Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 216 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (9 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (26 journals)
    - RAILROADS (10 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (9 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (39 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (123 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (123 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 53 of 53 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Mobilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Asian Transport Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Danish Journal of Transportation Research / Dansk Tidsskrift for Transportforskning     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Decision Making : Applications in Management and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 14)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
eTransportation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
IET Smart Cities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IFAC-PapersOnLine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronic Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Big Data Analytics in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of KONES     Open Access  
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 280)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sustainable Mobility     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Transport History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal on Vehicle Routing Algorithms     Hybrid Journal  
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
LOGI ? Scientific Journal on Transport and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Logistics & Sustainable Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Logistique & Management     Hybrid Journal  
Mobility in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Open Transportation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering     Open Access  
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue Marocaine de Management, Logistique et Transport     Open Access  
Romanian Journal of Transport Infrastructure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Transport and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transport Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Transport technic and technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation in Developing Economies     Hybrid Journal  
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Transportation Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Transportation Systems and Technology     Open Access  
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transportrecht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Urban Development Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Vehicles     Open Access  
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
World Electric Vehicle Journal     Open Access  
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Emission Control Science and Technology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.731
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2199-3629 - ISSN (Online) 2199-3637
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2656 journals]
  • Publisher Correction: Difference in the Tailpipe Particle Number by
           Consideration of Sub-23-nm Particles for Different Injection Settings of a
           GDI Engine
    • Abstract: The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Figures 6, 11 and 13 were not properly processed. The original version has been corrected.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-019-00116-3
  • Difference in the Tailpipe Particle Number by Consideration of Sub-23-nm
           Particles for Different Injection Settings of a GDI Engine
    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristic of nanoparticles under consideration of sub-23-nm particles from a 1.8-l direct injection (DI) gasoline engine under stoichiometric air/fuel conditions in the exhaust gas system. For future CO2 challenges, the usage of DI—instead of port fuel injection (PFI)—gasoline engines is unavoidable. Therefore, a state of the art particle management program-particle number (PN) system, the Horiba SPCS (2100) with an integrated CPC (condensation particle counter), was recalibrated from a 50% cutoff (D50%) at 23 nm down to a cutoff at 10 nm and the PCRF (particle concentration reduction factor) for sizes smaller than 23 nm was checked. Two different modal points, out of a representative Real Driving Emission (RDE) cycle, were investigated with both calibrations, D50% = 10 nm and D50% = 23 nm. For these different load points, the fuel pressure (FUP) and the start of injection (SOI) were varied, to represent the difference in the structure and the ratio conc(10 nm)/conc(23 nm) of the nanoparticle emissions. The particle characterization includes the particle number (PN), the particle size distribution (PSD), and the particle mass (PM). The particle number was measured with Horiba SPCS (2100). The particle size distribution was analyzed with a Grimm differential mobility analyzer (DMA) in combination with a Faraday cup electrometer (FCE). Micro Soot and Pegasor were used to determine the PM, and an optical characterization was done with a 120-kV Phillips CM12 transmission electron microscope (TEM). The position of all particle measurement systems was downstream the three-way catalyst (TWC). The results of this investigation showed that a higher injection pressure decreases the PN (without consideration of sub-23-nm particles) in general. The ratio conc(10 nm)/conc(23 nm) was therefore higher, because smaller particles, especially ash particles, were less reduced from the FUP. This means higher FUP tends to a higher ratio. For the SOI, the main reasons of the ratio differences were explained by an encroachment between the injection jet and the piston, the valve and the wall.
      PubDate: 2019-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-019-0114-1
  • Pressure Response during Filtration and Oxidation in Diesel Particulate
    • Abstract: Combustion-generated soot particles that arise from diesel vehicles are known to cause substantial damages to the environment as well as to human health. A diesel particulate filter (DPF) is needed to trap nanoparticles in the diesel exhaust aftertreatment. In the present study, using carbon particles as model soot, we evaluated the filtration and regeneration performances of diesel or gasoline soot in silicon carbide–DPF. Especially, particles with different size distributions were used. Results show that, independent of the particle size, the pressure drop raised by the particle deposition almost exhibits the same dependence on the deposited particle mass. When the volumetric flow rate is increased, the smaller particle can pass through the filter but the larger particle is trapped more efficiently. In the filter regeneration process, CO and CO2 concentrations initially increase with the lapse of time, reach the maximum, and then decrease gradually. The decreasing rate in the pressure drop is the largest in case 3 of the smallest particle distribution, followed in order by cases 2 and 1. Since the particle density in case 3 is the lowest, it is derived that the sparse deposition layer composing of smaller particles is oxidized more easily, resulting in the shorter period of the filter regeneration. By comparing the variation of the pressure drop during the filtration and the regeneration, the dependence of the pressure drop on the deposited particle mass is different, showing the hysteresis in the transition of the pressure drop.
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-019-0113-2
  • An Asymptotic Solution for Washcoat Pore Diffusion in Catalytic Monoliths:
           Reformulation and Extension to Small Concentrations
    • Abstract: A recent publication (Bissett in Emission Control Sci. Technol. 1(1), 3–16, 2015) proposed an alternative to the so-called 1 + 1D modeling of aftertreatment reactors with nontrivial washcoat pore diffusion. Rather than numerically solve the 1D reaction-diffusion problem within the washcoat(s), asymptotic results based on small diffusion resistance give the concentration profiles within the washcoat analytically, and these are integrated within the overall solution for transient reactor performance. The description of the asymptotic solution in the former publication is suitable for the formal derivation and demonstration that all special properties of this solution follow from small diffusion resistance alone, but experience has shown that alternative descriptions and further extensions to accommodate small washcoat concentrations are desirable and perhaps necessary for practical application. In this paper and in a less formal style, we provide the new alternatives and analysis necessary for small concentrations.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-019-0111-4
  • Improving Methodology of Particulate Measurement in Periodic Technical
           Inspection with High-Sensitivity Techniques: Laser Light Scattering
           Photometry and Particle Number Method
    • Abstract: First, the validity of the current test procedure for particle measurement adopted in a periodic technical inspection (PTI) was evaluated by comparing test results obtained with the PTI and a type approval test (TAT) procedure using a Euro V level diesel truck with an intentionally damaged diesel particulate filter (DPF). PM and particle number (PN) with the TAT increased with increasing DPF damage ratio, and the PTI results well reproduced those in the TAT. However, the regulation limit of the PTI was so loose that even a 100% damaged DPF resulted in emission well below the PTI limit, although 0.5% and 5% damage ratios resulted in values exceeding the PN and PM limits in TAT, respectively. Then, we evaluated three different techniques for particle detection with the PTI procedure, such as an opacity meter, which is currently used in PTI, laser light scattering photometry (LLSP), and the PN method. For the detecting DPF failure, opacity meters did not have sufficient sensitivity. On the other hand, the LLSP was sensitive enough for detecting DPF failure, but the results varied among LLSP devices. This variation was due to the test procedure of PTI, which is strongly transient (no load racing). The LLSP and PN measurement devices were sensitive enough to detect DPF failure at idle, which was quite steady, and the variation observed in the PTI procedure did not occur. PN counting of particles over 15 nm was more sensitive than LLSP and was sensitive enough to detect DPF failure, which did not result in the PM limit in TAT being exceeded.
      PubDate: 2019-01-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-019-0108-z
  • Trends in Automotive Emission Legislation: Impact on LD Engine
           Development, Fuels, Lubricants and Test Methods: a Global View, with a
           Focus on WLTP and RDE Regulations
    • Abstract: This paper summarises the 6th International Exhaust Emissions Symposium (IEES) held in June 2018 and attempts a synthesis of the main arguments of the event in the context of emission control and affiliated considerations relating to the environmental performance of vehicles. Among the drivers influencing vehicular powertrain development, the field of vehicular exhaust emissions is experiencing wide-ranging and rapid changes. New emission regulations such as Euro 6d and new test methods (RDE and WLTP) are the main challenges for the automotive industry caused by political, socioeconomic and technical factors. Air quality is very high on the political agenda, and pressure remains to limit and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the road transport sector. In addition to limits becoming increasingly stringent, the list of parameters subject to legal limits is slowly expanding—and, most importantly, these limits must be met under a wide range of conditions. A range of strategies are available to overcome these difficulties, which was explored during the 6th International Exhaust Emissions Symposium (IEES) hosted at BOSMAL in June 2018. This paper reports and summarises the topics of the 6th IEES and attempts a synthesis on the current status of the field of IC engines, hybrid powertrains and electric vehicles and what the coming years may hold for the automotive and fuel industries and other allied fields.
      PubDate: 2019-01-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-019-0112-3
  • Applied Catalysis in the Automotive Industry: Development of a Commercial
           Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Simulation Model Balanced for the Requirements
           of an Original Engine Manufacturer. Part 1, NO x Chemistry
    • Abstract: Driven by a need for simulations in exhaust aftertreatment system R&D, a simulation model of a commercial diesel oxidation catalyst has been developed. Considering near future legislation demands in which cold starts will be of high importance, focus has been to develop a model which can be used to simulate as many engine operating points as possible and not just those at normal driving conditions. In order to emulate as many operating points as possible, the model has been calibrated and validated against synthetic gas bench tests in which inlet composition, temperature, and space velocity were varied. The model, which is of Langmuir-Hinshelwood type, incorporates three catalytic sites: one representing the precious metal, one NO/NO2 storage site, and one site with a high affinity to oxidation by NO2 with a concomitant NO production. The oxidation of the latter site by NO2 and simultaneous production of NO was found in the experimental data and contradicts the equilibrium thermodynamics of the NO + ½O2 ⇌ NO2 reaction, commonly used to describe the activity of diesel oxidation catalysts. The attitude in most of industry towards simulation models is that they represent a means to an ultimate objective, which is to understand the complete exhaust aftertreatment system. In this paper we present and discuss the performance of our diesel oxidation catalyst simulation model, developed solely using synthetic gas bench data, with this objective in mind.
      PubDate: 2019-01-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-019-0109-y
  • Applied Catalysis in the Automotive Industry: Development of a Commercial
           Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Simulation Model Balanced for the Requirements
           of an Original Engine Manufacturer. Part 2, CO and HC Chemistry
    • Abstract: Our previously developed model of NOx chemistry over a commercially used diesel oxidation catalyst has been extended by adding CO and HC chemistry. Synthetic gas bench experiments were conducted in order to elucidate mechanisms and provide the experimental foundation necessary for model calibration. Reactions tested and folded into the model include pure gas-phase CO oxidation, water-gas shift, and surface oxidation reactions for CO and HC. The majority of the experiments were performed at a space velocity corresponding to medium load in terms of driving conditions. The complete model was validated against engine test data. For that, it was necessary to assess the aging of the catalyst (in modeling terms translated to precious metal dispersion) used in the engine tests. After assuming a reasonable dispersion using engineering judgment, model validation against engine test data was performed. This showed the ability of the model to predict both trends and time resolved details.
      PubDate: 2019-01-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-019-0110-5
  • Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission Benefits of Vehicle Speed Limiters
           on On-Road Heavy-Duty Line-Haul Vehicles
    • Abstract: Vehicle speed limiters (VSLs) are one of the strategies for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from heavy-duty vehicles; they work by limiting peak vehicle speed. In the Federal Phase 2 Rule—GHG Emissions and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-duty Engines and Vehicles, the greenhouse gas emission model (GEM) includes emission reduction credits for vehicles equipped with tamper-proof VSLs set at 55 to 65 miles per hour (mph). In this study, on-road testing of three class 8 combination tractor-trailers was conducted at various cruising speeds between 45 and 78 mph under steady conditions to evaluate the emission impacts of VSLs on heavy-duty vehicles. The three tested trucks were equipped with model year (MY) 2007 and newer engines and low-rolling-resistance tires on both the tractors and trailers. One truck was tested with a combined test weight of 35,000 lb and each of the other two trucks was tested with a combined test weight of 76,000 lb. A portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was used to measure carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and results showed that distance-based CO2 emission rates were dependent on both vehicle speed and engine revolutions per minute (rpm). Compared to average CO2 emission rates of approximately 1524 grams per mile (g/mile) at 78 mph for these test trucks, average CO2 emission rates at 51 mph were ~ 36% lower (approximately 978 g/mile) and represented the minimum distance-based (i.e., in g/mile) CO2 emission rates within the speed range evaluated for the three test trucks. Specifically, when decreasing speeds from 78 to 55 mph, CO2 emissions were between 0.7 and 2.6% lower per mph reduced. The emission benefits of using VSLs estimated from data in this study agree with the emission credits in the federal GEM. In addition, the quadratic relationship between CO2 emissions and vehicle speed measured for the three test trucks was used to corroborate updates to CARB’s EMission FACtor (EMFAC) 2017 model that were based on dynamometer testing; the measured trends from this VSL study support the predictions in that model.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-018-0103-9
  • Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Methane
           Flame Velocity and Pollutant Emissions Using Several Detailed Reaction
    • Abstract: This research’s basic objective is the study of hydrogen addition effects on pollutant emissions like CO and CO2 and on the laminar velocity of a methane flame considering a detailed chemical kinetics. This numerical study was performed using the calculation code of the gas phase chemical kinetics ChemKin4.0. To do this, the internal combustion engine (ICE) model was used to simulate the CO and CO2 emissions and the flame speed calculation (FSC) model for calculating the laminar velocity for various detailed reaction mechanisms and under different mixing conditions of CH4 + H2 and at equivalence ratio values ranging from 0.6 to 1.4. Results were compared with various experimental data from the literature and very good concordance was observed for several of the detailed mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-018-0098-2
  • On the Effective Density and Fractal–Like Dimension of Diesel Soot
           Aggregates as a Function of Mobility Diameter
    • Abstract: A new technique is proposed for the assessment of aggregate morphology based on combined information of aerodynamic and mobility size distributions. Instead of formulating a complex inverse problem having aggregate morphology as unknown, the actual problem is separated to two stages. The aerodynamic distribution is determined directly by the electric low pressure impactor (ELPI) data whereas the morphology is independently assessed by matching the distribution arises from ELPI and from scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The advantage of this approach is that it can estimate different fractal dimension for different aggregate size. The approach is applied to soot aggregates from three different diesel engines. In all cases, a non-monotonic behavior of fractal dimension versus aggregate size is observed. In particular, the fractal dimension initially decreases and then increases (passing through a minimum) as the mobility diameter increases.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-018-0106-6
  • A Tutorial on Testing Particulate Filters with a Side-Stream Reactor (SSR)
           Exhaust Setup
    • Abstract: A tutorial on the use of Side-Stream Reactor (SSR) technology is presented for screening different combustion engine particulate reduction technologies using small-scale filter segments in a well-controlled environment under realistic engine exhaust conditions. The testing examples include the evaluation of particulate filter flow resistance, soot loading, and soot oxidation (regeneration) performance.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-018-0107-5
  • Coating Distribution in a Commercial SCR Filter
    • Abstract: A commercial SCR filter, deployed in the USA in 2015, was sectioned and examined using techniques including mercury porosimetry, electron microscopy, and micro-X-ray computed tomography. The catalyst washcoat was found to be consistent with Cu/SSZ-13, possibly including some zirconia and alumina. Three distinct regions were observed with respect to catalyst loading and location. A region at the inlet end of the filter, comprising 15 to 21% of the total effective filter length, was relatively lightly coated. Most of the catalyst present in this region was observed inside the porous filter walls, and the catalyst concentration was generally greater near the upstream filter wall surfaces. Moving axially down the monolith toward the outlet, a second region comprising 14 to 20% of the total effective filter length was more heavily coated, with catalyst present throughout the thickness of the porous filter walls, as well as coatings on both the upstream and downstream filter wall surfaces. The final region at the outlet end of the monolith, which accounted for 65 to 70% of the filter length, had an intermediate catalyst loading. Most of the catalyst here was again observed inside the porous filter wall. Concentrations in this region were higher near the downstream filter wall surfaces. Detailed models of multi-functional aftertreatment devices, such as the one examined here, have included representations of catalyst distribution within the filter bricks and indicate that catalyst distribution may have an impact on flow distribution, soot loading patterns, local concentrations, and ultimately conversion efficiency. Previous work has also shown that catalyst distribution across the thickness of an exhaust filter wall can have significant impacts on backpressure during soot loading.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-018-0097-3
  • Study of Brake Wear Particle Emissions of a Minivan on a Chassis
    • Abstract: Car brakes appear to be a significant atmospheric pollutant source, with a contribution to total non-exhaust traffic-related PM10 emissions being estimated at approximately 55% in big cities and urban environments (Bukowiecki et al., 2009). Brake wear particle emissions of a minivan running on a chassis dynamometer were measured using a custom sampling system, positioned close to the braking system, under different initial speeds (30 km/h and 50 km/h), deceleration rates (0.5 m/s2, 1.5 m/s2, 2.5 m/s2), and ambient temperatures (0 °C, 15 °C and 25 °C). Braking from 50 km/h to full stop, results in 40–100% more particles compared to 30 km/h, depending on the deceleration rate. It was also found that only 9–50% of the total particles emitted, are released during the braking phase and therefore the most significant amount is released on the following acceleration phase. High brake pad temperature results in a bimodal distribution with the first peak being at 1 μm and the second falling at the nanometer scale at 200 nm. The ambient temperature appears to have a negligible effect on the particle generation.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-018-0105-7
  • Dust Filtration Influence on the Performance of Catalytic Filters for NO x
    • Abstract: Particle matter and NOx emission are the most significant pollutants of combustion processes, particularly so for the conversion of biomass to energy. Currently, reduction of these pollutants is addressed through particle filters and catalytic processes. Therefore, catalytic activation of filter materials seems to be a practical way to reduce NOx and fine particle emission (PM10) simultaneously at small and medium furnaces. Regularly used methods to achieve this rely on the impregnation process. However, alternatives for materials with low wettability are needed. An alternative developed and discussed in this article consists of simultaneous synthesis of filter and catalyst through hard template sintering, where the catalyst is integrated into the porous medium during the fabrication of the filter. This sintering method provides an integrated catalytic filter. Through this method, up to 2% of catalyst loading was achieved in the synthesis of four catalytic filters. The performance of these new catalysts was evaluated under downscale industrial conditions and compared with an ordinary impregnated catalyst. Finally, a dust aging treatment was applied on the catalysts in order to see the long-term influence of fine dust particles on the NOx conversion.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-018-0102-x
  • Evaluation of Partial Flow Dilution Systems for Very Low PM Mass
    • Abstract: Particulate matter (PM) mass measurement methodologies were improved considerably with the application of Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 1065 for the 2007 standards for heavy-duty engines that emphasized PM. However, there is still a need to improve the understanding of and the confidence in mass measurements for light-duty vehicles, which are now being subjected to more stringent PM standards. The purpose of this study is to evaluate commercially available partial flow dilutors (PFDs), with a particular focus on their equivalency with the standard constant volume sampler (CVS) tunnel method and the ability to provide reproducible measurements at low PM emission levels. For the main PFD comparison, simultaneous testing was conducted with the three PFDs, over federal test procedure (FTP) and US06 tests. The results of the calibrations and proportionality tests all showed good performance for the PFDs. The exhaust flow meters (EFMs) for the PFDs showed measurements within 2% or less of a calibration source. The PFDs also showed good level proportionality and can easily meet the CFR 1066 requirements for light-duty vehicles and 1065 requirements for all tests performed. Larger differences were seen for the main comparisons between the CVS and the different PFDs during the FTP testing, with the relative difference of PM emissions between the PFDs and the CVS varying from − 16.5 to − 0.6%, with an average pooled difference of − 8.5%. These FTP differences only represented 0.00 to 0.11 mg/mile on an absolute basis, however, and could be attributed to difficulties making and weighing filter mass measurements at such low levels. For the US06 cycle, the differences between the PFDs and the CVS were not statistically significant and ranged from − 6.7 to − 0.7% and up to 0.07 mg/mile.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-018-0099-1
  • Gasoline Particulate Filters—a Review
    • Abstract: To improve ambient air quality, several countries have adopted regulations setting stringent limits on vehicular tailpipe emissions of particulates. The issue of high particulate emissions has been mostly addressed for diesel vehicles with the widespread adoption of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). Attention is now turned to gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology, which provides improved fuel economy and performance, but also increased particulate emissions, as compared to the port fuel injection (PFI) engines. Europe has set a particle number (PN) limit on emissions from GDI vehicles, while China has expanded that to include all gasoline vehicles. In the USA, these are regulated through particle mass (PM) limits. To meet these regulations, it is anticipated that gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) will be widely applied to gasoline exhaust after-treatment. GPF technology has rapidly advanced, and already a wide range of pore size distribution and cell geometries are being offered to minimize back pressure and offer high ash storage capacity, high filtration efficiency, and, in the case of filters combined with three-way catalytic functionality, high conversion of gas-phase criteria pollutants. This review summarizes representative studies on particulate emissions from gasoline engines, the nature of the particulates, and the advances in GPF technology.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-018-0101-y
  • SO 2 Oxidation Across Marine V 2 O 5 -WO 3 -TiO 2 SCR Catalysts: a Study
           at Elevated Pressure for Preturbine SCR Configuration
    • Abstract: The undesired oxidation of SO2 was studied experimentally at elevated pressures of up to 4.5 bar across two commercial vanadium-based (1.2 and 3 wt% V2O5) selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. This pressure range is of interest for preturbine SCR reactor configuration for NOx reduction on ships. The residence time in the catalyst was kept constant, independent on pressure, by adjusting the total flow rate. The conversion of SO2 was of the order 0.2–3% at temperatures of 300–400 °C and was independent of the pressure. Based on the measured conversion of SO2, the kinetics were fitted using an nth order rate expression. The reaction order of SO2 was found close to 1, and the reaction order of SO3 was found close to 0, also at increased pressures of up to 4.5 bar. The rate of SO2 oxidation was clearly promoted by the presence of 1000 ppm NOx at elevated pressure; however, at atmospheric pressure, the effect was within experimental uncertainty. The promoting effect is explained by a catalyzed redox reaction between SO2 and NO2, and since more NO2 is formed at elevated pressure, a higher degree of promotion by NOx is observed at elevated pressures.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-018-0092-8
  • What Is the Exposome and How It Can Help Research on Air Pollution
    • Abstract: The concept of “exposome” has been introduced to allow an empowerment of environmental research, by improving measurements of external stressors and of internal biological changes, the latter taking advantage of advancements in high-throughput technologies called “omics.” Here, I discuss the application of the exposome concept and techniques to the field of air pollution. I address some open issues in air pollution science, such as the effects of components in a mixture, low doses, biological pathways, and a meaningful interpretation of omic findings in the context of “hallmarks” of disease. The exposome may represent the next frontier for the regulation of low-dose environmental contaminants.
      PubDate: 2018-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-018-0104-8
  • Conference Report: 22 nd ETH Conference on Combustion Generated
    • Abstract: The 22nd ETH Conference on Combustion Generated Nanoparticles was held on June 18–21, 2018 in Zürich, Switzerland. The Conference program included a number of presentations and posters on a range of topics, including particle fundamentals, ambient air pollution and health effects, emission control from diesel and gasoline engines, particles from other combustion sources, and emission measurement. The conference also included an exhibition with the participation of suppliers of emission measurement instruments, emission control systems, and related products and services.
      PubDate: 2018-10-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s40825-018-0100-z
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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