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 Transport in Porous MediaJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.728 Citation Impact (citeScore): 2Number of Followers: 0      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 1573-1634 - ISSN (Online) 0169-3913 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2469 journals]
• Pore-Scale Displacement of Heavy Crude Oil During Low Salinity Water
Flooding

Abstract: Abstract To date, most studies about low salinity water flooding (LSWF) have been conducted at the Darcy scale, taking into account mixed-wet conditions, although a limited number of studies have investigated interactions of heavy crude oil/LSWF/rock system from a pore-scale perspective. Consequently, the mechanisms responsible for EOR during LSWF, particularly, within oil-wet porous media are not well understood. The current study investigates pore-scale dynamic of LSWF displacement (forced imbibition and drainage tests) within clean and clayey 2D glass micromodels by setting the initial wettability of the systems as both water-wet and oil-wet. Before performing oil displacement tests at the pore-scale, preliminary evaluations at sub-pore-scale, including zeta potential, interfacial tension (IFT), contact angle, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and micro-dispersion tests were conducted. Irrespective of the absence or presence of clay particles, LSWF showed a positive response to increased oil recovery, though its influence is not significant. The main mechanisms responsible for oil recovery enhancement were observed to be snap-off reduction and formation of water micro-dispersion within clay-free hydrophilic and hydrophobic porous media, respectively, which eventually leads to wettability alteration toward more water-wet conditions. This evidence is supported by the reduction in contact angle between crude oil/glass-plate models when switching from seawater to LSWF. The results of zeta potential measurements indicate that decreases in brine salinity leads to more negative values, which can cause double layer expansion, and wettability alteration. These factors are the main controlling mechanisms during LSWF within clay-coated porous medium since fine migration was not significantly observed in the micromodel.
PubDate: 2022-10-01

• Determination of the Effective Permeability of Doubly Porous Materials by
a Two-Scale Homogenization Approach

Abstract: Abstract The present work is dedicated to determining the effective permeability of doubly porous materials made of a solid phase comprising a network of interconnected pores at the nanoscale and a network of non-interconnected pores at the microscopic scale. The fluid flow at microscopic scale through the solid phase containing nanopores is described by the Darcy law, while fluid flow in the nano- and microscopic pores is governed by the Stokes equations. A two-scale homogenization approach is proposed to estimate the effective permeability of doubly porous materials in question. In the nanoscopic-to-microscopic upscaling, a micromechanical model based on the generalized self-consistent scheme (GSCS) is elaborated to estimate the microscopic permeability. In the microscopic-to-macroscopic upscaling, the equivalent inclusion method combined with the dilute, Mori–Tanaka, differential schemes is used to obtain different estimates of the macroscopic permeability. In the two-scale homogenization approach elaborated, the pore size and shape effects as well as the solid/fluid interface influence are taken into account. The results given by the proposed two-scale homogenization approach are discussed and compared with the relevant numerical results provided by the finite element method.
PubDate: 2022-10-01

• Local Thermodynamic Description of Isothermal Single-Phase Flow in Simple
Porous Media

Abstract: Abstract Darcy’s law for porous media transport is given a new local thermodynamic basis in terms of the grand potential of confined fluids. The local effective pressure gradient is determined using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics, and the hydraulic conductivity and permeability are investigated. The transport coefficients are determined for single-phase flow in face-centered cubic lattices of solid spheres. The porosity changed from that in the closest packing of spheres to near unity in a pure fluid, while the fluid mass density varied from that of a dilute gas to a dense liquid. The permeability varied between $$5.7 \times {10^{-20}} \hbox {m}^2$$ and $$5.5 \times {10^{-17}} \hbox {m}^2$$ , showing a porosity-dependent Klinkenberg effect. Both transport coefficients depended on the average fluid mass density and porosity but in different ways. These results set the stage for a non-equilibrium thermodynamic investigation of coupled transport of multi-phase fluids in complex media.
PubDate: 2022-10-01

• Fluid Flow Analysis of Integrated Porous Bone Scaffold and Cancellous Bone
at Different Skeletal Sites: In Silico Study

Abstract: Abstract The dynamic characteristic of bone is its ability to remodel itself through mechanobiological responses. Bone regeneration is triggered by mechanical cues from physiological activities that generate structural strain and cause bone marrow movement. This phenomenon is crucial for bone scaffold when implanted in the cancellous bone as host tissue. Often, the fluid movement of bone scaffold and cancellous bone is studied separately, which does not represent the actual environment once implanted. In the present study, the fluid flow analysis properties of bone scaffold integrated into the cancellous bone at different skeletal sites are investigated. Three types of porous bone scaffolds categorized based on pore size configurations: 1 mm, 0.8 mm and hybrid (0.8 mm interlaced with 0.5 mm) were used. Three different skeletal sites of femoral bone were selected: neck, lateral condyle and medial condyle. Computational fluid dynamics was utilized to analyze the fluid flow properties of bone scaffold integrated cancellous bone. The results of this study reveal that the localization and maximum value of shear stress in an independent bone scaffold are significantly different compared to the bone scaffold integrated with cancellous bone by about 160% to 448% percentage difference. Low shear stress and high permeability were found across models that have higher Tb.Sp (trabecular separation). Specimen C and femoral lateral condyle showed the highest permeability in their respective category.
PubDate: 2022-10-01

• A Process-Based Pore Network Model Construction for Granular Packings
Under Large Plastic Deformations

Abstract: Abstract We propose a process-based method for constructing a pore network model of granular packings under large deformations. The method uses the radical Voronoi tessellation and constructive solid geometry operations on meshes of deformed particles, to construct a three-dimensional solid of the pore network and estimate its geometric characteristics, CTS-model parameters and flow transport properties, and it uses the particle mechanics approach to model consolidation of powders under large deformations. This process-based method thus explicitly simulates not only a packing of grains but also its corresponding consolidation process, which in this work is restricted to powder die compaction up to a relative density close to one (i.e., to die filling, compaction to low porosity, unloading and ejection). The efficacy of the proposed method is borne out by studying granular packings with the same composition, namely a 50–50 binary mixture of two monodisperse systems comprised by elasto-plastic spheres with bonding strength, but with microstructures which are topologically different, namely a random packing, a bilayer and core-shell structures. These simulations reveal that topological differences affect the formation and evolution of the pore space statistical signature during consolidation and, therefore, showcase that process-based approaches for constructing PNM are of paramount relevance to understanding architectured granular material systems.
PubDate: 2022-10-01

• An Extended-FEM Model for CO2 Leakage Through a Naturally Fractured
Cap-Rock During Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a numerical model is developed for the assessment of carbon dioxide transport through naturally fractured cap-rocks during CO2 sequestration in underground aquifers. The cap-rock contains two types of fracture with different length scales: micro-cracks (fissures) and macro-cracks (faults). The effect of micro-cracks is incorporated implicitly by modifying the intrinsic permeability tensor of porous matrix, while the macro-cracks are modeled explicitly using the extended finite element method (X-FEM). The fractured porous medium is decomposed into the porous matrix and fracture domain, which are occupied with two immiscible fluid phases, water and CO2. The flow inside the matrix domain is governed by the Darcy law, while the flow within the fracture is modeled using the Poiseuille flow. The mass conservation law is fulfilled for each fluid phase at both porous matrix and fracture domain; moreover, the mass exchange between the matrix and fracture is guaranteed through the integral formulation of mass conservation law. Applying the X-FEM technique, the explicit representation of macro-cracks is modeled by enriching the standard finite element approximation space with an enrichment function. Finally, several numerical examples of CO2 injection into a brine aquifer below a naturally fractured cap-rock are modeled in order to investigate the effects of cracks’ aperture and orientation as well as the temperature of aquifer and the depth of injection on the leakage pattern of the carbon dioxide through the cap-rock.
PubDate: 2022-10-01

• The Potential of Quantum Computing for Geoscience

Abstract: Abstract Characterization and modeling of geomedia, computing their effective flow, transport, elastic, and other properties, and simulating various phenomena that occur there constitute some of the most intensive calculations in science and engineering. Over the past twenty five years, however, development of quantum computers has made great progress, and powerful quantum algorithms have been developed for simulating many important and computationally difficult problems, with the potential for enormous speed-up over the most efficient classical algorithms. This perspective describes such algorithms and discusses their potential applications to problems in geoscience, ranging from reconstruction and modeling of geomedia, to simulating fluid flow by the Stokes and Navier-Stokes equations, or lattice Boltzmann and lattice gas methods, numerical solution of the advection-diffusion equation, pattern recognition in and analysis of big data, machine learning methods, and image processing. Although several hurdles remain that must be overcome before practical computations with quantum computers, and in particular those associated with geoscience, become possible, such as designing fault-tolerant quantum computers, which is still far into the future, noisy intermediate-scale computers are already available whose capabilities have been demonstrated for various problems.
PubDate: 2022-09-17

• Numerical Simulation Study of Double-Emulsion Droplet Formation in a
Co-flow Microchannel Capillary Device

Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we design a Co-flow microchannel capillary device to numerically simulate the generation of double-emulsion droplets by a level set method. The three velocity vortices generated during the generation of double-emulsion droplets and the pressure variation on the z-axis were systematically investigated. The effects of the dimensionless numbers Cain, Caout, and Wein on the volumes of the inner droplets and outer droplets are discussed. The results show that three velocity vortices can be generated during the generation of double-emulsion droplets due to the inhomogeneous force on the droplets. The internal pressure of the inner droplet is much larger than the internal pressure of the outer droplet, and the larger the volume of the droplet the smaller the internal pressure of the droplet. With the increase in the Cain, the volume of the outer droplet increases and the volume of the inner droplet increases and then decreases. As the Caout increases, the volume of the outer and inner droplets decreases significantly. With the increase in the Wein, the volume of the inner droplet increases significantly, and the volume of the outer droplet increases and then decreases. In view of the above phenomenon that the volume of droplet increases and then decreases, we can conclude that the two factors, velocity and pressure, affect the volume of droplet at the same time.
PubDate: 2022-09-15

• Two Different Computational Schemes for Solving Chemical Dissolution-Front
Instability Problems in Fluid-Saturated Porous Media

Abstract: Abstract This paper deals with how to solve chemical dissolution-front instability problems, which are nonlinearly coupled by subsurface pore-fluid flow, reactive mass transport and porosity evolution processes in fluid-saturated porous media, through using two different computational schemes. In the first computational scheme, porosity, pressure of the pore-fluid and concentration of the solute are used as fundamental unknown variables to describe a chemical dissolution system, so that it can be named as the PPC scheme. In the second computational scheme, porosity, velocity of the pore-fluid and concentration of the solute are used as fundamental unknown variables to describe a chemical dissolution system, so that it can be named as the PVC scheme. Since the finite element equations of a chemical dissolution-front instability problem on the basis of using the PPC scheme is available, the main focus of this study is on deriving the finite element equations of a chemical dissolution-front instability problem on the basis of using the PVC scheme. In particular, analytical solutions for the property matrices of a four-node rectangular element have been derived and used in both the PVC scheme and the PPC scheme. Through comparing the computational simulation results obtained from using both the PPC scheme and the PVC scheme, it has demonstrated that: (1) if the chemical dissolution system is in a stable state, then the PPC scheme is superior to the PVC scheme because the PPC scheme uses less computational efforts than the PVC scheme; (2) if the chemical dissolution system is in an unstable state, then the PVC scheme is superior to the PPC scheme because the PVC scheme yields more accurate computational simulation results than the PPC scheme.
PubDate: 2022-09-08

• Immiscible Viscous Fingering: Modelling Unstable Water–Oil Displacement
Experiments in Porous Media

Abstract: Abstract Viscous fingering in porous media occurs when the (miscible or immiscible) displacing fluid has a lower viscosity than the displaced fluid. For example, immiscible fingering is observed in experiments where water displaces a much more viscous oil. Modelling the observed fingering patterns in immiscible viscous fingering has proven to be very challenging, which has often been identified as being due to numerical issues. However, in a recent paper (Sorbie et al. in Transp. Porous Media 133:331–359, 2020) suggested that the modelling issues are more closely related to the physics and formulation of the problem. They proposed an approach based on the fractional flow curve, $${f}_{w}^{*}$$ , as the principal input, and then derived relative permeabilities which give the maximum total mobility. Sorbie et al. were then able to produce complex, well-resolves immiscible finger patterns using elementary numerical methods. In this paper, this new approach to modelling immiscible viscous fingering is tested by performing direct numerical simulations of previously published experimental water/oil displacements in 2D sandstone porous media. Experiments were modelled at adverse viscosity ratios ( $${\mu }_{o}/{\mu }_{w}$$ ), with oil viscosities ranging from μo = 412 to 7000 cP, i.e. for a viscosity ratio range, ( $${\mu }_{o}/{\mu }_{w}$$ ) $$\sim$$ 400–7000. These experiments have extensive production data as well as in situ 2D immiscible fingering images, measured by X-ray scanning. In all cases, very good quantitative agreement between experiment and modelling results is found, providing a strong validation of the new modelling approach. The underlying parameters used in the modelling of these unstable immiscible floods, the $${f}_{w}^{*}$$ functions, show very consistent and understandable variation with the viscosity ratio, ( $${\mu }_{o}/{\mu }_{w}$$ ).
PubDate: 2022-09-08

• Interface Stability of Compressible Fluid Displacements in Porous Media

Abstract: Abstract We use linear stability theory to investigate the effect of fluid compressibility on interface stability during a dissipative displacement (Darcy flow). We find that compressibility changes the perturbation growth rate as a function of perturbation wavenumber. Our results indicate that both favorable (less than unity) and unfavorable (greater than unity) mobility ratios will always lead to positive maximum growth rate, which traditionally is recognized as the criterion for instability. We conclude, however, that in the case of favorable mobility ratio, the maximum perturbation growth rate is always smaller than the unperturbed growth rate naturally existing in compressible displacements. The interface will still be stable because the perturbation will never exceed the background flow. Therefore, compressibility does not change the stability of displacements, which is ultimately determined by mobility ratio.
PubDate: 2022-09-01

• Correction to: Relating Darcy-Scale Chemical Reaction Order to Pore-Scale
Spatial Heterogeneity

PubDate: 2022-09-01

• Microstructural Classification and Reconstruction of the Computational
Geometry of Steamed Bread Using Descriptor-Based Approach

Abstract: Microstructures affect the properties of food products; accurate and relatively less complex microstructural representations are thus needed for modelling of transport phenomena during food processing. Hence, the present study aimed at developing computational microstructures of steamed bread using descriptor-based approach. Relevant information was extracted from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the steamed bread and evaluated using seven classifiers. For the automatic classification and using all descriptors, bagged trees ensembles (BTE) had the highest accuracy of 98.40%, while Gaussian Naïve Bayes was the least with 92.10% accuracy. In the “step forward” analysis, five descriptors had higher classification accuracy (98.80%) than all descriptors, implying that increase in descriptors might or might not increase classification accuracy. Microstructural validation revealed that the ellipse fitting method with a p value of 0.7984 for the area was found to be superior to the Voronoi method with a corresponding p value of 1.4554 × 10−5, confirming that the ellipse developed microstructure was more suitable for microscale modelling of transport phenomena in steamed bread.
PubDate: 2022-09-01

• Impact of Physical Heterogeneity and Transport Conditions on Effective
Reaction Rates in Dissolution

Abstract: Abstract A continuous-time random walk (CTRW) reactive transport model is used to study the impact of physical heterogeneity on the effective reaction rates in porous media in a sample of length 15 cm over timescales up to 10 $$^8$$ s (3 years). The model has previously been validated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements during dissolution of a limestone. The model assumes first-order reaction. We construct three domains with increasing physical heterogeneity and study dissolution at four Péclet numbers, Pe = 0.0542, 0.542, 5.42 and 54.2. We characterize signatures of physical heterogeneity in the three porous media using velocity distributions and show how these imprint on the signatures of particle displacement, namely particle propagator distributions. In addition, we demonstrate the ability of our CTRW model to capture the impact of physical heterogeneity on the longitudinal dispersion coefficient over several orders of magnitude in space and time. Reactive transport simulations show that the effective reaction rates depend on (i) initial physical heterogeneity and (ii) transport conditions. For all heterogeneities and Pe, the late-time reaction rate exhibits a time dependence $$t^{-a}$$ with $$a \ne 0.5$$ that indicates the persistence of incomplete mixing. We show that the higher the initial heterogeneity, the lower the late-time reaction rate. A decrease in Pe promotes mixing by diffusion over advection, resulting in higher reaction rates. The post-dissolution propagators indicate an increase in the degree of non-Fickian transport. Overall, we establish a framework to demonstrate and quantify the impact of physical heterogeneity on transport and effective reaction rates in porous media.
PubDate: 2022-09-01

• Percolativity of Porous Media

Abstract: Abstract Connectivity and connectedness are nonadditive geometric functionals on the set of pore scale structures. They determine transport of mass, volume or momentum in porous media, because without connectivity there cannot be transport. Percolativity of porous media is introduced here as a geometric descriptor of connectivity, that can be computed from the pore scale and persists to the macroscale through a suitable upscaling limit. It is a measure that combines local percolation probabilities with a probability density of ratios of eigenvalues of the tensor of local percolating directions. Percolativity enters directly into generalized effective medium approximations. Predictions from these generalized effective medium approximations are found to be compatible with apparently anisotropic Archie correlations observed in experiment.
PubDate: 2022-08-29

• Non-Newtonian Rheology in a Capillary Tube with Varying Radius

Abstract: Abstract Fluid blobs in an immiscible Newtonian fluid flowing in a capillary tube with varying radius show highly nonlinear behavior. We consider here a generalization of previously obtained results to blobs of non-Newtonian fluids. We compute here the yield pressure drop and the mean flow rate in two cases: (i) When a single blob is injected, (ii) When many blobs are randomly injected into the tube. We find that the capillary effects emerge from the non-uniformity of the tube radius and contribute to the threshold pressure for flow to occur. Furthermore, in the presence of many blobs the threshold value depends on the number of blobs and their relative distances which are randomly distributed. For a capillary fiber bundle of identical parallel tubes, we calculate the probability distribution of the threshold pressure and the mean flow rate. We consider two geometries: tubes of sinusoidal shape, for which we derive explicit expressions, and triangular-shaped tubes, for which we find that essential singularities are developed. We perform numerical simulations confirming our analytical results.
PubDate: 2022-08-27

• Numerical Simulation of Particle Retention Mechanisms at the Sub-Pore
Scale

Abstract: Abstract The evolution of pore structure caused by particle retention is a function of heterogeneity and nonlinear coupling of particle transport and fluid flow. Pore-scale modelling enables us to elucidate the role of various mechanisms controlling particle transport and deposition. This study incorporated the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach to investigate the spatial and temporal deposition of particles using a benchmark data set for an artificial column made of glass beads for validation. The velocity field and trajectory of particles were determined by solving the Navier–Stokes and momentum balance equations. When the mean diameter of particles is smaller than the image voxel size, several particles are required to occupy a pore voxel. Particles with low velocity that cannot escape from the adhesion forces of surfaces are considered as deposited. The solid volume fraction of pore voxels adjacent to solid voxels changes dynamically through particle deposition. The role of surface deposition and clogging mechanisms during various experimental simulation scenarios was analysed using an image-based technique. Mean injection velocity, particle size, surface adhesion forces, and surface roughness are considered as sensitivity parameters. The results show that the clogging mechanism was responsible for the structure permeability impairment rather than the surface deposition, when particle size and surface adhesion forces increased. However, the clogging mechanism did not affect permeability when surface roughness increased. Particle retention shows a maximum value around a critical velocity where the spatial particle retention switched from filter cake development to homogenous retention.
PubDate: 2022-08-26

• Impacts of Mineralogy on Petrophysical Properties

Abstract: Abstract Because of their extreme heterogeneity at multiple scales, carbonate rocks present a great challenge for studying and managing oil reservoirs. Depositional processes and diagenetic alterations of carbonates may have produced very complex pore structures and, consequently, variable fluid storage and flow properties of hydrocarbon reservoirs. To understand the impact of mineralogy on the pore system, we analyzed four carbonate rock samples (coquinas) from the Morro do Chaves Formation in Brazil. For this study, we used thin sections and XRD for their mineralogical characterization, together with routine core analysis, NMR, MICP and microCT for the petrophysical characterizations. The samples revealed very similar porosity values but considerably different permeabilities. Samples with a relatively high quartz content (terrigenous material) generally had lower permeabilities, mostly caused by more mineral fragmentation. Samples with little or no quartz in turn exhibited high permeabilities due to less fragmentation and more diagenetic actions (e.g., dissolution of shells). Results confirm that carbonate minerals are very susceptible to diagenesis, leading to modifications in their pore body and pore throat sizes, and creating pores classified as moldic and vug pores, or even clogging them. For one of the samples, we acquired detailed pore skeleton information based on microCT images to obtain a more complete understanding of its structural characteristics.
PubDate: 2022-08-26

• Parametric Sensitivity to Capillary Entry Pressure in Two-Phase
Water–Gas Flow Models: Deep Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Waste

Abstract: Abstract In a deep geological repository for the long-term containment of radioactive waste, the engineered barriers and host clay rock inhibit the migration of gases, due to their low permeability and high gas entry pressure. Some experiments in the literature have focused on the measurement of gas entry pressure $$(P_{\text {g,e}}$$ , but there is a lack of 2-phase flow (water–gas) modeling studies that include entry pressure effects in such porous media. In the present work, the modified Van Genuchten–Mualem model (Vogel et al. 2000) is extended to two-phase flow, incorporating the capillary entry pressure parameter $$(P_{\text {c,e}})$$ , and a new data analysis approach is developed in order to characterize the water–gas constitutive relations (saturation curve, water permeability curve, gas permeability curve). This constitutive model is then implemented in the iTOUGH2 code (Wainwright and Finsterle 2016 in Global sensitivity and data-worth analyses in iTOUGH2: User’s guide) with a change of primary variables to be described below (capillary pressure is set as primary state variable instead of gas saturation). After regression tests for verifying the change of primary variables in iTOUGH2, two problems were modeled: first, numerical flow experiments were performed in a clay soil (code-to-code benchmark tests, and comparisons focused on entry pressure effects); secondly, water–gas migration was modeled based on an in situ gas injection experiment (PGZ1) performed in the French URL (Underground Research Laboratory) of Bure. Sensitivity analyses show that gas entry pressure is an important controlling factor which should not be neglected in simulations of gas migration in clayey materials.
PubDate: 2022-08-25

• Correction: Microstructural Classification and Reconstruction of the

PubDate: 2022-08-04

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