Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 216 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (9 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (26 journals)
    - RAILROADS (10 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (9 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (39 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (123 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (123 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 53 of 53 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Mobilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Asian Transport Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Danish Journal of Transportation Research / Dansk Tidsskrift for Transportforskning     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Decision Making : Applications in Management and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 14)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
eTransportation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
IET Smart Cities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IFAC-PapersOnLine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronic Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Big Data Analytics in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of KONES     Open Access  
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 280)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sustainable Mobility     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Transport History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal on Vehicle Routing Algorithms     Hybrid Journal  
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
LOGI ? Scientific Journal on Transport and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Logistics & Sustainable Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Logistique & Management     Hybrid Journal  
Mobility in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Open Transportation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering     Open Access  
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue Marocaine de Management, Logistique et Transport     Open Access  
Romanian Journal of Transport Infrastructure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Transport and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transport Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Transport technic and technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation in Developing Economies     Hybrid Journal  
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Transportation Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Transportation Systems and Technology     Open Access  
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transportrecht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Urban Development Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Vehicles     Open Access  
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
World Electric Vehicle Journal     Open Access  
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  

           

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IFAC-PapersOnLine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.26
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2405-8963
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3303 journals]
  • A Note on Accidents Involving Autonomous Vehicles: Interdependence of
           Event Data Recorder, Human-Vehicle Cooperation and Legal Aspects

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Andrea Martinesco, Mariana Netto, Arthur Miranda Neto, Victor H. Etgens Following the increase of automation levels in personal and public vehicles in the last decades, this note aims to discuss interdisciplinary investigation required to address criminal liability in case of an accident involving autonomous vehicles. Lawyers need from technicians definitions of automation levels. Each automation level requests differently the driver generating the need for related psychological and ergonomics studies. Finally, in the case of an accident, an Event Data Recorder (EDR) is of vital importance to reconstruct the events to the lawyers.
       
  • Connected automated vehicle design among human-driven vehicles

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Gábor Orosz In this extended abstract, we discuss results regarding the experimental validation of connected automated vehicle design. We demonstrate experimentally that a connected automated vehicle can improve human-dominated traffic flow while being integral part of the flow. Our experiments emphasize the benefits of V2V-based control for driving automation without the support of an automated platoon. In fact, we show that benefits can also be gained even in scenarios where not all neighboring human-driven vehicles are equipped with V2V devices.
       
  • A Stochastic Hybrid Structure for Predicting Disturbances in Mixed
           Automated and Human-Driven Vehicular Scenarios

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Hossein Nourkhiz Mahjoub, Mohammadreza Davoodi, Yaser P. Fallah, Javad M. Velni In this work, we introduce a stochastic prediction method which can be utilized in applications such as cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) to predict interfering vehicles’ movements. One of the main criteria in the design of automated vehicle systems is their robustness against the disturbances resulted from the non-homogeneity of the vehicular environment. The non-homogeneity is mainly due to the human-driven and automated/autonomous vehicles co-existence. It is therefore imperative for the automated applications to be designed with the capability of handling the uncertain behaviors of human-driven vehicles in a robust manner. This paper presents a method for vehicle movements time-series forecasting using a powerful non-parametric Bayesian inference method, namely Gaussian Processes. The proposed methodology is evaluated using realistic vehicle trajectory data from NGSIM dataset and is shown to provide more accurate results compared to baseline methods that use constant velocity coasting.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Synthesizing voluntary lane-change policy using control improvisation ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Jin I. Ge, Richard M. Murray In this work, we propose control improvisation to synthesize voluntary lane-change policy that meets human preferences under given traffic environments. We first train Markov models to describe the lane-change environment for an automated vehicle under assumed traffic patterns. Parameters in the environment model are trained using traffic data and calibrated using control improvisation. Then, based on human lane-change behavior, we train a voluntary lane-change policy using explicit-duration Markov decision process. Parameters in the lane-change policy are calibrated through control improvisation to allow an automated car to voluntarily change lanes while avoiding overly frequent lane-change maneuvers under various traffic environments.
       
  • Global risk assessment in an autonomous driving context: Impact on both
           the car and the driver

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Sébastien Demmel, Dominique Gruyer, Jean-Marie Burkhardt, Sébastien Glaser, Grégoire Larue, Olivier Orfila, Andry Rakotonirainy Highly automated driving (HAD) is a part of the future ways for the "intelligent" road mobility. In this framework, some studies have shown that drivers’ situational awareness decreases when using HAD. In this HAD context, drivers can engage non driving tasks as reading or sleeping. These non-driving tasks lead to increased reaction time in case of hazardous situations or risky events (hardware, sensor, actuator failures, or front obstacle or crashes, or dense traffic congestion, or adverse conditions). In this paper, a global risk indicator is proposed using local information coming from surrounding vehicles or infrastructures (V2X communication). This paper shows firstly the gain of such a global risk indicator comparatively to the local one, and secondly its impact on the behaviour of both the autonomous car and the driver.
       
  • A Traffic Simulation Model with Interactive Drivers and High-fidelity Car
           Dynamics

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Guankun Su, Nan Li, Yildiray Yildiz, Anouck Girard, Ilya Kolmanovsky We integrate a set of game-theoretic driver decision-making models with the high-fidelity car driving simulator The Open Racing Car Simulator (TORCS). The game-theoretic driver models simulate the interactive decision making processes of the drivers and TORCS simulates vehicle dynamics in multi-vehicle highway traffic scenarios. We use the integrated simulator to collect human driving data and then use these data to validate and re-calibrate our driver and traffic models. Such an integrated simulator can be used in the development, verification and validation of automated driving functions.
       
  • A Markov Decision Process for the Interaction between Autonomous Collision
           Avoidance and Delayed Pilot Commands

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Ming Li, He Bai, Niyant Krishnamurthi We propose a Markov Decision Process (MDP) approach to optimizing decision making of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the presence of communication latency for collision avoidance scenarios. The UAV can be controlled by a remote human pilot or an onboard collision avoidance system (CAS). Due to communication latency, the pilot’s commands may be delayed for several seconds. If the UAV encounters a dynamic intruder, it has to make a decision on whether it should evade immediately by following the safe path generated from the CAS, or wait for the arrival of the pilot’s commands. The proposed MDP will make predictions on the state change in such a scenario. By solving the MDP with the value iteration method, sequential decisions on whether to wait can be made and an optimal waiting strategy can be obtained, which can be used to improve the human pilot’s user experience while ensuring safety.
       
  • The influence of different types of inceptors and their characteristics on
           the pilot-aircraft system

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): A.V. Efremov, V.V. Aleksandrov, E.V. Efremov, M.V. Vukolov The manipulator is one of the task variables of pilot-vehicle system. The influence of its type (side stick and central stick), some of inceptor’s parameters (stiffness, damping) were studied in the paper. For each variable the difference between the displacement sensing control and force sensing control were investigated as well. Each investigation was carried out on the fixed based simulator when the operator executed the pitch control task with the different dynamic configurations. The experiments in the lateral channel were carried out mainly to expose the difference between the pilot actions in longitudinal and lateral channels. The pilot structural model was modified with goal to extend its potentialities for the prediction of influence of the feel system parameters on pilot behavior.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Evolving Relationship between Humans and Machines ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Anna C. Trujillo, Irene M. Gregory, Kasey A. Ackerman Traditional design typically consists of a master-servant relationship between humans and machines where the human directly controls what the machine will do and when it will do it through an interface. The current archetypical path encompasses moving from informational displays, where the human directly controls the machine based on information displayed, to automation where the human still directs the machine that then caries out the request using predefined set of instructions. Rapid pace of technological advancement makes it possible now, or in a near future, for machines to reach a level of intelligence that enables for systems to execute tasks/missions without predefined specific instructions; thus attaining a status of non-human autonomous agents. Now the course of human-machine interface technology changes from an information system to automation to an autonomous agent—essentially moving from a master-servant relationship to teammates. This paper discusses these changing relationships and challenges associated with progressing from a master-servant relationship with technology to more of an equal teammate. Examples of this progression includes current work encompassing rotorcraft noise minimization for urban air mobility.
       
  • Analysis of the Aircraft Carrier Landing Task, Pilot +
           Augmentation/Automation

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Ronald A. Hess The piloted/automatic aircraft carrier landing task is analyzed. The design of a robust flight control system is utilized which forms the basis of either a control augmentation system or a completely automatic carrier landing system. A pursuit model of the human pilot is developed that includes the ability to generate landing approach time histories and handling qualities predictions. The aircraft carrier environment includes ship heave motion, atmospheric turbulence and ship airwake. The proposed methodology provides a framework for the analysis of human/machine integration in flight control.
       
  • Shared Control Between Adaptive Autopilots and Human Operators for Anomaly
           Mitigation

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Benjamin T. Thomsen, Anuradha M. Annaswamy, Eugene Lavretsky As aerial vehicles become more autonomous, and guidance and navigation systems become increasingly network-centric, there is a need to consider a swift response to the growing forms of anomalies that may occur in these systems. We introduce a shared decision-making and control framework between a human operator and an adaptive autopilot, where the human operator plays a supervisory role and the adaptive autopilot retains the responsibility for low-level regulation and command tracking tasks. The human operator provides key inputs based on a higher-level perception of the anomaly, such as an increased lag in response to command inputs, which are then used by the adaptive autopilot in a suitable manner. The resulting shared control architecture is demonstrated on an unmanned aerial vehicle, whose actuators abruptly change from first-order to second-order due to an anomaly.
       
  • Online Identification of Pilot Adaptation to Sudden Degradations in
           Vehicle Stability

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): W. Plaetinck, D.M. Pool, M.M. van Paassen, M. Mulder Time-varying pilot control identification is essential for better understanding of how pilots respond when faced with sudden changes in the dynamics of the vehicle they control, such as when automatic control and stabilization systems disengage or undergo a mode transition. This paper presents the results of a human-in-the-loop experiment performed at TU Delft to test a promising online pilot identification method, based on recursive low-order ARX identification, developed in earlier work. In the experiment, eight skilled participants performed tracking tasks with time-varying vehicle dynamics, where at an unpredictable moment during each tracking run a sudden degradation in vehicle stability was induced. In addition to controlling the time-varying vehicle, participants were asked to indicate when they detected the change in the vehicle dynamics with a button push. This paper compares the effectiveness of two different approaches to detect the moment when pilot adaptation occurs from online identified pilot parameter traces. Overall, the results indicate that the lag in this detection of identified pilot adaptation is equivalent to the subjective detection times, or less. This implies that these online techniques have clear potential for ensuring timely and effective changes in adaptive pilot support systems.
       
  • Clinical Compliance in Personalised Model-based Medical Decision Support:
           Do computers and interfaces yield better compliance'

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Jennifer L. Dickson, J. Geoffrey Chase Personalised and model-based clinical care is on the rise and offers significant opportunity to improve care and productivity in response to rising demographic demands and rising costs. Compliance in critical care is important for any protocolised clinical care. However, it is often overlooked and very infrequently studied. Critically ill patients often experience stress-induced hyperglycemia, which has been shown to result in increased morbidity and mortality. Safe, effective glycemic control (GC) can reduce mortality and improve outcomes, but is only effective if strong compliance is observed within the clinical practice. This study examines insulin-nutrition dosing compliance for STAR, a tablet-based protocol designed to easily adapt to variable clinical practice, its neonatal intensive care unit version GRYPHON, and a standard paper based clinical protocol (CHU). All interventions and changes were recorded for all three cohorts, and a sub-cohort was used to examine the validity of the data used. Compliance was over 99% for STAR, over 98% for GRYPHON and 80% for CHU. The differences is attributed primarily to interface design and its focus on ease of use and natural use for clinical staff. However, while compliance is higher, the reasons for good compliance in any such system remains to be more precisely specified with appropriate research tests.
       
  • An Adaptive Virtual Training System Based on Universal Design

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Frieder Loch, Mina Fahimipirehgalin, Julia N. Czerniak, Alexander Mertens, Valeria Villani, Lorenzo Sabattini, Cesare Fantuzzi, Birgit Vogel-Heuser The increasing complexity of manufacturing environments requires effective training systems to prepare the operation personnel for their tasks. Several training systems have been proposed. A common approach is the application of virtual environments to train interactions with an industrial machine in a safe, attractive, and efficient way. However, these training systems cannot adapt to the requirements of an increasingly diversified workforce. This paper introduces an approach for the design of an adaptive virtual training system based on the idea of universal design. The system is based on a two-step approach that consists of an initial adaptation to the user capabilities and real-time adaptations during training based on measurements of the user. The adaptations concern the use of different representations of lessons with different complexity and interaction modalities. The proposed approach provides a flexible training system that can adapt to the needs of a broad group of users.
       
  • Decision Support System for Cyber Attack Diagnosis in Smart Water Networks

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Marcos Quiñones-Grueiro, Alberto Prieto-Moreno, Cristina Verde, Orestes Llanes-Santiago This paper presents the design of a Decision Support System (DSS) for cyber attack diagnosis in Smart Water Networks. Cyber physical systems (CPS) integrate physical assets with embedded systems. Smart water networks are CPS formed by the distribution system of pipes together with sensors, actuators, programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The proposed strategy combines three signal processing tools: Principal Component Analysis, the Adaptive Exponential Weighted Moving Average Chart and the Reconstruction-based Contribution method. The proposal is tested with the data published in the BATtle of the Attack Detection ALgorithms (BATADAL) competition (http://www.batadal.net). The results show that the proposed DSS allows the detection of all the attacks from the test data set 3 with a satisfactory performance by using only data from the normal behavior (data set 1). The proposed DSS can also successfully identify the area of the network and the physical component(s) under attack for different scenarios (first three attacks).
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Improving Human-Machine Collaboration Through Transparency-based Feedback
           – Part II: Control Design and Synthesis ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Kumar Akash, Tahira Reid, Neera Jain To attain improved human-machine collaboration, it is necessary for autonomous systems to infer human trust and workload and respond accordingly. In turn, autonomous systems require models that capture both human trust and workload dynamics. In a companion paper, we developed a trust-workload partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) model framework that captured changes in human trust and workload for contexts that involve interaction between a human and an intelligent decision-aid system. In this paper, we define intuitive reward functions and show that these can be readily transformed for integration with the proposed POMDP model. We synthesize a near-optimal control policy using transparency as the feedback variable based on solutions for two cases: 1) increasing human trust and reducing workload, and 2) improving overall performance along with the aforementioned objectives for trust and workload. We implement these solutions in a reconnaissance mission study in which human subjects are aided by a virtual robotic assistant in completing a series of missions. We show that it is not always beneficial to aim to improve trust; instead, the control objective should be to optimize a context-specific performance objective when designing intelligent decision-aid systems that influence trust-workload behavior.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Improving Human-Machine Collaboration Through Transparency-based Feedback
           – Part I: Human Trust and Workload Model ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Kumar Akash, Katelyn Polson, Tahira Reid, Neera Jain In this paper, we establish a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) model framework that captures dynamic changes in human trust and workload for contexts that involve interactions between humans and intelligent decision-aid systems. We use a reconnaissance mission study to elicit a dynamic change in human trust and workload with respect to the system’s reliability and user interface transparency as well as the presence or absence of danger. We use human subject data to estimate transition and observation probabilities of the POMDP model and analyze the trust-workload behavior of humans. Our results indicate that higher transparency is more likely to increase human trust when the existing trust is low but also is more likely to decrease trust when it is already high. Furthermore, we show that by using high transparency, the workload of the human is always likely to increase. In our companion paper, we use this estimated model to develop an optimal control policy that varies system transparency to affect human trust-workload behavior towards improving human-machine collaboration.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">An Ecological Interface Design Based Visualization of the Energy Balance
           of Chemical Reactors ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): C. Lindscheid, P. Sakthithasan, S. Engell The operation of industrial process becomes more and more demanding due to tighter regulations and increased competition. The operators, who are responsible for the safe and reliable operation of the processes are required to supervise a larger number of units with a large number of measured values and actuators and are expected to steer the process towards an optimal, profitable and resource efficient operation. In order to help the operators in taking the right decisions, an interface design is needed which not only helps the operators in familiar situations but also provides support to handle unanticipated or non-routine events. The concept of Ecological Interface Design (EID) was introduced for designing such interfaces, however it provides only guidelines and the actual implementation is left to the interface designer. In this contribution we propose to use dynamic models of the process in order to facilitate the Ecological Interface Design process. Using the energy balance of a chemical reactor as an example, we show how a dynamic model can be used to guide the actual design of an interface that supports the operator in the handling of plants with several constraints and several actuators. The application of the concept is illustrated by the case study of a polymerization reactor.
       
  • Integrating hip exosuit and FES for lower limb rehabilitation in a
           simulation environment

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Ana Carolina C. de Sousa, João Pedro C.D. Freire, Antonio P.L. Bo Lower-limb rehabilitation for spinal cord injury (SCI) and other motor disorders is often a lengthy process for the patient. The combination of active orthoses and functional electrical stimulation (FES) promises to accelerate therapy outcome, while simultaneously reducing the physical burden of the therapist. In this work, we propose a controller to a hybrid neuroprosthesis (HNP) composed of a hip orthosis and FES-controlled knee motion. In our simulation analysis using a detailed musculoskeletal model, we use experimental data from an able-bodied subject during slow-speed walking to compare the performance provided by such a system. Furthermore, we analyzed the obtained results in comparison to gait data collected from experiments where we used an active hip orthosis. Although the knee stimulation controller still oscillated during gait, we acquired control results with errors smaller than five degrees. Besides, we were able to examine the performance at very slow speeds.
       
  • Hybrid FES-Exoskeleton Controller to Assist Sit-To-Stand movement

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Mohamed Amine Alouane, Weiguang Huo, Hala Rifai, Yacine Amirat, Samer Mohammed Sit To Stand (STS) movement is an important daily living activity and usually a difficult task to achieve, particularly, by post stroke patients. In this study a hybrid control approach that combines the use of an impedance-based exoskeleton controller and an event-based Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) of the knee extensor muscle to assist the STS transfer movement within an assistance as needed strategy. Actuation of the active lower limb exoskeleton is done using a Serial Elastic Actuator (SEA) that uses a torsion spring to guarantee the measurement of the human exoskeleton interaction torque. The measured torque is fed to a linear desired impedance model to generate a desired trajectory, which will be tracked by the exoskeleton’s actuators. Experiments were conducted with one healthy subject to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach. The obtained performances show the synergy between the assistance provided through FES of the quadriceps muscle during the extension sub-phase of the STS movement and the one delivered by the knee joint actuator of the lower limb exoskeleton.
       
  • Lyapunov-based Model Predictive Control of an Input Delayed Functional
           Electrical Simulation

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Ziyue Sun, Xuefeng Bao, Nitin Sharma In this paper a Lyapunov-based model predictive control (LMPC) method to control knee extension during an input-delayed neuromuscular electrical stimulation is developed. This method incorporates a contractive constraint under a delay compensation control law that achieves system stability despite an unknown constant input delay and imperfectly estimated model parameters The simulations were performed to compare the LMPC method with the delay compensation control law. Robustness of the LMPC method and the boundedness of the LMPC inputs are depicted.
       
  • Modeling of Mixed Artificially and Voluntary Induced Muscle Contractions
           for Controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation of Shoulder Abduction

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): T. Schauer, A. Vrontos This contribution investigates the modeling of shoulder abduction movements caused by simultaneous voluntary and artificially evoked muscle contractions. The latter are generated by feedback controlled functional electrical stimulation. To maintain a desired level of muscle activation (recruitment) by electrical stimulation also in presence of fatigue, we assess the recruitment in real-time from the M-wave, i.e., the electromyography (EMG) response caused by each applied stimulation pulse, and regulate it by a simple integral controller that adjusts the stimulation intensity. The reference of the FES-induced muscle recruitment serves as one input to the model. The voluntary muscle activity is also determined from EMG recordings by filtering and represents the second model input. A simple linear transfer function model of 2nd order captures the shoulder abduction angle in response to the estimated volitional and FES-induced muscle activity, while the two inputs are summed up after weighting. Least squares have been used to determine the model parameters from recorded input-output data obtained at a neurologically intact subject. The model describes the shoulder abduction movements well for the investigated angular range of 100◦ also under presence of muscular fatigue due to the applied feedback control of the FES-induced muscle activity. A root mean square error of 8◦ has been observed between the simulated and measured angle for validation data covering 5 minutes. The model can be used in future to design FES support systems for stroke patients with weak residual muscle activity. Due to the model’s simplicity, online identification via recursive least squares and adaptive control schemes are feasible.
       
  • An Inertial Sensor-based Trigger Algorithm for Functional Electrical
           Stimulation-Assisted Swimming in Paraplegics

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Constantin Wiesener, Thomas Seel, Jens Axelgaard, Rachel Horton, Andreas Niedeggen, Thomas Schauer Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is used to support gait in stroke patients and to induce cycling motions in paralyzed legs. In the current contribution, we present a method that, for the first time, enables FES-supported swimming in paraplegics. The proposed setup includes a waterproof stimulator, cables, and electrodes. In preliminary experiments, flexion and extension movements of the knee were generated in a completely paralyzed subject to support the propulsion. Furthermore, transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) is used to get a straight swimming position and to reduce spasticity of the lower extremities. The developed setting remained dry and safe during all sessions. The first trials revealed the need for a synchronization of the patient’s arm movements with the artificially induced leg movements to prevent undesired rolling movements of the swimmer. To enable such a synchronized swimming, a trigger algorithm was developed that is based on the roll angle and angular velocity of the trunk. By experimental validation, it was demonstrated that a functional stimulation pattern can be generated during front crawl movements of the upper body. The new setup and methods are currently being tested during the STIMSWIM pilot study with paraplegics. The preliminary results of the first two subjects show an improvement of the swimming speed of approximately 15% for FES/tSCS assisted swimming compared to non-assisted swimming and a clear training effect over the first 7 sessions.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Admittance Control of Motorized Functional Electrical Stimulation
           Cycle ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Christian A. Cousin, Victor H. Duenas, Courtney A. Rouse, Warren E. Dixon Motorized functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling is a promising rehabilitation option for individuals with neurological conditions. Closed-loop motorized FES cycling requires multiple controllers to actuate the rider’s muscles through FES and the cycle’s electric motor, ultimately resulting in cooperative human-robot interaction. In this paper, the rider’s muscle track cadence when kinematically efficient and the cycle’s electric motor tracks admittance, guaranteeing stable, safe interaction. A Lyapunov-like switched systems analysis is utilized to conclude global exponential tracking of the cadence error system and passivity of the cycle’s admittance controller with respect to the rider. Multiple experiments are conducted on one able-bodied participant to demonstrate the efficacy of the developed controller and investigate the effect of manipulating individual admittance parameters.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Analysis of Coordination Patterns between Gaze and Control in Human
           Spatial Search ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Kuo-Shih Tseng, Bérénice Mettler Human spatial search combines visual search and motion control problems. Both have been investigated separately over decades, however, the coordination between visual search and motion control has not been investigated. Analyzing coordination of sensory-motor behavior through teleoperation could help improve understanding of human search strategies as well as autonomous search algorithms. This research proposes a novel approach to analyze the coordination between visual attention via gaze patterns and motion control. The approach is based on estimation of human operators’ 3D gaze using Gaussian mixture model (GMM), hidden Markov model (HMM) and sparse inverse covariance estimation (SICE). The analysis of the human experimental data demonstrates that fixation is used primarily to look at the target, smooth pursuit is coupled to robot rotation and used to search for new explored area, and saccade is coupled with forward motion and used to search for new explored area. These insights are used to build a functional model of human teleoperation search.
       
  • Feedback Linearization of the Rotational Dynamics of a Flock of Target
           Tracking Visual Sensor Array using Tait-Bryan Parameterization

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Bijoy K. Ghosh, Bhagya Athukorallage Using Tait-Bryan (TB) Parameterization, we revisit the visual sensor pointing control problem as a constrained dynamics on SO(3) from the point of view of a nonlinear multi input multi output (MIMO) system. The attitude of every sensor is assumed to satisfy a constraint, such as the ones proposed by Donders and Listing for the monocular and binocular eyes and the head rotation problems. While studying the problem of controlling the pointing direction of human head, the constraint, proposed by Donders, is that for every human head rotating away from its primary pointing direction, the rotational vectors are restricted to lie on a surface called the Donders’ surface. This paper assumes the existence of Donders’ surfaces for an array of visual sensors in a flock, tasked with the goal of tracking a point target in IR3. We assume that the Donders’ surfaces are described by a quadratic equation on the coordinates of the rotation vector. The inputs to the MIMO system are three external torque triplet, one for each visual sensor. The three output signals from each sensor are chosen as follows. Two of the signals are coordinates of the frontal pointing direction. The third signal measures deviation of the state vector from the Donders’ surface. Thus we have a square system and recent results have shown that this system is feedback linearizable on a suitable neighborhood N of the state space. We estimate a lower bound on the size of N by computing distance between the Donders’ and the associated Singularity surface. Our results are discussed for the monocular and the trinocular cases and a comparison is made from the point of view of the observed singularities. Analysis of the feedback linearizing control problem, from the point of view of ‘three eyed visual sensing’, is new.
       
  • A Framework for the Control Room of the Future: Human-in-the-loop MPC

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Sambit Ghosh, B. Wayne Bequette A general framework and preliminary results for the Control Room of the Future are presented. The inclusion of latest technology (e.g., natural language processing, facial recognition, big-data analytics) in control rooms, Model Predictive Control (MPC), and integration of human-in-the-loop is proposed. The paper focuses on process start-ups and uses a two-tank interacting nonlinear system to demonstrate the dynamic changes in the network topology of the plant. Three sets of simulations are conducted to highlight the MPC performance under human inputs to the system. A multiple-model MPC approach is used to solve the nonlinear control problem and the benefits of using it in human-in-the-loop systems are discussed. Future work includes using the network formulation as a supervisory fault detection layer, providing suggestions to the personnel via the Smart Control Room and implementing advanced models for predicting human decisions for safe process start-ups and transient operations.
       
  • Adaptive stimulation strategy for selective brain oscillations disruption
           in a neuronal population model with delays

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Jakub Orlowski, Antoine Chaillet, Mario Sigalotti, Alain Destexhe
       
  • The study of driver’s brain activity and behaviour on DS test using
           fNIRS

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Kouji Yamamoto, Hideki Takahashi, Toshiyuki Sugimachi, Kimihiko Nakano, Yoshihiro Suda In this study, according to Driving Simulator test, based on brain activity measuring using fNIRS, we tried to grasp the interaction between a driver’s reaction on sighting Variable Message Sign, and a driver’s behavior, such as the change of car speed and acceleration. As the result, we confirmed that Parietal association cortex and Prefrontal area activated in the case of a driver’s driving with recognition and judgment using the collecting information from an environment. Therefore, it was suggested that it needs to expand the measuring area to Parietal association cortex in the case of evaluating driver’s activity.
       
  • The Myosuit: textile-powered mobility

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Jaime E. Duarte, Kai Schmidt, Robert Riener
       
  • Decision support in precision sheep farming

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Éric Villeneuve, Audrey Abi Akle, Christophe Merlo, Dimitri Masson, Guillaume Terrasson, Alvaro Llaria While the 7 million-head French sheep industry is contracting, the average herd size is rising, providing challenging issues to maintain and improve its productivity. Precision Livestock Farming has allowed the sheeps and herds to be equipped with sensors and has a result the amount of data to be processed by farmers has surged. We argue that in order for the farmers to take appropriate actions there is a need for the development of a decision support system that take into account not only real-time data but also expert knowledge. In this work, we first highlight the specific challenges presented by the field of precision sheep farming to the development of a Cyber-Physical and Human System. We then introduce a methodology to implement a decision support in this context.
       
  • Dissonance oriented stability analysis of Cyber-Physical & Human Systems

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): V. Jimenez, F. Vanderhaegen Resilience is defined as the capacity of a system to control successfully its stable or unstable states. The states are defined by gaps between Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) and humans or between Cyber-Physical&Human Systems (CPHS) in terms of factors such as perception, intention, belief, behavior or emotion. These gaps are interpreted as discrepancies called dissonances. The successful control of dissonances makes the CPHS resilient. The paper proposes a dissonance oriented stability analysis approach. It is based on dissonances between CPS and humans, i.e. on conflicts of perception, of intention, of behavior, or of use for instance. The impact analysis of dissonance focuses on the identification of possible positive or negative, stable or unstable consequences of dissonances. Examples about dissonances on transportation and healthcare illustrate the interest of the proposal that is capable to detect possible dangerous dissonances due to an excess of stability and a breakdown of stability of assessed gaps.
       
  • A Preliminary Investigation into the Impact of Connected Vehicle
           Human-Machine Interface on Driving Behavior

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Mohamed M. Ahmed, Sherif Gaweesh, Guangchuan Yang This paper developed a driving simulator testbed, which includes three simulation scenarios that can represent different real-world driving conditions, to investigate the impact of Connected Vehicle (CV) Human-Machine Interface (HMI) on driving behavior. A total number of 23 professional drivers were invited to participate in the driving simulator test; a comprehensive questionnaire was employed to collect the participant’s feedback of CV HMI. It was found that 96 percent of the participants stated that CV HMI provided them with improved road condition information and increased their safety while driving; 65 percent of the participants stated the CV applications and the display unit did not introduce significant distraction from the main driving task.
       
  • Estimation of Involuntary Impedance in Multi-joint Arm Movements

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Hendrik Börner, Satoshi Endo, Sandra Hirche Stability analysis in physical human-robot interaction requires consideration of human feedback behavior. In unpredictable scenarios, where voluntary cognitive feedback is too slow to guarantee desired task execution, the central nervous system relies on intrinsic and involuntary reflexive feedback. In this work, we present a method for the estimation of the combined effects of intrinsic and involuntary reflexive feedback in multi-joint arm movements, termed involuntary impedance. We apply external force perturbations that are specifically designed to evoke feedback jerk, which can be isolated by application of a high pass filter, and limit the duration of the estimation interval to guarantee the exclusion of voluntary feedback. The isolation of the feedback behavior is validated in simulation and the estimation of the involuntary impedance components is evaluated in an experiment with human participants.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Joint Angle Variation in Intentional Sit-to-Stand Transitions ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Gaurav Patil, Lillian Rigoli, Michael J. Richardson, Manish Kumar, Adam W. Kiefer, Tamara Lorenz Human motion is highly variable due to the effects of interaction with the environment and the intentionality of movement. Current assistive device control systems struggle to support this variable human motion as they restrict typically uncontrolled degrees of freedom resulting in unnatural, mechanistic and highly repetitive (i.e., artificially invariable) motions. In this paper we provide an analysis of variability in the human joint configuration while performing intentional sit-to-stand (STS) tasks. We use the Uncontrolled Manifold (UCM) which indicates that, for a sit-to-stand transition, the natural variability in movement can be accounted for through the reciprocal compensation (i.e., variation of movement trajectories) of joints in the lower kinetic chain (ankle, knee and hip) to modulate the body’s Center of Mass (CoM) trajectory in the sagittal plane. Our results suggest that the task space variability differs across participants, which is reflected in the joint configuration variability, to complete the relatively less constrained intentional task (e.g. STS-to-reach) as opposed to a relatively constrained intentional task (e.g. STS). These results can be helpful in devising task specific and personalized strategies in order to control assistive devices modelled as redundant manipulators.
       
  • Modelling patient dynamics and controller impact analysis for a novel
           self-stabilizing patient transport aid

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Mark Verjans, Philipp Schleer, Julia Griesbach, Max Kinzius, Waleed Alrawashdeh, Klaus Radermacher Patient transport results in high physical stresses for paramedics, because transport aids which provide sufficient support with satisfactory dynamics and mobility are currently not available. A novel concept of an active transport aid is based on a self-balancing drive system which is steered externally by a paramedic while providing an ergonomic patient chair for transport. For the development of a robust self-balancing controller a model of the system is necessary. Current models neglect the dynamic influence of the user and use a rigid body instead, but for this application this simplified approach is questionable. In contrast to classical self-balancing transporters, in our case the patient should not have a severe impact on the stability of the driving system, even in case of uncooperative behavior. To analyze the influence of passive and active movements of the patient on the performance of the controller, a parametric multi-body patient model was designed and evaluated. Our findings show a relevance of passive movements especially during decelerations of the transport aid, when the upper body tilts forward and is restrained by seatbelts. Active movements like restless sitting, external forces or cramping seizures showed a clear deterioration of the controller performance. Therefore characteristics of active and passive patient movements during controller development should be considered and a tight and secure fixation of the patient is necessary to achieve sufficient safety for both patient and paramedic.
       
  • An Adaptive Multi-critic Neuro-fuzzy Control Framework for Intravenous
           Anesthesia Administration

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Mohammad Javad Khodaei, M. Hadi Balaghi I., Amin Mehrvarz, Nader Jalili Development of closed-loop control strategies for drug infusion and delivery is one of the most recent efforts of control engineers and clinicians. This can be used especially in anesthesia during different surgeries to stabilize the patient in the desired awareness condition. In this paper, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller is proposed to overcome the current challenges in closed-loop control of anesthesia such as inter and intra patient variability, complex and nonlinear dynamics, measurement noises and surgical disturbances as well as the presence of undershoot and overshoot in the induction phase. The results show an acceptable performance of the proposed controller in solving these problems by providing a learning scheme.
       
  • Proposal of a user-centred approach for CPS design: pillbox case study

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): C. Merlo, A. Abi Akle, A. Llaria, G. Terrasson, E. Villeneuve, V. Pilnière Product design greatly evolves for years, due to the increasing complexity of products, from simple monodisciplinary products to mechatronics systems then cyber-physical systems. Teams involved in the development of such systems are strongly interdisciplinary and require adequate engineering design methods. We propose hereafter a dedicated design process that integrates systems engineering approach, creativity tools and user-centered design methods. This design process has been implemented within a case study from e-health sector: a home-care provider asked us for developing and experimenting a ‘connected’ pillbox. After detailing main results of this development, we analyze them and propose methodological improvements. We finally conclude on some perspectives for studying engineering design in the context of global e-health systems.
       
  • Applicability of Spiral Drawing Test for Mental Fatigue Modelling

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Olesja Senkiv, Sven Nõmm, Aaro Toomela Applicability of the spiral drawing test to fatigue modelling is in focus of the present research. During the recent time fatigue detection and modelling gain a lot of attention. Nevertheless, relatively few results are devoted to the applicability of fine motor tests to tackle the problem. Initially developed to diagnose and model cognitive impairments, like those caused by neurodegenerative disease, fine motor tests provide the unique insight in the state of human motor functions both, on the levels of planning and execution of limb motions. The spiral drawing test was chosen due to its popularity among practitioners and due to the fact that it was among the first to be digitised. The latest, provide different opportunities to use commonly used features to describe and interpret achieved results. Performance of the four most popular machine learning techniques: decision trees, logistic regression, k-nearest neighbours and support vector machines was evaluated with respect to their ability to distinguish between the individuals experiencing fatigue and control group individuals. It is demonstrated that features describing the smoothness of the fine motor motions possess the same discriminating power as commonly used temporal features.
       
  • Aircraft FDI and human factors analysis of a take-off maneuvre using SIVOR
           flight simulator

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Aline D. Kraemer, Emília Villani, Diego H. Arjoni This paper presents a human factors analysis in aviation within the context of failure detection and identification (FDI) using statistical data analysis and clustering. We used data from experiments in a motion-based flight simulator (SIVOR) with 4 experienced pilots performing a take-off maneuvre under three conditions: normal, under engine failure and under flap failure. We propose two metrics based on statistical data analysis to evaluate and compare human behavior during flight. We also use k-means clustering in order to classify flights according to maneuvre conditions and misclassified flights are further analyzed according to which pilot has performed it. Results show that for the statistical data analysis the behavior of one specific pilot has higher dissimilarity with all other pilots. Moreover, for the k-means clustering, most of the misclassified flights were performed by this same pilot.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Video-guided Camera Control for Target Tracking and Following ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Jake Gemerek, Silvia Ferrari, Brian H. Wang, Mark E. Campbell This paper considers the problem of controlling a nonholonomic mobile ground robot equipped with an onboard camera characterized by a bounded field-of-view, tasked with detecting and following a potentially moving human target using onboard computing and video processing in real time. Computer vision algorithms have been recently shown highly effective at object detection and classification in images obtained by vision sensors. Existing methods typically assume a stationary camera and/or use pre-recorded image sequences that do not provide a causal relationship with future images. The control method developed in this paper seeks to improve the performance of the computer vision algorithms, by planning the robot/camera trajectory relative to the moving target based on the desired size and position of the target in the image plane, without the need to estimate the target’s range. The method is tested and validated using a highly realistic and interactive game programming environment, known as Unreal Engine™, that allows for closed-loop simulations of the robot-camera system. Results are further validated through physical experiments using a Clearpath™ Jackal robot equipped with a camera which is capable of following a human target for long time periods. Both simulation and experimental results show that the proposed vision-based controller is capable of stabilizing the target object size and position in the image plane for extended periods of time.
       
  • Neural Network-based Control of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation With
           Input Saturation

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Ruzhou Yang, Marcio de Queiroz, Meng Li In this paper, we propose a new neural network-based controller for the lower leg limb motion tracking problem that is inherent to neuromuscular electrical stimulation systems. The control accounts for both parametric and functional uncertainties in the system and is capable of handling input saturation. The resulting control law guarantees practical tracking for the limb angular position. The control performance is demonstrated via a simulation.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Extremum Seeking Control for Power Tracking via Functional Electrical
           Stimulation ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Victor H. Duenas, Christian A. Cousin, Courtney A. Rouse, Warren E. Dixon Motorized Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)-cycling is a promising rehabilitative strategy for people possessing movement disorders as a result of neurological conditions. Cadence and torque (power) tracking objectives have been previously prescribed in FES-cycling to exploit the functional benefits of neuromuscular electric stimulation and produce intensive active therapy with motorized assistance. However, predetermined desired trajectories for either objective may yield sub-optimal training performance since the movement capacity of a person recovering from injury is unknown and time-varying. Hence, online adaptation is well-motivated to determine optimal cadence and torque trajectories. In this paper, an extremum seeking control (ESC) algorithm is implemented in real-time to compute the optimal cadence and torque trajectory (i.e., the peak torque demand) to maximize power output in an FES-cycling protocol. The uncertain, nonlinear FES-cycle system is an autonomous, state-dependent switched system to activate lower-limb muscles and an electric motor. Torque tracking is achieved by electrically stimulating the muscles via a learning controller and cadence tracking by engaging an electric motor. A passivity-based approach is utilized to analyze the stability of both tracking objectives.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Identification of Network Dynamics and Disturbance for a Multi-zone
           Building ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Tingting Zeng, Prabir Barooah We propose a method that simultaneously identifies a sparse transfer matrix and disturbance for a multi-zone building’s dynamics from input-output measurements. An l1-regularized least-squares optimization problem is solved to obtain a sparse solution, so that only dominant interactions among zones are retained in the model. The disturbance is assumed to be piecewise-constant: the assumption aids identification and is motivated by the nature of occupancy that determines the disturbance. Application of our method on data from a simulation model shows promising results.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Transactive Control Design for Commercial Buildings to Provide Demand
           Response ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Sen Huang, Jianming Lian, He Hao, Srinivas Katipamula Transactive control is a new type of distributed control strategy that is designed to engage various self-interested distributed energy resources such as controllable loads, distributed generators, and energy storage for providing demand response. In this paper, a novel transactive control design is proposed for commercial buildings to coordinate the electricity demand of the package rooftop air conditioning units (RTUs) for demand response. Such a control is realized by introducing a local relationship between the temperature setpoint and the market clearing price. With the proposed market-based control, the demand of individual RTUs is adjusted by changing their temperature setpoints in response to the market clearing price. Two different scenarios of demand response are considered herein. One is to limit the peak demand of commercial buildings, in which a new market clearing strategy based on proportional-integral-derivative control with respect to the demand limit is proposed. The other one is to perform price responsive control, in which the total demand of commercial buildings responds to the real-time pricing. The proposed transactive strategy is also tested and demonstrated on a real occupied building located in the eastern Washington State, U.S. The field testing results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed transactive control for commercial building with RTUs to provide demand response.
       
  • Game-Theoretic Protection Against Networked SIS Epidemics by Human
           Decision-Makers

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Ashish R. Hota, Shreyas Sundaram We study networks of human decision-makers who independently decide how to protect themselves against Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) epidemics. Motivated by studies in behavioral economics showing that humans perceive probabilities in a nonlinear fashion, we examine the impacts of such misperceptions on the equilibrium protection strategies. In our setting, nodes choose their curing rates to minimize the infection probability under the degree-based mean-field approximation of the SIS epidemic plus the cost of their selected curing rate. We establish the existence of a degree based equilibrium under both true and nonlinear perceptions of infection probabilities (under suitable assumptions). When the per-unit cost of curing rate is sufficiently high, we show that true expectation minimizers choose the curing rate to be zero at the equilibrium, while curing rate is nonzero under nonlinear probability weighting.
       
  • Challenges, Risks and Opportunities for Connected Vehicle Services in
           Smart Cities and Communities

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Yorgos J. Stephanedes P.E., Mihalis Golias, George Dedes, Christos Douligeris, Sabyasachee Mishra A multi-level multi-objective framework is proposed for identification and management of risk for connected vehicle services in smart cities and communities. The framework will better model uncertainty, interdependencies, priorities between objectives and players as single-level multi-objective optimization is insufficient to tackle the complexities of a smart city ecosystem. An approach for determining an index for city readiness for connected and autonomous vehicles across the domains of smart connected cities is also proposed. A risk management process for smart port cities is introduced, focusing on coordinating complex subsystems of port and near-port areas. The process is based on analyzing risk of potential hazards to better comprehend their nature and need for prevention strategies.
       
  • Verifying Robustness of Human-Aware Autonomous Cars

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Dorsa Sadigh, S. Shankar Sastry, Sanjit A. Seshia As human-robot systems make their ways into our every day life, safety has become a core concern of the learning algorithms used by such systems. Examples include semi-autonomous vehicles such as automobiles and aircrafts. The robustness of controllers in such systems relies on the accuracy of models of human behavior. In this paper, we propose a systematic methodology for analyzing the robustness of learning-based control of human-cyber-physical systems. We focus on the setting where human models are learned from data, with humans modeled as approximately rational agents optimizing their reward functions. In this setting, we provide a novel optimization-driven approach to find small deviations in learned human behavior that lead to violation of desired (safety) objectives. Our approach is experimentally validated via simulation for the application of autonomous driving.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Public Signals and Persuasion for Road Network Congestion Games under
           Vagaries ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Olivier Massicot, Cedric Langbort In the context of road network congestion, public provision of information is a way to convince drivers to act more socially by shifting their Wardrop equilibrium. In this paper we establish a framework to pose the problem in a road traffic approach and characterize the disclosure mechanism.The games considered are single-commodity road networks subject to independent vagaries. An omniscient controller partially discloses his information to a population of non-cooperative drivers, in a message at the entrance of the network. For the two-route network with single vagary case, we provide a complete characterization of the optimal public signaling policy and, in particular, identify situations where neither full nor no-disclosure is optimal. We also show how to extend the framework of Bayesian persuasion to the context of road networks under multitple independent vagaries.
       
  • Man-Machine teaming: a problem of Agency

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): B. Berberian Automation technology is a ubiquitous phenomenon that is profoundly changing our everyday life. While the public is generally enthusiastic about the possibilities that it offers, recent tragedies remind us of the difficulties human operators have in cooperating with highly automated systems. This issue of cooperation amongst team (and/with automates) has led research on (team) performance and situation awareness investigating how computer might support collaboration between operators. However, after decades of research, the “cognitive coupling” between human and machine remains difficult to achieve. In this paper, we outline that the recent explosion of interest in the experience of being an agent (“agency”) opens interesting novel avenues to explain and compensate such difficulties. The sense of agency refers to the feeling of control over actions and their consequences. In the first part of this paper, we present some works indicating that automation technology can alter the agentive experience dramatically. Then, we discuss why such change in agency can dramatically impact operator performance and system acceptability. In the last part of this article, we propose to apply the framework of agency to the HMI domain and to take into account how the information provided by an automated system influences how an operator understand and control such system. Taken together, the different studies presented suggest that the science of agency provides us new conceptual tools and measures to analyze agent-system interaction. By using these tools, engineers could design more acceptable and more controllable automated interfaces and optimize human-automation cooperation.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Inference of User Qualities in Shared Control of CPHS: A Contrast in
           Users ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Lucas Hall, Urja Acharya, Justin Bradley, Brittany Duncan Most cyber-physical human systems (CPHS) rely on users learning how to interact with the system. Rather, a collaborative CPHS should learn from the user and adapt to them in a way that improves holistic system performance. Accomplishing this requires collaboration between the human-robot/human-computer interaction and the cyber-physical system communities in order to feed back knowledge about users into the design of the CPHS. The requisite user studies, however, are difficult, time consuming, and must be carefully designed. Furthermore, as humans are complex in their interactions with autonomy it is difficult to know, a priori, how many users must participate to attain conclusive results. In this paper we elaborate on our work to infer intrinsic user qualities through human-robot interactions correlated with robot performance in order to adapt the autonomy and improve holistic CPHS performance. We first demonstrate through a study that this idea is feasible. Next, we demonstrate that significant differences between groups of users can impact conclusions particularly where different autonomies are involved. Finally, we also provide our rich, extensive corpus of user study data to the wider community to aid researchers in designing better CPHS.
       
  • An embodiment paradigm in evaluation of human-in-the-loop control

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Jakob Fröhner, Philipp Beckerle, Satoshi Endo, Sandra Hirche This study introduces a novel approach for evaluating the quality of human-in-the-loop control using the psychological construct of embodiment in a haptic human-machine interaction task. Despite the fact that various forms of assistive control have been introduced, these methods mainly design semi-autonomous control to improve task-specific interaction performance. From a user perspective, however, the introduction of semi-autonomous control reduces controllability of the system, which could lead to negative user experience. Psychological research suggests sensory-motor factors dynamically modulate cognition of an external entity belonging to one’s own body, i.e., embodiment. In our paradigm, we apply methods for evaluating embodiment in a virtual reality (VR) environment where the human users perform a reaching task with semi-autonomous haptic assistance to measure the degree to which the embodiment is effected by the quality of semi-autonomy Our results with 8 participants show good persistence of subjective embodiment and subcomponents of presence within VR environment when a predictable assistive control is introduced while unpredictable assistance hindered the subjective embodiment. Results indicate embodiment can be exploited as a quantitative evaluation method of semi-autonomous controllers from a user-centric perspective.
       
  • Evaluation of Different Modes of Haptic Guidance for Robotic Surgery

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): P. Schleer, S. Drobinsky, K. Radermacher The evolution of surgery has resulted in a plethora of systems varying in their application field, size, as well as degree of autonomy. Especially systems which combine principles of so-called synergistic robotic systems and master-slave-telemanipulators are interesting concerning cooperative aspects of surgeon and robotic system. While the former provide haptic guidance information (“virtual fixtures”), the latter provide haptic feedback from position or force sensor information of the slave device. During the design of these combined systems particular attention has to be paid during the allocation of information to the haptic information channel as superimposing of haptic guidance information and haptic sensor feedback can lead to concealment of essential feedback information. This paper reports on an experimental usability evaluation of different haptic guidance modes varying in their degree of autonomy as well as degree of freedom (DOF) with respect to three surgical scenarios, namely reaching a predefined position and orientation, tracking a predefined 3D trajectory, and applying a defined force (such as during e.g. a 3D-bone milling task). The goal was to evaluate whether some DOF of haptic guidance information can be left free for force sensor information feedback. General findings indicate that haptic guidance does not have to be augmented on three DOF to improve usability. Therefore, a combination of haptic sensor information feedback and haptic guidance information divided between individual DOF seems to be a potential solution.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Context-Specific Separable Gesture Selection For Control of a Robotic
           Manufacturing Assistant ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Rose Hendrix, Parker Owan, Joseph Garbini, Santosh Devasia This work aims to facilitate robotic-assisted limited-access manufacturing, where a mechanic manually performs work in an enclosed space while a robot guides a camera to allow the mechanic to observe visually-occluded operations. Gesture control allows the mechanic to adjust their camera view without requiring contact-based interaction through button presses or manual positioning of the robot, which would require setting down tools or exiting the enclosed space. Because the only input to the robotic platform’s gesture recognition system is a continuously tracked hand, there is potential for confusion between the motions of work and motions intended to communicate control. The main contribution of this article is to develop a separability metric Ψ for systematically selecting a set of control gestures that can be easily distinguished from a given set of work gestures. The context-specific control gesture selection process is implemented on a benchmark dataset to validate the method. The process is then implemented on a hand-following robot, and experimental results show that the proposed metric-based selection of the control gesture set results in the improvement of online gesture recognition across eight subjects even in the presence of application-specific distortions in the gestures.
       
  • Gesture based Human-Swarm Interactions for Formation Control using
           interpreters

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Aamodh Suresh, Sonia Martínez We propose a novel Human-Swarm Interaction (HSI) framework which enables the user to control a swarm’s shape and formation. The user commands the swarm utilizing just arm gestures and motions which are recorded by an off-the-shelf wearable armband. We propose a novel interpreter system, which acts as an intermediary between the user and the swarm to simplify the user’s role in the interaction. The interpreter takes high level input drawn using gestures by the user, and translates it into low level swarm control commands. This interpreter employs machine learning, Kalman filtering and optimal control techniques to translate the user input into swarm control parameters. A notion of Human Interpretable dynamics is introduced, which is used by the interpreter for planning as well as to provide feedback to the user. The dynamics of the swarm are controlled using a novel decentralized formation controller based on distributed linear iterations and dynamic average consensus. The framework is demonstrated theoretically as well as experimentally in a 2D environment, with a human controlling a swarm of simulated robots in real time.
       
  • Analysis of Human Interaction Patterns Emerging while Learning Agile
           Navigation of Unknown Environments

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Abhishek Verma, Bérénice Mettler Trained human pilots or operators stand out through their efficient, robust, and versatile spatial guidance and control skills. The hypothesis is that trained operators learn sensory-motor primitives previously described as interaction patterns, and proposed as units of behavior for organization and planning of behavior. The interaction patterns emerge as a result of repeated interactions with a task environment. This paper extends a previously presented modeling and analysis framework based on interaction patterns to evaluate human learning of unknown environments. The paper presents a hierarchical clustering method to extract interaction patterns from trajectory data over successive runs, and uses these patterns for the analysis of the perceptual and control characteristics while accounting for different skill levels.
       
  • Functional Modeling of Human Perceptual Guidance using Constraint Set
           Analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Andrew Feit, Bérénice Mettler Humans exhibit a wide range of adaptive and robust dynamic motion behavior that is yet unmatched by computational autonomous control systems for real-time behavior generation in cluttered environments. Recent work suggests that task structure learning and ecological cognition in the form of perceptual guidance enables this performance. This work first describes an embedded agent-environment perceptual control model, and uses it to investigate experimental vehicle guidance behavior. Results show that constraint transitions within the embedded model indicate changes in an agent’s perceptual guidance control mode. These mode transitions divide perception and behavior data into elemental segments of interaction, revealing the structure in how humans organize their perceptions and actions, and the specific perceptual guidance relationships that generate motion.
       
  • Contributions of feedforward and feedback control in a manual
           trajectory-tracking task

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Momona Yamagami, Darrin Howell, Eatai Roth, Samuel A. Burden In joint human-cyber-physical systems, the human operator may rely on a combination of reactive (feedback) and predictive (feedforward) control. This paper proposes an experimental and analytical approach to simultaneously identify the human feedback and feedforward controllers in the context of human-cyber-physical systems (HCPS). In our experiments, participants play a 1DOF reference-tracking video game, tasked to guide a cursor to follow a pseudo-random trajectory. For such tasks, the model inversion hypothesis suggests that the human operator would implement as a feedforward controller the inverse of the cyber-physical-system dynamics. Our results indicate that at lower frequencies (≤ 0.15 Hz), individuals capably invert the system dynamics to implement a feedforward controller, but at higher frequencies, the magnitudes of the estimated feedforward transformation are approximately half those of the exact model inverse. This suggests that a frequency limit at which individuals are unable to follow the system dynamics, and thus, the model inversion prediction is only applicable at lower frequencies.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Optimal Decision Fusion Under Order Effects ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Ehsan Nekouei, Jieqiang Wei, John S. Baras, Mikael Skoglund, Karl H. Johansson This paper studies an optimal decision fusion problem with a group of human decision makers when an order effect is present. The order effect refers to situations wherein the process of decision making by a human is affected by the order of decisions. In our set-up, all human decision makers, called observers, receive the same data which is generated by a common but unknown hypothesis. Then, each observer independently generates a sequence of decisions which are modeled by employing non-commutative probabilistic models of the data and their relation to the unknown hypothesis. The use of non-commutative probability models is motivated by recent psychological studies which indicate that these non-commutative probability models are more suitable for capturing the order effect in human decision making, compared with the classical probability model. A central decision maker (CDM) receives (possibly a subset of) the observers’ decisions and decides on the true hypothesis. The considered problem becomes an optimal decision fusion problem with observations modeled using a non-commutative (Von Neumann) probability model. The structure of the optimal decision rule at the CDM is studied under two scenarios. In the first scenario, the CDM receives the entire history of the observers’ decisions whereas in the second scenario, the CDM receives only the last decision of each observer. The perfromance of the optimal fusion rule is numerically evaluated and compared with the optimal fusion rule derived when using a classical probability model.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Non-Commutative Probability Models in Human Decision Making: Binary
           Hypothesis Testing ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Aneesh Raghavan, John S. Baras In this paper, we consider the binary hypothesis testing problem, as the simplest human decision making problem, using a von-Neumann non-commutative probability framework. We present two approaches to this decision making problem. In the first approach, we represent the available data as coming from measurements modeled via projection valued measures (PVM) and retrieve the results of the underlying detection problem solved using classical probability models. In the second approach, we represent the measurements using positive operator valued measures (POVM). We prove that the minimum probability of error achieved in the second approach is the same as in the first approach.
       
  • Modeling & Control of Human Actuated Systems

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Sangjae Bae, Sang Min Han, Scott Moura This paper investigates a Cyber-Physical & Human System (CPHS) comprised of a deterministic dynamical system plant model and a human actuator model. Namely, human decisions are stochastic inputs to the plant model. We examine a framework where human decisions cannot be directly controlled, but can be influenced via incentive control signals. Specifically, we use the framework of discrete choice models (DCMs) to capture human decision making, and then design optimal controllers for these human actuated dynamical systems. Existing literature on CPHS often treats human inputs as stochastic and exogenous inputs, and then formulates a disturbance rejection problem. Instead of treating human decision-making as an uncontrollable exogenous input, we directly incorporate human decision making into the modeling framework with DCMs. This paper thus adds two original contributions. (i) We develop a generalized human-actuated system framework based on DCM that predicts the probability of human decisions, conditioned on controllable incentives. (ii) We show that existing optimization schemes, such as Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) and Dynamic Programming (DP), can be applied to control the proposed human-actuated system. We conclude this paper by demonstrating the framework on a reference tracking problem and an inventory control problem.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">FES and Motor Assisted Cycling to Track Power and Cadence to Desired
           Voluntary Bounds ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Courtney A. Rouse, Christian A. Cousin, Victor H. Duenas, Warren E. Dixon Cycling is a common rehabilitation exercise for people recovering from neurological impairments. Both functional electrical stimulation (FES) and a motor can assist a person in pedaling a cycle, and by switching amongst multiple muscle groups and a motor, a human-cycle system can track a desired power and cadence. However, with motivation to maximize physiological effects, the person should contribute volitionally as much as possible and be assisted only when necessary, which can be done by limiting cadence assistance to outside a desired region. Torque tracking to a single value is desired so that the muscle is being sufficiently exercised. In this paper, a human contributing torque through FES and volition works alongside an electric motor to instantaneously track cadence to a desired region and discretely track torque to a known bound for all time. Lyapunov methods are used to prove the stability of the switched system.
       
  • A Robust Iterative Learning Switching Controller for following Virtual
           Constraints: Application to a Hybrid Neuroprosthesis

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Vahidreza Molazadeh, Zhiyu Sheng, Xuefeng Bao, Nitin Sharma In this paper, a robust iterative learning switching controller that uses optimal virtual constraint is designed for a hybrid walking exoskeleton that uses functional electrical stimulation and a powered exoskeleton. The synthesis of iterative learning control with sliding-mode control improves tracking performance and accuracy. The motivation for designing this switching controller was to obtain joint torques either from functional electrical stimulation or electric motor. A generalized switching controller is utilized to switch based on the stimulated muscle fatigue state. For achieving stability in walking cycle, the controller is used to force the system to follow the designed virtual constraints. The combination of sequential quadratic programming and genetic-particle swarm optimization algorithm is used for deriving the virtual constraints. The effectiveness of the new iterative learning control for output tracking is verified in a simple model of walking (3-link) that has active actuation at the hip joints.
       
  • On Passivity-Shortage of Human Operators for A Class of Semi-autonomous
           Robotic Swarms

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Made Widhi Surya Atman, Kosei Noda, Riku Funada, Junya Yamauchi, Takeshi Hatanaka, Masayuki Fujita This paper analyzes perceived workload and passivity-shortage of human operators for a class of semi-autonomous robotic swarms. First, we briefly introduce the passivity-short-based architecture presented in one of our previous works, which guarantees human-enabled motion synchronization to desired position/velocity references under the assumption that the human operator’s thought process is a passivity-short system. It is observed that changes in parameter affects the visual feedback to the operator and also the complexity of the setups. Through user-studies using a human-in-the-loop simulator and questionnaires, we observe an increase in the perceived workload of the human operator for more complex setups. The result imposes the trade-off for less workload vs. clarity of the robotic swarms’ information to the human operator. Furthermore, through non-parametric system identification on data from user-studies, it is observed that all obtained models of the participants have the passivity-short property.
       
  • A Human-Computer Interface Design for Quantitative Measure of Regret
           Theory

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Longsheng Jiang, Yue Wang Regret theory is a theory that describes human decision-making under risk. The key of obtaining a quantitative model of regret theory is to measure the preference in humans’ mind when they choose among a set of options. Unlike physical quantities, measuring psychological preference is not procedure invariant, i.e. the readings alter when the methods change. In this work, we alleviate this influence by choosing the procedure compatible with the way that an individual makes a choice. We believe the resulting model is closer to the nature of human decision-making. The preference elicitation process is decomposed into a series of short surveys to reduce cognitive workload and increase response accuracy. To make the questions natural and familiar to the subjects, we follow the insight that humans generate, quantify and communicate preference in natural language. The fuzzy sets theory is hence utilized to model responses from subjects. Based on these ideas, a graphical human-computer interface (HCI) is designed to articulate the information as well as to efficiently collect human responses. The design also accounts for human heuristics and biases, e.g. range effect and anchoring effect, to enhance its reliability. The overall performance of the survey is satisfactory because the measured model shows prediction accuracy equivalent to the subjects revisit performance.
       
  • Uncertainty-based Human Motion Tracking with Stable Gaussian Process State
           Space Models

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Lukas Pöhler, Jonas Umlauft, Sandra Hirche Data-driven approaches are well suited to represent human motion because arbitrary complex trajectories can be captured. Gaussian process state space models allow to encode human motion while quantifying uncertainty due to missing data. Such human motion models are relevant for many application domains such as learning by demonstration and motion prediction in human-robot collaboration. For goal-directed tasks it is essential to impose stability constraints on the model representing the human motion. Motivated by learning by demonstration applications, this paper proposes an uncertainty-based control Lyapunov function approach for goal-directed path tracking. We exploit the model fidelity which is related to the location of the training and test data: Our approach actively strives into regions with more demonstration data and thus higher model certainty. This achieves accurate reproduction of the human motion independent of the initial condition and we show that generated trajectories are uniformly globally asymptotically stable. The approach is validated in a nonlinear learning by demonstration task where human-demonstrated motions are reproduced by the learned dynamical system, and higher precision than competitive state of the art methods is achieved.
       
  • Human Intention-Driven Learning Control for Trajectory Synchronization in
           Human-Robot Collaborative Tasks

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 34Author(s): Harish Chaandar Ravichandar, Daniel Trombetta, Ashwin P. Dani For assistive robots to integrate seamlessly into human environments, they are required to understand the intentions of their human partners, and adapt their motion plans accordingly. In this paper, an estimator-controller method is presented to estimate the dynamic motion of the human’s hand and the motion intent, and to learn robot control gains for synchronizing the robot end-effector motion with the human’s hand motion. For human intention estimation, a multiple model estimation framework that switches between multiple nonlinear human motion models is used. An adaptive controller is developed for a robot to track the human’s motion. The controller gains are learned by using data collected by actually performing a collaborative motion task where a human and a robot are collectively moving an object. A controller stability analysis is provided which takes the uncertainty in the human motion estimation in consideration, yielding an UUB bound based on the estimated human motion uncertainty. A case study of the human and robot moving an object is discussed.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Chaotic regimes in the ensemble of FitzhHugh-Nagumo elements with weak
           couplings ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Alexander G. Korotkov, Alexey O. Kazakov, Tatiana A. Levanova, Grigory V. Osipov We study the peculiarities of chaotic dynamics in the phenomenological model of ensemble of two FitzHugh-Nagumo elements with weak excitatory couplings. This model was recently proposed as a suitable model for describing the behaviour of two coupled neurons. A rich diversity of different types of neuron-like behaviour, including regular in-phase, anti-phase, sequential spiking activities and also chaotic activity was observed in this model. We focus on chaotic bursting and chaotic spiking neuron-like activity in this paper. We study in details bifurcation scenarios of the emergence and destruction of these types of neuron-like activity.
       
  • Analysis of Two-layer Network of FitzHugh-Nagumo Oscillators with
           Different Layer Topology

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Denis Nikitin, Iryna Omelchenko, Anna Zakharova, Manuk Avetyan, Alexander L. Fradkov, Eckehard Schöll We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a multiplex network with nonlocal and fractal layers of delay-coupled FitzHughNagumo oscillators in the oscillatory regime. Apart from chimera states, a new regime of coexistence of slow and fast oscillations is found. An analytical explanation for the emergence of such coexistence is given. Furthermore we propose a control scheme for the number of fast and slow neurons in each layer.
       
  • Sampled-Data State Observation over Lossy Networks under Round-Robin
           Scheduling

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Toshihide Tadenuma, Masaki Ogura, Kenji Sugimoto In this paper, we study the problem of continuous-time state observation over lossy communication networks. We consider the situation in which the samplers for measuring the output of the plant are spatially distributed and their communication with the observer is scheduled according to a round-robin scheduling protocol. We allow the observer gains to dynamically change in synchronization with the scheduling of communications. In this context, we propose a linear matrix inequality (LMI) framework to design the observer gains that ensure the asymptotic stability of the error dynamics in continuous time. We illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods by several numerical simulations.
       
  • Lyapunov-Function-Free Backstepping Design with Application to the Lorenz
           System

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Daniel Ricci, Monica Romero, María Seron In this paper we propose a new version of the backstepping control technique, named Lyapunov-Function-Free, for the stabilization of nonlinear systems expressed in strict feedback form. The main characteristic of this technique, in contrast with classic backstepping, is that it avoids the construction of a Lyapunov function at each iteration for the calculation of the controller. The result is a state feedback law that achieves uniform asymptotic stabilization of the system. Simulation tests and comparisons with other backstepping-based methods are performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed technique.
       
  • A Graph-Theoretic Approach to Design of Probabilistic Boolean Networks

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Koichi Kobayashi In this paper, a graph-theoretic design method for a probabilistic Boolean network (PBN) is proposed. A PBN is well known as a mathematical model of complex network systems such as gene regulatory networks. In Boolean networks, interactions between binary states are modeled by Boolean functions. In PBNs, Boolean functions are switched probabilistically. In this paper, after a polynomial representation of a PBN is briefly explained, a simplified representation is proposed. Here, the steady value of the expected value of the state is focused, and is characterized by a minimum feedback vertex set of an interaction graph expressing interactions between states. Using this representation, input selection and stabilization are discussed. The proposed method is demonstrated by a biological example.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Delay-independent Synchronization in Networks of Time-delay Coupled
           Systems with Uncertainties ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Kota Miyamoto, Koki Ryono, Toshiki Oguchi This paper investigates synchronization in networks of systems with transmission delay couplings. In our previous works, we have already clarified the relationship between graph topology and delay-independent synchronization occurring in networks of identical chaotic systems with transmission delays. In practical situations, however, each system in networks may have slight variations of parameters, and then the synchronization manifold may not exist unlike networks consisting of identical systems. Therefore, in this paper, we consider delay-independent practical synchronization conditions for such network systems. As a result, we conclude that delay-independent synchronization is structurally stable. Numerical simulations support the validity of the obtained results.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">A Consensus-Based Controller for DC Power Networks ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Michele Cucuzzella, Sebastian Trip, Jacquelien Scherpen In this paper we propose a new distributed passivity-based control scheme, achieving proportional (fair) current sharing and average voltage regulation in Direct Current (DC) power networks, with an arbitrary topology. The considered DC network is composed of several Distributed Generation Units (DGUs) interconnected through resistive-inductive power lines. Each DGU includes a generic energy source that supplies an unknown constant impedance load through a DC-DC buck converter. The proposed distributed control scheme achieves current sharing and average voltage regulation, independently of the initial condition of the controlled network, facilitating Plug-and-Play capabilities. Moreover, the proposed control strategy exploits a communication network to achieve current sharing using a consensuslike protocol. Global convergence to a desired steady state is proven and simulations show satisfactory performance.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">A Lyapunov approach to stability analysis of partial synchronization in
           delay-coupled networks ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Libo Su, Yanling Wei, Wim Michiels, Erik Steur, Henk Nijmeijer Networks of interconnected dynamical systems may exhibit a so-called partial synchronization phenomenon, which refers to synchronous behaviors of some but not all of the systems. The patterns of partial synchronization are often characterized by partial synchronization manifolds, which are linear invariant subspace of the state space of the network dynamics. Here, we propose a Lyapunov-Krasovskii approach to analyze the stability of partial synchronization manifolds in delay-coupled networks. First, the synchronization error dynamics are isolated from the network dynamics in a systematic way. Second, we use a parameter-dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional to assess the local stability of the manifold, by employing techniques originally developed for linear parameter-varying (LPV) time-delay systems. The stability conditions are formulated in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) which can be solved by several available tools.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Continuous Time Observers of Nonlinear Systems with Data-Rate
           Constraints ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Quentin Voortman, Alexander Pogromsky, Alexey Matveev, Henk Nijmeijer In this paper, we present the design of a non-classical observer that constructs estimates of the state of continuous nonlinear systems at remote locations. The system is connected to the remote location through a communication channel which can only transmit limited amounts of data per unit of time. The observer is designed with the objective that it is as data-efficient as possible whilst possessing a certain robustness towards communication losses without any feedback in the communication channel. We provide bounds for the sufficient data-rate to implement the observer. We apply the theory to the problem of observing the Lorenz system over a channel with minimal data-rates.
       
  • Synchronization of Hindmarsh-Rose neurons via Huygens-like coupling

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Gerardo G. Velasco Equihua, Jonatan Pena Ramirez In this paper, we study the synchronization of two Hindmarsh-Rose neuronal models interacting to each other through a dynamic coupling. The design of the dynamic interconnection is inspired in the so-called Huygens’ coupling, which in its simplest form is modeled by a second order linear system. In the analysis, it is assumed that only one state variable is available for measurement and the stability of the synchronous behavior is investigated by using the master stability function approach, in combination with the largest transverse Lyapunov exponent. Ultimately, the proposed synchronization scheme is experimentally validated by using electronic circuits, which emulate the dynamics of the Hindmarsh-Rose neuronal model.
       
  • Dynamics of an escort probability-based systems which tend to maximize its
           Tsallis entropy

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Dmitry S. Shalymov, Alexander L. Fradkov We propose a new equations describing dynamics of a complex non-stationary systems/processes from nonextensive statistical mechanics which tend to the maximum of Tsallis entropy. We consider three types of internal energy constraints. The maximum entropy states are already well investigated. But this can not be argued about the transient states which determine how the system moves to the final state. We use the Speed-Gradient principle originated in the control theory. The proposed equations allow to forecast the dynamics of complex non-equilibrium systems. Tsallis entropy is widely used in many fields of science nowadays including physics, biology, computer science and others.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Evolution of complex nonequilibrium systems based on nonextensive
           statistical mechanics ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Tatyana A. Khantuleva, Dmitry S. Shalymov We propose the Tsallis entropy to describe an evolution of non-equilibrium systems based on the Speed-Gradient (SG) principle. We have derived new equations which describe evolution of the system. We assume that parameter q in the Tsallis entropy is evolving in time and use q(t) as a controlling parameter of the SG-principle. These equations allow forecasting the direction of evolution of the system.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Stability of MIMO Feedback Error Learning Control under a Strictly
           Positive Real Condition ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Kenji Sugimoto, Xinyou Han, Wataru Imahayashi Motivated by a biological motion control model called feedback error learning (FEL), adaptive feedforward control schemes have been extensively studied in literature. Stability of a single-input single-output (SISO) FEL control scheme has been shown under a strictly positive real condition via passivity theory. This paper generalizes the scheme to the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) case together with its stability proof, by making full use of left coprime fraction by polynomial matrices. Numerical simulation illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed tuning law over existing MIMO FEL schemes resorting to recursive least square estimation.
       
  • Sparse Identification of Nonlinear Duffing Oscillator From Measurement
           Data

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): S. Khatiry Goharoodi, K. Dekemele, L. Dupre, M. Loccufier, G. Crevecoeur In this paper we aim to apply an adaptation of the recently developed technique of sparse identification of nonlinear dynamical systems on a Duffing experimental setup with cubic feedback of the output. The Duffing oscillator described by nonlinear differential equation which demonstrates chaotic behavior and bifurcations, has received considerable attention in recent years as it arises in many real-world engineering applications. Therefore its identification is of interest for numerous practical problems. To adopt the existing identification method to this application, the optimization process which identifies the most important terms of the model has been modified. Selection of the true model is done via balancing complexity and accuracy using Pareto front analysis. This study provides considerable insight into the employment of sparse identification method on the real-world setups and the results show that the developed algorithm is capable of finding the true nonlinear model of the considered application including a nonlinear friction term.
       
  • A class of Chua-like systems with only two saddle-foci of different type

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): R.J. Escalante-González, H.E. Gilardi-Velázquez, E. Campos-Cantón Since the reported Chua’s system, several generalizations of this system have been presented, these approaches include new equilibria in order to obtain three or more scrolls in the attractor. One of these generalizations requires at least the same number of saddle-foci with local two-dimensional unstable manifolds as the desired number of scrolls. In this work, we present the generation of a double-scroll chaotic attractor called Chua-like system. Once that an equilibrium point has been removed from the Chua’s system and there are only two saddle-foci of different class, i.e. the dimension of one of the local unstable manifolds is one while the other is of dimension two. The new class is constructed based on the existence of a heteroclinic loop by linear affine systems with two saddle-focus equilibrium points of different type. Furthermore, the chaotic behavior of the proposed system is tested by the maximum Lyapunov exponent and the 0 — 1 chaos test.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Existence and Stability of Singular Loops in Two-dimensional Piecewise
           Affine Systems ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Lei Wang, Panyi Wang, Nianqi Li Based on the analyses of the planar location relationship between the (un)stable manifolds of subsystems and the switching manifold, some sufficient conditions are obtained to guarantee the existence and one-side stability of the singular loops in two-dimensional piecewise affine systems. Some examples are given to illustrate the main results in final.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Bifurcation Analysis of a Multi-Parameter Liénard Polynomial System ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Valery Gaiko, Cornelis Vuik, Huibert Reijm In this paper, we study a multi-parameter Liénard polynomial system carrying out its global bifurcation analysis. To control the global bifurcations of limit cycle in this systems, it is necessary to know the properties and combine the effects of all its field rotation parameters. It can be done by means of the development of our bifurcational geometric method based on the application of a canonical system with field rotation parameters. Using this method, we present a solution of Hilbert’s Sixteenth Problem on the maximum number of limit cycles and their distribution for the Liénard polynomial system. We also conduct some numerical experiments to illustrate the obtained results.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Counterexamples to the Kalman Conjectures ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): N.V. Kuznetsov, O.A. Kuznetsova, D. Koznov, R.N. Mokaev, B. Andrievsky In the paper counterexamples to the Kalman conjecture with smooth nonlinearity basing on the Fitts system, that are periodic solution or hidden chaotic attractor are presented. It is shown, that despite the fact that Kalman’s conjecture (as well as Aizerman’s) turned out to be incorrect in the case of n> 3, it had a huge impact on the theory of absolute stability, namely, the selection of the class of nonlinear systems whose stability can be studied with linear methods.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Attractor estimates for an energy-controlled pendulum in presence of
           irregular bounded disturbance ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Ruslan Seifullaev, Sergei Plotnikov The problem of pendulum’s energy control in presence of an irregular input disturbance is considered. A feedback control law is chosen based on the speed gradient method. The main contribution of the paper is in studying the complex behavior of the previously designed system under irregular disturbances. The main result is precise estimates for an initial set and a limit set (attractor) as well as the conditions guaranteeing the following: all the solutions starting in the initial set will enter the limit set in a finite time.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Limit cycles in Liénard systems with saturation ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Thomas Lathuilière, Giorgio Valmorbida, Elena Panteley In this paper we present an extension of existing results on limit cycles for Liénard systems and formulate sufficient conditions for existence and uniqueness of limit cycles for Liénard systems with non-differentiable vector fields. As an application we consider the example of a linear systems with the saturation nonlinearity.
       
  • GENERIC and Speed-Gradient Principle

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Dmitry S. Shalymov, Alexander L. Fradkov In this paper we investigate the relationship between GENERIC (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling) framework originated in nonequilibrium thermodynamics and the Speed-Gradient (SG) Principle originated in control theory. GENERIC is known as a general structure for the various time-evolution equations for nonequilibrium systems. The SG-principle is successfully used to determine dynamics of entropy-driven systems from the perspective of MaxEnt principle. Based on the SG-principle a time-evolution equations can be derived in a general way. We consider several examples of SG-principle application and show its correspondence to GENERIC framework. The relation between GENERIC and Fokker-Planck equations has already been established by H.C. Öttinger et al. The result of this paper can also be treated to demonstrate the way how Fokker-Planck equations and the SG-principle relate.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Observer Design for Distributed Network Systems with Communication Delays
           ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Ryosuke Adachi, Yuh Yamashita, Koichi Kobayashi In this paper, we consider the design problem of an unknown-input observer for distributed network systems under existence of communication delays. It is assumed that an input of each node in a network is calculated from the estimate of own node. Instead of the unknown inputs, each node calculates alternative ones from own estimate and utilizes these values in the calculation of the estimation and the delay compensation. The stability of the estimation error of the proposed observer is proven by a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. The stability condition is given by a linear matrix inequality (LMI). Finally, a result of a numerical simulation is shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Secure communication with the help of flat inputs for chaotic systems ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): F. Nicolau, W. Respondek, J.P. Barbot, A. Ouslimani In this paper, we explain how flatness (in particular, how constructing flat inputs) can be applied to secure communication systems via chaotic models. In order to send confidential messages, we use a transmitter whose dynamics are a flat control system steaming from a dynamical one (with no inputs) originally composed by two independent chaotic subsystems (a Chua and a Rössler circuit, resp.). We explain how from the original dynamical (chaotic) system we can construct a flat control system, the flatness property being achieved by adding control vector fields or, equivalently, inputs. Such inputs are called flat inputs in Waldherr and Zeitz (2008, 2010) since they lead to a flat control system. In our construction, adding inputs is done in a minimal way because they affect only three components of the original dynamical chaotic system. We show numerically that the chaotic behavior of the dynamical system is preserved for the control system (which is crucial for secure communication).
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Indirect master-slave synchronization: experimental results ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Eduardo García Montes, Jonatan Pena Ramirez An indirect master-slave configuration, in which two Rössler systems are indirectly connected, is considered. Opposite to the classical case, in which the slave system is connected to the master through common signals, in the scheme discussed here the slave interacts to the master via a second order linear system. By using the Master Stability Function formalism, it is demonstrated that the onset of synchronization is enhanced when the interaction is indirect. Furthermore, the performance of the indirect master-slave scheme is experimentally validated by using electronic circuits, which emulate the chaotic dynamics of Rössler system.
       
  • A Robust State Estimation for Fractional-Order Liouvillian Systems: with
           Application to Secure Communications

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Sergio M. Delfín-Prieto, Rafael Martínez-Guerra, Ivan Trejo-Zúñiga, Juan J. Montesinos-García This article introduces a class of fractional order chaotic system which is capable of hiding bounded messages into the dynamic equation. We propose a definition for reconstructabil-ity for messages hidden in the fractional order differential equation of the oscillator system; such definition is based on the differential algebraic observability for Liouvillian fractional order systems. The methodology serves as a way to retrieve the message employing fractional order differentiators. This approach is applied to secure communications for fractional order chaotic systems.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Information Transmission Over the Limited-rate Communication Channel by
           Chaotic Signal Modulation and Non-linear Observer. ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Alexander L. Fradkov, Boris Andrievsky, Alexey Pavlov The paper deals with development of algorithm for non-linear observers using the Pecora-Carroll scheme for information transmission by modulation chaotic signal and investigation of the accuracy of information coding based on robust synchronization with qDES observer, taking into account the possible distortion of data during transmission over the communication channel under the information constraints. The simulation results for Lorenz transmitter/receiver pair are presented to evaluate dependence of the information transmission accuracy on the communication channel capacity.
       
  • Bifurcation from chaos to periodic states in bidirectional interconnected
           Lorenz systems by the variation of the coupling strengths

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): L.J. Ontañón-García, M. García Martínez, I. Campos Cantón, C. Soubervielle Montalvo, M.T. Ramírez Torres, R.E. Lozoya Ponce After analyzing the resulting states of two bidirectionally linear interconnected Lorenz systems by the variation of the coupling strengths a bifurcation from chaos to period have been detected. The systems lose asymptotical stability as the coupling strengths takes specific values. These coupling strengths have been adjusted in order to be opposite in sign (i.e., one positive and one negative), and can be considered as a bifurcation parameter on the states of the resulting trajectories. The coupled system has been studied by means of bifurcation analysis, the distance between the resulting trajectories and the standard deviation along the iterated time. Numerical examples of the phase states of the coupled systems along with the bifurcation graphs are presented in order to visualize the resulting chaotic or periodic trajectories as well as the synchronized states.
       
  • Retrofit Control of Network Systems under Measurement Noise

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Hampei Sasahara, Takayuki Ishizaki, Ryotaro Onuki, Jun-ichi Imura In this paper, we propose a design method of retrofit controllers for network systems in the presence of measurement noise. A retrofit controller is a local plug-in controller such that only the model of the subsystem of interest is required for controller design. A design procedure of retrofit controllers has been developed in previous work based on the technique called hierarchical state-space expansion with which the state of the original system can be represented by sum of the states of a cascaded system. We can design a retrofit controller by choosing a local controller that stabilizes and suppresses the state of the upstream part. However, the existing method cannot take account of measurement noise because the measurement noise is injected into the downstream part of the hierarchical representation and the cascade structure is lost by the noise. To tackle with this problem, we extend the hierarchical representation in which measurement noise is contained in the upstream part. With the proposed approach, the cascade structure is recovered and an effective controller that copes with measurement noise can be designed. The effectiveness of the proposed retrofit controller is verified through numerical examples of power systems.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Design of a supervisory controller for Cooperative Intersection Control
           using Model Predictive Control ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Falco Creemers, Alejandro Ivan Morales Medina, Erjen Lefeber, Nathan van de Wouw The Cooperative Intersection Control (CIC) methodology ensures a safe, smooth traffic flow through an automated intersection by means of virtual platooning. In this paper, we address the design of a centralised supervisory controller for CIC which optimises the crossing sequence of vehicles. We propose an approach in which the intersection as a whole is modelled as a hybrid system, which evolves in both continuous-time and in discrete-time. This hybrid system model resembles a queueing system, and relates the entry of vehicles into the intersection to a measure of the delay of their travel through the intersection. We design a supervisory controller using Model Predictive Control (MPC), which aims to minimise the vehicles’ average delay by controlling their access to the intersection. A simulation study based on real-life data demonstrates the effectiveness of the MPC approach compared to a first-come-first-served (FCFS) policy and a conventional traffic light controller. This study shows that MPC achieves a faster transient response and a lower average delay, thereby increasing the throughput of the intersection.
       
  • A scalable design method for stabilising decentralised controllers for
           networks of delay-coupled systems

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): D. Dileep, F. Borgioli, L. Hetel, J.-P. Richard, W. Michiels A methodology is proposed to design stabilising fixed-order decentralised controllers for interconnected systems with identical nodal dynamics and identical local controllers. The systems considered are linear time invariant (LTI) multiple-input multiple-output retarded type time-delay systems. The closed-loop systems of local controllers and subsystems (nodes) are modelled by a system of delay differential algebraic equations. The proposed approach combines the non-conservative direct optimisation approach towards stabilisation of delay systems with a decoupling transformation. The latter reduces the overall design problem to a robust/simultaneous controller design problem for one parameterised subsystem, where the allowable values of the parameter correspond to eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of the network graph. By treating the eigenvalues as perturbations, contained in specific intervals or regions in the complex plane determined by the topology of the network, and by optimising the corresponding pseudospectral abscissa using a novel structure exploiting algorithm, we can ensure that the achieved stability property, and the computational complexity of the controller design, are independent of the number of subsystems. A numerical example is presented to validate the proposed approach in MATLAB software.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Pattern Prediction in Networks of Diffusively Coupled Nonlinear Systems
           ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): K. Rogov, A. Pogromsky, E. Steur, W. Michiels, H. Nijmeijer In this paper, we present a method aiming at pattern prediction in networks of diffusively coupled nonlinear systems. Interconnecting several globally asymptotical stable systems into a network via diffusion can result in diffusion-driven instability phenomena, which may lead to pattern formation in coupled systems. Some of the patterns may co-exist which implies the multi-stability of the network. Multi-stability makes the application of common analysis methods, such as the direct Lyapunov method, highly involved. We develop a numerically efficient method in order to analyze the oscillatory behavior occurring in such networks. We show that the oscillations appear via a Hopf bifurcation and therefore display sinusoidal-like behavior in the neighborhood of the bifurcation point. This allows to use the describing function method in order to replace a nonlinearity by its linear approximation and then to analyze the system of linear equations by means of the multivariable harmonic balance method. The method cannot be directly applied to a network consisting of systems of any structure and here we present the multivariable harmonic balance method for networks with a general system’s structure and dynamics.
       
  • &rft.title=IFAC-PapersOnLine&rft.issn=2405-8963&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Synchronization of networked oscillators under nonlinear integral coupling
           ⁎

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 51, Issue 33Author(s): Alexey Pavlov, Anton V. Proskurnikov, Erik Steur, Nathan van de Wouw In this paper, we consider synchronization of dynamical systems interconnected via nonlinear integral coupling. Integral coupling allows one to achieve synchronization with lower interaction levels (coupling gains) than with linear coupling. Previous results on this topic were obtained for synchronization of several systems with all-to-all interconnections. In this paper, we relax the requirement of all-to-all interconnections and provide two results on exponential synchronization under nonlinear integral coupling for networks with topologies different from all-to-all interconnections. In particular, we provide a high-gain result for an arbitrary interconnection topology and a non-high-gain method for analysis of synchronization for specific topologies. The results are illustrated by simulations of Hindmarsh-Rose neuron oscillators.
       
 
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