Subjects -> TRANSPORTATION (Total: 214 journals)
    - AIR TRANSPORT (9 journals)
    - AUTOMOBILES (26 journals)
    - RAILROADS (10 journals)
    - ROADS AND TRAFFIC (9 journals)
    - SHIPS AND SHIPPING (43 journals)
    - TRANSPORTATION (117 journals)

TRANSPORTATION (117 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 53 of 53 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Transportation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Transport Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Public Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Transportation Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Transportation Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies on Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transport & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transport History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IET Intelligent Transport Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Modern Transportation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Transportation Safety & Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Mobile Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Modern Transportation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Supply Chain Management Science (JSCMS)     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Mobility in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research (EJTIR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Applied Logistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Applied Mobilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Transportation Letters : The International Journal of Transportation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Logistics & Sustainable Transport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transport Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Open Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transport and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Transactions on Transport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
TRANSPORTES     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transportation Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World Electric Vehicle Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Big Data Analytics in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Danish Journal of Transportation Research / Dansk Tidsskrift for Transportforskning     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
eTransportation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Decision Making : Applications in Management and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Ocean Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Transport Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Romanian Journal of Transport Infrastructure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Transportation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Services Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Les Dossiers du Grihl     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transportmetrica B : Transport Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Public Transportation     Open Access  
Maritime Transport Research     Open Access  
Communications in Transportation Research     Open Access  
IET Smart Cities     Open Access  
Journal on Vehicle Routing Algorithms     Hybrid Journal  
Transportation in Developing Economies     Hybrid Journal  
Vehicles     Open Access  
Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering     Open Access  
Transportation Systems and Technology     Open Access  
LOGI ? Scientific Journal on Transport and Logistics     Open Access  
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
IFAC-PapersOnLine     Open Access  
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access  
Транспортні системи та технології перевезень     Open Access  
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Logistique & Management     Hybrid Journal  
IATSS Research     Open Access  
Transport in Porous Media     Hybrid Journal  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Transportation Security
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.211
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1938-775X - ISSN (Online) 1938-7741
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Expediting airport security queues through advanced lane assignment

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      Abstract: Abstract Excessive airport security wait times during peak operational periods have been well-documented in crowdsourced data and well-publicized among the news media. While serving a paramount purpose, airport security checkpoints are capacity constrained and frequently stressed, leading to passenger dissatisfaction and system limitations. To alleviate air travelers’ wasted wait time during the security screening process, an innovative queue management technique is explored. Passengers currently flow to Transportation Security Administration (TSA) screening lanes at terminal checkpoints via a First-Come, First-Serve (FCFS) discipline. However, repeated variations in passenger characteristics and screening times may cause this service discipline to suffer small inefficiencies that aggregately distort resource utilization and throughput speed. This paper proposes an Advance Lane Assignment System (ALAS) in which passengers are directed to specific screening lanes upon arrival to a terminal checkpoint using real-time, autonomous, feedback control. Leveraging existing Bluetooth© technology to assess lane flow rates, control logic can convey lane assignments to passengers at identification authentication gates. System feasibility was analyzed through discrete, dynamic, and probabilistic simulations of a multilane, multiphase queue model with varying traffic intensities and control logic. Basic, discrete-time Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control was found to offer a 12% reduction in average passenger waiting times over the baseline FCFS discipline.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
       
  • Correction to: An evaluation into the causes of perpetual disruptive
           passenger behavior

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      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • A discussion on the implementation of the Polar Code and the STCW
           Convention’s training requirements for ice navigation in polar waters

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      Abstract: Abstract In 2017, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) implemented the International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code), with mandatory requirements covering the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans. In this conjunction, the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping (STCW) were amended in 2018. New training requirements were made applicable for dedicated personnel in charge of a navigational watch on ships with a Polar Ship Certificate (PSC) operating in polar waters. In association with the new training requirements amending the STCW Convention, the IMO, and Transport Canada (flag state authority) signed a Memorandum of Understanding in 2017, for Canada to develop and deliver four regional capacity-building “train-the-trainer” workshops. The objectives of these events were to assist maritime education and training (MET) institutes in enhancing the skills and competence of instructors, to develop competence-based STCW training programs, for dedicated personnel on ships operating in polar waters. This paper examines the first workshop conducted in Canada (2019), to understand the mechanisms in the interaction taking place between the IMO and the Canadian workshop developers and instructors, using the System Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP). Individual expert interviews are performed, with the main contributors directly involved in developing and conducting the workshop, to evaluate the event’s contribution to improving and specifying the STCW Convention’s training requirements, as referenced in the Polar Code, for seafarers operating in polar waters.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12198-021-00241-7
       
  • Design and implementation of controlling with preventing DDOS attacks
           using bitcoin by Ethereum block chain technology

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      Abstract: Abstract In order to avoid needless spread in such a transmission system, all nodes in the block chain search ‘memory pool.’ There is no limit to the rate of output of transactions in the current blockchain. Since there is no limit to the transaction rate, the DDoS attacker can easily target blockchain by making a transaction. This DDoS attack was called ‘Overflood Attack.’ In this paper, to avoid ‘Overflood Attack,’ we propose a method to dynamically limit the maximum amount of the transaction to be created using the Least Mean Square. Blockchain is a p2p-based trusting technology that allows nodes participating in the p2p network to easily exchange data without a central management system. Since all nodes in the blockchain network share the same data at the same stage, confidentiality of shared data can be assured. Bitcoin and Ethereum are electronic money exchange platforms based on blockchain technology which make blockchain technology more popular. As a result, this technology has been used in a variety of fields concerning data confidence and honesty, rather than being used strictly for electronic money transactions. All the nodes in the block-chain network share the same info. To share the same data, Blockchain uses the p2p mechanism called ‘flooding’ as the data transfer process, where the data is represented as a transaction and a block. ‘Flooding’ means that the node that generated the data transmits the data to the directly connected node, does not transmit the data to all the nodes on entire network, and transmitted nodes return to connected nodes. Both blockchain nodes use ‘Data Validation’ and ‘Memory pool management’ to avoid undesired transmission rather than simply re-transmitting transactions and blocks. ‘Data Validation’ is the right transaction and block that is being transmitted.
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12198-022-00245-x
       
  • An evaluation into the causes of perpetual disruptive passenger behavior

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      Abstract: Abstract There is a rising trend in the number of disruptive airline passenger reports filed to the International Air Transport Association’s Incident Data eXchange and National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Aviation Safety Reporting System over the past 20 years. Passenger behavioral safety is vital for the comfort, well-being, and safety of other passengers, crew, and an airline’s smooth operations. Safety culture has been shown to impact the implementation and efficiency of safety management systems. This paper has evaluated the relationship between disruptive passenger occurrences and the intentions of a safety management system, through the lens of safety culture. An analysis of disruptive passenger reports from National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Aviation Safety Reporting System gave evidence of the consequential actions taken against disruptive passengers There was a tendency for disruptive passengers to either not be dealt consequences, or be subject to consequences that are not in full alignment with the concept of a robust safety culture. This perpetuated a sense that company support was lacking for frontline staff. It also potentially created an awareness amongst passengers that disruptive behaviors on aircraft were not statistically an arrestable offence. This reduces the efficiency of threat of punishment as a deterrent.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12198-021-00243-5
       
  • Understanding realistic attacks on airborne collision avoidance systems

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      Abstract: Abstract Airborne collision avoidance systems provide an onboard safety net should normal air traffic control procedures fail to keep aircraft separated. These systems are widely deployed and have been constantly refined over the past three decades, usually in response to near misses or mid-air collisions. Recent years have seen security research increasingly focus on aviation, identifying that key wireless links—some of which are used in collision avoidance—are vulnerable to attack. In this paper, we go one step further to understand whether an attacker can remotely trigger false collision avoidance alarms. Primarily considering the next-generation Airborne Collision Avoidance System X (ACAS X), we adopt a smodelling approach to extract attacker constraints from technical standards before simulating collision avoidance attacks against standardized ACAS X code. We find that in 44% of cases, an attacker can successfully trigger a collision avoidance alert which on average results in a 590 ft altitude deviation; when the aircraft is at lower altitudes, this success rate rises considerably to 79%. Furthermore, we show how our simulation approach can be used to help defend against attacks by identifying where attackers are most likely to be successful.
      PubDate: 2022-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12198-021-00238-2
       
  • Assessment of travelers’ fear of crime in intercity bus terminals: the
           case of Karandish terminal of Shiraz

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      Abstract: Abstract Fear of crime in intercity bus terminals is a critical transportation concern that mainly influences public transportation use, mode choices, and overall satisfaction with travel. This paper seeks to assess perceived environmental features predicting fear of crime among travelers in the case of Karandish intercity bus terminal in Shiraz, Iran. In this study, a questionnaire survey was carried out, in which travelers were asked to state their perceptions on several variables including informal social control, terminal police presence, observed incivilities, noise pollution, air pollution, littering, furniture condition, and pedestrian safety against bus traffic. Then, two ordered logit models were conducted to recognize the factors that affect travelers’ fear of crime. The results showed that perceived informal social control was strongly associated with lower levels of fear of crime among travelers. Perceptions of noise pollution and unpleasant littering in the terminal were significant environmental features as well. Also, observing more incivilities was found to make travelers feel more fearful of crime. Based on our findings, providing natural surveillance is the best solution for reducing the fear of crime in intercity bus terminals.
      PubDate: 2022-01-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s12198-022-00244-y
       
  • Attacks on road-freight transporters: a threat to trade participation for
           landlocked countries in Southern Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract South Africa hosts some of the busiest maritime ports which are gateway ports to several landlocked countries in the region. Road transportation is the main modality for moving goods between seaports and hinterland within South Africa and beyond to at least six landlocked countries in the region. However, the high rate of violent crime against freight trucks and vans has for many years been a major known risk to the road freight transport industry. Traditionally, these crimes have been motivated by monetary proceeds from sales of stolen goods from hijacked vehicles or the vehicles themselves. Recently, however, influenced by anti-immigrant sentiments, similar attacks have been specifically targeting foreign drivers and trucks resulting in death, injury, and damage to vehicles and cargo. Previously considered an internal problem for South Africa as a matter arising from domestic social and economic challenges in that country, the emergence of attacks on foreign drivers and trucks have raised concerns about the future of South Africa as an economic powerhouse, its role as a transit country for landlocked countries, and about its relationship with regional neighbors. For the landlocked countries in the region, any instability in South Africa can have a serious impact on the logistics that sustain businesses and international trade. This exploratory study gives an overview of the increasingly complex issue of violent attacks against foreign nationals in South Africa with a focus on attacks targeting the road freight transport sector and the implications on regional integration efforts.
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s12198-021-00242-6
       
  • Global maritime piracy: Impact on seafaring and the factors shaping
           confrontational outcomes

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      Abstract: Abstract Global maritime piracy became an increasingly important issue amongst crew members, especially since the recent tightening of military budgets after the global financial crisis and the global shortage of ship officers. This paper reports the findings of a survey of the factors that affect the crew members’ attitude toward their job, including piracy, as well as the determinants of the success and failure of global maritime piracy, especially the role of crew. First, 198 respondents participated in a crew member survey and agreed that the fear of being captured at sea by pirates could significantly influence their decision to move from working on-board ships to land-side jobs. This indicates the relative effect of maritime piracy on the seafaring career. Second, it was also found that crew action (e.g., raise an alarm) plays a significant role in deterring a ship’s relative risk for both robbery and hijacking. Consequently, shipping industry employers should conduct a thorough appraisal of the effect of maritime piracy on recruitment efforts and develop policies to mitigate this effect. Also, shipping industry employers should consider policies to engage crew action to prevent successful robbery and hijacking of maritime vessels.
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12198-021-00239-1
       
  • The right of the overflown state to divert or intercept civil aircraft
           under a bomb threat: an analysis with regard to Ryanair flight 4978

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      Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this article is to discuss whether a state has a right to divert or intercept a foreign civil aircraft flying above its territory, when the aircraft is under a bomb threat. The analysis stems from the recent incident where a Ryanair passenger jet was diverted to Minsk while flying in Belarusian airspace; however, the article approaches the topic from a general perspective, analyzing the key applicable rules of international aviation safety and security law. The article argues that air sovereignty and national rules on aviation (the latter wherever such exist) provide states acting in good faith the right to divert or intercept foreign aircraft for security reasons. Meanwhile, Article 3 bis of the Chicago Convention does not recognize such a right. The right is also limited by international rules that oblige every state to assist aircraft in distress, as well as rules that emphasize the authority and responsibility of the pilot-in-command. Since mid-air interventions are so rare, the legality of states’ actions must be analyzed case-by-case. Regardless, the legal regime of international aviation does not allow states to respond to security threats in whatever way they please, especially if the threat is a mere pretext for politically motivated action.
      PubDate: 2021-12-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s12198-021-00235-5
       
  • REAL ID: privacy concerns still a factor, but weakly so

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      Abstract: Abstract Statewide research conducted to design a campaign to inform Montana residents about the REAL ID Act supported previous claims that some Rocky Mountain residents view the law as an invasion of privacy. Although most Montana residents (60%, n = 194) planned to get their REAL IDs within the first year that it became available, 43% (n = 141) of respondents to a survey of registered voters (n = 325) intended to wait more than one year or never obtain it. Individuals who planned to wait were more likely to report concerns about government collection of personal data, and view the law as an invasion of privacy. However, the relationship is weak. As one of several states that opposed adoption of the Real ID Act in, Montana was characterized in academic and lay media as basing its opposition on concerns about violations of privacy. State officials were so concerned that residents would object to the imposition of the new ID, that REAL ID campaign organizers were directed to only raise awareness, and avoid any efforts at persuasion. Focus groups conducted to assess responses to several campaign strategies indicated an approach that described REAL ID as consistent with traditional Montana values of independence, but did not confront privacy concerns. This paper uses quantitative and qualitative data in an attempt to understand how strong such resistance in Montana actually was.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12198-020-00220-4
       
  • Increasing the deterrence of airport security checks by managing
           expectations through communication: a hypothetical scenario experiment

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      Abstract: Abstract Selective security screenings are discussed as a potential strategy to reduce costs and waiting times at airports, while keeping security high. However, the limited literature suggests that traditional security screenings, where all passengers are screened, are perceived as more deterrent for criminal activity and more secure from passengers’ perspectives. The goal of this study was to investigate whether targeted communication on an airport’s website can counteract the detrimental effect of randomised airport security checks on deterrence. The study results confirm prior findings that people with illegal intentions prefer randomised security checks compared to traditional security checks. However, there are hints that tactical communication could be a tool to improve security at airports. All in all, the insights gathered in this study should be taken as a sign of caution, when considering switching to selective security screenings. Future directions for investigating the effect of tactical communication are discussed.
      PubDate: 2021-11-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s12198-021-00240-8
       
  • Optimising multi-layered security screening

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      Abstract: Abstract Screening for prohibited items at airports is an example of a multi-layered screening process. Multiple layers of screening – often comprising different technologies with complementary strengths and weaknesses – are combined to create a single screening process. The detection performance of the overall system depends on multiple factors, including the performance of individual layers, the complementarity of different layers, and the decision rule(s) for determining how outputs from individual layers are combined. The aim of this work is to understand and optimise the overall system performance of a multi-layered screening process. Novel aspects include the use of realistic profiles of alarm distributions based on experimental observations and a focus on the influence of correlation/orthogonality amongst the layers of screening. The results show that a cumulative screening architecture can outperform a cascading one, yielding a significant increase in system-level true positive rate for only a modest increase in false positive rate. A cumulative screening process is also more resilient to weaknesses in the individual layers. The performance of a multi-layered screening process using a cascading approach is maximised when the false positives are orthogonal across the different layers and the true positives are correlated. The system-level performance of a cumulative screening process, on the other hand, is maximised when both false positives and true positives are as orthogonal as possible. The cost of ignoring orthogonality between screening layers is explored with some numerical examples. The underlying software model is provided in a Jupyter Notebook as supplementary material.
      PubDate: 2021-11-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s12198-021-00237-3
       
  • Risk analysis for forecasting cyberattacks against connected and
           autonomous vehicles

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      Abstract: Abstract A security risk analysis was conducted to identify possible cyberattacks against a future transport system consisting of autonomous and connected vehicles. Six scenarios were developed: joyriding, kidnapping, domestic abuse, autopilot manipulation, a large transport accident, and paralysis of the transport system. Even if it were possible to increase the difficulty of conducting such cyberattacks, it might be impossible to eliminate such attacks entirely. Measures that limit the consequences will therefore be necessary. Such measures include safety measures in vehicles to protect their occupants in traffic accidents and measures that make vehicles easier to remove in case they do not function.
      PubDate: 2021-11-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12198-021-00236-4
       
  • Developing critical thinking skills among Transportation Security officers
           (TSOs) through sharing tacit knowledge

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper summarizes results from a research project collaboration between a Transportation Security Administration (TSA) organization responsible for aviation security at a mid-sized airport in the western United States and a local university. The purpose of this project was to explore the potential and utility of a learning tool designed to enhance critical thinking skills among Transportation Security Officers (TSO). Employees of the TSA are provided comprehensive and continuous training from point of hire throughout the duration of a TSO’s employment. However performance problems continue to be identified and while TSOs are annually rated on their ability to think critically no training is provided for this specific skill. During Phase 1 of this two-phased study, a learning tool was developed in the form of a situational judgment test based tacit knowledge inventory comprised of work scenarios that were oriented on developing critical thinking skills common to TSOs. In Phase 2, TSOs organized into an experimental group, participated in structured facilitated discussions that supplemented the traditional training protocol and were based on the critical thinking tacit knowledge inventory; a control group took part in only the traditional training. A significant difference was found between the experimental and control group annual performance ratings for the critical thinking scale.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12198-021-00231-9
       
  • AERODROM security climate: development and validation of the aerodrome
           security climate questionnaire (ADSECQ)

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      Abstract: Abstract Large numbers of passengers and large amounts of goods are transported by air every year. This attracts the interest of terrorists, which poses high demands on aerodrome security. Technological solutions, and rules and regulations, have been widely implemented to detect security threats, but there is also a need for leading security indicators. Safety culture and climate have been identified as such leading indicators. The aim of this study was to develop and test a questionnaire instrument to measure aerodrome security climate. The development contained an expert focus group, expert panel, two pilot tests at four and five airports, respectively, and one full-scale study at nine Swedish commercial airports. The final instrument comprised 12 dimensions grounded in previous safety culture and climate research, and targeting three organizational levels. It had good psychometric properties and was validated against compliant as well as participative security behavior. We believe ADSECQ is suitable to evaluate the aerodrome security climate standard, pinpoint security climate areas for improvement, and evaluate the effect of interventions.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12198-020-00217-z
       
  • A study of the U.S. domestic air transportation network: temporal
           evolution of network topology and robustness from 2001 to 2016

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      Abstract: Abstract The U.S. air transportation network (ATN) is critical to the mobility and the functioning of the United States. It is thus necessary to ensure that it is well-connected, efficient, robust, and secure. Despite extensive research on its topology, the temporal evolution of the network’s robustness remains largely unexplored. In the present paper, a methodology is proposed to identify long-term trends in the evolution of the network’s topology and robustness over time. The study of the U.S. domestic ATN’s robustness was performed based on annual flight data from 1996 to 2016 and network analytics were used to examine the effects of restructuring that followed the 9/11 events. Centrality measures were computed and a node deletion method was applied to assess the network’s tolerance to a targeted attack scenario. The outcome of this study indicated that the 9/11 terrorist attacks triggered vast restructuring of the network, in terms of efficiency and security. Air traffic expanded, as new airports and air routes were introduced, allowing the network to recover rapidly and become more efficient. Security concerns resulted in significant improvement of the network’s robustness. Since 2001, the global traffic and topological properties of the U.S. ATN have displayed continuous growth, due to the network’s expansion. On the other hand, the results suggest that although the system’s ability to sustain its operational level under extreme circumstances has lately improved, its tolerance to targeted attacks has deteriorated. The presented methodology has shown its potential to be applied on different network levels or different transportation networks, in order to provide a general perspective of the system’s vulnerabilities.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12198-020-00227-x
       
  • Guidance for ports: security and safety against physical, cyber and hybrid
           threats

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      Abstract: Abstract The European Commission (EC) has funded the Scalable multidimensionAl sitUation awaReness sOlution for protectiNg european ports (SAURON) project to reduce the vulnerabilities of EU ports, as one of the main European critical infrastructures, and increase their systemic resilience in the face of a physical, cyber or combined cyber-physical threat. The goal of SAURON has been to provide a multidimensional yet installation-specific Situational Awareness platform to help port operators anticipate and withstand potential cyber, physical or combined threats to their businesses and to people. During the SAURON project port authorities and stakeholders stated that it would be very helpful to have generic guidance to help ports respond to the combined cyber-physical security threat. The goal of this paper is to help ports understand the hybrid cyber-physical security threat, and how to reduce port vulnerabilities, based on lessons from the SAURON project. The paper is structured in line with the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code Port Facility security assessment process, and relates port security planning based on the ISPS guidelines to insights and lessons from SAURON. This paper demonstrates the importance of understanding the interdependencies between the cyber and physical domains and improving security situational awareness when incidents (including deliberate attacks) cause cascading effects across these domains. Furthermore, the paper draws conclusions and makes recommendations to ports and policy makers to reduce the vulnerability of ports to hybrid cyber-physical attacks.
      PubDate: 2021-04-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12198-021-00234-6
       
  • Aviation cyber security: legal aspects of cyber threats

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      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this paper is show how existing legal frameworks applied to civil aviation might be relevant in the context of cyberspace. Security threats to civil aviation operations have become more sophisticated and challenging to deal with. One that is emerging, and arguably even more complicated and sophisticated to manage, is the cyber-attack. This article is interdisciplinary as it briefly defines cyber-attack and describes the nature of the threat it poses to aviation and society generally, but also focuses on the international legal instruments that are available to address cyberterrorism and reflects on the challenges faced by aviation through cyberspace. Conclusions offer some food for thought on the article’s conclusions and on possible developments in the relationship between civil aviation and cyber security.
      PubDate: 2021-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12198-021-00232-8
       
  • Cyber resilience of autonomous mobility systems: cyber-attacks and
           resilience-enhancing strategies

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      Abstract: Abstract The increasing cyber connectivity of vehicles and between vehicles and infrastructure will drastically reshape mobility in the coming decades. While the advent of connected mobility is expected to benefit travelers and the society by smoothing traffic, improving rider convenience, and reducing accidents, the augmented cyber components in connected and autonomous vehicles and related infrastructure also give rise to cyber-attacks to the transportation system. And yet, little attention has been paid to transportation cyber resilience. This paper thus proposes an investigation on this topic with a comprehensive literature review. The cyber components and plausible autonomous mobility systems (AMS) operation scenarios are discussed, before identifying possible cyber-attacks to AMS at both vehicle and system levels. The discussion then moves to existing practices to enhance cybersecurity, and a number of strategies are investigated toward enhancing AMS cyber resilience. At the vehicle level, creating layers and separation to reduce cyber component connectivity and deploying an independent procedure for data collection and processing are important in vehicle design and manufacturing. At the system level, recommended strategies include keeping redundancy in transportation capacity, maintaining a separate road network, and deploying different sub-autonomous mobility systems.
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12198-021-00230-w
       
 
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