Deep Belief Network

    • Authors: Dexin Gao, Xihao Lin
      First page: 47
      Abstract: According to the complex fault mechanism of direct current (DC) charging points for electric vehicles (EVs) and the poor application effect of traditional fault diagnosis methods, a new kind of fault diagnosis method for DC charging points for EVs based on deep belief network (DBN) is proposed, which combines the advantages of DBN in feature extraction and processing nonlinear data. This method utilizes the actual measurement data of the charging points to realize the unsupervised feature extraction and parameter fine-tuning of the network, and builds the deep network model to complete the accurate fault diagnosis of the charging points. The effectiveness of this method is examined by comparing with the backpropagation neural network, radial basis function neural network, support vector machine, and convolutional neural network in terms of accuracy and model convergence time. The experimental results prove that the proposed method has a higher fault diagnosis accuracy than the above fault diagnosis methods.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010047
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 48: Real-World Mobility and Environmental Data for
           the Assessment of In-Vehicle Battery Capacity Fade

    • Authors: Elena Paffumi, Giorgio Martini
      First page: 48
      Abstract: This work develops scenario-based analyses for predicting in-vehicle performance degradation of automotive traction batteries. It combines recent capacity performance-based models of NCM-LMO Li-ion (Nickel Cobalt Manganese Oxide—Lithium Manganese Oxide) variant batteries with real-world vehicle driving data from different geographical areas of Europe. The analysis addresses different battery and vehicle architectures (PHEVs (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles) and BEVs (Battery Electric Vehicles)) combined with different recharging strategies and mobility patterns and environmental temperatures. The mobility pattern datasets used in this analysis refer to six European cities and include up to 508,609 private vehicles, corresponding to 1.78 billion GPS records, 9.1 million trips and parking events and a total driven distance of 106.1 million kilometers. The results show the effect that the environmental temperature, the recharging power, and the driven kilometers have on the calendar and cycling aging. The majority of the combinations of the considered vehicle architectures and recharge strategies do not lead to battery capacity drop below 80% of its nominal value in less than five calendar years for a usage profile of up to 1000 km/month.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010048
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 49: Retraction: Codani, P., et al. Coupling Local
           Renewable Energy Production with Electric Vehicle Charging: A Survey of
           the French Case. World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7, 489–499

    • Authors: World Electric Vehicle Association
      First page: 49
      Abstract: The journal retracts the article, ”Coupling Local Renewable Energy Production with Electric Vehicle Charging: A Survey of the French Case” [...]
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010049
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 50: Retraction: Marongiu, A., et al. On-board Aging
           Estimation using Half-cell Voltage Curves for LiFePO4 Cathode-based
           Lithium-Ion Battery for Electric Vehicle Application. World Electr. Veh.
           J. 2015, 7, 14–24

    • Authors: World Electric Vehicle Association
      First page: 50
      Abstract: The journal retracts the article, ”On-board Aging Estimation using Half-cell Voltage Curves for LiFePO4 Cathode-based Lithium-Ion Battery for Electric Vehicle Application” [...]
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010050
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 51: Retraction: Jeon, K.; et al. Laboratory Alignment
           Procedure for Improving Reproducibility of Tyre Wet Grip Measurement.
           World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7, 414–419

    • Authors: World Electric Vehicle Association World Electric Vehicle Association
      First page: 51
      Abstract: The journal retracts the article, ”Laboratory Alignment Procedure for Improving Reproducibility of Tyre Wet Grip Measurement” [...]
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010051
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 1: Reliability Control of Electric Racing Car’s
           Accelerator and Brake Pedals

    • Authors: Yuxing Li, Hanchi Hong, Luigi D’Apolito
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Considering the rules of Formula Student Racing regarding functional and safety requirements of an electric vehicle’s power system, a reliability control model of accelerator and brake pedal is developed in the Matlab/Simulink platform. Voltage signals of the accelerator pedal are filtered. An amplitude limit module and consistency module check the filtered voltage signals of the accelerator pedal. The voltage signal of the brake pedal is processed to achieve the accurate position of the accelerator pedal and avoid the influence of incorrect signals and mis-operation on safety. The control model need not change the structure of the pedal and increase the sensors. Simulation and experimental results verified that the model can effectively avoid influences of pedal vibration on the voltage signal, identify the faulty signals and cut power output when the accelerator and brake pedal are depressed simultaneously.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-23
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010001
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 2: The Development of Electric Vehicle Charging
           Stations in Thailand: Policies, Players, and Key Issues (2015–2020)

    • Authors: Trin Thananusak, Prattana Punnakitikashem, Sitthichai Tanthasith, Boonying Kongarchapatara
      First page: 2
      Abstract: This article explored the development of electric vehicle (EV) charging stations in Thailand between 2015 and 2020. This research aimed to study the main players and examine their goals, strategies, and operations in the EV charging business as well as the key issues that these charging operators have encountered in developing charging stations. The authors collected qualitative data (direct interviews with managers, video interviews, news, research articles, industry reports and press releases of EV charging operators) and used a constant comparison approach to analyze the data. The study found that after 2015, the Thai government created technology-push policies to kick-start the investment in the EV charging station business (such as subsidies for charging stations, setting a temporary selling price for electricity and building an EV charging consortium). The main players in the Thai charging business include: (1) oil and gas companies; (2) electricity state enterprises; (3) green energy companies; (4) start-ups; and (5) automotive companies. The goals of investing in the charging business for the oil and gas incumbents were to find a new growth engine and to prepare for the potential disruption in the energy sector whereas the green energy companies and start-ups wanted to capture customer bases in this promising industry. These players tended to use a partnership strategy to expand charging networks at key locations (malls, restaurants, offices). Regarding the key issues in expanding the EV charging network, the operators suggested that the high upfront investment costs, small number of EV users, and the high electricity prices (from the demand charge and usage guarantee fee) make them ‘wait-and-see’ and cautiously expand the charging network. Finally, we found that the government tried to address the constraints by setting up a national EV policy committee to accelerate EV adoption and EV charging stations in Thailand. The committee also set a fixed and reduced electricity price for charging operators.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-25
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010002
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 3: Lightweight Chassis Design of Hybrid Trucks
           Considering Multiple Road Conditions and Constraints

    • Authors: Shuvodeep De, Karanpreet Singh, Junhyeon Seo, Rakesh K. Kapania, Erik Ostergaard, Nicholas Angelini, Raymond Aguero
      First page: 3
      Abstract: The paper describes a fully automated process to generate a shell-based finite element model of a large hybrid truck chassis to perform mass optimization considering multiple load cases and multiple constraints. A truck chassis consists of different parts that could be optimized using shape and size optimization. The cross members are represented by beams, and other components of the truck (batteries, engine, fuel tanks, etc.) are represented by appropriate point masses and are attached to the rail using multiple point constraints to create a mathematical model. Medium-fidelity finite element models are developed for front and rear suspensions and they are attached to the chassis using multiple point constraints, hence creating the finite element model of the complete truck. In the optimization problem, a set of five load conditions, each of which corresponds to a road event, is considered, and constraints are imposed on maximum allowable von Mises stress and the first vertical bending frequency. The structure is optimized by implementing the particle swarm optimization algorithm using parallel processing. A mass reduction of about 13.25% with respect to the baseline model is achieved.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-28
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12010003
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 61: Location and Routing Planning Considering
           Electric Vehicles with Restricted Distance in Agriculture

    • Authors: Chalermchat Theeraviriya, Worapot Sirirak, Natthanan Praseeratasang
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs) are anticipated to play a critical role in the green transportation of the future. Logistics companies have started several projects operating with EVs in road transportation. However, routing decisions for EVs must take limited driving ranges into account. Previous related research on electric vehicle location routing problems (EVLRP) has investigated intra route facilities that support the energy supply network. Contrarily, this paper studies a new type of EVLRP with a restricted distance, where EVs are used for route planning in reverse flow logistics. The model is formulated from a real case problem in agriculture that combines both locating multiple depots and determining routing paths with a limited distance constraint. An adaptive large neighborhood search (ALNS) algorithm has been extended into four combinations and is proposed here for solving the problem. The computational results indicate that the ALNS algorithm can obtain quality solutions in short processing time when compared with software using exact methods. Furthermore, the proposed ALNS algorithm is applied to a case study problem to provide suitable locations and vehicle routes with a minimized total cost.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040061
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 62: A Blockchain-Based Configuration for Balancing
           the Electricity Grid with Distributed Assets

    • Authors: Tarek AlSkaif, Bart Holthuizen, Wouter Schram, Ioannis Lampropoulos, Wilfried van Sark
      First page: 62
      Abstract: This paper explores a future perspective to foster the provision of balancing services to the electricity grid by distributed assets. One recent test case, initiated by the Dutch Transmission System Operator (TSO), was to operate an Electric Vehicle (EV) fleet on the automatic Frequency Restoration Reserve (aFRR) market, which entails fast and automated reserves. To achieve that in a decentralised, automated and transparent manner, the role of blockchain technology for this specific application is explored. We propose a novel configuration that can serve as a basis for deploying distributed assets for aFRR markets using blockchain or any alternative Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT). Automation can be achieved via the deployment of smart contracts, which also results in transparency in the system. The blockchain configurations are designed for three phases in the aFRR market, namely: (i) Operational planning and scheduling by a balancing service provider (i.e., formulation and submission of aFRR bid), (ii) Real-time operations (i.e., activation and measurements), and (iii) Verification and settlement (i.e., imbalance correction and financial settlement). The paper concludes that the scalability of distributed assets that can participate in the system, combined with the large transaction times and energy consumption of some consensus mechanisms, could put limitations on the proposed architecture. Future research should address benchmarking studies of other alternatives (e.g., DLTs, such as the ones based on directed acyclic graphs, and non-DLT solutions) with the proposed blockchain solution.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040062
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 63: Parametric Modeling of Mass and Volume Effects
           for Battery Electric Vehicles, with Focus on the Wheel Components

    • Authors: Lorenzo Nicoletti, Andrea Romano, Adrian König, Ferdinand Schockenhoff, Markus Lienkamp
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Defining a vehicle concept during the early development phase is a challenging task, since only a limited number of design parameters are known. For battery electric vehicles (BEVs), vehicle weight is a design parameter, which needs to be estimated by using an iterative approach, thus causing weight fluctuations during the early development phase. These weight fluctuations, in turn, require other vehicle components to be redesigned and can lead to a change in their size (secondary volume change) and weight (secondary weight change). Furthermore, a change in component size can impact the available installation space and can lead to collision between components. In this paper, we focus on a component that has a high influence on the available installation space: the wheels. We model the essential components of the wheels and further quantify their secondary volume and weight changes caused by a vehicle weight fluctuation. Subsequently, we model the influence of the secondary volume changes on the available installation space at the front axle. The hereby presented approach enables an estimation of the impact of weight fluctuations on the wheels and on the available installation space, which enables a reduction in time-consuming iterations during the development process.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040063
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 64: Design Method of Double-Boost DC/DC Converter
           with High Voltage Gain for Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Zhengxin Liu, Jiuyu Du, Boyang Yu
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Direct current to direct current (DC/DC) converters are required to have higher voltage gains in some applications for electric vehicles, high-voltage level charging systems and fuel cell electric vehicles. Therefore, it is greatly important to carry out research on high voltage gain DC/DC converters. To improve the efficiency of high voltage gain DC/DC converters and solve the problems of output voltage ripple and robustness, this paper proposes a double-boost DC/DC converter. Based on the small-signal model of the proposed converter, a double closed-loop controller with voltage–current feedback and input voltage feedforward is designed. The experimental results show that the maximum efficiency of the proposed converter exceeds 95%, and the output voltage ripple factor is 0.01. Compared with the traditional boost converter and multi-phase interleaved DC/DC converter, the proposed topology has certain advantages in terms of voltage gain, device stress, number of devices, and application of control algorithms.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040064
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 65: Computationally Efficient Energy Management in
           Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Approximate Pontryagin’s Minimum
           Principle

    • Authors: Fengqi Zhang, Lihua Wang, Serdar Coskun, Yahui Cui, Hui Pang
      First page: 65
      Abstract: This article presents an energy management method for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) based on approximate Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (A-PMP). The A-PMP optimizes gearshift commands and torque distribution for overall energy efficiency. As a practical numerical solution in PMP, the proposed methodology utilizes a piecewise linear approximation of the engine fuel rate and state of charge (SOC) derivative by considering drivability and fuel economy simultaneously. Moreover, battery aging is explicitly studied by introducing a control-oriented model, which aims to investigate the effect of battery aging on the optimization performance in the development of the HEVs. An approximate energy management strategy with piecewise linear models is then formulated by the A-PMP, which targets a better performance for the Hamiltonian optimization. The gearshift map is extracted from the optimal results in the standard PMP to hinder frequent gearshift by considering both drivability and fuel economy. Utilizing an approximated Hamilton function, the torque distribution, gearshift command, and the battery aging degradation are jointly optimized under a unified framework. Simulations are performed for dynamic programming (DP), PMP, and A-PMP to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results indicate that the proposed methodology achieves a close fuel economy compared with the DP-based optimal solution. Moreover, it improves the computation efficiency by 50% and energy saving by 3.5%, compared with the PMP, while ensuring good drivability and fuel efficiency.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040065
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 66: A Review of Battery State of Health Estimation
           Methods: Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenges

    • Authors: Nassim Noura, Loïc Boulon, Samir Jemeï
      First page: 66
      Abstract: To cope with the new transportation challenges and to ensure the safety and durability of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, high performance and reliable battery health management systems are required. The Battery State of Health (SOH) provides critical information about its performances, its lifetime and allows a better energy management in hybrid systems. Several research studies have provided different methods that estimate the battery SOH. Yet, not all these methods meet the requirement of automotive real-time applications. The real time estimation of battery SOH is important regarding battery fault diagnosis. Moreover, being able to estimate the SOH in real time ensure an accurate State of Charge and State of Power estimation for the battery, which are critical states in hybrid applications. This study provides a review of the main battery SOH estimation methods, enlightening their main advantages and pointing out their limitations in terms of real time automotive compatibility and especially hybrid electric applications. Experimental validation of an online and on-board suited SOH estimation method using model-based adaptive filtering is conducted to demonstrate its real-time feasibility and accuracy.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040066
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 67: Investigation of Thermal Effects in Different
           Lightweight Constructions for Vehicular Wireless Power Transfer Modules

    • Authors: Steve Zimmer, Martin Helwig, Peter Lucas, Anja Winkler, Niels Modler
      First page: 67
      Abstract: This paper presents a thermal investigation of lightweight on-board receiver modules of wireless power transfer systems for electric vehicles. The studied modules are capable of receiving up to 11 kW at a resonance frequency of 85 kHz over a distance of 110–160 mm. The receiver modules were built as sandwich and space–frame concept to design stiff and lightweight structures. The high transmission power of automotive wireless power transfer systems combined with the multi-part assembly of receiver modules led to challenges in heat management. To address this, the physical behaviour of the proposed lightweight concepts were studied on component and system level using a hardware-in-the-loop testing facility for wireless power transfer systems. Special emphasis was laid on the validation of a thermal simulation model, which uses analytical calculated power losses taking into account their temperature dependency. The proposed simulation model is consistent with the experimental validation of the critical active components. The performed systematic studies build the basis for a more sophisticated thermal dimensioning of various constructions for wireless power transfer modules.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040067
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 68: Drivability Optimization by Reducing Oscillation
           of Electric Vehicle Drivetrains

    • Authors: Andreas Koch, Ludwig Schulz, Gabrielius Jakstas, Jens Falkenstein
      First page: 68
      Abstract: The drivetrain of electric vehicles differs significantly from vehicles with combustion engines. Current concepts of electric vehicle drivetrains usually have a low damping. Typically, there is no clutch to separate the inertial mass of the electric drive machine from the rest of the vehicle drivetrain. External (road unevenness, potholes, etc.) and internal excitation (torque changes of the electric machine, brake interferences, etc.) cause jerk oscillation and sometimes high component stress. These excitations can be reduced by suitable drivability functions, to which a reference filter can also be assigned. A common approach known from conventional drivetrains is to limit the gradient of the demand torque of the drive machine or the driver′s desired torque in order to influence the torque build-up of the drive machine and to reduce the excitation of jerk oscillations. A second approach is the use of a prefilter. The prefilter uses the inverse dynamics of the drivetrain to influence the demand torque of the drive machine. In this paper, the influence of a prefilter based on the inverse dynamics of electric vehicle drivetrains to reduce oscillations is investigated. In addition, an anti-jerk control enhances the drivability function afterwards. All investigations are made on a hardware-in-the-loop test bench to create reproducible results.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-05
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040068
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 69: Particle Swarm Optimization and
           Real-Road/Driving-Cycle Analysis Based Powertrain System Design for Dual
           Motor Coupling Electric Vehicle

    • Authors: Chao Ma, Shiwei Jin, Kun Yang, Di Tan, Jie Gao, Dechao Yan
      First page: 69
      Abstract: In this study, a planetary gear based dual motor coupling electric vehicle is proposed, which achieves higher system efficiency by enabling motor working under high operating efficiency area. Firstly, the dynamic characteristics of the proposed configuration are analyzed and the reasonable working modes are established. Secondly, the optimal dual motor parameters are derived according to the statistical analysis on the typical driving conditions and the collected real road driving data. Especially, the optimal parameters of planetary gear and final transmission ratio are obtained using particle swarm optimization algorithm. Finally, based on the developed mode shift algorithm, the dual motor coupling full vehicle model is developed and the vehicle performance is analyzed using MATLAB/Simulink. For the UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule) driving cycle, it is seen from the simulation results of motor operating points that the proposed dual motor configuration is mostly operated under the high efficiency range, and the power consumption is significantly reduced by 7.6% compared with the single motor configuration. For the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle), WLTC (Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle) and real road driving conditions, the proposed dual motor configuration also achieves system efficiency improvement of 5.0%~16.3%, which confirms the validity of the proposed configuration and its corresponding parameter matching and control algorithm development.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-06
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040069
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 70: Investigating the Future of Ultrafast Charging: A
           Choice Experiment in the Netherlands

    • Authors: Simone Y. ten Have, Konstantinos Gkiotsalitis, Karst T. Geurs
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Ultrafast charging is developing and will soon be available to electric vehicles (EV). This research focuses on the feasibility of ultrafast charging for EV passenger cars in the Netherlands. We carried out a stated choice experiment with 311 respondents (all EV drivers) and developed mixed logit models based on random utility maximization. In deciding which charging type to choose, this research identified the charging point characteristics, price, proximity to shopping facilities, certainty of charging availability and not having to make a detour as key influential factors for EV drivers. Price changes and not having to make a detour substantially affect users’ choices for the charging types. Contrary to expectations, no significant results were found for urban density, age, technology awareness and importance of sustainability. Finally, the research results show that there is demand for ultrafast charging in the Netherlands even if users have to pay slightly more compared to other forms of charging.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040070
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 71: Initial Rotor Position Detection for Permanent
           Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on High-Frequency Voltage Injection without
           Filter

    • Authors: Zhiqiang Wang, Bo Yao, Liyan Guo, Xuefeng Jin, Xinmin Li, Huimin Wang
      First page: 71
      Abstract: The accurate initial rotor position of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is necessary for starting the motor, and for the position sensorless control method adopted by a PMSM control system under some working conditions. This paper presents a new method to detect the initial rotor position of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The method does not need a low-pass filter, and has strong robustness and a simple calculation method. According to the relationship between high-frequency current response and rotor position angle θ, the rotor position angle can be obtained by arctangent and linear formulae. Finally, the magnetic polarity of the rotor is distinguished according to the change of inductance. In this method, the arctangent function is used to eliminate the filtering process and reduce the influence of the parameter deviation of the motor system on the detection accuracy of the initial position. The experimental results verify the correctness of the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the method.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040071
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 72: Control of Dual-Output DC/DC Converters Using
           Duty Cycle and Frequency

    • Authors: Yoshinori Matsushita, Toshihiko Noguchi, Kazuki Shimizu, Noritaka Taguchi, Makoto Ishii
      First page: 72
      Abstract: As part of the integration process of the auxiliary power systems of electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid vehicles and fuel cell vehicles, this study proposes a method to control two different voltage types using two control factors of the rectangular alternating waveforms contained in DC/DC converters, namely the duty cycle and frequency. A prototype circuit consisting of an H-bridge inverter, a transformer, two series resonant filters and two diode bridge circuits was constructed. The H-bridge inverter was connected to the primary side of the transformer and the diode bridge rectifier circuit was connected to the secondary side in parallel. Series resonant filters were inserted between one of the diode bridge circuits and the transformer. Thereafter, the proposed control method was applied to the transformer voltage of the prototype circuit. Although the circuit operation became complex owing to the circulating current flowing between the ground (GND) of the two output circuits, it exhibited ideal static and dynamic characteristics, thereby confirming the possibility of controlling two voltages with the duty cycle and frequency control factors. The results of the efficiency evaluation and loss analysis demonstrated a minimum efficiency of 68.3% and a maximum efficiency of 88.9%. As the output power of the circuit containing the resonant filters increased, the current peak value increased and the circuit became less efficient.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-13
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040072
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 73: Fast Charging Systems for Passenger Electric
           Vehicles

    • Authors: Rick Wolbertus, Robert van den Hoed
      First page: 73
      Abstract: This paper explores current and potential future use of fast charging stations for electric passenger vehicles. The aim of the paper is to analyse current charging patterns at fast charging stations and the role of fast charging among different charging options. These patterns are explored along the lines of the technical capabilities of the vehicles and it is found that with increasing battery capacity the need for fast charging decreases. However, for those vehicles with large charging capacities there are indications that fast charging is perceived as more convenient as these are used more often. Such results indicate a larger share for fast charging if charging capacities increase in the future. Results from a spatial analysis show that most fast charging is done at a considerable distance from home, suggesting mostly ‘on the road’ charging sessions. Some fast charging sessions are relatively close to home, especially for those without private home charging access. This shows some future potential for fast charging in cities with many on-street parking facilities.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-13
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040073
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 74: An Assessment of Low-Cost Tractor Motorization
           with Main Farming Implements

    • Authors: Yassine Zahidi, Mohamed El Moufid, Siham Benhadou, Hicham Medromi
      First page: 74
      Abstract: The objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of a low-cost tractor equipped with a parallel hybrid engine, which was simulated using AMESim software. The tractor was evaluated with three different farming implements attached to the tractor, and each implement requires a different type of power. The first simulation was executed without any implements attached. The tractor was able to run for 170 s with the electric motor only, which resulted in fuel savings during this period. The first implement, a moldboard plow, was attached for the second round of evaluation, and the electric motor ran by itself for 150 s, which also led to fuel savings during operation. During the third simulation, the tractor was attached to a Bette Harvest, which has a very high-power demand. The obtained results show that both engines were engaged to provide the required energy. During the final round of evaluation, simulations were run for a straw tub grinder. In this simulation, the electric motor ran alone until the battery was fully discharged. Thereafter, the combustion engine was activated in order to facilitate operations and to charge the battery. The results show that the parallel hybrid architecture employed for the low-cost tractor significantly decreased the CO2 emissions and minimized the consumption of fuel.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040074
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 75: Reduced-Order Electro-Thermal Battery Model Ready
           for Software-in-the-Loop and Hardware-in-the-Loop BMS Evaluation for an
           Electric Vehicle

    • Authors: An Li, Matthieu Ponchant, Johannes Sturm, Andreas Jossen
      First page: 75
      Abstract: The software-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop tests of a battery management system require a real-time compatible electro-thermal battery pack model. In our study, a numerically complex electrochemical-thermal model has been characterized from experimental data of a nickel-rich, silicon-graphite 18650-type lithium-ion cell. While it accurately represents the electro-thermal battery behavior, it is hardly suitable for real-time application due to its intensively numerical solving effort and related calculation time if no huge numerical efforts are applied to reduce the model. The objective of this paper is to present a simple method to derive a reduced-order electro-thermal cell model from the complex electrochemical-thermal cell model and build a real-time compatible battery pack model with the reduced-order cell model.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040075
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 76: Energy Management System Design for Good Delivery
           Electric Trike Equipped with Different Powertrain Configurations

    • Authors: Iman K. Reksowardojo, Rafi R. Arya, Bentang A. Budiman, Metha Islameka, Sigit P. Santosa, Poetro L. Sambegoro, Abdul R. A. Aziz, Ezrann Z. Z. Abidin
      First page: 76
      Abstract: This paper demonstrates the design of an electric trike’s energy management system for a goods delivery service via various possible component configurations. A model of the energy management system was first developed based on general engineering vehicles’ equations using Matlab software. Various component configurations, such as the usage of two battery types (lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA)), implementation of three braking strategies (full mechanical, parallel, and series strategies), the presence of a range extender (RE), and various masses of range extenders were simulated by using the model. The driving cycle of the e-trike as input data in the simulation was obtained by driving the vehicle around Bandung City. Speed, distance, and elevation were obtained by using GPS-based software. The simulation results showed that the most efficient and effective component configuration was to use the serial regenerative braking strategy with no RE equipped. This configuration achieved an efficiency of 18.07 km/kWh. However, for a longer route, the usage of a 20-kg RE was required to prevent the state of charge drop below 30%. The NCA with serial regenerative braking and 20-kg RE had an efficiency of 17.47 km/kWh for the complete route.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040076
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 77: From Cell to Battery System in BEVs: Analysis of
           System Packing Efficiency and Cell Types

    • Authors: Hendrik Löbberding, Saskia Wessel, Christian Offermanns, Mario Kehrer, Johannes Rother, Heiner Heimes, Achim Kampker
      First page: 77
      Abstract: The motivation of this paper is to identify possible directions for future developments in the battery system structure for BEVs to help choosing the right cell for a system. A standard battery system that powers electrified vehicles is composed of many individual battery cells, modules and forms a system. Each of these levels have a natural tendency to have a decreased energy density and specific energy compared to their predecessor. This however, is an important factor for the size of the battery system and ultimately, cost and range of the electric vehicle. This study investigated the trends of 25 commercially available BEVs of the years 2010 to 2019 regarding their change in energy density and specific energy of from cell to module to system. Systems are improving. However, specific energy is improving more than energy density. More room for improvements is thus to be gained in packaging optimization and could be a next step for further battery system development. Other aspects looked at are cell types and sizes. There, a trend to larger and prismatic cells could be identified.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-10
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040077
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 78: 2 kW Dual-Output Isolated DC/DC Converter Based
           on Current Doubler and Step-Down Chopper

    • Authors: Yoshinori Matsushita, Toshihiko Noguchi, Noritaka Taguchi, Makoto Ishii
      First page: 78
      Abstract: In the context of the auxiliary power for motor-driven vehicles having two systems, we propose a new topology for a dual-output isolated DC/DC converter, which offers advantages in terms of efficiency and size. The proposed circuit consists of an H-bridge inverter, a transformer, and an integrated circuit of a current doubler and step-down chopper. Considering the high power and high frequency, our objective was to evaluate and identify the issues of an actual device with a power output of 2 kW and switching frequency of 400 kHz. The circuit feasibility was examined through measurements of the prototype, and both the voltage target response and load disturbance response characteristics were confirmed to operate as designed. The maximum and minimum efficiencies of this circuit were 81.3 and 61.5%, respectively, demonstrating that the load loss of the step-down chopper had a significant impact on the efficiency. The loss analysis revealed that the loss at the integrated circuit on the secondary side accounted for more than 50% of the total loss. Moreover, issues such as the behavior at power-on, efficiency, and size were identified and evaluated, thereby achieving the objectives of the study.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040078
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 79: CRITIC Method and Grey System Theory in the Study
           of Global Electric Cars

    • Authors: Thi Kim Lien Nguyen, Hoang Nga Le, Van Hai Ngo, Bang An Hoang
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Science and technology development is a crucial for the elimination of air pollutants. The electric car industry, for example, contributes to minimizing emissions and climate change. The purpose of this study is to present an overview of electric car sales and its market share in 14 countries, from past to future, by integrating important criteria through the inter-criteria correlation (CRITIC) method in multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM), grey model first-order one variables (GM(1,1)), and grey relation analysis (GRA) method in grey system theory. First, the GM(1,1) estimates future terms based on historical time-series. Second, the objective weights of each variable, in every year, are determined by the CRITIC method. Finally, the research uses the GRA method for computing grades and ranks. The empirical result then reveals the performance and rank of electric car sales during the time period of 2016–2023. The analysis results thus reveal market share picture and direction of growth in the electric car industry.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11040079
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 53: Speed Regulation Control for an Integrated
           Motor-Transmission System under External Disturbances

    • Authors: Wei Huang, Jianfeng Huang, Chengliang Yin
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Precise motor speed regulation control is essential to achieve a good gear shifting quality of the integrated motor-transmission (IMT) system, in which the relative speed between outgoing shaft and the gearwheel to be engaged can be eliminated directly through regulation of the motor speed. The speed regulation control confronts the difficulty that there exist external disturbances on the motor shaft, like the unknown load torque arised from bearing friction, oil shearing and oil churning, etc. To deal with these disturbances, a robust speed regulation controller combined a nominal proportional control and integral sliding mode control is proposed. The former is designed to achieve a good speed tracking performance and the latter provides functionality of disturbances rejection. The effects of different controller parameters for the robust controller design are assessed via simulations. Moreover, to verify the effectiveness of the combined control scheme in practical engineering use, experiments are carried out on a test bench with a real IMT powertrain system. Results indicate that the proposed approach can attain a rapid and smooth speed regulation process with a simple controller structure and good robustness.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11030053
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 54: Research on Energy Management Strategies of
           Extended-Range Electric Vehicles Based on Driving Characteristics

    • Authors: Yuanbin Yu, Junyu Jiang, Zhaoxiang Min, Pengyu Wang, Wangsheng Shen
      First page: 54
      Abstract: The extended-range electric vehicle (E-REV) can solve the problems of short driving range and long charging time of pure electric vehicles, but it is necessary to control the engine working points and allocate the power of the energy sources reasonably. In order to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle, an energy management strategy (EMS) that can adapt to the daily driving characteristics of the driver and adjust the control parameters online is proposed in this paper. Firstly, through principal component analysis (PCA) and iterative self-organizing data analysis techniques algorithm (ISODATA) of historical driving data, a typical driving cycle which can describe driving characteristics of the driver is constructed. Then offline optimization of control parameters by adaptive simulated annealing under each typical driving cycle and online recognition of driving cycles by extreme learning machine (ELM) are applied to the adaptive multi-workpoints energy management strategy (A-MEMS) of E-REV. In the end, compared with traditional rule-based control strategies, A-MEMS achieves good fuel-saving and emission-reduction result by simulation verification, and it explores a new and feasible solution for the continuous upgrade of the EMS.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11030054
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 55: Study on the Capacity Fading Effect of Low-Rate
           Charging on Lithium-Ion Batteries in Low-Temperature Environment

    • Authors: Xiaogang Wu, Wenbo Wang, Yizhao Sun, Tao Wen, Jizhong Chen, Jiuyu Du
      First page: 55
      Abstract: By taking a cylindrical LiFePO4 power battery as the research object, the cycle performance test was conducted under different charging current aging paths in a preset low-temperature environment and combined with EIS results to analyze the dynamic characteristics of the battery during the aging process, using the PDF (Probability Density Function) curve to analyze the change of battery energy storage characteristics, and analyze the aging mechanism of the power battery by analyzing the change in the lithium precipitation energy difference. The experimental results showed that under a low-temperature environment, the effect of increasing the charge rate is mainly reflected in slowing down the phase transformation reaction. From the analysis of lithium precipitation of the battery, it can be seen that the main mechanism of the aging of the battery is the loss of active lithium under the conditions of low-rate cycling at sub-zero temperature. The products from the side reaction between the lithium plating and the electrolyte build up on the SEI (Solid Electrolyte Interphase) film, which significantly increases the battery impedance late in the cycle. The work in this paper complements the mechanistic studies of lithium-ion batteries under different aging paths and is also useful for capacity estimation models and research on battery health.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11030055
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 56: A Comprehensive TCO Evaluation Method for
           Electric Bus Systems Based on Discrete-Event Simulation Including Bus
           Scheduling and Charging Infrastructure Optimisation

    • Authors: Dominic Jefferies, Dietmar Göhlich
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Bus operators around the world are facing the transformation of their fleets from fossil-fuelled to electric buses. Two technologies prevail: Depot charging and opportunity charging at terminal stops. Total cost of ownership (TCO) is an important metric for the decision between the two technologies; however, most TCO studies for electric bus systems rely on generalised route data and simplifying assumptions that may not reflect local conditions. In particular, the need to reschedule vehicle operations to satisfy electric buses’ range and charging time constraints is commonly disregarded. We present a simulation tool based on discrete-event simulation to determine the vehicle, charging infrastructure, energy and staff demand required to electrify real-world bus networks. These results are then passed to a TCO model. A greedy scheduling algorithm is developed to plan vehicle schedules suitable for electric buses. Scheduling and simulation are coupled with a genetic algorithm to determine cost-optimised charging locations for opportunity charging. A case study is carried out in which we analyse the electrification of a metropolitan bus network consisting of 39 lines with 4748 passenger trips per day. The results generally favour opportunity charging over depot charging in terms of TCO; however, under some circumstances, the technologies are on par. This emphasises the need for a detailed analysis of the local bus network in order to make an informed procurement decision.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-19
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11030056
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 57: Comparing Devices for Concurrent Measurement of
           AC Current and DC Injection during Electric Vehicle Charging

    • Authors: Olga Mironenko, Willett Kempton
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Widespread adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) requires additional safety countermeasures to prevent DC injection from EVs into the AC grid via Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). Moreover, for energy purchase, and even more so for vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services, the EVSE must conduct high precision bidirectional power and energy measurements. This paper introduces operating principles, structure, performance, and cost comparison of three current sensing technologies—current transformer, shunt and fluxgate—for metering and protection within an EVSE, concluding with recommendations among those sensors for the most beneficial applications concerning EV charging.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11030057
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 58: Toward Group Applications: A Critical Review of
           the Classification Strategies of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Ran Li, Haonian Zhang, Wenrui Li, Xu Zhao, Yongqin Zhou
      First page: 58
      Abstract: To solve the problems of the decreased reliability and safety of battery pack due to the inconsistency between batteries after single batteries are grouped is of great significance to find an appropriate sorting method of single batteries. This study systematically reviews the available literature on battery sorting applications for battery researchers and users. These methods can be roughly divided into three types: direct measurement, sorting based on the model, and sorting based on the material chemistry of batteries. Among them, direct measurement is about the direct measurement of the state parameters of batteries using some professional instruments or testing tools to sort and group batteries with similar or close parameters. Sorting based on the model classifies batteries into groups by establishing a battery equivalent model and carrying out model identification and parameter estimation with machine learning or artificial intelligence algorithm. Sorting based on the material chemistry of batteries is to explore some characteristics related to the chemical mechanism inside the battery. On the basis of reading extensive literature, the methods for classification of battery are provided with an in-depth explanation, and each corresponding strengths and weaknesses of these methods are analyzed. Finally, the future developments of advanced sorting algorithms and batteries prospect.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11030058
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 59: A Health Indicator for the Online Lifetime
           Estimation of an Electric Vehicle Power Li-Ion Battery

    • Authors: Bin Yu, Haifeng Qiu, Liguo Weng, Kailong Huo, Shiqi Liu, Haolu Liu
      First page: 59
      Abstract: With the further development of the electric vehicle (EV) industry, the reliability of prediction and health management (PHM) systems has received great attention. The original Li-ion battery life prediction technology developed by offline training data can no longer meet the needs of use under complex working conditions. The existing methods pay insufficient attention to the dispersive information of health indicators (HIs) under EV driving conditions, and can only calculate through standard configuration files. To solve the problem that it is difficult to directly measure the capacity loss in real time, this paper proposes a battery HI called excitation response level (ERL) to describe the voltage variation at different lifetimes, which could be easily calculated according to the current and voltage under the actual load curve. In addition, in order to further optimize the proposed HI, Box–Cox transformation was used to enhance the linear correlation between the initially extracted HI and the capacity. Several Li-ion batteries were discharged to the 50% state of health (SOH) through profiles with different depths of discharge (DODs) and mean states of charge (SOCs) to verify the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. The average estimation error of the tested batteries was less than 3%, which shows a good performance for accuracy and robustness.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11030059
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 11, Pages 60: The New Neighbor across the Street: An Outlook
           for Battery Electric Vehicles Adoption in Brazil

    • Authors: Jorge Enrique Velandia Vargas, Joaquim E. A. Seabra, Carla K. N. Cavaliero, Arnaldo C. S. Walter, Simone P. Souza, Daniela G. Falco
      First page: 60
      Abstract: As the automotive industry steers towards electromobility and electric vehicle adoption surges, Brazil and other Latin-American countries remain laggards. The Brazilian scenario exhibits unique features, such as a powerful automotive sector with large investments in internal combustion engine technology and a well-established biofuels market based on flex-fuel technology. Although energy security, urban air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, and technological advantage have been common drivers for the adoption of electric vehicles worldwide, the Brazilian immediate motivations are different, and the biofuels business ecosystem is likely to transform the path for electromobility. High tag price and public charging infrastructure absence have deeply discouraged electric vehicles adoption. A lack of regulation and a national consensus about the role of electric vehicles have been notorious. In fact, only in 2018 did the electricity regulatory agency (ANEEL) issue a resolution permitting the sale of electricity for recharging. The objective of this review was to create an outlook of the Brazilian transportation landscape. We identified relevant players, public charging infrastructure initiatives, market and other barriers, and regulation actions by consulting academic literature, media sources, and reports. We do not claim to predict the evolution of electrification. Instead, we aim to consolidate the information which can be used for decision support or strategy definition among entrepreneurs or policymakers. The main findings here are the necessity of a model for electrification able to create a synergy with biofuels and the urgency of having well-defined policies on what Brazil wants from electromobility.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2020-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj11030060
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2020)
       
 
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