Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 214 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (9 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (26 journals)
    - RAILROADS (10 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (9 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (43 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (117 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (117 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 53 of 53 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Mobilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Transport Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Communications in Transportation Research     Open Access  
Danish Journal of Transportation Research / Dansk Tidsskrift for Transportforskning     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Decision Making : Applications in Management and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 16)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
eTransportation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research (EJTIR)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IET Smart Cities     Open Access  
IFAC-PapersOnLine     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Big Data Analytics in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Supply Chain Management Science (JSCMS)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Transport History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal on Vehicle Routing Algorithms     Hybrid Journal  
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
LOGI ? Scientific Journal on Transport and Logistics     Open Access  
Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics & Sustainable Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Logistique & Management     Hybrid Journal  
Maritime Transport Research     Open Access  
Mobility in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Open Transportation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering     Open Access  
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access  
Romanian Journal of Transport Infrastructure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Transport and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal  
Transport Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation in Developing Economies     Hybrid Journal  
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Transportation Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Transportation Systems and Technology     Open Access  
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Vehicles     Open Access  
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
World Electric Vehicle Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
World Electric Vehicle Journal
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2032-6653
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 71: Digital Implementation of LCC Resonant Converters
           for X-ray Generator with Optimal Trajectory Startup Control

    • Authors: Zhennan Zhao, Shanlu Zhang, Lei Li, Shengfang Fan, Cheng Wang
      First page: 71
      Abstract: High voltage LCC resonant converters have been widely used in X-ray imaging systems in automobile nondestructive testing (NDT) applications. Low ripple voltage waveforms with fast-rising time under no-overshoot response are required for safety in such applications. The optimal state trajectory control (OTC) based on the state plane model is one of the most effective control methods to optimize transient response. Dynamic variations of the resonant voltages/currents are described as corresponding trajectories on the state plane. The transient relations can be determined by evaluating the geometric relationships of the trajectories. However, the LCC resonant converter has more state variables, resulting in more complex calculations that make the state trajectory control challenging. Furthermore, the startup duration is the most demanding process of the state trajectory control. In this paper, a digital implementation based on a hybrid controller built in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is proposed for LCC resonant converters with optimal trajectory startup control. A coordinated linear compensator is employed to control the switching frequency during steady-state conditions, hence eliminating the steady-state error. The experimental results were conducted on a 140-kV/42-kW LCC resonant converter for an X-ray generator. It achieves a short rising time of output voltage with no additional current or voltage stress in the resonant tank during startup compared to the conventional digital implementation control.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050071
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 72: Permanent Magnet or Additional Electromagnet
           Compensation Structures of End Electromagnet Module for Mid-Low Speed
           Maglev Train

    • Authors: Yunfeng He, Qinfen Lu
      First page: 72
      Abstract: In the mid-low speed Maglev train, the levitation force produced by end electromagnets is influenced by the train speed due to the eddy current effect, especially the front-end electromagnets at high speed. In this paper, the eddy current effect of front-end electromagnets is calculated by an analytical method, which is validated by the Finite Element method (FEM). To compensate a decrease of levitation force, two improved structures of end electromagnet modules are designed and compared. One is the permanent magnet compensation structure, designed by inserting a piece of permanent magnet (PM), and called the PM hybrid structure, and the other is an additional electromagnet compensation structure, which adopts five electromagnets, and called the five-coil structure. In terms of comparison, the five-coil structure can not only produce a high enough levitation force, but can also be easily manufactured. Its effectiveness is verified by the prototype application.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050072
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 73: Development and Simulation of Real-Time Early
           Warning Protection System for Electric Vehicle Charging Based on a
           Two-Layer Protection Model

    • Authors: Linru Jiang, Taoyong Li, Bowen Li, Xiaohong Diao, Jing Zhang
      First page: 73
      Abstract: With the increase of fire problems of new energy vehicles (EVs), more and more attention has been paid to charging safety. Firstly, the charging safety problems and protection strategies in the power grid are summarized from the grid side, the charging equipment side, the vehicle side, and the operation platform side, and a solution for the vehicle side charging safety protection is proposed. Secondly, with regards to building a charging early warning protection system architecture, a real-time protection strategy for EV charging is proposed; a battery temperature difference, battery voltage ramp rate, and current ramp rate are proposed; and a double-layer protection model of an active protection layer and a big data protection layer is established based on the real-time monitoring of 27 parameters. Finally, by building a physical simulation platform of the early warning system, the simulation and verification are carried out based on the BYD Han model. The system was demonstrated in the State Grid Tianjin Electric Power Company of China. The results show that the system can realize the charging real-time early warning and deal with it in time when the battery charging is abnormal, which has practical application value for the popularization and development of EVs.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050073
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 74: Cycling Infrastructure for All EPACs
           Included'

    • Authors: Nikolaas Van den Steen, Bas de Geus, Jan Cappelle, Lieselot Vanhaverbeke
      First page: 74
      Abstract: A modal shift to electric pedal-assisted cycles (EPACs) can help with reaching the transport emission goals of the European Green Deal. With the rising sales of EPACs in Europe, a lack of appropriate (electric) cycling infrastructure remains a major barrier for many potential users. This paper discusses the results of a survey about the requirements of (potential) cyclists to design a better cycling infrastructure. The differences in requirements for non-cyclists vs. cyclists and electric cyclists vs. conventional cyclists are discussed using statistical analysis. The key findings are that cyclists and non-cyclists both require wide quality cycling infrastructure with safe crossing points, secure bicycle parking and smart traffic lights. Non-cyclists’ requirements significantly differ from cyclists’ on 12 items, of which rain cover while cycling and parking spots for the car are the most noteworthy. There is (but) one significant difference between the requirements of EPAC users and conventional cyclists: the need for charging points for EPACs along the cycle route.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050074
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 75: Thermal Analysis of Automobile Drive Axles by the
           Thermal Network Method

    • Authors: Xinfei Ning, Mingzhang Chen, Zijian Zhou, Yuwen Shu, Wei Xiong, Yang Cao, Xuebing Shang, Zixi Wang
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Excessive temperature is detrimental to the operation stability of the automobile drive axle. It is necessary to judge whether the highest temperature exceeds the limited dangerous temperature and study the effects of key factors on reducing the temperature. In this study, the temperature field distribution (TFD) of the automobile drive axle is revealed using the thermal network method (TNM). Compared with the experimentation and finite element analysis (FEA), the TNM is more convenient for obtaining the temperature. Subsequently, the highest temperature of the automobile drive axle is clear and applied to judge whether the highest temperature exceeds the limited dangerous temperature. On the basis of the TNM, the structure and parameter effects of the automobile drive axle on reducing the temperature are studied, which improves the operation stability and working life. Several conclusions can be drawn. The highest temperatures of two-axle and planetary automobile drive axles are both located in the motor. Compared with the two-axle drive axle, the highest temperature of the planetary drive axle is obviously lower. Therefore, in terms of the planetary drive axle, the possibility of exceeding the limited dangerous temperature is lower. In addition, on the premise of ensuring the normal operation, the motor output power, the friction coefficient among teeth, the helical angle of the gear, and the thermal transfer coefficient of the lubricating oil can be optimized to be lower for reducing the temperature of the automobile drive axle.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050075
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 76: LMS/RLS/OCTAVE Vibration Controls of Cold Orbital
           Forging Machines for Improving Quality of Forged Vehicle Parts

    • Authors: Mingzhang Chen, Xinfei Ning, Zijian Zhou, Yuwen Shu, Yun Tang, Yang Cao, Xuebing Shang, Xinghui Han
      First page: 76
      Abstract: Cold orbital forging (COF) as an advanced incremental metal-forming technology has been widely used in processing vehicle parts. During the COF process, the vibration on the COF machine injures the service life of the machine and the quality of the forged part. The study of the vibration control of the COF machine is therefore necessary. In this study, the dynamic model of the COF machine is established, and the vibration performances of some key positions are obtained using Matlab&Simulink software. Subsequently, the vibration performances are effectively verified by conducting a vibration test experiment. Based on the dynamics model of the COF machine and Matlab&Simulink software, least-mean-squares (LMS), recursive least-squares (RLS) and OCTAVE vibration-control algorithms are applied to reduce the vibration. Comparing the vibration performances of the COF machine, these vibration-control algorithms are useful for reducing the vibration of the machine, which improves the service life of the machine and the quality of the forged part. Based on the vibration performances of the COF machine, the effects of LMS and RLS vibration controls are better than the OCTAVE, and they also obviously reduce the vibration of the COF machine. The vibration-control algorithms are first to be applied to reduce the vibration of the COF machines in this study, which will be beneficial to future research on the vibration controls of metal-forming machines and other mechanical systems.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050076
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 77: Location of Electric Vehicle Charging Piles Based
           on Set Coverage Model

    • Authors: Yingying Liang, Xiangyun Fei, Jianlu Li, Xiao He, He Gu
      First page: 77
      Abstract: Electric vehicles are rapidly popping up in the market as a new alternative to fossil fuels, in order to reduce carbon emissions in urban areas. However, the improper placement of charging piles has impeded the development of electric vehicles. In this paper, 12 indicators from 4 categories, namely economy, environment, cost, and service quality are selected to form an index system for evaluating the location of electric vehicle charging piles. The entropy weight-TOPSIS method is also applied for the same purpose. On the basis of the evaluation, this paper proposes a set coverage model and adopts a greedy heuristic algorithm to find out the optimal location of charging piles. Finally, the paper verifies the reasonability and feasibility of this model by studying the existing location of electric vehicle charging piles in northeast China. The evaluation is based on the Liaoning Province Electric Vehicle Big Data Supervision Platform, which has data that are official and scientifically based. The set coverage model proposed, based on the evaluation, is a new solution to finding out the optimal location of electric vehicle charging piles across China. This study aims to provide a theoretical basis for the development of this new energy industry.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050077
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 78: A New Hybrid Ant Colony Optimization Based PID of
           the Direct Torque Control for a Doubly Fed Induction Motor

    • Authors: Said Mahfoud, Aziz Derouich, Najib El Ouanjli, Nguyen Vu Quynh, Mahmoud A. Mossa
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Due to its advantages, the Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller has been the most widely used controller in the industrial sector. It allows linear systems to have good performance, but if the system is subjected to physical variation conditions, the system’s behavior becomes non-linear, in which case the PID controller is insufficient. The use of the PID controller for speed control in rotating machines, such as the doubly fed induction motor (DFIM) is widely used, but the non-linearity of the machine parameters allows for undesirable behaviors, resulting in overshoots and torque ripples. For this reason, several techniques have been adopted to increase the DTC’s robustness. One finds the integration of artificial intelligence as optimization algorithms. These algorithms are used to generate gains close to the optimum, converging the behavior of the DFIM to its optimum. In this work, an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm was proposed to adjust the PID controller gains of the DTC control to control the DFIM, using a combined weighting cost function, to obtain efficient torque and speed control. This paper presents a new hybrid structure resulting from the intelligent ACO-DTC control implemented on Matlab-Simulink. The performance results extracted from the simulation showed the effectiveness of the intelligent ACO-DTC control, which provides satisfactory performance in terms of rapidity, stability, precision, and torque ripples compared to the conventional DTC.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050078
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 79: Evaluation of the Prospects for the Admission of
           Electric Multicopters to Operation at Airports, Subject to the Joint Use
           of Modern Methods of Ensuring Safety of the Movement

    • Authors: Alexey V. Shvetsov
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are a promising means of optimizing existing and developing new technological processes at modern airports. At present, in most countries of the world, airports are still closed to UAVs. To allow UAVs to operate at the airport, it is necessary to solve the problem of ensuring the safety of their movement. In this paper, we consider modern methods for ensuring the safety of the movement of electric multicopters (EMs), which are a type of UAV that, according to its technical characteristics, can be operated at the airport in various applications, including for transportation or monitoring on the territory of the airport. To allow EMs to work at the airport, this paper proposes the joint use of two methods of ensuring traffic safety developed in recent years. The results of the conducted expert evaluation show that such a solution can be considered as the key to the approval of EMs for operation at airports.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050079
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 80: Applications of Battery Management System (BMS)
           in Sustainable Transportation: A Comprehensive Approach from Battery
           Modeling to Battery Integration to the Power Grid

    • Authors: Sagar B S, Santoshkumar Hampannavar, Deepa B, Bansilal Bairwa
      First page: 80
      Abstract: The growing oil demand and serious environmental concerns have promoted the concept of the usage of electric vehicles (EVs) across the globe. EVs can be integrated into the grid for power transaction and to support the grid requirements, thereby drawing the attention of researchers, policy makers and industries. EVs are not only a transportation tool but also act as a distributed source or load. The EV battery plays a prominent role in grid integration and sustainable transportation. The monitoring and control aspect of the battery management system (BMS) plays a vital role in the successful deployment and usage of EVs. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model (ECM) of battery is proposed and analyzed that describes the battery behavior at various temperatures, considering the internal resistance of the battery. A stochastic model was developed for the battery ageing and replacement to ensure that systematic replacement of batteries based on the calendar ageing was performed. A reliability assessment of EV accessibility and availability was carried out by using Markov chain. A case study of a Diesel-renewable powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station (EVCS) in a micro-grid was carried out that suits the requirement of large-scale EV fleet integration to the grid for power transaction. The holistic approach of BMS was considered for the sustainable transportation and grid integration
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050080
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 81: Competitiveness Evaluation of Electric Bus
           Charging Services Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    • Authors: Yinghan Sun, Jiangbo Wang, Cheng Li, Kai Liu
      First page: 81
      Abstract: The premise of the large-scale operation of electric buses corresponds to efficient charging service guarantees. Recent research on charging stations mainly aims to obtain the construction location and construction sequence through optimization methods or decision-making methods. This research has considered the aspects of geography, charging efficiency, economic efficiency, and emergency response capacity. The increase of charging stations will lead to competition among charging stations, unbalanced use of charging facilities, and unnecessary loss of electricity to the power grid. In fact, few studies pay attention to the actual operation of existing charging stations. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a scientific, comprehensive, and efficient charging services evaluation framework to support the actual operation of charging stations. Based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), this paper designs a multi-level indicator evaluation framework, which includes 6 first-level indicators and 20 s-level indicators. The first-level indicators are cutting peak and filling valley (A1), location and scale (A2), intelligent technology (A3), equipment efficiency (A4), operating income (A5), and reliability (A6). Through the questionnaire survey of ten experts in related fields, we understood the importance and attention of these indicators. The results show that the weights of indicators of location and scale index (A2) and reliability (A6) are high, which are 0.2875 and 0.2957, respectively. The least concerned indicator is equipment utilization efficiency (A4), at a weight of 0.0531. According to the actual data of charging stations in Zhengzhou, China, the comprehensive competitiveness of several charging stations is evaluated by the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). The result shows that station 1 has the highest comprehensive competitiveness, followed by station 2 and station 7. The evaluation framework proposed in this paper comprehensively considers a variety of factors. The combination of AHP and TOPSIS can reduce the uncertainty in experts’ evaluation of the service of the charging station.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050081
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 82: Modeling and Simulation of Traction Power Supply
           System for High-Speed Maglev Train

    • Authors: Ziyu Zou, Mengfei Zheng, Qinfen Lu
      First page: 82
      Abstract: The electromagnetic suspension high-speed maglev train system uses long-stator linear synchronous motors (LLSMs) as levitation and traction mechanisms. In this paper, the modeling and simulation of the traction power supply system for the maglev train are performed. The simulation models include transformers, converters, variable-length cables and LLSMs of both two sides and two ends; meanwhile, the corresponding control and segmented power supply strategies, including the two-step method and three-step method, are implemented. Based on the system model, the operational performance of the high-speed maglev power supply control system is verified, and the fault performances under open circuit and short circuit are also analyzed. The whole simulation modeling and results have important reference significance for the research of high-speed maglev technology.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050082
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 83: Real-Time Estimation of PMSM Rotor Flux Linkage
           for EV Application under Steady State and Free-Running Conditions

    • Authors: Bisheng Wen, Kan Liu, Jing Zhou, Shichao Zhou, Wei Hu, Yongdan Chen, Chao Huang, Qing Huang
      First page: 83
      Abstract: A method for real-time estimation of rotor flux linkage of permanent-magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) under both steady state and free-running conditions is proposed in this paper. At steady state, a method for the estimation of rotor flux linkage is proposed based on the injection of variable-period zero-voltage perturbation, of which the accuracy is irrespective of the influence of voltage-source inverter (VSI) nonlinearity. Moreover, for the estimation of rotor flux linkage under free-running condition, due to system inertia after shutdown or fault in the motor driver, an effective approach using history data recorded at different transients of rotor speeds is developed, which has eliminated the influence of VSI nonlinearity during the modeling process. The proposed two methods are experimentally validated on a down-sized PMSM prototyped for electric vehicle application, which shows good performance for the estimation of rotor flux linkage under both steady state and free-running conditions.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050083
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 84: Electric Vehicle Deployment and Integration in
           the Saudi Electric Power System

    • Authors: Sulaiman A. Almohaimeed
      First page: 84
      Abstract: The demand for electricity in Saudi Arabia has grown in the last few years due to the growth in the economy and the population. The country has invested in many solutions such as promoting renewable energy and shifting to generation mix to respond to this growing demand. However, Electric Vehicles (EVs) are used as an important factor in achieving the Saudi Vision 2030 in its environmental and economical parts. This work gives an overview on the Saudi electrical energy system and then investigates the impact EVs technology in the electricity sector in Saudi Arabia and its relevant consequences. A statistical analysis is used to quantify the number of EVs, travelled distance and traffic congestions, and State of Charge (SOC). The data were used to implement a daily load profile for EVs for a large population of vehicles. The obtained results show that the EVs peak loads occur during the late evening and early morning at different means. Interestingly, the work shows that the peak periods of EVs occur during the off-peak times of the daily load curve. This means that a large population of EVs can offer more flexibility and improvement to the electric grid, and the summative EV load of a large population of vehicles has a smooth pattern and will not affect the national electric system.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050084
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 85: Metrological Validation of Pixhawk Autopilot
           Magnetometers in Helmholtz Cage

    • Authors: Noelia Fariñas-Álvarez, Fermín Navarro-Medina, Higinio González-Jorge
      First page: 85
      Abstract: The use of drones is very extended for multiple applications. Some of them impose attitude and navigation requirements that need appropriate measurements. Pixhawk is an open-source autopilot used on board drones that includes a magnetometer as part of its inertial measurement unit. A testing facility based on a Helmholtz cage is used to evaluate the metrological features of different magnetometer units. The first test induces a magnetic field rotation around six different Pixhawk magnetometers, simulating changes in attitude and course for a drone. The data show a standard deviation higher than 250 mG, in comparison with the standard deviation of 30 mG in the standard gaussmeter model HMR2300. The second test is focused on the stability of the magnetometer, where the Helmholtz cage simulates a certain flight altitude and course. Values obtained from Pixhawk magnetometers range between 25 mG and 116 mG for the highest peak-to-peak magnetic field amplitude, while the standard gaussmeter range is only between 1.3 mG to 5.4 mG. Considering these results, it is possible to determine the limitations of the Pixhawk autopilot magnetometer, both in terms of manufacturing tolerances and measuring stability. Therefore, users should be very careful when using this type of autopilot in professional applications that require precision and safety.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050085
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 86: Novel Hybrid Thermal Management System for
           High-Power Lithium-Ion Module for Electric Vehicles: Fast Charging
           Applications

    • Authors: Danial Karimi, Hamidreza Behi, Joeri Van Mierlo, Maitane Berecibar
      First page: 86
      Abstract: Lithium-ion capacitors (LiC) are hybrid energy storage systems (ESS) combining the advantages of lithium-ion batteries and electric double-layer capacitors, including longer lifetime, high power, and energy densities. LiCs are popular for high-power applications where fast charge and discharge driving profiles are demanded from electric vehicles (EV). However, LiCs generate excess heat when they are exposed to fast charging/discharging profiles. Therefore, a robust thermal management system (TMS) is crucial, in order to ensure reliable operation. In this study, a novel hybrid TMS based on air-cooling system assisted phase change materials (PCM), heat pipes, and a heat sink is proposed for an LiC module under a 150 A continuous current profile. A very thin aluminum heat sink and flat copper heat pipes were added to the PCM to increase its thermal conductivity. An experimental test bench of the proposed TMS was developed, and the temperature distribution of the module for each of the individual LiC cells was studied. The maximum temperature of the module under natural convection, when there was not any cooling system, reached almost 59.8 °C. The experimental results showed that after using the proposed hybrid TMS, the hottest cell reached 36.18 °C while the coldest cell reached 35.54 °C. Therefore, 39.5% improvement could be seen during the whole charge and discharge process after 3000 s. Moreover, the temperature difference within the module, of four LiCs, was around 0.64 °C, which was exceptional.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050086
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 87: A Cross-Layer Approach MAC/NET with Updated-GA
           (MNUG-CLA)-Based Routing Protocol for VANET Network

    • Authors: Ali Hashim Abbas, Ahmed Jamal Ahmed, Sami Abduljabbar Rashid
      First page: 87
      Abstract: Nowadays, technology is developed rapidly in communication technology. Several new technologies have been introduced due to the evolution of wireless communication and this provided the way to communicate among vehicles, using a Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANETs). Routing in VANETs becomes most challenging because of the huge mobility and dynamical topology changes, which lead to reduced efficiency in the network. The core idea of this network is to increase the efficiency during the process of the communication. The most suited routing protocol for VANETs is Geographic routing, for the reason that it provides higher scalability and low overheads. The major challenges in VANETs are the selection of best neighbor in dynamically changing VANET topology. Furthermore, to provide better QoS needful actions are essential. In this paper, we introduced a new MAC/NET with Updated Genetic Algorithm—A Cross Layer Approach, (MNUG-CLA) based on a MAC layer and network layer to overcome the drawbacks of the network. In the network layer, a new neighbor discovery protocol is developed to select the best next hop for the dynamically varying network. In the MAC layer, in order to improve the quality, multi-channel MAC model is introduced for instantaneous transmission from various service channels. For overall optimal path selection, we used an updated GA algorithm. The performance was demonstrated through the use of an extensive simulation environment, NS-2. The simulation results prove that this protocol provides better results, in terms of energy efficiency, energy consumption and successive packet transmission, when compared with the earlier approaches.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050087
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 88: Study of the Effects of Current Imbalance in a
           Multiphase Buck Converter for Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Iván Alfonso Reyes-Portillo, Abraham Claudio-Sanchéz, Jorge Alberto Morales-Saldaña, Jesús Darío Mina-Antonio, Edgardo Marvel Netzahuatl-Huerta, Luisana Claudio-Pachecano, Mario Ponce-Silva, Ericka Reyes-Sánchez
      First page: 88
      Abstract: The excessive use of fossil fuels has caused great concern due to modern environmental problems, particularly air pollution. The above situation demands that different areas of research aim at a sustainable movement to reduce CO2 emissions caused by non-renewable organic fuels. A solution to this problem is the use of Electric Vehicles (EV) for mass transportation of people. However, these systems require high-power DC/DC converters capable of handling high current levels and should feature high efficiencies to charge their batteries. For this application, a single-stage converter is not viable for these applications due to the high current stress in a switch, the low power density, and its low efficiency due to higher switching losses. One solution to this problem is Multiphase Converters, which offer high efficiency, high power density, and low current ripple on the battery side. However, these characteristics are affected by the current imbalance in the phases. This paper is focused on the study of the effects of the current imbalance in a Multiphase Buck Converter, used as an intermediate cover between a power supply and the battery of an EV. Analyzing the efficiency and thermal stress parameters in different scenarios of current balance and current imbalance in each phase.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050088
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 89: Research on the Performance Comparison of Two
           Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles with Typical Energy Management Strategies

    • Authors: Hao Lan, Qiuyu Ma, Zhen Chang, Dan Wang, Tianlei Zheng
      First page: 89
      Abstract: In the development of actual vehicles, manufacturers usually adopt a simplified control strategy to ensure the reliability of the control strategy based on the application scenarios. There are two main working modes for the fuel cell system in fuel cell electric vehicles in China. One is the stepped power type, and the other is the following power type. Therefore, the analysis and comparison of these two typical working modes in the power test of fuel cell electric vehicles helps determine how the fuel cell system works in the actual vehicle and how to choose energy management strategies in different application scenarios. We do the actual tests to explore how the two typical control strategies perform in actual vehicles. These two typical control strategies show different characteristics in the same test. It shows that the energy management strategies should be adopted according to the application scenarios and optimization goals. In the stepped power control strategy, the fluctuation of the fuel cell system and the frequency of starting and stopping are significantly reduced, which is beneficial to the durability of the fuel cell system. Compared with the stepped control strategy, the fluctuation of the output power of fuel cell electric vehicles with the following power control strategy increased significantly. At the same time, a simplified state of charge (SOC) test method is proposed. Due to the particularity of the stepped power control strategy, the change of capacity can be used to replace the change of SOC. For the following power control strategy, the change of electric energy can be used instead of SOC changes.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050089
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 90: Policy Evolution and Intensity Evaluation of the
           Chinese New Energy Vehicle Industry Policy: The Angle of the Dual-Credit
           Policy

    • Authors: Liangui Peng, Ying Li
      First page: 90
      Abstract: The dual-credit policy advances the process of vehicle electrification; however, few studies have reviewed the policy preferences and development trends of the Chinese new energy vehicle industrial policy at different stages from the development angle of the dual-credit policy. This article reviews the policy evolution of the Chinese new energy vehicle industrial policy based on the 2T model (time and types) and evaluates the policy intensity of different industrial policies by PI index. The results find that the Chinese new energy vehicle industry policy is divided into three development periods: 2004–2008—promotion policy and technological policy; 2009–2013—financial policy; and 2014–2020—charging infrastructure policy. The early policy preference for new energy vehicles was not found to be significant. Financial policies have significantly stimulated the development of the new energy vehicle industry, and the implementation of the charging infrastructure policy is late. The policy intensity of the promotion policy is the strongest, followed by the technological policy, and the policy intensity of the charging infrastructure is the weakest. The policy intensity of the financial policy will weaken in the later period. The promulgation of the dual-credit policy reflects the continuity and synergy of policy development.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13050090
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 55: Adaptive Pre-Aim Control of Driverless Vehicle
           Path Tracking Based on a SSA-BP Neural Network

    • Authors: Yinggang Huang, Wenguang Luo, Hongli Lan
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Aiming at the problem that the tracking accuracy of unmanned vehicle path tracking preview control is greatly affected by the preview time, a BP neural network adaptive preview control method is proposed. Considering that the prediction effect of the BP neural network is limited to the initial value setting, a preview time adjuster based on the SSA-BP neural network was established; by establishing the relationship between the front wheel steering angle and the preview time, a new direction control driver model was formed. The driver model and the preview time adjuster together constitute an adaptive steering controller. In order to solve the influence of the longitudinal speed change on the vehicle stability, a PID variable-speed controller was designed to realize the horizontal and vertical coordinated control of the path tracking of the unmanned vehicle. Compared with the fixed preview time and the BP preview time control method, the results show that the proposed method has strong tracking ability when driving at various speeds on three consecutive curves and Alt 3 test roads, and can be used when driving at a variable speed.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040055
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 56: Placing BEV Charging Infrastructure: Influencing
           Factors, Metrics, and Their Influence on Observed Charger Utilization

    • Authors: Lennart Adenaw, Sebastian Krapf
      First page: 56
      Abstract: The automotive sector’s transition to Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) requires extensive deployment of additional charging infrastructure. To determine optimal new locations, planners consider and rate a multitude of factors that influence the charging demand at candidate sites. Researchers have proposed a variety of placement criteria and methods to automate site selection. However, no common set of criteria has emerged. In addition, due to the lack of usage data, the applicability of existing criteria remains unclear. Therefore, the goals of this article are to extract the most relevant factors from literature and to evaluate their ability to characterize charging point usage. First, we review the literature base to collect, analyze, and cluster existing influencing factors and to analyze how they affect charging demand. Second, we conduct a case study using real-life charging station data from Hamburg, Germany. Based on the extracted influencing factors, we identify four clusters within Hamburg’s public charging infrastructure. While the mean performance indicators duration, daily transactions, and connection ratio hardly differ among these clusters, the temporal occupancy curves clearly show distinct charging behavior for each cluster. This work contributes to the state of the art by structuring the diverse landscape of charging station location placement criteria, by deriving a set of measurable influencing factors, and by analyzing their effect on a location’s charging demand, yielding an open source data set of charging point usage.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040056
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 57: Performance Comparison of High-Speed Motors for
           Electric Vehicle

    • Authors: Kohei Aiso, Kan Akatsu
      First page: 57
      Abstract: It is predicted that the maximum speed of EV traction motors will increase in the future due to reductions in size and weight. The high-speed motors are required to have high mechanical strength of the rotor for high-speed rotation, in addition to satisfying the required output and high efficiency in the wide operation area. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of motors in terms of both electrical and mechanical points of view. In this research, three motor types, PMSM, SRM, and IM, which targeted the output power of 85 kW and the maximum speed of 52,000 min−1, are designed for use with EV traction motors, and the study clarifies which the type of motor is most suitable for application in high-speed motors of EVs in terms of their mechanical and electrical characteristics.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040057
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 58: The Capacity of Battery-Electric and Plug-in
           Hybrid Electric Vehicles to Mitigate CO2 Emissions: Macroeconomic Evidence
           from European Union Countries

    • Authors: Matheus Koengkan, José Alberto Fuinhas, Mônica Teixeira, Emad Kazemzadeh, Anna Auza, Fatemeh Dehdar, Fariba Osmani
      First page: 58
      Abstract: The decarbonisation of the transportation sector is crucial to reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This study analyses evidence from European countries regarding achievement of the European Commission’s goal of achieving carbon neutrality by 2050. Using panel quantile econometric techniques, the impact of battery-electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on CO2 emissions in twenty-nine European Union (EU) countries from 2010–2020 was researched. The results show that BEVs and PHEVs are capable of mitigating CO2 emissions. However, each type of technology has a different degree of impact, with BEVs being more suited to minimizing CO2 emissions than PHEVs. We also found a statistically significant impact of economic development (quantile regression results) and energy consumption in increasing the emissions of CO2 in the EU countries in model estimates for both BEVs and PHEVs. It should be noted that BEVs face challenges, such as the scarcity of minerals for the production of batteries and the increased demand for mineral batteries, which have significant environmental impacts. Therefore, policymakers should adopt environmentally efficient transport that uses clean energy, such as EVs, to reduce the harmful effects on public health and the environment caused by the indiscriminate use of fossil fuels.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040058
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 59: Modification of Cycle Life Model for Normal Aging
           Trajectory Prediction of Lithium-Ion Batteries at Different Temperatures
           and Discharge Current Rates

    • Authors: Xinyu Jia, Caiping Zhang, Leyi Wang, Weige Zhang, Linjing Zhang
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Battery life is of critical importance for the reliable and economical operation of electric vehicles (EVs). Normal aging accounts for more than 80% of the battery available cycle range. Accurate and robust battery life models of normal aging are essential for battery health management systems and life evaluation before accelerated aging. Capacity recovery, test errors and accelerated aging all affect life model building during normal aging. Therefore, this paper proposes an improved life model based on wavelet transform (WT) signal processing to accurately predict the decline trend of the battery in the normal aging stage. In this paper, the capacity recovery, test noise and capacity diving in the aging trend are effectively removed by wavelet transform. We obtained an optimized life model through the analysis of the model structure and the analysis of the parameter sensitivity of the life model. The particle swarm algorithm (PSO) is employed to identify the parameters of the empirical models with the normal aging data extracted by the WT. Through verification, it is found that the modified cycle life model proposed in this paper can accurately predict the normal aging trajectory of batteries under different discharge rates and temperatures. The prediction error of the improved life model for normal aging is 1.09%.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040059
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 60: Flux-Adjustable Permanent Magnet Machines in
           Traction Applications

    • Authors: Zicheng Zhou, Hao Hua, Ziqiang Zhu
      First page: 60
      Abstract: This paper overviews the recent advances in flux-adjustable permanent magnet (PM) machines for traction applications. The flux-adjustable PM machines benefit from the synergies of the high torque density and high efficiency in conventional PM machines as well as the controllable air-gap field in wound-field machines, which are attractive for the traction applications requiring enhanced capabilities of speed regulation and uncontrolled voltage mitigation. In general, three solutions have been presented, namely the hybrid excited (HE), the mechanically regulated (MR), and the variable flux memory (VFM) machines. Numerous innovations were proposed on these topics during the last two decades, while each machine topology has its own merits and demerits. The purpose of this paper is to review the development history and trend of the flux-adjustable PM machines, with particular reference to their topologies, working mechanism, and electromagnetic performance.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040060
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 61: Life-Cycle CO2-Equivalent Emissions of Cars
           Driven by Conventional and Electric Propulsion Systems

    • Authors: Mario Hirz, Thu Trang Nguyen
      First page: 61
      Abstract: As an important trend in the automotive industry, electrification of propulsion systems has potential to significantly reduce greenhouse-gas emissions of the transportation sector. Whereas electric vehicles do not produce exhaust emissions during driving, the impact of electricity provision for charging batteries, as well as the impact of vehicle production play an essential role in a holistic consideration of the carbon footprint. The paper introduces a comprehensive evaluation of greenhouse gas-emission-related factors of cars driven by different propulsion technologies, considering the entire product life cycle. This comprises vehicle production, including battery system, electric powertrain and other relevant components, the car’s use phase under consideration of different electricity mixes and the end-of-life phase. The results of the study give insights of influencing factors on life-cycle-related carbon-dioxide-equivalent emissions of cars driven by combustion engines, hybrid powertrains and battery-electric propulsion systems. In addition, a comparison of actual mass-production cars is made and the total life-cycle carbon footprints are discussed under different boundary conditions of electric power supply. In this way, the article comprehensively introduces an automotive life-cycle assessment and provides fundamental information, contributing to an objective discussion of different propulsion technologies.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040061
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 62: Driving Behavior and Decision Mechanisms in
           Emergency Conditions

    • Authors: Ying Lyu, Yiteng Sun, Tianyao Zhang, Debao Kong, Zheng Lv, Yujie Liu, Zhenhai Gao
      First page: 62
      Abstract: In this article we used simulator experiments to explore the intelligent mechanisms of human decision-making. Three types of typical emergency scenarios were used in the experiment, in which Scenario 1 was used to analyze the driver’s choice to protect themselves or to protect pedestrians in emergency situations. Scenario 2 was compared with Scenario 1 to verify whether the driver’s avoidance behavior to protect pedestrians was instinctive or selective. Scenario 3 was to verify whether the driver would follow the principle of damage minimization. The driver’s decisions and actions in emergency situations, from the cumulative frequency of time to collision (TTC) to the maximum steering wheel angle rate during the experiments, were recorded. The results show that the driver was not just instinctively avoiding the immediate obstacle, but more selectively protecting pedestrians. At the same time, the time taken up by the driver’s instinctive avoidance response also had a negative impact on decision-making. The actual decisions of the driver were analyzed to provide a basis for building up the ethical decision-making of autonomous vehicles.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040062
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 63: IPTVisual: Visualisation of the Spatial Energy
           Flows in Inductive Power Transfer Systems with Arbitrary Winding Shapes

    • Authors: Cheng Zhang, Xiaoyun Chen, Kunyu Chen, Deyan Lin
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Mid-ranged wireless power transfer by induction or inductive power transfer (IPT), including the strong magnetic resonance method, has been widely adopted, in numerous applications where wires are restricted. The energy flow in space, of course, is invisible to engineers. The windings are often required to be irregular shapes to accommodate the industrial designs of the products, thus, a visualisation method for energy transfer paths could greatly help the design and optimization of such systems. A time-efficient methodology, including the model, analysis and plot of the three-dimensional energy flow for IPT systems, is proposed in this paper. Algorithms of fast describing arbitrarily shaped windings are proposed and the time complexities are evaluated. A software tool, IPTVisual, is developed. It takes the inputs of key coordinates of the windings, the assignments of voltage and/or current sources, any compensation capacitors and auxiliary circuits, and the required observation points to generate the 3D models of the windings and the Poynting vectors, rendered in web browsers for the most extendable compatibility. Several example scenarios have been tested and the results match with the expected operations.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040063
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 64: On the Analysis and Torque Enhancement of
           Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet Machines in Electric Power Steering
           Systems

    • Authors: Anis Abdelkefi, Amal Souissi, Imen Abdennadher, Ahmed Masmoudi
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Modern road vehicles are more and more often being equipped with electric actuators. These are intended to play critical roles in passengers comfort and safety. Among the electrified components onboard road vehicles, one can distinguish electric power steering (EPS) systems, which have been the subject of intensive investigations covering both design and control aspects. The abilities of several AC motor topologies to fulfil the EPS systems’ requirements have been assessed by a large scientific community in both academia and industry. The present work was aimed at the prediction of the electromagnetic features of the flux-switching permanent magnet machines (FSPMMs), with an emphasis on the air gap flux density. The latter was firstly formulated while neglecting the slotting effect at both sides of the air gap. Then, stator and rotor permeance functions, taking into account the slotting effect and the PM flux concentrating arrangement, were incorporated into the derived flux density spatial repartition. Moreover, the accuracy of the latter was improved through two dedicated correction functions that take into account the rotor position and the magnetic saturation. The last part of the paper presents a simple approach to enhance the developed torque of FSPMMs in an attempt to meet the EPS requirements.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040064
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 65: A Multi-Criteria Analysis and Trends of Electric
           Motors for Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Hicham El Hadraoui, Mourad Zegrari, Ahmed Chebak, Oussama Laayati, Nasr Guennouni
      First page: 65
      Abstract: The interest in electric traction has reached a very high level in recent decades; there is no doubt that electric vehicles have become among the main means of transport and will be the first choice in the future, but to dominate the market, a lot of research efforts are still devoted to this purpose. Electric machines are crucial components of electric vehicle powertrains. The bulk of traction drive systems have converged in recent years toward having some sort of permanent magnet machines because there is a growing trend toward enhancing the power density and efficiency of traction machines, resulting in unique designs and refinements to fundamental machine topologies, as well as the introduction of new machine classes. This paper presents the technological aspect of the different components of the electric powertrain and highlights the important information on the electric vehicle’s architecture. It focuses on a multi-criteria comparison of different electric motors utilized in the electric traction system to give a clear vision to allow choosing the adequate electrical motor for the desired application. The proposed comparative analysis shows that the induction motor better meets the major necessities of the electric powertrain, whereas the permanent magnet synchronous motor is nonetheless the most used by electric vehicle manufacturers.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040065
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 66: On Unintentional Demagnetization Effect of
           Switched Flux Hybrid Magnet Memory Machine

    • Authors: Jingjing Feng, Hui Yang, Yongsheng Ge, Wei Zhang
      First page: 66
      Abstract: This paper investigates the unintentional demagnetization (UD) characteristics of low-coercive-force (LCF) permanent magnets (PMs), in switched flux hybrid magnet memory machines (SF-HMMMs). Although the LCF PM field is magnetically in parallel to the magnetic fields produced by the NdFeB PM, as well as the armature reaction in the investigated machines, the UD phenomenon of LCF PMs still possibly occurs, particularly, under on-load operation due to the magnetic saturation effect. First, the UD effect is revealed by the frozen permeability method (FPM), and analytically explained via a magnetic circuit model. Various UD types are then identified with the finite-element (FE) method, coupled with a virtual linear hysteresis curve (VLHC) of LCF PM and FPM. In addition, the dimension and grade of the LCF PM are designed with the aid of VLHC, in order to prevent the UD effect. Finally, a fabricated SF-HMMM prototype is tested to verify the theoretical analyses.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040066
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 67: Efficient Multi-Phase Converter for E-Mobility

    • Authors: Suresh Sampath, Zahira Rahiman, Sharmeela Chenniappan, Elango Sundaram, Umashankar Subramaniam, Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban
      First page: 67
      Abstract: The recent growth of battery-powered applications has increased the need for high-efficiency step-up dc-dc converters. The step-up conversion is commonly used in several applications, such as electric vehicle (EV); plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV); photovoltaic (PV) systems; uninterruptible power supplies (UPS); and fuel cell systems. The input current is shared among inductors by paralleling the converters; resulting in high reliability and efficiency. In this paper; a detailed analysis for reducing power loss and improving efficiency is discussed. In continuous conduction mode; the converters are tested with a constant duty cycle of 50%. The multi phase interleaved boost converter (MPIBC) is controlled by interleaved switching techniques; which have the same switching frequency but phases are shifted. The efficiency of the six phase IBC model is 93.82% and 95.74% for an input voltage of 20 V and 200 V, respectively. The presented six phase MPIBC is validated by comparing it with the existing six phase IBC. The result shows that the presented converter is better than the existing converter. The prototype of the two phase and six phase IBC is fabricated to test the performance. It is found that the output power at the load end is highest for the 5 kHz switching frequency.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040067
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 68: Research on the Influence of Liquid on Heat
           Dissipation and Heating Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Battery Thermal
           Management System

    • Authors: Chuanwei Zhang, Jing Huang, Weixin Sun, Xusheng Xu, Yikun Li
      First page: 68
      Abstract: A battery thermal management system (BTMS) with functions of heat dissipation and heating by using only one liquid and one structure was studied, and a design for a new type of thermal management device structure was proposed. To find the influence factors of the BTMS on heat dissipation and heating characteristics, we selected and simulated three parameters: inlet size, liquid flow rate, and temperature. The convective heat transfer coefficient h and the Nusselt number Nu were used to analyze the influence of inlet size and liquid velocity on heat transfer intensity. The results show that: (1) In the temperature environment of 298 K with different discharge rates, a pipe diameter of 10 mm is the best size of the BTMS; (2) The increase in flow rate can increase the convective heat transfer coefficient h and the Nusselt number Nu. When the flow rate is 0.02 m/s, the growth rate of h and Nu is the largest; (3) The higher the fluid temperature, the faster the temperature of the battery pack increases in cold environments, but the uneven surface temperature of the battery is also more obvious.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040068
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 69: An Obstacle Detection Algorithm Suitable for
           Complex Traffic Environment

    • Authors: Guantai Luo, Xinwei Chen, Wenwei Lin, Jie Dai, Peidong Liang, Chentao Zhang
      First page: 69
      Abstract: For the task of obstacle detection in a complex traffic environment, this paper proposes a road-free space extraction and obstacle detection method based on stereo vision. The proposed method combines the advantages of the V-disparity image and the Stixel method. Firstly, the depth information and the V-disparity image are calculated according to the disparity image. Then, the free space on the road surface is calculated through the RANSAC algorithm and dynamic programming (DP) algorithm. Furthermore, a new V-disparity image and a new U-disparity image are calculated by the disparity image after removing the road surface information. Finally, the height and width of the obstacles on the road are extracted from the new V-disparity image and U-disparity image, respectively. The detection of obstacles is realized by the height and width information of obstacles. In order to verify the method, we adopted the object detection benchmarks and road detection benchmarks of the KITTI dataset for verification. In terms of the accuracy performance indicators quality, detection rate, detection accuracy, and effectiveness, the method in this paper reaches 0.820, 0.863, 0.941, and 0.900, respectively, and the time consumption is only 5.145 milliseconds. Compared with other obstacle detection methods, the detection accuracy and real-time performance in this paper are better. The experimental results show that the method has good robustness and real-time performance for obstacle detection in a complex traffic environment.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040069
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 70: A State-of-Charge Estimation Method Based on
           Multi-Algorithm Fusion

    • Authors: Aihua Tang, Peng Gong, Jiajie Li, Kaiqing Zhang, Yapeng Zhou, Zhigang Zhang
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Lithium-ion power batteries are widely used in the electric vehicle (EV) industry due to their high working voltage, high energy density, long cycle life, low self-discharge rate, and environmental protection. A multi-algorithm fusion method is proposed in this paper to estimate the battery state of charge (SOC), establishing the Thevenin model and collecting the terminal voltage residuals when the extended Kalman filter (EKF), adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF), and H infinite filter (HIF) estimate the SOC separately. The residuals are fused by Bayesian probability and the weight is obtained, and then the SOC estimated value of the fusion algorithm is obtained from the weight. A comparative analysis of the estimation accuracy of a single algorithm and a fusion algorithm under two different working conditions is made. Experimental results show that the fusion algorithm is more robust in the whole process of SOC estimation, and its estimation accuracy is better than the EKF algorithm. The estimation result for the fusion algorithm under a Dynamic Stress Test (DST) is better than that under a Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC) test. With the emergence of cloud batteries, the fusion algorithm is expected to realize real vehicle online application.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13040070
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 44: Understanding Complexity in Charging
           Infrastructure through the Lens of Social Supply–Demand Systems

    • Authors: Jurjen Helmus, Mike Lees, Robert Hoed
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Since the first release of modern electric vehicles, researchers and policy makers have shown interest in the deployment and utilization of charging infrastructure. Despite the sheer volume of literature, limited attention has been paid to the characteristics and variance of charging behavior of EV users. In this research, we answer the question: which scientific approaches can help us to understand the dynamics of charging behavior in charging infrastructures, in order to provide recommendations regarding a more effective deployment and utilization of these infrastructures. To do so, we propose a conceptual model for charging infrastructure as a social supply–demand system and apply complex system properties. Using this conceptual model, we estimate the rate complexity, using three developed ratios that relate to the (1) necessity of sharing resources, (2) probabilities of queuing, and (3) cascading impact of transactions on others. Based on a qualitative assessment of these ratios, we propose that public charging infrastructure can be characterized as a complex system. Based on our findings, we provide four recommendations to policy makers for taking efforts to reduce complexity during deployment and measure interactions between EV users using systemic metrics. We further point researchers and policy makers to agent-based simulation models that capture interactions between EV users and the use complex network analysis to reveal weak spots in charging networks or compare the charging infrastructure layouts of across cities worldwide.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13030044
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 45: Research on Application Performance Index System
           of Pure Electric Buses Based on Extensible Cloud Model

    • Authors: Xinghua Hu, Mintanyu Zheng, Jiahao Zhao, Runze Gao, Binbin Li, Xinghui Chen, Gao Dai
      First page: 45
      Abstract: In order to help select high-quality electric buses, we established a performance index system for pure electric buses based on an extensible cloud model. With the rapid development of electric buses, choosing a suitable pure electric bus considering its applicability is challenging. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the passenger car industry, a preliminary evaluation index system for pure electric passenger cars was constructed. The preliminary indicator system was formed based on the optimization of the main points of current laws and regulations, and divided into four aspects: safety assistance system, comfort, convenience, and economy. Then, the index system was determined from multiple perspectives, and the analytic hierarchy process and the entropy weight method were applied to determine the comprehensive weight. Meanwhile, the evaluation level of the index system of pure electric buses was calculated by the extensible cloud model. At last, six electric buses were selected from Chinese electric bus companies as examples to determine the relevant level. The results show that the method has satisfactory feasibility and applicability in the comprehensive evaluation and that it provides a reference for pure electric bus selection based on application performance.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13030045
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 46: Stability Analysis of Electromechanical Coupling
           Torsional Vibration for Wheel-Side Direct-Driven Transmission System under
           Transmission Clearance and Motor Excitation

    • Authors: Jinyong Ju, Yufei Liu, Chunrui Zhang
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The wheel-side direct-driven transmission system (WDTS) is a new intelligent transmission technology, which has significant advantages in high-efficiency and few malfunctions for the electric bus. Based on the Lagrange–Maxwell equation, the WDTS electromechanical coupling dynamic model, whose effectiveness is verified by the PMSM speed, is constructed for analyzing the system torsional vibration destabilization characteristics. Then, by determining the resonance curve equation for the torsional vibration response amplitude of the WDTS with the direct multi-scale method, the influences of the torque ripple amplitude of the PMSM and the transmission clearance on the system torsional vibration stability are analyzed. The results indicate that the WDTS torsional vibration response shows complex nonlinear characteristics especially under the effect of the system transmission clearance, which has an important impact on the system stable operation. The research results can lay a theoretical foundation for the design of the WDTS of the electric bus.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13030046
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 47: Intelligent Vehicle Moving Trajectory Prediction
           Based on Residual Attention Network

    • Authors: Zhengcai Yang, Zhenhai Gao, Fei Gao, Chuan Shi, Lei He, Shirui Gu
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Skilled drivers have the driving behavioral characteristic of pre-sighted following, and similarly intelligent vehicles need accurate prediction of future trajectories. The LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory) is a common model of trajectory prediction. The existing LSTM models pay less attention to the interactions between the target and the surrounding vehicles. Furthermore, the impacts on future trajectories of the target vehicle have also barely been a focus of the current models. On these bases, a Residual Attention-based Long Short-Term Memory (RA-LSTM) model was proposed, an interaction tensor based on the surroundings of the target vehicle at the predictive moments was constructed and the weight coefficients of the interaction tensor for the surrounding vehicles relative to the target vehicle were calculated and re-programmed in this study. The proposed RA-LSTM model can implicitly represent the different degrees of influence of the surrounding vehicles on the target vehicle; the probability distributions of the future trajectory coordinates of the target vehicle is predicted based on the extracted interaction features. The RA-LSTM model was tested and verified in multiple scenarios by using the NGSIM (next generation simulation) public dataset, and the results showed that the prediction accuracy of the proposed model is significantly improved compared with the current LSTM models.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13030047
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 48: Research on Cascaded Single Phase PFC Based on
           Predictive PI Control

    • Authors: Guoping Shi, Yece Qian
      First page: 48
      Abstract: In order to improve the charging speed and reduce the occupied volume of an electric vehicle charger, a single-phase boost power factor corrector (PFC) system with cascade CHB (cascaded H-bridge) topology was adopted. Due to the periodic fluctuation of single-phase AC input, there is a large double power frequency ripple component in the output voltage of an AC-DC converter. When capacitor voltage is used as output for feedback control, the control system has the characteristics of a non-minimum phase system. In light of these factors that affect the dynamic stability of the system, a control method is proposed to improve the dynamic characteristics of the system without affecting its steady-state performance. The predictive PI control strategy was adopted to predict the error input signal of the lag process to attenuate the jitter in the control system and improve the dynamic performance and anti-interference of the system. Finally, the feasibility of the scheme was verified by experiments.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13030048
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 49: A Structure Optimized Method Based on AFSA for
           Soft Magnetic Strips of Inner Double-Layer Shield for Wireless Power
           Transmission of EV

    • Authors: Yening Sun, Yao Wei, Yi Tian
      First page: 49
      Abstract: A structure optimized method based on the artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA) for the soft magnetic strips of the inner double-layer shield is proposed in this paper and applied to the coupler of the wireless power transfer (WPT) system of an electrical vehicle (EV). Some structure parameters including length, height, width and distances of the strips are selected to fit their relationships with the coupling coefficient, which directly effects the transfer efficiency of the coupler by the linear fitting method. Based on these relationships, a group of parameters is obtained by the AFSA with the largest coupling coefficient and suitable volume to achieve optimal transfer efficiency without lots of repetitive results of the finite element analysis. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated quantitatively according to the outcomes and comparisons among different structure parameters and algorithms.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13030049
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 50: A Comparative Study on the Parameter
           Identification of an Equivalent Circuit Model for an Li-ion Battery Based
           on Different Discharge Tests

    • Authors: Piyawong Poopanya, Kanchana Sivalertporn, Teeraphon Phophongviwat
      First page: 50
      Abstract: An effective model of battery performance is important for battery management systems to control the state of battery and cell balancing. The second-order equivalent circuit model of a lithium-ion battery is studied in the present paper. The identification methods that include the multiple linear regression (MLR), exponential curve fitting (ECF) and Simulink design optimization tool (SDOT), were used to determine the model parameters. The aim of this paper is to compare the validity of the three proposed algorithms, which vary in complexity. The open circuit voltage was measured based on the pulse discharge test. The voltage response was collected for every 10% SOC in the interval between 0–100% SOC. The battery voltages calculated from the estimated parameters under the constant current discharge test and dynamic discharge tests for electric vehicles (ISO and WLTP) were compared to the experimental data. The mean absolute error and root mean square error were calculated to analyze the accuracy of the three proposed estimators. Overall, SDOT provides the best fit with high accuracy, but requires a heavy computation burden. The accuracy of the three methods under the constant current discharge test is high compared to other experiments, due to the nonlinear behavior at a low SOC. For the ISO and WLTP dynamic tests, the errors of MLR are close to that of SDOT, but have less computing time. Therefore, MLR is probably more suitable for EV use than SDOT.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13030050
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 51: Comparison of Different Winding Configurations
           for Dual Three-Phase Interior PM Machines in Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Shensheng Wang, Ziqiang Zhu, Adam Pride, Juntao Shi, Rajesh Deodhar, Chiaki Umemura
      First page: 51
      Abstract: In this paper, two dual three-phase winding configurations are compared based on the Toyota Prius 2010 interior permanent magnet (IPM) machine. It is found that the winding configuration with single-layer full-pitched (SF) windings can improve average torque and reduce torque ripple in constant torque range. The winding configuration with double-layer short-pitched (DS) windings has better torque performance in a constant power range. The electromagnetic performances of the two winding configurations when one winding set is excited and the other one is open-circuited are also compared. The DS winding configuration shows much better performance under this condition. Overall, the dual three-phase winding configuration with DS windings is preferred for dual three-phase IPM machines in electric vehicles. A Toyota Prius 2010 IPM machine equipped with DS windings was manufactured to verify the analyses presented in this paper.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13030051
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 52: A Novel Double-Sided Offset Stator Axial-Flux
           Permanent Magnet Motor for Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Han Wang, Xiaoze Pei, Boyuan Yin, John Frederick Eastham, Christopher Vagg, Xianwu Zeng
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Axial-flux permanent magnet (AFPM) motors have been attracting great interest due to their key advantages of high-torque density and compact structure. Concentrated windings are commonly used for AFPM motors since they significantly reduce the radial length of the end windings. This paper proposes a novel double-sided stator single-rotor motor topology where one stator is offset by π radians. This arrangement can cancel significant space harmonics produced by the concentrated winding and reduce the core and permanent magnet losses. Analytical analysis and finite element analysis (FEA) are used to verify the principle and validate the topology. The simulation results demonstrate that this proposed double-sided offset stator motor can reduce the core loss and permanent magnet loss significantly at base speed compared with the conventional double-sided stator single-rotor motor. In addition, the magnetic core saturation and induced voltage for the double-sided offset stator motor are significantly reduced.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13030052
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 53: Steering Control in Electric Power Steering
           Autonomous Vehicle Using Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Control and PI Control

    • Authors: Bustanul Arifin, Bhakti Yudho Suprapto, Sri Arttini Dwi Prasetyowati, Zainuddin Nawawi
      First page: 53
      Abstract: The steering system in autonomous vehicles is an essential issue that must be addressed. Appropriate control will result in a smooth and risk-free steering system. Compared to other types of controls, type-2 fuzzy logic control has the advantage of dealing with uncertain inputs, which are common in autonomous vehicles. This paper proposes a novel method for the steering control of autonomous vehicles based on type-2 fuzzy logic control combined with PI control. The primary control, type-2 fuzzy logic control, has three inputs—distance, navigation, and speed. The fuzzy system’s output is the steering angle value. This was used as input for the secondary control, PI control. This control is in charge of adjusting the motor’s position as a manifestation of the steering angle. The study results applied to the EPS system of autonomous vehicles revealed that type-2 fuzzy logic control and PI control produced better and smoother control than type-1 fuzzy logic control and PI. The slightest disturbance in the type-1 fuzzy logic control showed a significant change in steering, while this did not occur in the type-2 fuzzy logic control. The results indicate that type-2 fuzzy logic control and PI control could be used for autonomous vehicles by maintaining the comfort and safety of the users.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13030053
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 54: A Model Predictive Control Method for Vehicle
           Drifting Motions with Measurable Errors

    • Authors: Dongxin Xu, Yueqiang Han, Chang Ge, Longtao Qu, Rui Zhang, Guoye Wang
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Vehicle drifting control has attracted wide attention, and the study methods are divided into expert-based and theory-based. In this paper, the vehicle drifting control was based on the vehicle drifting state characteristics. The vehicle drifting state parameters were obtained by the theory-based vehicle drifting motion mechanism analysis based on a nonlinear vehicle dynamics model, which was used to express the vehicle characteristics, together with the UniTire model, by considering the vehicle longitudinal, lateral, roll, and yaw motions. A vehicle drifting controller was designed by the model predictive control (MPC) theory and a linear dynamics model with the linearized expressions of nonlinear tire forces based on the consideration of measurable errors. The control targets were the vehicle drifting state parameters obtained by calculation, and the controller performance was proved by simulation in MATLAB/Simulink, demonstrating that the controller is good to realize vehicle drifting motions. The same target drifting motions were realized at different original states, which proved that the vehicle drifting control is possible with the designed controller.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13030054
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 23: Real-Time Fire Detection Method for Electric
           Vehicle Charging Stations Based on Machine Vision

    • Authors: Shiyu Zhang, Qing Yang, Yuchen Gao, Dexin Gao
      First page: 23
      Abstract: During the charging process of electric vehicles (EV), the circuit inside the charger plug is connected in series, the charger input voltage does not match the rated input voltage, the temperature caused by the severe heating of the charging time is too high for too long, and other factors are very likely to trigger a fire in the vehicle charging pile. In this paper, an improved You Only Look Once v4 (YOLOv4) real-time target detection algorithm based on machine vision is proposed to monitor the site based on existing monitoring equipment, transmit live video information in real-time, expand the monitoring range, and significantly reduce the cost of use. During the experiment, the improved neural network model was trained by a homemade fire video image dataset, and a K-means clustering algorithm iwasintroduced to recalculate the anchor frame size for the specific object of flame; the existing dataset was used to perform multiple divisions by using a tenfold cross-validation algorithm, thus avoiding the selection of chance hyperparameters and models that do not have generalization ability because of special divisions. The experimental results show that the improved algorithm is fast and accurate in detecting large-size flames in real-time and small-size flames at the beginning of a fire, with a detection speed of 43 fps/s, mAP value of 91.53%, and F1 value of 0.91. Compared with YOLOv3 and YOLOv4 models, the improved model is sensitive to detecting different sizes of flames. It can suppress false alarms well in a variety of complex lighting environments. The prediction frame size fits the area where the target is located, the detection accuracy remains stable, and the comprehensive performance of the network model is significantly improved to meet the demand of real-time monitoring. It is significant for developing the EV industry and enhancing emergency response capability.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020023
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 24: A Reference Voltage Self-Correction Method for
           Capacitor Voltage Offset Suppression of Three-Phase Four-Switch
           Inverter-Fed PMSM Drives

    • Authors: Wei Chen, Sai Wang, Xinmin Li, Guozheng Zhang
      First page: 24
      Abstract: This paper proposes a capacitor voltage offset suppression method based on reference voltage self-correction for a three-phase four-switch (TPFS) inverter-fed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive system to improve the motor control performance. Firstly, the αβ-axis reference voltage deviation caused by capacitor voltage offset is analyzed, and the relationship between the voltage to be compensated and the offset is obtained. Then, the capacitor voltage offset is calculated according to the motor speed, rotor position, current vector amplitude, and capacitance on the capacitor bridge arm of the TPFS inverter. Finally, the reference voltage is corrected according to the voltage to be compensated and the capacitor voltage offset. This method is simple and easy to implement, and there is no need to add voltage sensors or filters in the system to extract the capacitor voltage offset, and there is no complex parameter adjustment. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by experiments on a 20 kW interior permanent magnet synchronous motor.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020024
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 25: Prediction for the Remaining Useful Life of
           Lithium–Ion Battery Based on RVM-GM with Dynamic Size of Moving
           Window

    • Authors: Jinrui Nan, Bo Deng, Wanke Cao, Zihao Tan
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Accurate prediction of the remaining useful life of a lithium–ion battery (LiB) is of paramount importance for ensuring its durable operation. To achieve more accurate prediction with limited data, this paper proposes an RVM-GM algorithm based on dynamic window size. The method combines the advantages of the relevance vector machine (RVM) algorithm and grey predictive model (GM). The RVM is applied to provide the relevance vectors of fitting function and output probability prediction, and the GM is used to obtain the trend prediction with limited data information. The algorithm is further verified by the NASA PCoE lithium–ion battery data repository. The experimental prediction results of different batteries data show that the proposed algorithm has less error while applying a dynamic window size compared with a fixed window size, while it has higher prediction accuracy than particle filter algorithm (PF) and convolutional neural network (CNN), which has verified the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020025
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 26: A Study to Investigate What Tempts Consumers to
           Adopt Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Imran Ali, Mohammad Naushad
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Pollution has become a major source of concern for the majority of people at present. Pollution is primarily caused by automobiles. Everybody wants to live in a pollution-free society. Nevertheless, India’s automobile registrations are growing at a rapid pace. Increased automobile usage will have a negative effect on the environment. As a result, our modes of transportation must be sustainable and environmentally friendly. The solution to this dilemma is electric vehicles. However, electric vehicle adoption is not occurring at a rate that is desirable in India, although it is anticipated to grow in the coming years. Numerous automobile manufacturers are ramping up production of electric automobiles. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the primary factors that influence the adoption of electric vehicles. This study includes five independent variables: financial incentives, charging infrastructure, social reinforcement, environmental concern, and price, and one dependent variable, electrical vehicle adoption. The data for the present study was collected from 366 randomly selected respondents across India. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were used to analyze the data. The study’s findings demonstrate that pricing has a substantial impact on the adoption of electric vehicles.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020026
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 27: Development of a Flywheel Hybrid Power System in
           Vehicles without the Electric Drive Device Rated Capacity Limit

    • Authors: Hong Li, Jiangwei Chu, Shufa Sun
      First page: 27
      Abstract: At present, most studies are focused on converting the vehicle kinetic energy into electrochemical energy for battery storage. During each deceleration period, the kinetic energy is first converted into electromagnetic energy and then stored in the chemical form before being released as the kinetic energy in next acceleration period, which leads to a low transmission efficiency. Secondly, the efficiency of the kinetic energy recovery is limited by the rated capacity of electric drive devices. Thirdly, a single-axis front-drive electric powertrain can only recover the kinetic energy of front wheels. The system proposed in this paper, which included a flywheel, an electromagnetic coupler, and two gear pairs, was arranged in the rear axis. This new configuration could recycle the kinetic energy of the rear wheels for front-driving vehicles. Most of the energy between the wheels and the flywheel was transmitted in the form of mechanical energy, and the power transmitted by the mechanical port of the electromagnetic coupler was not limited by its rated power. Moreover, the battery only needs to recover the slip power of the coupler. Finally, a test bench based on the proposed system was designed and built under deceleration and cruising conditions. The experimental results also proved the functionality of the proposed system.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020027
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 28: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of World Electric
           Vehicle Journal in 2021

    • Authors: World Electric Vehicle Journal Editorial Office World Electric Vehicle Journal Editorial Office
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020028
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 29: Configuration of Electric Vehicles for Specific
           Applications from a Holistic Perspective

    • Authors: José I. Huertas, Antonio E. Mogro, Juan P. Jiménez
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Electrification of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) used for passengers and goods transportation is a key strategy to reduce the high levels of air pollution in large urban centers. However, the high investment cost of the commercially available electrified HDVs has limited their adoption. We hypothesized that there are applications where the operation with tailored electrified HDVs results in a lower total cost of ownership and lower well-to-wheel emissions of air pollutants, with higher acceleration capacity and energy efficiency than the fossil-fueled counterparts. The road transportation services running on fixed routes with short span distances (<50 km), such as the last mile cargo distribution and the passenger shuttle services, is a clear example with a high possibility of cost reduction through tailored electric HDVs. In this work, we present a methodology to define the most appropriate configuration of the powertrain of an electric vehicle for any given application. As a case study, this work aimed to define an electric powertrain configuration tailored for a university shuttle service application. A multi-objective weighted-sum optimization was performed to define the best geometrical gearbox ratios, energy management strategy, size of the motor, and batteries required. Based on three different driving profiles and five battery technologies, the results showed that, based on a 50 km autonomy, the obtained powertrain configuration satisfies the current vehicle operation with a reduced cost in every driving profile and battery technology compared. Furthermore, by using lithium-based batteries, the vehicle’s acceleration capacity is improved by 33% while reducing energy consumption by 37%, CO2 emissions by 31%, and the total cost of ownership by 29% when compared to the current diesel-fueled buses.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020029
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 30: Optimal Design of a Short Primary Double-Sided
           Linear Induction Motor for Urban Rail Transit

    • Authors: Hanming Wang, Jinghong Zhao, Yiyong Xiong, Hao Xu, Sinian Yan
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Linear induction motors (LIMs) have been widely used in rail transit. However, Due to the breaking of the primary core and the large air gap, the efficiency and power factor of LIMs are seriously damaged, causing a large amount of energy waste. To improve the efficiency and power factor of LIMs for urban rail transit, we present a new optimization method for the design of a short primary double-sided linear induction motor (SP-DLIM) with a rated speed of 45 km/h and small thrust. The method is based on a steady state equivalent circuit model and the differential evolutionary algorithm (DEA). Moreover, the design constraints and the objective functions are proposed for the optimization problem. Finally, the optimized SP-DLIM is simulated by 2D transient finite element method (FEM). The 2-D transient FEM results verify the accuracy of the optimization method proposed in this paper.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020030
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 31: High Gain Converter with Improved Radial Basis
           Function Network for Fuel Cell Integrated Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Balasubramanian Girirajan, Himanshu Shekhar, Wen-Cheng Lai, Hariraj Kumar Jagannathan, Parameshachari Bidare Divakarachar
      First page: 31
      Abstract: In a recent trend, electric vehicles (EV) have been facing various power quality issues, so fuel cells (FC) are considered the best choice for integrating EV technology to enhance performance. A fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) is a type of EV that uses a fuel cell combined with a small battery or super-capacitor to power its on-board electric motor. However, the power obtained from the FC system is much less and is not enough to drive the EV. So, another energy source is required to deliver the demanded power, which should contain high voltage gain with high conversion efficiency. The traditional converter produces a high output voltage at a high duty cycle, which generates various problems, such as reverse recovery issues, voltage spikes, and less lifespan. High switching frequency and voltage gain are essential for the propulsion of FC-based EV. Therefore, this paper presents an improved radial basis function (RBF)-based high-gain converter (HGC) to enhance the voltage gain and conversion efficiency of the entire system. The RBF neural model was constructed using the fast recursive algorithm (FRA) strategy to prune redundant hidden-layer neurons. The improved RBF technique reduces the input current ripple and voltage stress on the power semiconductor devices to increase the conversion ratio of the HGC without changing the duty cycle value. In the end, the improved RBF with HGC achieved an efficiency of 98.272%, vehicle speed of 91 km/h, and total harmonic distortion (THD) of 3.12%, which was simulated using MATLAB, and its waveforms for steady-state operation were analyzed and compared with existing methods.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020031
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 32: LiDAR-IMU-UWB-Based Collaborative Localization

    • Authors: Chuanwei Zhang, Xiaowen Ma, Peilin Qin
      First page: 32
      Abstract: This article introduced a positioning system composed of different sensors, such as LiDAR, IMU, and ultra-wideband (UWB), for the positioning method in autonomous driving technology under closed coal mine tunnels. First, we processed the LiDAR data, extracted its feature points and merged the extracted feature point clouds to generate a skewed combined feature point cloud. Then, we used the skew combined feature point clouds for feature matching, performed pre-integration processing on the IMU sensor data, and completed the LiDAR-IMU odometer with the LiDAR. Finally, we added UWB data to IMU pose node as a one-dimensional over-edge constraint. By updating the sliding window, the positioning accuracy was further improved. Moreover, we have conducted experiments to verify the proposed positioning system in a simulated roadway. The experimental results showed that the method proposed in this paper is superior to the single LiDAR method and the single UWB method in terms of positioning accuracy.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020032
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 33: Adaptive Model Predictive Control Including
           Battery Thermal Limitations for Fuel Consumption Reduction in P2 Hybrid
           Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Ethelbert Ezemobi, Gulnora Yakhshilikova, Sanjarbek Ruzimov, Luis Miguel Castellanos, Andrea Tonoli
      First page: 33
      Abstract: The primary objective of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is to optimize the energy consumption of the automotive powertrain. This optimization has to be applied while respecting the operating conditions of the battery. Otherwise, there is a risk of compromising the battery life and thermal runaway that may result from excessive power transfer across the battery. Such considerations are critical if factoring in the low battery capacity and the passive battery cooling technology that is commonly associated with HEVs. The literature has proposed many solutions to HEV energy optimization. However, only a few of the solutions have addressed this optimization in the presence of thermal constraints. In this paper, a strategy for energy optimization in the presence of thermal constraints is developed for P2 HEVs based on battery sizing and the application of model predictive control (MPC) strategy. To analyse this approach, an electro-thermal battery pack model is integrated with an off-axis P2 HEV powertrain. The battery pack is properly sized to prevent thermal runaway while improving the energy consumption. The power splitting, thermal enhancement and energy optimization of the complex and nonlinear system are handled in this work with an adaptive MPC operated within a moving finite prediction horizon. The simulation results of the HEV SUV demonstrate that, by applying thermal constraints, energy consumption for a 0.9 kWh battery capacity can be reduced by 11.3% relative to the conventional vehicle. This corresponds to about a 1.5% energy increase when there is no thermal constraint. However, by increasing the battery capacity to 1.5 kWh (14s10p), it is possible to reduce the energy consumption by 15.7%. Additional benefits associated with the predictive capability of MPC are reported in terms of energy minimization and thermal improvement.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020033
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 34: A Distributed and Hierarchical Optimal Control
           Method for Intelligent Connected Vehicles in Multi-Intersection Road
           Networks

    • Authors: Jie Yu, Fachao Jiang, Weiwei Kong, Yugong Luo
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Intelligent connected vehicles (ICVs) technologies will bring significant changes to future transportation, and urban intersections will be an important scenario for the application of ICVs. There exists one significant challenge to address for the control of ICVs in unsignalized, multi-intersection road networks, that is, how to realize the comprehensive optimization of traffic efficiency and energy saving. To solve this problem, the distributed and hierarchical optimal control architecture is first established in this paper, consisting of a cloud decision layer and a vehicle control layer. For the cloud decision layer, the distributed model predictive control (DMPC) method is utilized for distributed optimization control of multi-intersection road network systems, to achieve optimization in terms of traffic efficiency. For the vehicle control layer, based on the reference speed optimized from the cloud decision layer, the DMPC method is further utilized for distributed optimal control of each vehicle platoon, to achieve optimization in terms of energy saving. Finally, the comparative simulation tests are carried out based on MATLAB and SUMO. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method were verified, and the improvement of traffic efficiency and energy saving was achieved.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020034
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 35: Virtual Flux Voltage-Oriented Vector Control
           Method of Wide Frequency Active Rectifiers Based on Dual Low-Pass Filter

    • Authors: Kai Bi, Yamei Xu, Pin Zeng, Wei Chen, Xinmin Li
      First page: 35
      Abstract: This article presents a non-AC-side voltage sensor control method applied to More Electric Aircraft rectifiers. The control strategy can operate properly over a wide range of frequencies. This strategy calculates the AC supply frequency through an instantaneous phase-locked loop and feeds it back to a dual low-pass filter. The reconstructed rectifier-side voltage is filtered using two low-pass filters with different scale factors. Then, the values of the two filter outputs are subtracted and the effect of the DC bias due to the initial value of the integration is eliminated. The subtracted value is amplitude-phase compensated to calculate the virtual flux value. The phase angle can then be calculated from the virtual flux value. This phase angle is used for the implementation of the voltage-oriented vector control and as an input to the instantaneous phase-locked loop. Simulation and experimental results show that the use of dual low-pass filters under different frequency conditions improves the speed and accuracy of virtual flux estimation and eliminates DC-side bias errors.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020035
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 36: The Impact of Battery-Electric Vehicles on Energy
           Consumption: A Macroeconomic Evidence from 29 European Countries

    • Authors: Matheus Koengkan, José Alberto Fuinhas, Matheus Belucio, Nooshin Karimi Alavijeh, Nasrin Salehnia, Daniel Machado, Vinícius Silva, Fatemeh Dehdar
      First page: 36
      Abstract: The impact of battery electric vehicles (BEV) on energy consumption was researched modeling energy consumption against BEVs, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and e-commerce, using annual data from 2010 to 2020, for twenty-nine European countries, with quantile regression and OLS with fixed effects econometric techniques. It was found that GDP and e-commerce impact energy consumption positively, and BEVs reduce energy consumption. These findings support that efficiency gains could not reduce energy consumption, and e-commerce, via extra packaging, further usage of computer processors, and cryptocurrencies to purchase products are hampering the environment. BEVs were revealed to be more energy-efficient than conventional cars. Thus, energy conservation policies to combat global warming and climate change arise. First, policies should offer an alternative packaging system to lower the negative environmental impacts of additional packaging for online purchases, stimulate smaller packages, free up additional space on the transport, enhance the delivery system efficiency, and promote alternative delivery systems. Second, offering subsidies for purchasing BEVs or tax rebates will increase the adoption rate of electric vehicles and combine this policy with the CO2 emissions’ regulations to stimulate the demand for BEVs. Finally, affordable charging points should be provided and customer awareness of the benefits of BEVs should be improved.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020036
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 37: A Bibliometric Survey of Research Output on
           Wireless Charging for Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Emmanuel Gbey, Richard Fiifi Turkson, Sohui Lee
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Wireless charging modules for electric vehicles are being increasingly studied. Previous research has focused on developing more effective wireless-charging modules for electric vehicles in order to pave the way for a more sustainable urban transportation. The objectives of the study were to identify the social structure of the field by mapping of research collaborations among authors and countries, measure the influence of authors and sources, identify the interactions between different researchers and the most influential authors, sources, documents and organizations. To achieve these objectives, a bibliometric search in the SCOPUS database was conducted using a combination of keywords and Boolean operators. The initial keyword search returned 2163 documents. The documents retrieved were manually filtered for further analysis. A scientometric analysis was carried out on the remaining 1367 documents using co-authorship, co-citation, and citation analyses for a number of measurement units. The results showed that “object detection” and “shielding effectiveness” were the most current research topics.
      Authors who were widely cited did not generally produce a large number of papers or collaborate with other authors.
      Authors from China, the United States, and the United Kingdom have all co-authored published works on the topic, indicating that they have all contributed considerably to the field’s achievements. This strongly highlighted the amount of funding localized in developed countries towards such technologies. The number of international co-authored studies conducted was low. This is most significant with no research conducted in this field in the less developed world. The most cited and influential scholars were G. A. Covic, J. T. Boys, and C. C. Mi. The most influential sources were IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics and IEEE Trans. on Induction Electronics, while the most productive sources were Energies and IEEE Access. The most influential documents were those by Covic G.A. (2013a) and Covic G.A. (2013b). Finally, emerging trends in charging and energy storage in electric vehicles were also discussed.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020037
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 38: Analysis and Research on Power Supply Strategies
           of Electric Vehicles Based on Wind Farms

    • Authors: Yunjia Liu
      First page: 38
      Abstract: The widespread growth of electric vehicles could pose significant grid and charging infrastructure challenges, especially in areas with underdeveloped infrastructure. This has affected the ease of charging electric vehicles. In this paper, I design a power supply strategy for electric vehicle charging facilities based on wind farm power supply. In this strategy, a preliminary selection of line conductors is carried out, and several schemes are preliminarily determined. Further comparative analysis is made from the three aspects of conductor, tower type, and bus. Through the PowerWorld software, a simulation model is established for each scheme, and an optimal strategy that takes into account economy, security, and system stability is obtained (AAC 31.5 mm double split, tower A and bus 5). This can assist in the transformation of electric vehicle power supply and the construction of wind farm power supply facilities.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020038
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 39: Development of Electrothermal Models for
           Electrical Traction

    • Authors: Wasma Hanini, Sami Mahfoudhi, Moez Ayadi
      First page: 39
      Abstract: In this paper, improved electrothermal models of the power diode and IGBT have been developed. The main local physical effects have been considered. The proposed models are able to deal with electrical and thermal effects. The models were confirmed by comparison with other models having similar characteristics for different circuits and different temperatures. The developed models are implemented in a traction unit to study the electrothermal performance in an electric vehicle system. The models were implemented in the Pspice circuit simulation platform using standard Pspice components and analog behavior modeling (ABM) blocks. The switching performance of the diode and the IGBT have been studied under the influence of different circuit elements in order to study and estimate the on-state and switching losses pre-required for the design of various topologies of converters and inverters. The comparison shows that these models are simple, configurable with the electrical circuit simulator software. They are better able to predict the main circuit parameters needed for power electronics design. Transient thermal responses have been demonstrated for single pulse and repetition modes. The obtained results show that our model is suitable for a fully electrothermal use of power electronic circuit simulations.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020039
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 40: Collaborative Optimization of the Battery
           Capacity and Sailing Speed Considering Multiple Operation Factors for a
           Battery-Powered Ship

    • Authors: Yan Zhang, Lin Sun, Fan Ma, You Wu, Wentao Jiang, Lijun Fu
      First page: 40
      Abstract: In the context of harsh emission control and ecological environment protection, the shipping industry is transforming and upgrading towards greening, decarburization, and electrification. Battery-powered all-electric inland ships have been attracting increasingly attention. However, its initial investment cost is much more expensive than a traditional diesel-driven mechanical ship because lithium-ion batteries are currently expensive. Hence, a suitable battery size and efficient energy management strategy for ship sailing are very important for a battery-powered ship. In this paper, a novel joint optimization method of the sailing speed and battery capacity, which considers the interaction between battery size and sailing speed as well as multiple operation factors, such as freight demand and battery life, and port electricity price, is proposed to fully exploit the battery-powered ships’ application potential. Moreover, a joint optimization model of the sailing speed and battery energy consumption model considers the battery-powered ship’s characteristics and waterway characteristics. Next, a solution algorithm for the proposed joint optimization model is established to achieve joint decision-making regarding the sailing speed and battery size. Finally, case studies are conducted to demonstrate the flexibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method can obtain the optimal sailing speed and the corresponding battery capacity synchronously when the actual transportation scenario is fixed. Moreover, the battery initial investment cost can be effectively reduced with the prosed method.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020040
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 41: Numerical Analysis of Meshing of Loaded
           Misaligned Straight Bevel Gear Drives of Automobile Differential

    • Authors: Qianjin Chen, Shuiming Wang, Pengfei Li, Xinguang Li, Jianhua Liu, Dewu Hu, Zhigang Zhao, Xiaoshuang Xiong
      First page: 41
      Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of different types of alignment errors on the meshing performance of loaded straight bevel gears. Based on 3D finite element models of the specific loaded assembling straight bevel gear pair, the contact area, transmission error, vibration and noise for the specific loaded straight bevel gear are investigated. The results show that the alignment errors have different degrees of adverse effects on the contact area and the contact line of the straight bevel gear pair, which can affect the transmission error, vibration, and noise of the straight bevel gear drives. The results also demonstrate that the most dangerous type of combined alignment errors is ΔP, ΔG, ΔE < 0 and Δγ. The results of this research can provide theoretical guidelines for the assembly and modification of straight bevel gears.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020041
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 42: Influence of Adhesive Tapes as Thermal Interface
           Materials on the Thermal Load of a Compact Electrical Machine

    • Authors: Henrik-Christian Graichen, Jörg Sauerhering, Olena Stamann, Frank Beyrau, Gunar Boye
      First page: 42
      Abstract: In this article, a novel form of thermal interface material (TIM), represented by three industrially manufactured pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) tapes with electrical insulating properties, is characterized regarding its applicability in an electric motor with air-gap winding. Firstly, the adhesion performances, in terms of the winding process, were investigated experimentally. Here, every TIM shows sufficient shear strength for the wire–TIM joints, as well as peel adhesion to the laminated iron core. Secondly, the thermal–physical properties of the TIMs are inspected experimentally via laser flash analysis (LFA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For every TIM, the value of the thermal resistance can double if the relatively smooth surface (Ra = 0.2 μm) of the adjacent layers is interchanged with a rougher one (Ra = 2.0–3.7 μm). Additionally, the TIM’s performance at the system level is examined. Therefore, a flat test section, according to the specifications of the original motor, is studied experimentally and numerically utilizing infrared (IR) thermography and the finite element method (FEM). The focus is set on the heat flow and temperature distribution in the test section under varying thermal loads, mass flow, and variety of TIMs.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020042
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 43: Multi-Objective Optimization and Test of a
           Tractor Drive Motor

    • Authors: Mengnan Liu, Yanying Li, Sixia Zhao, Bing Han, Shenghui Lei, Liyou Xu
      First page: 43
      Abstract: The design objectives of the structural parameters of the tractor drive motor are diverse, and the constraints are complex. It is difficult to optimize the overall performance of the unit by using the empirical method and single-objective optimization method. This paper proposes a multi-objective optimization method for tractor drive motors based on an improved Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). Constraints are formulated according to the inherent characteristics of the motor itself and the characteristics of the tractor’s working conditions. The objective function was established with the heat loss of the drive motor and the total efficiency of the drive system. Based on the designed solution process of NSGA-II algorithm, an example optimization was carried out, and the tractor electromechanical drive system was carried out with the single-objective optimization results of the optimal energy use efficiency of the drive motor and the optimal mechanical transmission efficiency of the transmission system as the control group. The test results show that compared with the control group, the proposed multi-objective optimization method can make the overall tractor system efficiency the highest, and the maximum and rated values of the total efficiency ηq of the drive system of the multi-objective optimization design scheme. Compared with the optimal design scheme with ηme as a single objective, it was increased by 2% and 1.4%, respectively, and compared with the optimal design scheme with ηtr as a single objective, it is improved by 26.5% and 73.6%, respectively. It can provide an effective calculation method for the motor design problem in the subsequent development of the tractor electromechanical drive system.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13020043
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 14: Research on Path Planning and Tracking Control of
           Automatic Parking System

    • Authors: Bingzhan Zhang, Zhiyuan Li, Yaoyao Ni, Yujie Li
      First page: 14
      Abstract: In this paper, we focus on the parking path planning and path tracking control under parallel parking conditions with automatic parking system as the research object. In order to solve the problem of discontinuity of curvature in the path planning of traditional arc-straight combined curve, a quintic polynomial is used to smooth the path. we design a path tracking controller based on the incremental model predictive control (MPC). The preview control based on pure tracking algorithm is used as the comparison algorithm for path tracking. The feasibility of the controller is verified by building a Simulink/CarSim co-simulation platform. In addition, the practicality of the parking controller is further verified by using the ROS intelligent car in the laboratory environment.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010014
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 15: Quantifying the Impact of Traffic on Electric
           Vehicle Efficiency

    • Authors: Tim Jonas, Christopher D. Hunter, Gretchen A. Macht
      First page: 15
      Abstract: While the influence of several factors on battery electric vehicle (BEV) efficiency has been investigated in the past, their impact on traffic is not yet fully understood, especially when driving in a natural environment. This paper investigates the influence of driving in intense traffic conditions while considering the ambient temperature and driving behavior on BEV energy efficiency in a field study. A total of 30 BEV inexperienced drivers test drove a 2017 Volkswagen eGolf on a route with various road types in two different traffic intensity scenarios: During morning commute hours with higher traffic congestion and lower congestion hours throughout the middle of the day. Results support the hypothesis that traffic conditions significantly impact the vehicle’s efficiency, with additional consumption of approximately 4–5% in the high traffic scenario. By creating and comparing driving in traffic to an underlying base case scenario, the additional range potential by avoiding traffic for this particular vehicle can be quantified as up to seven miles. New patterns of BEV efficiencies emerged, which can help stakeholders understand how eco-driving can be strategically improved by selecting trip times and routes that avoid high traffic intensity.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010015
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 16: A Novel Sub-Harmonic Synchronous Machine Using
           Three-Layer Winding Topology

    • Authors: S M Sajjad Hossain Rafin, Qasim Ali, Thomas A. Lipo
      First page: 16
      Abstract: This paper proposes a novel brushless synchronous machine topology that utilizes stator sub-harmonic magnetomotive force (MMF) for desirable brushless operation. The sub-harmonic MMF component that is used in this novel topology is one fourth of the fundamental MMF component, whereas, in previous practices, it was half. To achieve the brushless operation, the novel machine uses a unique stator winding configuration of two sets of balanced 3-phase winding wound in 3 layers. For the rotor, additional winding is placed to induce the sub-harmonic component to achieve the brushless excitation. Unlike its predecessors, it utilizes maximum allowable space in the stator to house conductors in all of its slots. To implement the topology, 8-pole, 48-slot sub-harmonic brushless synchronous machine model has been designed. A 2-D finite element analysis (FEA) is used to simulate and validate the performance of the novel machine as a motor. The proposed topology shows better average torque than the existing sub-harmonic wound rotor brushless synchronous machine topologies.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010016
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 17: Combined Vector and Direct Controls Based on
           Five-Level Inverter for High Performance of IM Drive

    • Authors: Oumaymah Elamri, Abdellah Oukassi, Lhoussain El Bahir, Zakariae El Idrissi
      First page: 17
      Abstract: The goal of this study was to figure out how to regulate an induction motor in a hybrid electric vehicle. Conventional combined vector and direct control induction motors take advantage of the advantages of vector control and direct torque control. It is also a method that avoids some of the difficulties in implementing both of the two control methods. However, for this method of control, the statoric current has a great wealth of harmonic components which, unfortunately, results in a strong undulation of the torque regardless of the region speed. To solve this problem, a five-level neutral point clamped inverter was used. Through multilevel inverter operation, the voltage is closer to the sine wave. The speed and torque are then successfully controlled with a lower level of ripple in the torque response which improves system performance. The analysis of this study was verified with simulation in the MATLAB/Simulink interface. The simulation results demonstrate the high performance of this control strategy.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010017
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 18: Permanent Magnet Machines for High-Speed
           Applications

    • Authors: Tianran He, Ziqiang Zhu, Fred Eastham, Yu Wang, Hong Bin, Di Wu, Liming Gong, Jintao Chen
      First page: 18
      Abstract: This paper overviews high-speed permanent magnet (HSPM) machines, accounting for stator structures, winding configurations, rotor constructions, and parasitic effects. Firstly, single-phase and three-phase PM machines are introduced for high-speed applications. Secondly, for three-phase HSPM machines, applications, advantages, and disadvantages of slotted/slotless stator structures, non-overlapping/overlapping winding configurations, different rotor constructions, i.e., interior PM (IPM), surface-mounted PM (SPM), and solid PM, are summarised in detail. Thirdly, parasitic effects due to high-speed operation are presented, including various loss components, rotor dynamic and vibration, and thermal aspects. Overall, three-phase PM machines have no self-starting issues, and exhibit high power density, high efficiency, high critical speed, together with low vibration and noise, which make them a preferred choice for high-performance, high-speed applications.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010018
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 19: Research on the Influence Mechanism of
           Consumers’ Purchase Intention of Electric Vehicles Based on
           

    • Authors: Yong Zang, Jue Qian, Qianling Jiang
      First page: 19
      Abstract: During the last decade, a number of electric vehicle start-ups have emerged in China. Although there have been quite a lot of studies on consumers’ purchase decision of electric vehicles, it is not common in the case of electric vehicle start-ups. This paper puts forward the concept of perceived endorsement and discusses the relationship among perceived benefit, perceived risk, range anxiety, attitude and consumers’ purchase intention and establishes a theoretical model of consumers’ purchase intention towards electric vehicles from start-ups. A structural equation model was used to test the research model and the hypotheses of the model. The results indicate that perceived endorsement has a significant positive influence on perceived benefit and attitude, which then affects consumers’ purchase intention, but range anxiety and perceived risk have no impact on purchase intention.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010019
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 20: Optimization and Analysis of Electric Vehicle
           Operation with Fast-Charging Technologies

    • Authors: Mohammed Al-Saadi, Manuel Mathes, Johannes Käsgen, Koffrie Robert, Matthias Mayrock, Joeri Van Mierlo, Maitane Berecibar
      First page: 20
      Abstract: This work presents three demos, which include Electric Buses (EBs) from four various brands with lengths of 12 m and 18 m and an Electric Truck (E-truck) for refuse collection. The technical operation of these EVs were analyzed to implement further operational cost optimization on the demo vehicles. The Electric Vehicles (EVs) were tested against superfast-charging solutions based on Pantograph (Type A & Type B) on the route lines (and depots) and based on Combined Charging System Type 2 (CCS2, Combo2) from various brands to validate the interoperability among several vendors and support further EV integration with more affordable solutions. The optimization includes the calculation of the EBs’ consumption at various seasons and under various operating conditions in order to use optimum battery system design, heating system, optimum EB fleet operation and size and to find the charging solutions properly. The results showed that the EB consumption increases in some cases by 64.5% in wintertime due to heating systems, and the consumption in urban areas is more than that on the route lines outside cities. In the E-truck demo, where the electric heater was replaced with a heat-pump to optimize the energy consumption, it was found that the consumption of the heat-pump is about half of the electric heater under certain operating conditions. Under strict EB schedule, Pantograph charging solutions with power ratings of 300–600 kW have been adopted to charge the batteries of the EBs within 4–10 min. In order to minimize the cumulative costs of energy, (pantograph) charging infrastructure depreciation and battery degradation, as well as depot charging (at the bus operator’s depot), was adopted with a power level of 50–350 kW based on CCS2 and pantograph.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010020
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 21: An Energy Management Strategy and Parameter
           Optimization of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Wenguang Li, Guosheng Feng, Sumei Jia
      First page: 21
      Abstract: This study involved a detailed analysis of an energy distribution strategy and the parameters of key components of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). In order to better utilize the advantages of multiple energy sources, the wavelet-fuzzy energy management method was used to adjust the demand power allocation among multiple energy sources, and particle swarm optimization (PSO) was used to solve highly nonlinear optimization problems under multi-dimensional and multi-condition constraints. The multi-objective optimization problem of predefined driving cycle powertrain parameters about fuel economy and system durability was studied. The parameters of the key components of the system were optimized, including the size parameters of the air com-pressor and the number of batteries and ultra-capacitors. Furthermore, the driving state under specific working conditions was analyzed, and a nonlinear model with system durability and fuel economy as the optimization objectives were established, which greatly reduced the costs, reduced the fuel consumption rate and extended the battery life. The simulation results showed that for a UDDS cycle, the FCS’s maximal net output power of 83 kW was optimal for the fuel economy and system durability of a fuel cell city bus.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010021
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 22: Conductive Electric Road Localization and Related
           Vehicle Power Control

    • Authors: Anton Karlsson, Mats Alaküla
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Enabling vehicles to draw energy from an electric road system (ERS) significantly reduces the need for battery capacity on board the vehicle. It is not necessary, nor realistic, to cover every meter of every stretch of road with ERS. The question then arises how and where the ERS sections should be placed. One way of doing it is to place equally long sections of ERS with a certain separating distance. Another way is to place the sections where the highest amount of traction power of the vehicles is required. This paper presents a performance evaluation of both these methods from an energy consumption and battery degradation point of view. This study assumes a conductive ERS which allows for high power transfer. Being conductive, galvanic isolation between the energy source (the ERS) and the on board traction voltage system (TVS) is needed for electric safety reasons. In addition to the two alternative methods for location of ERS segments, three different powertrains, each with a different approach to galvanic isolation and charging, are evaluated. It is discovered that the method for location of the ERS can in fact affect both energy consumption and battery degradation depending on powertrain and driving scenario.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010022
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 1: Vehicle Lateral Velocity Estimation Based on Long
           Short-Term Memory Network

    • Authors: Debao Kong, Wenhao Wen, Rui Zhao, Zheng Lv, Kewang Liu, Yujie Liu, Zhenhai Gao
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Lateral velocity is an important parameter to characterize vehicle stability. The acquisition of lateral velocity is of great significance to vehicle stability control and the trajectory following control of autonomous vehicles. Aiming to resolve the problems of poor estimation accuracy caused by the insufficient modeling of traditional model-based methods and significant decline in performance in the case of a change in road friction coefficient, a deep learning method for lateral velocity estimation using an LSTM, long-term and short-term memory network, is designed. LSTM can well reflect the inertial characteristics of vehicles. The training data set contains sensor data under various working conditions and roads. The simulation results show that the prediction model has high accuracy in general and robustness to the change of road friction coefficient.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-23
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010001
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 2: LLC DC-DC Converter Performances Improvement for
           Bidirectional Electric Vehicle Charger Application

    • Authors: Houssein Al Attar, Mohamed Assaad Hamida, Malek Ghanes, Miassa Taleb
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Electric Vehicle (EV) bidirectional charger technology is growing in importance. It defines the fact of returning the electricity stored in the batteries of EV to Grid (V2G), to Home (V2H), to Load (V2L), or in one word V2X mode. The EV onboard charger is divided into two parts: AC-DC and DC-DC converters. The isolated bidirectional DC-DC LLC resonant converter is used to improve the charger efficiency within both battery power and voltage ranges. It is controlled by varying the switching frequency based on a small signal modeling approach using the gain transfer function inversion method. The dimensions of the DC-DC LLC converter directly affect the charger cost. Moreover, they cause an important control frequency saturation zone, especially in V2X mode, where the switching frequency is out of the feasibility zone. The new challenge in this paper is to design an optimization strategy to minimize the LLC converter cost and improve the control frequency feasibility zone, for a wide variation of battery voltage and converter power, in the charging (G2V) and discharging (V2X) modes simultaneously. For our best knowledge, this optimization problem, in the case of a bidirectional (G2V and V2X) charger, is not yet considered in the literature. An optimal design that considers the control stability equations in the optimization algorithm is elaborated. The obtained results show a significant converter cost decrease and important expansion of control frequency feasibility zones. A comparative study between initial and optimized values, in G2V and V2X modes, is generated according to the converter efficiency.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-23
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010002
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 3: What Is the Level of People’s Acceptance for
           Electric Taxis and Buses' Exploring Citizens’ Perceptions of
           Transportation Electrification to Pay Additional Fees

    • Authors: Jean-Michel Clairand, Mario González-Rodríguez
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs) are gradually addressing the environmental problem in cities created by internal combustion vehicles. However, to be widely used, a major challenge will still have to be tackled. Some significant challenges are the resistance to new technologies and EVs’ purchase cost, which is significantly higher than that of internal combustion vehicles. These challenges are similar to the adoption of EVs for public transportation, such as buses and taxis. Thus, this paper proposes valuable insights into attitudes and preferences for taxi and bus users for the willingness to travel in EVs, by performing a convenience sampling, focusing especially on young users. Moreover, this study highlights the possibility of the users paying additional fees to travel in electric taxis (ETs) or electric buses (EBs). Pearson’s chi-squared analysis was also performed to validate the hypotheses.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010003
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 4: Co-Simulation and Modeling of PMSM Based on Ansys
           Software and Simulink for EVs

    • Authors: Tewodros Kassa Mersha, Changqing Du
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs) should have an electrical motor with high efficiency, high power density, and a wider constant power operating region, as well as ease of control and inexpensive manufacturing cost. To achieve these requirements, a real-time control-oriented electric motor model is essential. A co-simulation method based on Ansys software (Maxwell and Twin Builder) and MATLAB/Simulink for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) model is presented, which can improve the design of the PMSM and evaluate its performance by Rotating Machine Expert (RMxprt) when any slight modification of parameters and output inaccuracy occur. The PMSM drive system under different input reference speeds was analyzed by simulation, which testified that co-simulation of the magnetic and electrical domain is necessary to capture all applicable effects. The simulation results show the good feasibility of the motor model and control method, which achieves the desired effect and fast response with a small torque ripple as well. Such a developed prototype allows both accurate and simple characterization and optimization to be made possible.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010004
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 5: Optimization of TSPWM for Common-Mode Voltage
           Reduction in Vehicular Electric Drive System

    • Authors: Shang Jiang, Yuan Wang
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Common-mode voltage can be reduced effectively by optimized modulation methods without increasing additional costs. However, the existing methods cannot satisfy the requirements of the vehicular electric-drive application. This paper optimizes the tri-state voltage modulation method to reduce the common-mode voltage for vehicular electric drive system applications. Firstly, the discontinuous switching issue during sector transition is analyzed. Under the limit of two switching times in one period, multiple alignments combination is proposed to address that issue. Secondly, the zero-voltage time intervals in different modulation ranges are explored. This paper proposes an unsymmetric translation method to reconstruct the voltage vector, and then the minimum zero-voltage time interval is controlled to enough value for safe switching. Finally, the proposed methods have been validated through experiments on a vehicular electric drive system. The results show that the common-mode voltage can be reduced effectively in the whole range with the optimized tri-state voltage modulation method.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010005
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 6: Dual-Side Phase-Shift Control for Strongly Coupled
           Series–Series Compensated Electric Vehicle Wireless Charging Systems
           

    • Authors: Yiming Zhang, Zhiwei Shen, Yuanchao Wu, Hui Wang, Wenbin Pan
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Wireless power transfer (WPT) for electric vehicles is an emerging technology and a future trend. To increase power density, the coupling coefficient of coils can be designed to be large, forming a strongly coupled WPT system, different from the conventional loosely coupled WPT system. In this way, the power density and efficiency of the WPT system can be improved. This paper investigates the dual-side phase-shift control of the strongly coupled series–series compensated WPT systems. The mathematical models based on the conventional first harmonic approximation and differential equations for the dual-side phase-shift control are built and compared. The dual-side phase-shift angle and its impact on the power transfer direction and soft switching are investigated. It is found that synchronous rectification at strong couplings can lead to hard switching because the dual-side phase shift in this case is over 90°. In comparison, a relatively high efficiency and soft switching can be realized when the dual-side phase shift is below 90°. The experimental results have validated the analysis.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-26
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010006
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 7: Research on Charging-Discharging Operation
           Strategy for Electric Vehicles Based on Different Trip Patterns for
           Various City Types in China

    • Authors: Sirui Qi, Zhengchong Lin, Junwen Song, Xinwei Lin, Yan Liu, Meng Ni, Beibei Wang
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Connecting large numbers of electric vehicles to the power grid creates challenges for the operation of the power distribution network, but also provides a new method for supporting grid operation. This paper considers the trip patterns of electric vehicle users in China, including their trip starting time, traffic congestion, vehicle energy consumption, and other factors. We develop a charging–discharging operation strategy for electric vehicles in different functional areas with the goal of minimizing the cost of distribution network, which considers the distribution patterns of electric vehicles in different functional areas. As different types of cities in China have different proportions of electric vehicle users who follow different travel chains, we provide multiple examples showing the effectiveness of our proposed V2G method in different cities.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-27
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010007
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 8: The Integrated Kinetic Energy Recoup Drive
           (i-KERD): An Optimized Powertrain for EVs, HEVs and FCEVs

    • Authors: Min Yang, Tao Wang, Chunji Guo, Chris Ellis, Yuefeng Liao
      First page: 8
      Abstract: In this paper, a particular form of flywheel hybrid powertrain, namely, the Integrated Kinetic Energy Recoup Drive (i-KERD) is fully explored and its applications for EVs, HEVs and FCEVs in recent years to show the energy-savings and performance enhancement potential of this innovative powertrain technology. It is shown that the i-KERD is a small highspeed flywheel integrated into an e-CVT, or power-split hybrid drive. Under NEDC or WLTC, typically it can achieve some 40% energy savings and >50% gain in 0–100 kph acceleration due to effective regenerative braking mechanism of the integrated flywheel power system. In addition to its “peak-shaving” capability, the highly-efficient, long-life flywheel power on-board, is able to keep the kinetic energy of the vehicle fully recycled, rather than dissipated during braking. The i-KERD technology has also been applied to urban railway transportation (i.e., underground railway) and off-road heavy construction equipment, where regenerative braking plays a great role on energy efficiency.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010008
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 9: Research on Hydrogen Consumption and Driving Range
           of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle under the CLTC-P Condition

    • Authors: Zhijie Duan, Nan Mei, Lili Feng, Shuguang Yu, Zengyou Jiang, Dongfang Chen, Xiaoming Xu, Jichao Hong
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Hydrogen consumption and mileage are important economic indicators of fuel cell vehicles. Hydrogen consumption is the fundamental reason that restricts mileage. Since there are few quantitative studies on hydrogen consumption during actual vehicle operation, the high cost of hydrogen consumption in outdoor testing makes it impossible to guarantee the accuracy of the test. Therefore, this study puts forward a test method based on the hydrogen consumption of fuel cell vehicles under CLTC-P operating conditions to test the hydrogen consumption of fuel cell vehicles per 100 km. Finally, the experiment shows that the mileage calculated by hydrogen consumption has a higher consistency with the actual mileage. Based on this hydrogen consumption test method, the hydrogen consumption can be accurately measured, and the test time and cost can be effectively reduced.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-29
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010009
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 10: Design and Numerical Analysis of Electric Vehicle
           Li-Ion Battery Protections Using Lattice Structure Undergoing Ground
           Impact

    • Authors: Leonardus Kenny Pratama, Sigit Puji Santosa, Tatacipta Dirgantara, Djarot Widagdo
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Improvement in electric vehicle technology requires the lithium-ion battery system’s safe operations, protecting battery fire damage potential from road debris impact. In this research a design of sandwich panel construction with a lattice structure core is evaluated as the battery protection system. Additive manufacturing technology advancements have paved the way for lattice structure development. The sandwich protective structure designs are evaluated computationally using a non-linear dynamic finite element analysis for various geometry and material parameters. The lattice structure’s optimum shape was obtained based on the highest Specific Energy Absorption (SEA) parameter developed using the ANOVA and Taguchi robust design method. It is found that the octet-cross lattice structure with 40% relative density provided the best performance in terms of absorbing impact energy. Furthermore, the sandwich panel construction with two layers of lattice structure core performed very well in protecting the lithium-ion NCA battery in the ground impact loading conditions, which the impactor velocity is 42 m/s, representing vehicle velocity in highway, and weigh 0.77 kg. The battery shortening met the safety threshold of less than 3 mm deformation.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-29
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010010
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 11: Suppression of Cross-Coupling Effect of Hybrid
           Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Parallel Magnetic Circuit

    • Authors: Xiao He, Guangqing Bao
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Hybrid permanent magnet synchronous motor (HPMSM) has attracted increased attention in recent years due to its adjustable air gap flux. However, as a result of the cross-coupling effect of high- and low-coercive permanent magnets, the precise magnetic adjustment of HPMSM has become increasingly difficult. In order to weaken the cross-coupling effect, two methods of adding magnetic barrier and exciting coil are adopted in this paper. First, the equivalent magnetic circuit model is established, and the theoretical rationality of the weakening method is analyzed. Second, the electromagnetic performance of two weakening methods are analyzed based on the finite element analysis. Finally, the rationality of the theoretical analysis is verified, which provides the structure basis for the precise magnetic adjustment of the hybrid permanent magnet motor.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010011
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 12: Design and Dynamic Simulation Analysis of a
           Wheel–Track Composite Chassis Based on RecurDyn

    • Authors: Yaowei Li, Liguo Zang, Tuo Shi, Tian Lv, Fen Lin
      First page: 12
      Abstract: The traditional chassis has the problems of low trafficability and poor stability under complex and changeable unstructured conditions. Thus, a wheel rail composite chassis is proposed. The chassis had a tracked travel mechanism at the front wheels and a wheeled travel mechanism at the rear wheels. This study presents the design, theoretical analysis and dynamic simulation analysis of the chassis. The maximum values of the passability of the wheel–track composite chassis that can be passed were calculated according to the relevant parameters. Furthermore, the chassis was modeled and simulated using RecurDyn to verify whether the values were reasonable. According to different values of the terrain, slope, vertical obstacle height and trench width, the change regularity of the track tension and driving torque of the chassis were obtained. The chassis is designed to improve the vehicle’s ability to operate under complex and diverse unstructured conditions.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010012
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 13, Pages 13: Constant-Current and Constant-Voltage Output for
           Single-Switch WPT System with Composite Shielding Structure

    • Authors: Quanlei Zhang, Chunfang Wang, Lingyun Yang, Zhihao Guo
      First page: 13
      Abstract: With the development of wireless power transfer (WPT), the wireless charging has become a research hotspot. This paper proposes a novel single-switch hybrid compensation topology, which can change the compensation network to realize the constant-current (CC) and constant-voltage (CV) output. The zero voltage switching (ZVS) margin can be designed to increase the stability of the system. In addition, the magnetic coupler adopts a composite shielding structure composed of ferrite, nanocrystalline, and aluminium foil. The composite shielding structure has a better shielding effect on magnetic flux leakage, and its weight is lighter. The composite shielding structure is expected to be used in the wireless charging system of electric vehicles (EVs). Finally, an experimental prototype is built to verify the theoretical analysis, and the maximum efficiency can reach 91.4%.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj13010013
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 258: Optimization Approach for Long-Term Planning of
           Charging Infrastructure for Fixed-Route Transportation Systems

    • Authors: Benjamin Daniel Blat Belmonte, Stephan Rinderknecht
      First page: 258
      Abstract: As the electrification of the transportation sector advances, fleet operators have to rethink their approach regarding fleet management against the background of limiting factors, such as a reduced range or extended recharging times. Charging infrastructure plays a critical role, and it is worthwhile to consider its planning as an integral part for the long-term operation of an electric vehicle fleet. In the category of fixed route transportation systems, the predictable character of the routes can be exploited when planning charging infrastructure. After a prior categorization of stakeholders and their respective optimization objectives in the sector coupling domain, a cost optimization framework for fixed route transportation systems is presented as the main contribution of this work. We confirm previous literature in that there is no one-fits-all optimization method for this kind of problem. The method is tested on seven scenarios for the public transport operator of Darmstadt, Germany. The core optimization is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem. All scenarios are terminated by the criterion of a maximum solving time of 48 h and provide feasible solutions with a relative MIP-gap between 7 and 24%.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-10
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12040258
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 259: A Numerical Simulation on the Leakage Event of a
           High-Pressure Hydrogen Dispenser

    • Authors: Wang, Shen, Lv, He
      First page: 259
      Abstract: For the sake of the increasing demand of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, there are more concerns on the safety of hydrogen refueling stations. As one of the key pieces of equipment, the hydrogen dispenser has drawn attention on this aspect since it involves massive manual operations and may be bothered by a high probability of failure. In this paper, a numerical study is conducted to simulate the possible leakage events of the hydrogen dispenser based on a prototype in China whose working pressure is 70 MPa. The leakage accident is analyzed with respect to leakage sizes, leak directions, and the time to stop the leakage. It is found that, due to the large mass flow rate under such high pressure, the leak direction and the layout of the components inside the dispenser become insignificant, and the ignitable clouds will form inside the dispenser in less than 1 s if there is a leakage of 1% size of the main tube. The ignitable clouds will form near the vent holes outside the dispenser, which may dissipate quickly if the leakage is stopped. On the other hand, the gas inside the dispenser will remain ignitable for a long time, which asks for a design with no possible ignition source inside. The results can be useful in optimizing the design of the dispenser, regarding the reaction time and sensitivity requirements of the leakage detector, the size and amount of vent holes, etc.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-10
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12040259
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 260: A Design Technique of Traction Motor for
           Efficiency Improvement Based on Multiobjective Optimization

    • Authors: Shoulun Guo, Huichao Zhao, Yu Wang, Xiangrui Yin, Hongyang Qi, Pei Li, Zhanxi Lin
      First page: 260
      Abstract: With the increasing demand of driving range of new energy vehicle (NEV), design optimization for energy efficiency of traction motors became more important. However, traction motor design is complex since multiple objectives should be satisfied, such as the required torque-speed operating range and package and thermal constraints. This dramatically increases the computation time of the design optimization process, while the additional energy efficiency objective of the whole driving cycle. This paper proposes an equivalent driving cycle points extraction method, based on energy consumption equivalence to facilitate the design optimization of traction motors. This paper presents necessary rules of multiobjective optimization methods, and then gives an optimization process and proves the effectiveness.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-11
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12040260
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 261: Map Construction Based on LiDAR Vision Inertial
           Multi-Sensor Fusion

    • Authors: Chuanwei Zhang, Lei Lei, Xiaowen Ma, Rui Zhou, Zhenghe Shi, Zhongyu Guo
      First page: 261
      Abstract: In order to make up for the shortcomings of independent sensors and provide more reliable estimation, a multi-sensor fusion framework for simultaneous localization and mapping is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the light detection and ranging (LiDAR) point cloud is screened in the front-end processing to eliminate abnormal points and improve the positioning and mapping accuracy. Secondly, for the problem of false detection when the LiDAR is surrounded by repeated structures, the intensity value of the laser point cloud is used as the screening condition to screen out robust visual features with high distance confidence, for the purpose of softening. Then, the initial factor, registration factor, inertial measurement units (IMU) factor and loop factor are inserted into the factor graph. A factor graph optimization algorithm based on a Bayesian tree is used for incremental optimization estimation to realize the data fusion. The algorithm was tested in campus and real road environments. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can realize state estimation and map construction with high accuracy and strong robustness.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-12
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12040261
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 262: Electric Vehicles—Solution toward Zero
           Emission from the Transport Sector

    • Authors: Aritra Ghosh
      First page: 262
      Abstract: Internal combustion engine (ICE)-based vehicles have contributed considerably to air pollution [...]
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-13
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12040262
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 263: Integrating Electric Vehicles into Power System
           Operation Production Cost Models

    • Authors: Jose David Alvarez Guerrero, Bikash Bhattarai, Rajendra Shrestha, Thomas L. Acker, Rafael Castro
      First page: 263
      Abstract: The electrification of the transportation sector will increase the demand for electric power, potentially impacting the peak load and power system operations. A change such as this will be multifaceted. A power system production cost model (PCM) is a useful tool with which to analyze one of these facets, the operation of the power system. A PCM is a computer simulation that mimics power system operation, i.e., unit commitment, economic dispatch, reserves, etc. To understand how electric vehicles (EVs) will affect power system operation, it is necessary to create models that describe how EVs interact with power system operations that are suitable for use in a PCM. In this work, EV charging data from the EV Project, reported by the Idaho National Laboratory, were used to create scalable, statistical models of EV charging load profiles suitable for incorporation into a PCM. Models of EV loads were created for uncoordinated and coordinated charging. Uncoordinated charging load represents the load resulting from EV owners that charge at times of their choosing. To create an uncoordinated charging load profile, the parameters of importance are the number of vehicles, charger type, battery capacity, availability for charging, and battery beginning and ending states of charge. Coordinated charging is where EVs are charged via an “aggregator” that interacts with a power system operator to schedule EV charging at times that either minimize system operating costs, decrease EV charging costs, or both, while meeting the daily EV charging requirements subject to the EV owners’ charging constraints. Beta distributions were found to be the most appropriate distribution for statistically modeling the initial and final state of charge (SoC) of vehicles in an EV fleet. A Monte Carlo technique was implemented by sampling the charging parameters of importance to create an uncoordinated charging load time series. Coordinated charging was modeled as a controllable load within the PCM to represent the influence of the EV fleet on the system’s electricity price. The charging models were integrated as EV loads in a simple 5-bus system to demonstrate their usefulness. Polaris Systems Optimization’s PCM power system optimizer (PSO) was employed to show the effect of the EVs on one day of operation in the 5-bus power system, yielding interesting and valid results and showing the effectiveness of the charging models.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12040263
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 264: Techno-Economic Analysis and Feasibility Studies
           of Electric Vehicle Charging Station

    • Authors: Muhammad Danial, Fatin Amanina Azis, Pg Emeroylariffion Abas
      First page: 264
      Abstract: Recent United Nations high-level dialogue on energy, which had emphasized on energy usage and environmental protection, has renewed commitments by different countries on the adoption of electric vehicle (EVs). This paper aims to analyze the economic feasibility of establishing electrical charging stations, which is an important factor for the wide adoption of EVs, using life cycle cost analysis. Although local data have been used, the method can be easily adopted to analyze economic feasibility at different markets. The findings have revealed that an electrical charging station is only feasible when the acquisition cost is kept to a minimum to return 1.47 times the initial investment in terms of life cycle cost. An acquisition cost of BND 29,725 on the electrical charging station represents the threshold below which an electrical charging station is more attractive. In order to promote these charging stations, the government needs to provide multiple incentives, including a subsidy to reduce the acquisition cost, relaxing control on the electric selling price, taxing the establishment of conventional filling stations, and minimally reducing the profit margin on the selling price of fossil fuel. It has been shown that a 40% initial subsidy on the purchase of electrical charging stations, coupled with a slight subsidy of BND 0.018/kWh on electricity, would make electrical charging stations economically competitive. To reach its target of 60% electrification of the transportation sector, Brunei would need to implement a structure program to establish between 646 and 3300 electrical charging stations by the year 2035, to cater for its expected number of EVs.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12040264
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 265: A Fault Warning Method for Electric Vehicle
           Charging Process Based on Adaptive Deep Belief Network

    • Authors: Dexin Gao, Yi Wang, Xiaoyu Zheng, Qing Yang
      First page: 265
      Abstract: If an accident occurs during charging of an electric vehicle (EV), it will cause serious damage to the car, the person and the charging facility. Therefore, this paper proposes a fault warning method for an EV charging process based on an adaptive deep belief network (ADBN). The method uses Nesterov-accelerated adaptive moment estimation (NAdam) to optimize the training process of a deep belief network (DBN), and uses the historical data of EV charging to construct the ADBN of the normal charging process of an EV model. The real-time data of EV charging is obtained and input into the constructed ADBN model to predict the output, calculate the Pearson coefficient between the predicted output and the actual measured value, and judge whether there is a fault according to the size of the Pearson coefficient to realize the fault warning of the EV charging process. The experimental results show that the method is not only able to accurately warn of a fault in the EV charging process, but also has higher warning accuracy compared with the back propagation neural network (BPNN) and conventional DBN methods.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12040265
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 266: Cooperative Control for Dual Permanent Magnet
           Motor System with Unified Nonlinear Predictive Control

    • Authors: Zhanqing Zhou, Zhengchao Xu, Guozheng Zhang, Qiang Geng
      First page: 266
      Abstract: In order to improve the position tracking precision of dual permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) systems, a unified nonlinear predictive control (UNPC) strategy based on the unified modeling of two PMSM systems is proposed in this paper. Firstly, establishing a unified nonlinear model of the dual-PMSM system, which contains uncertain disturbances caused by parameters mismatch and external load changes. Then, the position contour error and tracking errors are regarded as the performance index inserted into the cost function, and the single-loop controller is obtained by optimizing the cost function. Meanwhile, the nonlinear disturbance observer is designed to estimate the uncertain disturbances, which is used for feed-forward compensation control. Finally, the proposed strategy is experimentally validated on two 2.3 kW permanent magnet synchronous motors, and the experimental results show that effectiveness and feasibility of proposed strategy.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12040266
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • WEVJ, Vol. 12, Pages 267: Inductive Power Transmission System for Electric
           Car Charging Phase: Modeling plus Frequency Analysis

    • Authors: Naoui Mohamed, Flah Aymen, Mohammed Alqarni
      First page: 267
      Abstract: The effectiveness of inductive power transfer (IPT) presents a serious challenge for improving the global recharge system performance. An electric vehicle (EVs) needs to be charged rapidly and have maximum power when it is charged with wireless technology. Based on various research, the performance of this recharge system is attached to several points and the frequency resonance is one of those parameters that can influence. In this paper, we try to explore the relationship between the obtained power and the signal input frequency for charging a lithium battery, solve the class imbalance problem and understand the maximum allowed frequency. To obtain the results, a mathematical model was first created to demonstrate the relationship, then the dynamic model was validated and tested using the Matlab Simulink platform. The performance of the worldwide wireless recharging system in terms of frequency variation is depicted in a summary graph.
      Citation: World Electric Vehicle Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.3390/wevj12040267
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2021)
       
 
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