Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 216 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (9 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (26 journals)
    - RAILROADS (10 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (9 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (39 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (123 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (123 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 53 of 53 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Mobilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Asian Transport Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Danish Journal of Transportation Research / Dansk Tidsskrift for Transportforskning     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Decision Making : Applications in Management and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 14)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
eTransportation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IATSS Research     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
IET Smart Cities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IFAC-PapersOnLine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Electronic Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Big Data Analytics in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of KONES     Open Access  
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 281)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sustainable Mobility     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Transport History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal on Vehicle Routing Algorithms     Hybrid Journal  
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
LOGI ? Scientific Journal on Transport and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Logistics & Sustainable Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Logistique & Management     Hybrid Journal  
Mobility in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Open Transportation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering     Open Access  
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue Marocaine de Management, Logistique et Transport     Open Access  
Romanian Journal of Transport Infrastructure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SourceOCDE Transports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tire Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Transport and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transport Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Transport technic and technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation in Developing Economies     Hybrid Journal  
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Transportation Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Transportation Systems and Technology     Open Access  
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transportrecht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Urban Development Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Vehicles     Open Access  
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
World Electric Vehicle Journal     Open Access  
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  

           

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Journal Cover
IATSS Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.37
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0386-1112
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3303 journals]
  • An exploratory investigation of the impact of ramp metering on driver
           acceleration behavior

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): Guangchuan Yang, Zong Tian Ramp metering has been proven as an effective freeway management strategy; however, the impact of ramp metering on drivers' acceleration behavior has not been fully investigated. A better understanding of acceleration behavior changes with ramp metering is critical to the adequate design of ramp metering facilities. In this study, drivers' speed and acceleration data were collected at two representative metered ramps in Los Angeles, California. The speed and acceleration profiles under meter-on and meter-off scenarios were compared. Statistical results demonstrated that ramp metering affects drivers' acceleration behavior at ramp acceleration lane. It was found that at the metered ramp with short existing acceleration length, the average acceleration rate from ramp meter stop bar to 500 ft downstream under meter-on scenario (4.72 ft./s2) is approximately 40% higher than when meter-off (3.18 ft./s2). The design of acceleration lane length for metered on-ramps should therefore take into account the potential impacts of ramp metering on driver acceleration behavior.
       
  • Daily emotional demands on traffic crashes among taxi drivers: Fatigue and
           safety motivation as mediators

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): Nor Azmawati Husain, Jamilah Mohamad, Mohd Awang Idris Many studies have validated that emotional demands are one of the main stressors that lead to fatigue, decreasing the safety behaviour in services work-related. However, studies to date have relied on long-term emotional demands rather than on the short-term fluctuation in emotional demands. The main aims of this research was to investigate the influence of individuals, as well as the daily levels of emotional demands on self-reported crashes, mainly through daily acute fatigue and safety motivation. The study was conducted among taxi drivers (N = 96) over a period of six days for both, morning and afternoon sessions in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. As expected, it was found that increased levels in an individual's daily emotional demands were related to acute and chronic fatigue, where only acute fatigue had an influence on safety motivation. In addition, safety motivation decreased the rate of self-reported crashes. These results suggest that the increment level of emotional demands has an indirect relationship to traffic crash rates, mainly through fatigue and safety motivation.
       
  • A study on the timing of Asian metropolitan railway development with
           motorization and its effect on CO2 emissions from transportation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2019Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): Yuma Tsumura, Dai Nakagawa, Ryoji Matsunaka, Tetsuharu Oba In metropolitan areas of developing and emerging economies in Asia, a remarkable phenomenon of motorization with rapid economic growth is accelerating a continuous formation of auto-dependent urban structures. The delayed timing of urban railway introduction could contribute to a negative spiral of motorization, which could provoke a severe increase in CO2 emissions from transportation sector. In this paper, we attempt to evaluate the timing of urban railway station development based on the level of automobile share and an analysis of the CO2 emissions in the catchment areas of newly introduced urban railway stations in Asian metropolitan areas; Japan, Malaysia and Indonesia. The result quantitatively reveals that the earlier development of the stations in comparison to the progress of motorization tended to result in a statistically significant reduction of CO2 emissions from transportation year-by-year in the catchment areas. In addition, this study demonstrates statistically that urban development harmonized with urban railway systems with a higher service frequency should be a key factor on the strategic realization of low-carbon urban forms along public transportation corridors.
       
  • Investigation of helmet use behavior of motorcyclists and effectiveness of
           enforcement campaign using CART approach

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2019Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): Muhammad Adnan, Uneb Gazder Use of the helmet is beneficial in reducing the severity of injuries and avoiding fatalities for motorcyclists, therefore, legislation exists in almost all countries. In practice, the situation is different regarding the helmet use, especially in the developing countries. This paper investigates the helmet use behavior of motorcyclists in Karachi, Pakistan. It determines the significant factors affecting the helmet use in Karachi (Pakistan) and recommending effective campaign measures to promote helmet use. It is vital in relation to the exponential growth of motorcycle users and poor enforcement of traffic rules. Repeated cross-sectional data collected before (n = 226) and after (n = 277) the helmet use enforcement campaign is analyzed using univariate and non-parametric classification and regression tree (CART) techniques. A significant number of motorcyclists do not hold a driving license and CART analysis highlighted the significance of this variable along with exposure to the road environment (measured as daily usage of motorcycle) to explain helmet use. Campaign effects are found temporary, therefore, serious efforts are required to design coherent and structured awareness and enforcement programs.
       
  • A meta-analysis of the impacts of operating in-vehicle information systems
           on road safety

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2019Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): Apostolos Ziakopoulos, Athanasios Theofilatos, Eleonora Papadimitriou, George Yannis This study aims to estimate the overall impact of distraction due to operating in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) and similar devices while driving on road crashes. While similar research has been undertaken investigating the issue, varying results have been reported so far. Therefore a two-step approach was adopted: initially a review of the literature was conducted to identify key high quality studies and the parameters that they examined. Afterwards, meta-analyses were applied in order to estimate the overall effects of operating IVIS while driving on the absolute proportion of crashes (i.e. the proportion of total crashes due to IVIS). After applying a random effects meta-analysis to the findings of existing studies, it was found that 1.66% of crashes occur due to operating devices in total. In addition, it is indicated that about 0.6% of safety-critical incidents for professional drivers are due to in-vehicle device operation. The odds of crashes influenced by IVIS operation were also estimated and were found to be very low. From the findings of the present review and the meta-analysis, it is suggested that device operation as a risk factor while driving is a less researched aspect of driver distraction than others, and more studies would improve result estimates and transferability, especially for professional drivers. This study summarizes concisely the current effect of driver interaction with in-vehicle information systems on crashes, which might become considerably pertinent in view of the increasing deployment of vehicles with increasing levels of automation.
       
  • Effectiveness of retro-reflective tape at the rear of heavy trucks to
           increase visibility and reduce rear-end collisions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2019Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): Trinh Thi Lan, Kunnawee Kanitpong, Kazuya Tomiyama, Akira Kawamura, Takashi Nakatsuji The purpose of this study is to compare the visibility of various colors and patterns of retroreflective tapes and evaluate the effect of human and environmental factors on the detection of distance, perception-reaction time, and heart rate while driving behind heavy trucks with different patterns of retroreflective tapes. The Kitami Institute of Technology Driving Simulator (KITDS) was used for the experiment throughout this study. BACS Advance (TAOS Institute) is another piece of equipment used to measure heart rate and used to determine the driver's level of stress. Five patterns of retroreflective tape designs were evaluated and compared. The results of the study clearly show that the most visible retroreflective tap pattern is the fully outlined alternating red and yellow retroreflective tape following Regulation No.48 from UNECE, in comparison to the other patterns tested. Gender, driver age, the speed of the following vehicles, tape width, tape pattern, lighting conditions, and weather conditions significantly affect the detection distance. Driver age significantly affects the perception-reaction time. The perception-reaction time is significantly longer for drivers behind trucks with no retroreflective tape at the rear-end. Therefore, the selection of the most effective color and pattern of retroreflective tape is very important in order to increase the visibility of heavy trucks and reduce the chances of rear-end truck collisions, particularly at nighttime or in conditions with limited visibility. This study strongly recommends that countries which have not implemented regulations concerning the placement of retroreflective tape on the rear of large trucks, or have implemented the regulation but not in accordance with UNECE Regulation No.48, should consider revising their regulation to improve the visibility of large trucks.
       
  • Determinants of certified motorcycle helmet use among postal delivery
           riders at rural areas in Peninsular Malaysia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2018Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): Kaviyarasu Yellappan, Kulanthayan K.C. Mani, Shamsul Bahri Md. Tamrin This study aims to identify the determinants of certified helmet use among postal delivery riders (PDRs) in rural areas of Peninsular Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was done among 269 PDRs from 50 postal distribution centres (DC) nationwide. Data collection was achieved through observation of the helmets and a questionnaire. The quality of the motorcycle helmets was determined by the presence of the certification label issued by the Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM). The response rate was 99.3%. The odds of full-shell helmets having the SIRIM label were 37.1 times more than that of the half-shell helmets. The odds of non-purchased helmets having the SIRIM label were 14.9 times more than that of the purchased helmets. The odds of expensive helmets having the SIRIM label were 4.4 times more than that for cheaper motorcycle helmets. The odds of helmets owned by riders without a previous crash history having the SIRIM label were 1.9 times more than helmets owned by riders with a crash history. Full-shell helmets with SIRIM standard certification, non-purchased helmets, helmet price of US$11.00 or more, and motorcycle riders without any previous crash history were determinants that contributed towards the use of a certified motorcycle helmet. Multiple logistic regression indicated that two variables significantly predicted the use of a certified motorcycle helmet among PDRs – helmet type and cost. An employer that provides the employees with full-shell motorcycle helmets with SIRIM standard certification label that costs at least US$11.00 and hiring motorcycle riders without any previous crash history gives a higher chance of compliance with standard certified motorcycle helmet usage.
       
  • Motorcyclists' beliefs of compliance with the Malaysian school zone speed
           limit (SZSL)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2018Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): Suhaila Abdul Hanan Many road crashes that occur in school zones involve child pedestrians. Research has identified three contributing factors to road crashes, namely child behaviour, driver behaviour, and the environment. This study aims to identify critical beliefs that influence motorcyclist's intention to comply with the Malaysian school zone speed limit (SZSL). 159 Malaysian motorcyclists who have travel experience in school zones during school hours and non-school hours were recruited by using purposive sampling. Participants responded to a survey distributed by enumerators in public places and house-to-house survey conducted in Kedah, Malaysia. Step-by-step correlation and regression analysis were used to identify the motorcyclists' critical beliefs. The results identified that motorcyclists' beliefs of the community expectation for them to comply and that complying with the speed limit in school zones may reduce risk of crashes with school children were the critical beliefs. In addition, the observation of many motorcyclists in the school zone was also identified as critical beliefs influencing motorcyclists' intention to comply with the SZSL. The practical relevance of this study is to combine a public awareness campaign and safety education for the motorcyclists together with an enforcement method to reinforce motorcyclists' compliance with the SZSL. Additionally, to increase the awareness level among motorcyclists, traffic control devices, such as flashing lights and yellow lines could be implemented.
       
  • A video-based approach to promote safe driving among foreign visitors to
           Japan

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2018Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): Kento Yoh, Chiemi Uchiyama, Pai-Hsien Hung, Kenji Doi Recently, the demand for car rentals has been increasing at tourist destinations in Japan due to their convenience and the high degree of freedom they offer. On the other hand, there is a problem of a dramatic rise in the number of traffic accidents involving drivers from countries with different traffic customs and cultures from Japan. In order to examine measures to reduce the traffic accident risk of foreign drivers visiting Japan, an animation video to promote safe driving was created and its educational effects were tested in this article. First, through a driving survey of foreigners and a review of preceding studies, we identified information on Priority, Speed, and Comprehension (PSC) that must be learned by foreign visitors to reduce their accident risk. Next, drawing from the technique of branded contents in order to enhance the effects of educational videos, we created a short video that conveys the PSC philosophy that should be understood for safe driving in Japan. We then tested the educational effects of the video by conducting a survey of Taiwanese people. The results show that strengthening the video's appeal leads to improvements in educational effects and therefore safety awareness. We also realized that the effect was particularly significant among young people in their twenties. Lastly, the rent-a-car businesses evaluated the videos and basing on their input, we summarized effective ways for foreign rent-a-car users visiting Japan to use the video.
       
  • Traffic management project in Phnom Penh

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: IATSS Research, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): Seiya Matsuoka Traffic congestion and accidents are major issues in Phnom Penh, the capital city of the Kingdom of Cambodia. An inefficient signal system and lack of traffic discipline contributed to the unfavorable traffic conditions. A comprehensive traffic management project was recently implemented. An area traffic control system that controls traffic signals in the city based on the traffic conditions was introduced, and other traffic management improvement works such as pavement markings, traffic signs, and median dividers were installed. The project is making a positive impact on road users. Efficient operation and maintenance are key factors for the project to sustain its benefits.
       
  • Empirical analysis of hazard perception and driving behaviors among high
           school and college students on motorcycles in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: IATSS Research, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): Nagahiro Yoshida, Toshiki Koyanagi In Cambodia, motorcycle use has spread rapidly in recent years, and serious accidents involving motorcycles have increased. Motorcycle accidents involving young people are particularly common, and there are various issues concerning traffic safety. To understand the situation in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, we conducted a questionnaire survey on driving attitude and behavior of motorcycle users targeted at high school and college students and a video observation survey of motorcycle driving conditions. Based on the survey analysis results, we held a traffic safety workshop (WS) comprising practical skills and classroom learning centered on hazard anticipation. In this study, we conducted a statistical comparative analysis of driving behavior frequency on non-intersection intervals of arterial roads before and after the WS, based on observational results from video cameras mounted on motorcycles. The results showed that the WS effects were associated with a reduction in average travel speeds and changes in driving behavior, such as frequency of lane changing. Different responses to the WS were observed according to attributes, and thus, the relationship between the content of this kind of traffic safety WS and behavioral changes needs to be clarified and a more advanced traffic safety WS program developed.
       
  • Factors with the greatest influence on drivers' judgment of roundabouts
           safety. An analysis based on web survey in Italy

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: IATSS Research, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): Natalia Distefano, Salvatore Leonardi, Giulia Pulvirenti The aim of this paper is to identify the roundabout geometric characteristics affecting the safety perception while the typical maneuvers (entry, circulation, exit) are being carried out. The tool used was an on-line questionnaire, filled out by about 1.650 respondents. Four different dimensionality reduction methods (Cluster Analysis, Correspondence Analysis, Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis) were used to analyze the data collected from the survey, in order to examine the key factors affecting the safety perception during the typical roundabout maneuvers. The considerations arising from the final model are the following: 1) the respondents' opinions regarding the safety perception of maneuvers are not preconceived ideas, but they originate from specific safety perceptions due to roundabout geometric configurations; 2) the users prefer definitely single lane roundabouts; this is an important confirmation of most results in the literature; 3) it was quantified the extent of the relationship between the safety perception of the typical roundabout maneuvers and the following aspects: a) maneuver type, b) geometric characteristics of the roundabouts design elements. This is the innovative aspect of the present research whose results have implications regarding theory, infrastructure and the application of new safety technologies.
       
  • Evaluating safety effectiveness of roundabouts in Abu Dhabi

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: IATSS Research, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): Essam Dabbour, Marwa Al Awadhi, Mina Aljarah, Malak Mansoura, Murtaza Haider With more than 460 roundabouts located in Abu Dhabi, the capital city of the United Arab Emirates, it is imperative to evaluate the safety benefits provided by those roundabouts. In this study, two approaches were used to evaluate those safety benefits. The first approach is by measuring the 85th percentile operating speeds at a sample of 18 roundabouts in Abu Dhabi to determine whether the measured operating speeds conform to what is recommended by design guides. The second approach is by using a questionnaire to measure how drivers in Abu Dhabi perceive safety when driving at roundabouts and to measure their level of knowledge regarding the rules pertaining to driving at roundabouts. The study found that operating speeds at Abu Dhabi roundabouts typically exceed those recommended by design guides. The study also found that only 4.1% of the drivers interviewed demonstrated a comprehensive understanding of the rules pertaining to driving at roundabouts. Ordinal regression modeling was used to identify driver groups in need for more awareness of the rules to negotiate roundabouts in Abu Dhabi. The study found that the driver group in most need for more awareness is typically young and middle-age male drivers (below the age of 46 years) with less driving experience in countries where roundabouts are common. The questionnaire also revealed that despite the operational benefits provided by roundabouts (in terms of reduced delay), drivers do not prefer to drive at Abu Dhabi roundabouts, which might be explained by drivers' perception of Abu Dhabi roundabouts being not safe.
       
  • Effectiveness of enforcement resources in the highway patrol in reducing
           fatality rates

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: IATSS Research, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): Mahdi Rezapour, Shaun S. Wulff, Khaled Ksaibati Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death in the United States. Wyoming initiated a safety study to investigate the underlying causes of high crash rates since it has one of the highest fatality rates in the nation. Research has shown relationships between increased enforcement activity and road crash/fatality reduction. However, little research has attempted to quantitatively measure the impact of various forms of police enforcement, such as the percentage of enforcement time and the quantity of resources, on fatality rate. Therefore, this study was set forward to fill this gap. Data from the highway patrol in Wyoming and the surrounding states were used in this study. Although Wyoming and these nearby states have very similar features in terms of geography and weather, they are different in terms of road mileage and traffic. Therefore, the data was normalized based on highway mileage and miles traveled. Enforcement efforts were compared in terms of allocated enforcement budget, number of sworn officers, and time spent patrolling. The results indicated that there are negative relationships between fatality rate and budget, number of officers, and active hours on the field. This paper also investigated which variable is the best predictor of fatality rate. The results indicated that time spent on the field by highway patrol officers is the best indicator of fatality rate. It was found that although some states like Wyoming have a higher number of sworn officers, they spend less time actively enforcing highway safety. This study provides information needed for authorities to allocate more funding to the highway patrol, and for the highway patrol to spend more time on the road.
       
  • Towards lane-level traffic monitoring in urban environment using precise
           probe vehicle data derived from three-dimensional map aided differential
           GNSS

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: IATSS Research, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): Yanlei Gu, Li-Ta Hsu, Shunsuke Kamijo Today's urban road transport systems experience increasing congestion that threatens the environment and transport efficiency. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-based vehicle probe technology has been proposed as an effective means for monitoring the traffic situation and can be used for future city development. More specifically, lane-level traffic analysis is expected to provide an effective solution for traffic control. However, GNSS positioning technologies suffer from multipath and Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) propagations in urban environments. The multipath and NLOS propagations severely degrade the accuracy of probe vehicle data. Recently, a three-dimensional (3D) city map became available on the market. We propose to use the 3D building map and differential correction information to simulate the reflecting path of satellite signal transmission and improve the results of the commercial GNSS single-frequency receiver, technically named 3D map-aided Differential GNSS (3D-DGNSS). In this paper, the innovative 3D-DGNSS is employed for the acquisition of precise probe vehicle data. In addition, this paper also utilizes accelerometer-based lane change detection to improve the positioning accuracy of probe vehicle data. By benefitting from the proposed method, the lane-level position, vehicle speed, and stop state of vehicles were estimated. Finally, a series of experiments and evaluations were conducted on probe data collected in one of the most challenging urban cities, Tokyo. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a correct lane localization rate of 87% and achieves sub-meter accuracy with respect to the position and speed error means. The accurate positioning data provided by the 3D-DGNSS result in a correct detection rate of the stop state of vehicles of 92%.
       
  • Risk assessment based on driving behavior for preventing collisions with
           pedestrians when making across-traffic turns at intersections

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: IATSS Research, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): Hiroshi Yoshitake, Motoki Shino Traffic accident statistics in Japan show the necessity of preventing vehicle-on-pedestrian accidents. If the risk of a vehicle colliding with pedestrians could be evaluated in advance, driver-assistance systems would be able to support drivers to avoid potential collisions. Here, features of driving behavior and methods for assessing the risk of collision were investigated for a right turn at an intersection in left-hand traffic, which is a typical vehicle-on-pedestrian accident scenario. The results showed that pedestrian-collision risk can be evaluated from how the driver slows the vehicle and where the driver looks while turning during the maneuver. Moreover, pedestrian-collision risk could be predicted based on driving behavior upon commencement of steering when making an across-traffic turn.
       
  • Performance evaluation of the inside intersection median-turn lane
           markings on the mobility and safety performance of signalized
           intersections in the Philippines and Japan

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: IATSS Research, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): John Jowhell Villegas, Wael K.M. Alhajyaseen, Hideki Nakamura, Azusa Goto Signalized intersections are one of the key elements that play a vital role at road networks. The efficiency and safety levels of intersections can affect the operational performance of the whole system. In general, turning traffic, especially median-turning, has always been considered as the most problematic movement in the operation of intersections. This becomes more critical with high turning demand where exclusive turning lanes (single or double) can be assigned to provide larger capacities for these movements and to reduce conflicts with through traffic. However, improper treatment of median-turn lanes could create cross-maneuvering behavior which may limit the expected increase in capacity and create safety issues. Median-turning lane markings are commonly provided at intersections in Japan to guide drivers while turning which is expected to reduce the conflicts among turning traffic. Meanwhile, in the Philippines, exclusive median-turn lanes are installed at intersections without proper treatment which may contribute to the low mobility and safety levels. Therefore, this study evaluated the impact of inside intersection lane markings on the operation of median-turn lanes in terms of mobility and safety. The vehicle maneuver, speed and interactions between the turning traffic were utilized as essential components for the assessment. The empirical analysis shows that conflicting trajectories were present on double turn lanes without median-turn lane markings in the Philippines, which resulted to serious conflicts among the turning vehicles and negatively influenced the turning speed and saturation flow rate of the turn lanes. On the other hand, the turn lane markings in Japan, provided a positive impact to mobility and safety of the turning lanes. Moreover, it was also found that the geometric characteristics and traffic signal phasing scheme highly affects the capacity and safety condition of signalized intersections.
       
  • The public's understanding of the functionality and limitations of
           automatic braking in Japan

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: IATSS Research, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): Kan Shimazaki, Tasuku Ito, Ai Fujii, Toshio Ishida Automated driving systems are increasingly widespread in the automotive industry. To operate automobiles that are assisted by such systems, drivers must correctly understand their functionality and limitations. Hence, focusing on the rapidly spreading technology of automated braking, this study seeks to clarify the general public's understanding of automatic braking systems. A total of 210 Japanese people responded to a questionnaire regarding how automatic brakes are operated, how they work, when they disengage, and so on. The proportion of those who misunderstood the operation of the system is not especially high, but there were a certain percentage of people who had misconceptions; e.g., some believed that automatic braking could detect pedestrians or bicycles. Moreover, respondents were under the impression that drivers cannot readily disengage automatic braking systems. If they mistakenly use the automatic brake, there is a possibility of posing a risk to the road transportation system.
       
  • Road characteristics and environment factors associated with motorcycle
           fatal crashes in Malaysia

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: IATSS Research, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): Muhammad Marizwan Abdul Manan, András Várhelyi, Ali Kemal Çelik, Hizal Hanis Hashim This study aims to determine risk factors contributing to traffic crashes in 9,176 fatal cases involving motorcycle in Malaysia between 2010 and 2012. For this purpose, both multinomial and mixed models of motorcycle fatal crash outcome based on the number of vehicle involved are estimated. The corresponding model predicts the probability of three fatal crash outcomes: motorcycle single-vehicle fatal crash, motorcycle fatal crash involving another vehicle and motorcycle fatal crash involving two or more vehicles. Several road characteristic and environmental factors are considered including type of road in the hierarchy, location, road geometry, posted speed limit, road marking type, lighting, time of day and weather conditions during the fatal crash. The estimation results suggest that curve road sections, no road marking, smooth, rut and corrugation of road surface and wee hours, i.e. between 00.00 am to 6 am, increase the probability of motorcycle single-vehicle fatal crashes. As for the motorcycle fatal crashes involving multiple vehicles, factors such as expressway, primary and secondary roads, speed limit more than 70 km/h, roads with non-permissible marking, i.e. double lane line and daylight condition are found to cause an increase the probability of their occurrence. The estimation results also suggest that time of day (between 7 pm to 12 pm) has an increasing impact on the probability of motorcycle single-vehicle fatal crashes and motorcycle fatal crashes involving two or more vehicles. Whilst the multinomial logit model was found as more parsimonious, the mixed logit model is likely to capture the unobserved heterogeneity in fatal motorcycle crashes based on the number of vehicles involved due to the underreporting data with two random effect parameters including 70 km/h speed limit and double lane line road marking.
       
  • A new approach to cross-sector cooperation in road safety through a
           comparison of policies in selected countries

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: IATSS Research, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): Murungi Elizabeth MWEBESA, Kento YOH, Hiroto INOI, Kenji
      DOI Statistics from the databases of various countries and international organizations show that road accident rates and fatalities have fallen since the 1970s. With demographic changes taking place in many developed countries, however, accident and accident-risk patterns have changed in the last two decades. This study aims to introduce a new approach to cross-sector cooperation with the hope of making road safety more holistic and sustainable. The authors compare the road safety policies of three selected countries based on various categories, using a simple quantitative method. The results show some fragmentation within the policies, illustrating the need for a new road safety approach. The effort to reduce road traffic accidents by 50% by the year 2020 has also increased the pressure on stakeholders to meet this goal. This paper's contribution toward the 2020 goal lies in its recommendation of a new approach to road safety that will enlighten stakeholders on probable missing links in road safety.
       
  • The need for building role models for motorcycle riders' education in the
           kingdom of Cambodia

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: IATSS Research, Volume 42, Issue 4Author(s): Tadanori Yamaguchi In Cambodia, a rider's license is not required for motorcycles below 125 cc. and 73% of traffic accident fatalities among persons aged 15–19 years involve unlicensed riders. Motorcycle riding differs from automobile driving in that motorcycle riding reflects the rider's skill to a much greater degree, so unskilled riding is much more highly correlated with accidents. Going forward, in addition to gaining knowledge from traffic safety education, motorcycle riders should also learn basic specific motorcycle techniques. In particular, having riders learn and practice the three key tasks in motorcycle riding (breaking, leaning, and exiting) is effective at curbing the number of motorcycle accidents. In a new initiative aimed at improving riding skill, university students, instructors, and police officers were given practical riding instruction on a course using pylons. Program participants were able to learn riding techniques in an enjoyable setting, while seeing the potential for becoming motorcycle riding role models.
       
  • Exploring factors contributing to injury severity at work zones
           considering adverse weather conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): Ali Ghasemzadeh, Mohamed M. Ahmed Despite recent efforts to improve work zone safety, the frequency and severity of crashes at work zones are still considerably high. The effect of work zones on traffic safety can be exacerbated by adverse weather conditions. As an example, a sudden reduction in visibility may intensify the severity of work zone crashes. There is a lack of studies that strive to gain a good understanding of the effect of weather on the severity of work zone crashes. In this study, an Ordered Probit Model was developed to identify factors affecting the severity of work zone crashes in different spatial, temporal, and environmental conditions in Washington state using five-year of work zone-related crashes (2009–2013). The interesting findings of this study showed that weather and lighting conditions are among the most important factors influencing the severity of crashes at work zones. Lack of daylight was found to be a determining factor in increasing the severity of work zone crashes, specifically, during dusk and dawn. It was also found that although drivers have less severe work zone-related crashes in adverse weather conditions, the interactions between adverse weather conditions and other contributing factors might increase the severity of work zone crashes. The results of this study will help traffic engineers to design effective safety countermeasures considering different contributing factors including the weather and lighting conditions in the work zone planning and installation stages to prevent safety deficiencies.
       
  • The demand for public buses in sub-Saharan African cities: Case studies
           from Maputo and Nairobi

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2018Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): Atanasio Tembe, Fumihiko Nakamura, Shinji Tanaka, Ryo Ariyoshi, Shino Miura Despite the limited transportation options, public buses have been proved unpopular in many Sub-Saharan African cities. While the declining use of local buses in the developed world is often associated with increasing number of transport alternatives, relatively little is known about African cities. A substantial number of studies are focused on how to replace buses with the rapid transportation modes and less diagnosis is applied to the factors affecting the use of buses. Using household information survey, this paper attempts to investigate the factors affecting the demand for buses in Maputo and Nairobi by employing logistic regression approach.Results show both similarities and variations among the factors affecting the likelihood of using buses. For example, the likelihood of using buses decreases with vehicle ownership and employment status in the two cities. In addition, gender (female) has no effect on the likelihood of choosing buses over paratransit in both cities. Second, while age decreases the likelihood of choosing buses and residence location increases that in Maputo, the opposite is observed in the case of Nairobi City. The main implication of these findings is that there is a need to share the roles of public transportation between buses and paratransit.
       
  • Clarifying multiple-mode decision making in conventional psychological
           models: A consideration of the influential mechanism of car use's
           characteristics on the behavioral use of public transportation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): Nguyen Hoang-Tung, Hisashi Kubota The existence of the multiple-mode decision making process challenges the existing psychological theories those predict travel behaviors because the theories were mainly to explain the relationship between travelers' perceived attributes of a targeted mode, not to make choices between modes. A review of related literatures showed a lack of focus on the mechanism of one mode influencing other mode in psychological models. The present study investigates how car-related factors affect the establishment of bus use intention in a psychological investigation. It is hypothesized that single car use factors do not directly influence bus use intention, rather than that; they indirectly influence bus use intention through an overall factor of car use. Results from a dataset of 270 samples investigating three types of daily trips in the Japanese context showed support to the mediating effect of the overall car use factor. As such, an arbitrary inclusion of car-related factors to psychological models of public transportation may not be recommended.
       
  • Hazard perception test development for Lithuanian drivers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): Vaida Tūskė, Laura Šeibokaitė, Auksė Endriulaitienė, Esko Lehtonen Hazard perception tests may not be transferable between different countries, due to differences in traffic culture and infrastructure. Therefore, different instruments might be necessary for assessing hazard perception in various countries. The aim of the current study was to develop the Lithuanian hazard perception test based on static traffic images and test its psychometric properties. Thirty-four experienced drivers participated in a pilot study, and 125 drivers with diverse driving experience took part in the main study. The final test contained 27 static traffic scenes and the participants were asked to respond if they saw a hazard or not. Results demonstrated that the test has satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability. It differentiated between inexperienced and experienced drivers, and between those experienced drivers who had less than three or more than three crashes in their driving history. The test has sufficient psychometric properties for research; still further development is needed in order to apply it for individual testing and decisions about licence provision.
       
  • Who uses smart card' Understanding public transport payment preference
           in developing contexts, a case study of Manila's LRT-1

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): Ying Lu, Iderlina Mateo-Babiano, Eden Sorupia The culture of “tingi-tingi” or sachet economy provides a strong backdrop to better understand the payment mode preference of the riding public in the Philippines. First, the use of single journey tickets (SJT) reflects the purchasing practices amongst the urban poor thereby affecting the promotion and uptake of public transport smart cards. Second, as a glocalization strategy, it can inform what, how, when, and why services that has global uptake can be tailored towards the realities of a differentiated, local market conditions.Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) is presented to determine the key variables explaining the likelihood of uptake of smart cards for public transport passengers in the Philippines. The Metro Manila Light Rail Transit Line 1 (LRT-1) presents an appropriate context to examine how the glocalization of smart cards can help improve the quality of public transport services, and to provide planning and policy recommendations on smart card uptake and integrated ticketing, with the end goal of improving public transport provision and management. LRT-1 alongside its change in management, also introduced a new smart card payment system. However, more than half continue to use single journey tickets.The model parameters are estimated using primary survey data collected from LRT-1 passengers. Transit smart card has been widely used around the world and effectively reduces waiting time for passengers who used to purchase paper tickets.The main results of the model reveal that: (1) only groups with high education background, stable income, or with stable job would likely to use smart card; (2) passengers with lower education level, lower income, or with unstable job prefer to use single journey ticket; and (3) the sachet economy is strongly associated with the purchasing practices amongst Filipinos, particularly the urban poor, hence may affect the promotion and uptake of public transit smart cards. These findings may inform changes to the introduction of alternative payment schemes and the planning of public transport policies that recognise the need for an effective glocalization strategy, paving the way towards improved public transport service and provision.
       
  • Which factors lead to driving errors' A structural equation model
           analysis through a driving simulator experiment

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): Panagiotis Papantoniou, George Yannis, Eleni Christofa As driving error is a main contributory factor of road accidents, its causes and consequences are of great interest in the road safety decision making process. This paper investigates several factors (including driver distraction, driver characteristics and road environment) that affect overall driving error behaviour and estimates a new unobserved variable which underlines driving errors. This estimation is performed with data obtained from a driving simulation experiment in which 95 participants covering all ages were asked to drive under different types of distraction (no distraction, conversation with passenger, cell phone use) in rural and urban road environment, as well as in both low and high traffic conditions. Driving error was then modeled as a latent variable based on several individual driving simulator parameters. Subsequently, the impact of several risk factors such as distraction, driver characteristics as well as road environment on driving error were estimated directly. The results of this complex model reveal that the impact of driver characteristics and area type are the only statistically significant factors affecting the probability of driving errors. Interestingly, neither conversing with a passenger nor talking on the cell phone have a statistically significant impact on driving error behaviour which highlights the importance of the present analysis and more specifically the development of a measure that represents overall driving error behaviour instead of individual driving errors variables.
       
  • Association of reduced visibility with crash outcomes

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: IATSS Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Subasish Das, Bradford K. Brimley, Tomás E. Lindheimer, Michelle Zupancich Most of the information necessary for driving a vehicle is regarded as visual information. In spite of its importance, visibility conditions at the time of a crash are often not documented at a high level of detail. Past studies have not examined the quantified values of visibility and its association with crashes. The current study merged data collected from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) with 2010–2012 Florida crash data. From the thousands of logged weather events compiled by the NOAA, the researchers isolated periods of normal visibility and comparable periods of reduced visibility in a matched-pairs study. The NOAA data provided real visibility score based on the spatiotemporal data of the crashes. Additionally, the crash data, obtained from Roadway Information Database (RID), contains several geometric and traffic variables that allow for effects of factors and visibility. The study aims to associate crash occurrence under different levels of visibility with factors included in the crash database by developing ordinal logistic regression. The intent is to observe how different visibility conditions contribute to a crash occurrence. The findings indicate that the likelihood of a crash increase during periods of low visibility, despite the tendency for less traffic and for lower speeds to prevail during these times. The findings of this study will add valuable knowledge to the realm of the impact of visibility in the way of using and designing appropriate countermeasures.
       
  • Non-fatal spine injuries resulting from motorcycle crashes

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: IATSS Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Zarir Hafiz Zulkipli, Siti Atiqah Mohd Faudzi, Abdul Rahmat Abdul Manap, Noor Faradila Paiman This study aims to determine spinal injury patterns and identify crash factors commonly associated with serious spinal injury as a result of motorcycle crashes. Data was retrospectively collected from motorcyclists sustaining spinal injuries from road crashes treated at Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Malaysia, over the 5-year period from 2005 to 2009. Each patient's injuries were analyzed by reviewing his or her medical records for radiographic imaging and computed tomography scans.A total of 151 patients were included in this study, of which, males accounted for over 87%. The first lower lumbar (L1) was the most commonly injured vertebral level, followed by the adjacent thoracic vertebra (T12). Fracture to the vertebral body without dislocation was found to be the most frequently observed spinal injury pattern. Injury severities for a majority of patients (65%) were measured at Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) of 2. Serious spinal injury was associated with thorax or upper-extremity injury.Prevalence of lumbar spinal injury in the study reflects a predominantly low-speed crash among the motorcyclist in the region. Motorcyclists are at greater odd to sustain severe spinal injury when directly striking an object compare to striking the ground during the crash event.
       
  • Investigating the road safety management capacity: Toward a lead agency
           reform

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: IATSS Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Navid Khademi, Abdoul-Ahad Choupani An efficient management system and leadership body is one of the key requirements for a road safety improvement program. In low- and middle-income countries, the organizational structure of the management system may suffer from deficiencies weakening the institutional functions across key road safety players. Hence, it is necessary to form an inner- and inter-organization evaluation framework encompassing all the processes, events, dependencies, and causation among road safety players. In this paper, a (three-stage) system thinking approach is developed to evaluate the behavior of inter-organizational complex system and to determine major deficiencies in the role of the road safety lead agency. The first stages of the system thinking approach starts with drawing diagrams (i.e. multiple-effect and multiple-criteria trees) that allows identifying the chains of reasoning behind events or consequences. The next stage of the system thinking approach embodies the analytic network process (ANP), an advanced multi-criteria decision-making technique, which handles the lead agency capacity evaluation and helps to determine how and by what magnitude any of the players can affect the national road safety. The proposed method applies to the case of Iran, a middle-income developing country in the Middle East. Since in Iran, the Road Safety Commission (RSC) has been established as the lead agency, it was expected that RSC owns the greatest influence on the status of road safety. However, our results show that the overall influence of RSC on road safety is far less than what was expected. Subsequently, a supplementary procedure is proposed to specify institutional reforms in order to avoid such organizational inefficiencies.
       
  • A list of accident scenarios for three legs skewed intersections

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: IATSS Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Natalia Distefano, Salvatore Leonardi The term ‘scenario’ is used in the safety field to designate a prototype or a model of an accident process characterised by chains of facts, actions, causal relations and consequences in terms of damage to people and property. The prototypical scenarios, properly realized, provide a basis on which to consider the action to be taken, but also a concrete backup for accident information for use in information campaigns or training. The objective of this study is to define the prototypical accident scenarios for a particular configuration of road intersection: the skewed intersection. Limited sight distance at skewed intersections leads to safety issues. A non-skewed intersection provides the best operating conditions as drivers can easily sense the direction in which they are travelling, estimate the speeds of the opposing traffic and smoothly complete a maneuver in shorter time. In skewed intersections, instead, the ability of drivers to recognize any conflicting vehicles diminishes in comparison to right-angle intersections. The logical-deductive approach used in this paper for the determination of accident scenarios is based on an analysis of a large database of incidents, which occurred on several roads in eastern Sicily on 35 skewed intersections at three-legs. The skew angle of the minor leg of all the intersections studied is between 15° and 20°. This research allowed to develop accident scenarios related to particular configurations of intersections, compatible with the Italian rules. Prototypical scenarios are constructed using samples of accidents occurring on a particular type of study area, especially when they are based on files from in-depth investigations. The method used is an inductive approach, based on an examination of each case, grouping together similar cases and building a prototypical scenario using this case grouping. From the in-depth analysis of database accidents 9 prototypical accident scenarios have been identified for the skewed intersections.
       
  • Crash risk factors associated with injury severity of teen drivers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): Venkata R. Duddu, Venu Madhav Kukkapalli, Srinivas S. Pulugurtha This paper focuses on identifying crash risk factors associated with injury severity of teen drivers. Crash data obtained from the Highway Safety and Information System (HSIS) for the entire state of North Carolina, for years 2011 to 2013, was used for analysis and modeling. Among all the crashes during the study period, a total of 62,990 crashes involving teen drivers (15 to 19 years) were analyzed. A partial proportionality odds model was developed to identify factors contributing to injury severity of teen drivers. The results obtained indicate that teen drivers driving sports utility vehicles and pickup trucks are more likely to be severely injured when compared to teen drivers driving passenger cars. Teen drivers are more likely to be severely injured on weekdays, particularly during peak hours. The chances of teen drivers getting involved in severe injury crashes on Tuesdays and Fridays is higher when compared to Sundays. Age, gender, road configuration, terrain, adverse weather condition, and access control are observed to have a significant effect on teen driver's injury severity.
       
  • Micro-simulation modelling for traffic safety: A review and potential
           application to heterogeneous traffic environment

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): S.M. Sohel Mahmud, Luis Ferreira, Md. Shamsul Hoque, Ahmad Tavassoli This paper critically reviews micro-simulation modelling applications for traffic safety evaluation with respect to the use of different simulation tools, the application of surrogate safety indicators under different aspects of road environments and crash considerations. General input variables used to develop the models; key parameters for crash prediction; and calibration and validation approaches are explored in the paper. The strengths and weaknesses of used simulation packages for traffic safety evaluation are also pointed out. Moreover, recent advancements in the development and application of traffic safety micro-simulation model for safety assessment are also discussed.Despite having a number of studies, there is still a significant void in the development and application of simulation model to evaluate traffic safety of non-lane based heterogeneous traffic environments that predominate in many developing countries. The paper assessed the potential application of traffic safety micro-simulation model in heterogeneous traffic environments. Finally, a number of potentially fruitful future research directions are highlighted.
       
  • A vehicle type-based approach to model car following behaviors in
           simulation programs (case study: Car-motorcycle following behavior)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): Ehsan Amini, Masuod Tabibi, Ehsan Ramezani Khansari, Mohammadreza Abhari Traffic simulation models often neglect the important role of motorcycles and assume a flow of various combinations of cars. This paper addresses how much different would be the behavior of a car driver while following a motorcyclist compared to cases in which a car follows another car, along with a segment of an urban highway in the non-congested flow. Recognition of such a difference might help to develop existing simulation models and to improve the behavior of car drivers in such a way to lead to lower accidents with motorcycles. To reach the goal, a GHR (Gazis-Herman-Rothery) model for car following is applied and data have been collected by video cameras during 15 min time intervals in three different days. Analysis of 198 car-motorcycle and 374 car-car following observations has indicated that when a car driver follows a motorcycle, keeps a higher headway (about 10 m in the low speed) with a lower acceleration/deceleration in comparison with the situation in which car driver follow another one. It means that the behavior of the follower car driver would be more cautious compared to situations in which a car driver follows another one, especially in space headways
       
  • Autonomous vehicle self-localization based on abstract map and
           multi-channel LiDAR in urban area

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018Source: IATSS ResearchAuthor(s): Ehsan Javanmardi, Yanlei Gu, Mahdi Javanmardi, Shunsuke Kamijo Accurate vehicle self-localization is significant for autonomous driving. The localization techniques based on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) cannot achieve the required accuracy in urban canyons. On the other hand, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) methods suffer from the error accumulation problem. State-of-the-art localization approaches adopt 3D Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) to observe the surrounding environment and match the observation with a priori known 3D point cloud map for estimating the position of the vehicle within the map. However, storing the massive point cloud needs immense storage on the vehicle, or it should be stored on servers, which makes the simultaneous downloading of the map by multiple vehicles another challenge. In this study, rather than employing the point cloud directly as the prior map, we focus on the abstract map of buildings, which is easy to extract, and at the same time apparently observable by Lidar. More especially, we proposed vehicle localization methods based on two different abstract map formats representing urban areas. The first format is the multilayer 2D vector map of building footprints, which represents the building boundaries using vectors (lines). The second format is the planar surface map of buildings and ground. These map formats share the same idea that the uncertainty (deviation) of each vector or planar surface is calculated and included in the map. Later in the localization phase, the observed data from Lidar is matched with the abstract map to obtain the precise location of the vehicle. Experiments conducted in a dense urban area of Tokyo show that even though we significantly shrank the map size, we could preserve the mean error of the localization.
       
 
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