Authors:Nenden Mutiara Sari, Ana Setiani, Ina Rinangkit, Hanhan Subhan Munawar Pages: 253 - 266 Abstract: The effectiveness of implementing online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic has not been satisfactory in terms of problem-solving abilities. The presentation of teaching materials presented in the online platforms used has not been able to identify the extent of student understanding in problem-solving exploration. Therefore, this research aims to produce Kaizala teaching materials based on problem-solving exploration. The ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation) development model was used in this research to produce these teaching materials. The subjects of this research trial were grade VIII junior high school students in a public school in Ogan Komering Ulu Regency, Palembang. The choice of the place for this research was based on the fact that the mathematics learning carried out at the school was by utilizing social media platforms. The instruments used in this research consisted of validation sheets of material, language, presentation, and problem-solving integration, a questionnaire on the practicality of teaching materials, and a problem-solving ability test to assess the effectiveness of the developed teaching materials. The results showed that: (1) the developed teaching materials were in the valid criteria; (2) the practicality of the developed teaching materials are at very high and high criteria; (3) The developed teaching materials also meet the criteria of effectiveness, whereas many as 82 percent of the test subjects obtained a score of not less than 75 and the effect size value belongs to the large category. Thus, it can be concluded that the developed teaching materials are suitable for supporting and facilitating students in problem-solving exploration activities. PubDate: 2021-12-20 DOI: 10.24042/ajpm.v12i2.9253 Issue No:Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)

Authors:Nevi Setyaningsih, Fitriani Fitriani, Ahmad Faisol Pages: 267 - 272 Abstract: Rough Set Theory (RST) is an essential mathematical tool to deal with imprecise, inconsistent, incomplete information and knowledge Rough Some algebra structures, such as groups, rings, and modules, have been presented on rough set theory. The sub-exact sequence is a generalization of the exact sequence. In this paper, we introduce the notion of a sub-exact sequence of groups. Furthermore, we give some properties of the rough group and rough sub-exact sequence of groups. PubDate: 2021-12-20 DOI: 10.24042/ajpm.v12i2.8917 Issue No:Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)

Authors:Sri Nurdiati, Ardhasena Sopaheluwakan, Yoga Abdi Pratama, Mohamad Khoirun Najib Pages: 273 - 282 Abstract: El Nino can harm many sectors in Indonesia by reducing precipitation levels in some areas. The occurrence of El Nino can be estimated by observing the sea surface temperature in Nino 3.4 region. Therefore, an accurate model on sea surface temperature prediction in Nino 3.4 region is needed to optimize the estimation of the occurrence of El Nino, such as ECMWF. However, the prediction model released by ECMWF still consists of some systematic errors or biases. This research aims to correct these biases using statistical bias correction techniques and evaluate the prediction model before and after correction. The statistical bias correction uses linear scaling, variance scaling, and distribution mapping techniques. The results show that statistical bias correction can reduce the prediction model bias. Also, the distribution mapping and variance scaling are more accurate than the linear scaling technique. Distribution mapping has better RMSE in December-March, and variance scaling has better RMSE in April-June also in October and November. However, in July-September, prediction from ECMWF has better RMSE. The application of statistical bias correction techniques has the highest refinement in January-March at the first lead time and in April at the fifth until the seventh lead time. PubDate: 2021-12-20 DOI: 10.24042/ajpm.v12i2.8884 Issue No:Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)

Authors:A. Nurannisa F.A, Andi Muhammad Irfan Taufan Asfar, Andi Muhamad Iqbal Akbar Asfar, Adji Syaifullah Pages: 283 - 294 Abstract: Mathematical logical intelligence is one of the skills that are needed in the 21st century related to mathematical problem-solving skills. The importance of this skill is not in line with the facts on the ground, where students are still weak in counting and using logic in problem solving. The purpose of this research is to improve students’ mathematical logical intelligence through the online-based integration of local wisdom of Sulapa Eppa Walasuji. Sulapa Eppa Walasuji is one of the Bugis-Makassar local wisdoms with a unique pattern, appropriate to be used as a medium for learning transformation of geometry. Through the integration of local wisdom, Sulapa Eppa Walasuji can create contextual mathematics learning, so that students can easily understand the material by connecting real-life concepts. This research includes experimental research with a quasi-experimental design of the nonequivalent control group design type. The research instrument used was a mathematical logical intelligence test consisting of five essay questions. The data analysis used is descriptive statistics with gain score and effect size testing. The results showed that the mathematical logical intelligence of experimental class students increased by 43.16 with the effective contribution of the r effect size being 0.910. This indicates that the online-based integration of Sulapa Eppa Walasuji can improve students’ mathematical logical intelligence. PubDate: 2021-12-20 DOI: 10.24042/ajpm.v12i2.9575 Issue No:Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)

Authors:Eka Resti Wulan, Subanji Subanji, Makbul Muksar Pages: 295 - 314 Abstract: This research aims to describe the students’ metacognitive failure in constructing proof and the scaffolding support. The participants of this qualitative case study were eight preservice mathematics teachers of six-semester, State University of Malang. We carried out a test about proof construction problems in Abstract Algebra. Then we verified the data using triangulation of constant comparative method from a test and a task-based interview with the stimulated recall. The results indicated two groups of students in proving strategy. Group I performed “appropriate” syntactic strategy and Group II vice versa. Blindness was experienced by the subject that does not recognize errors detection or the ambiguity of the proof. Mirage occurred when the subject recognizes an error detection on the proper strategy or application of a theorem, then is unable to verify the truth of his work. Misdirection appeared when the subject recognizes a lack of progress, then uses an incomplete or irrelevant concept. Vandalism emerged with no progress or detection of errors of the strategy then the subject performs some irrelevant steps to the issue or uses a misconception. Practically, the teachers can use these results for learning innovations in scaffolding-based proof courses. The scaffolding might need some development and application in supporting students to overcome difficulty in proving mathematical sentences. PubDate: 2021-12-20 DOI: 10.24042/ajpm.v12i2.9590 Issue No:Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)

Authors:Trisna Nugraha, Suparman Suparman Pages: 315 - 328 Abstract: The synthesis of some empirical researches revealed that the implementation of problem-based learning (PBL) has a heterogeneous effect size on the mathematical critical thinking skills (MCTS) of primary school students in Indonesia. However, it seems that no researches were investigating the causative factors of the heterogeneity of primary students’ MCTS through PBL. Therefore, this meta-analysis research was employed to examine three potential factors that were PBL class capacity, PBL treatment duration, and mathematics topic predicted as the causative factors of the heterogeneity of primary students’ MCTS. The Q Cochrane test by using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) application was used to examine these potential factors. The synthesis of ten primary studies published in 2015 – 2020 and indexed by Scopus, Google Scholar, Sinta, and Web of Science, showed that PBL treatment duration and mathematics topic were the significant factors causing the heterogeneity of primary students’ MCTS. However, PBL class capacity was not a significant factor causing the heterogeneity of primary students’ MCTS. Thus, primary school mathematics teachers should consider PBL treatment duration established and mathematics topics selected in cultivating primary students’ MCTS by implementing PBL. PubDate: 2021-12-20 DOI: 10.24042/ajpm.v12i2.9645 Issue No:Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)

Authors:Wanda Nugroho Yanuarto, Anton Jaelani Pages: 329 - 342 Abstract: Teachers play a more significant role as a symbol of teaching success. Teachers who hold a more potential digital literacy in education teach mathematics with patterns and procedures, leading to practical teaching mathematics. Influential digital literacy and higher thinking are not possible when teachers do not use technology to understand the concept of mathematics. Therefore, teachers are required to improve their technical abilities and higher thinking in mathematics learning. This research used a cross-sectional quantitative research. This research uses statistical analysis of the Kaiser Meyer-Oikin Test (KMO) and the Barlett's Test to obtain exploratory factor analysis. Subsequently, the analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation model with Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS). The purpose of this research is to provide an overview of the relationship between higher thinking skills and digital literacy. The review discoveries show that teachers' digital literacy has a more significant impact on the use of technology in the classroom, and teachers' higher thinking in the role of technology will encourage teachers to use more technology in their practical teaching. Teachers need to broaden their perspectives on the ability and quality of mathematics teaching that is more easily changed by changing practical instruction in the classroom. One of the reasons mathematics teachers still apply traditional teachings is the lower thinking and low level of digital literacy. Teachers are not capable of teaching the concept of mathematics with technology to students. PubDate: 2021-12-20 DOI: 10.24042/ajpm.v12i2.9637 Issue No:Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)

Authors:Yayan Eryk Setiawan, Surahmat Surahmat Pages: 343 - 357 Abstract: This research aims to describe the mistakes of the prospective teachers in solving the application of radian measurement problems and their causes. This type of research is qualitative descriptive research with a case study approach. The types of data collection in this research consisted of the results of the subject's work and transcripts of interviews with research subjects. By following the type of data, this research instrument consists of one question about the problem of applying radian measurement and interview guidelines developed by the researchers. Data analysis of the subject's work is carried out by classifying the types of errors to know the types of errors that arise in solving the problem of applying the radian measurements. While the transcript analysis of the interview results was carried out by coding the words to determine the factors causing the errors that appeared. The results of the research indicate that the error in solving the problem of applying the radian measurement are misconceptions and factual errors. This misconception is generally caused by intuitive thinking, while this factual error is generally caused by not paying careful attention to the information in the question. The solution to these errors is to analyze the elements of the circle that are interconnected in solving the problem of applying the radian measurements and to be careful in writing the information that is known in the question. PubDate: 2021-12-20 DOI: 10.24042/ajpm.v12i2.9874 Issue No:Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)

Authors:Agus Pahrudin, Yustika Fatimatuz Zahra, Nanang Supriadi, Iip Sugiharta, Farida Farida, Suherman Suherman Pages: 359 - 369 Abstract: Conceptual understanding and critical thinking skills are necessary for all students to help them in their learning process. This research aims to determine the effect of Moodle-assisted e-learning on (1) conceptual understanding, (2) critical thinking skills, and (3) conceptual understanding and critical thinking skills combined. This research employed a quasi-experimental design with random cluster sampling was used as the sampling technique. An algebra written test was used to collect research data. Furthermore, the researchers performed the normality test, homogeneity test, and MANOVA analysis to analyze the data. The researchers discovered that Moodle-assisted e-learning influenced students' conceptual understanding, critical thinking skills, and conceptual understanding and critical thinking skills. PubDate: 2021-12-20 DOI: 10.24042/ajpm.v12i2.9776 Issue No:Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)

Authors:Ari Septian, Erma Monariska Pages: 371 - 384 Abstract: The purpose of this research is to determine the improvement of students' mathematical understanding ability on a system of linear equations using GeoGebra-based game education. This research use quasi-experimental that was conducted on two classes of the school in Indonesia. Class X MIPA 4 as experimental class and X MIPA 3 as control class. Based on the results the average score of N-Gain value analysis, mathematical concept understanding ability in the experimental class is 0.55, and the control class average score is 0.30. Based on the calculation, the Asymp. Sig. (2 tailed) of 0.000 is obtained. Because the significance score is obtained less than 0.05, thus it is rejected and is accepted. So, it can be concluded that the improvement of students' mathematical understanding ability using GeoGebra-based game education is better than the improvement through ordinary learning. The learning motivation of students using GeoGebra-based game education as a positive learning media, but there is no relationship between learning motivation and students' mathematical understanding using GeoGebra-Based Game Education. PubDate: 2021-12-20 DOI: 10.24042/ajpm.v12i2.9927 Issue No:Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)

Authors:Syaiful Syaiful, Kamid Kamid, Dwi Agus Kurniawan, Wahyu Adi Pratama Pages: 385 - 398 Abstract: This research serves as a reference for teachers to implement problem-based learning models on analytical thinking skills and science process skills in mathematics subjects. This research examines the differences and relationships between students' analytical thinking skills and science process skills with problem-based learning models in mathematics. The sample of this research consisted of 180 students. This research is a quantitative study with a questionnaire as the instrument. The obtained data were analyzed using the t-test and correlation test. The results showed a significant difference between analytical thinking skills and students' science process skills, especially on the indicators of Observation and Classification at SMPN 35 Batanghari and SMPN 8 Batanghari students who applied the problem-based learning model in mathematics. Furthermore, it was found that there was a relationship between analytical thinking skills and science process skills because students with analytical thinking skills possessed better science process skills in problem-based learning models in mathematics subjects. PubDate: 2021-12-20 DOI: 10.24042/ajpm.v12i2.9744 Issue No:Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)

Authors:Adilla Desy Rizbudiani, Amat Jaedun, Abdul Rahim, Arief Nurrahman Pages: 399 - 412 Abstract: A high-quality test has a balanced level of difficulty and can be completed by the respondent with their level of abilities. This study analyzed the test instrument used to measure students' mathematics abilities in the semester final exam on System of Linear Equations in Two-Variables. The purposive sampling technique was applied to select the respondent students (N=195). The test items were twenty multiple-choice questions. The researchers performed the data analysis using Rasch model Item Response Theory (IRT) approach with the QUEST program. The analysis revealed that the twenty items’ validity matched the Rasch model with a range of INFIT MNSQ values between 0.89 – 1.17. Items on the final semester exam can be used based on the estimated OUTFIT t-value less than equal to 2.00. The OUTFIT t analysis obtained nineteen qualified items and one unqualified item. PubDate: 2021-12-20 DOI: 10.24042/ajpm.v12i2.9939 Issue No:Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)

Authors:Neni Hermita, Jesi Alexander Alim, Zetra Hainul Putra, Peggi Muharrani Gusti, Tommy Tanu Wijaya, Jerito Pereira Pages: 413 - 426 Abstract: Number sense is an essential primary mathematics material in elementary school that students must master. Learning media may be utilized in elementary schools' teaching and learning process to engage and inspire students to participate in learning activities, particularly mathematics. Therefore, the researchers designed an interactive game using Genially to improve students' number sense. The ADDIE development model was applied in the research and development procedure. In this research, the ADDIE development model began by analyzing problems related to the mathematics learning process in elementary schools, analyzing the environment and work situation, designing an interactive game, developing the game based on validation results from three media experts and two concept experts, and conducting a one-on-one trial. The product feasibility was tested on 46 students who were divided into two classes. Class B served as the experimental class, while Class A served as the control class. The interactive game's validation findings showed that the developed interactive learning media was practical and useful. As a result of the implementation, the experimental class students' grasp the material better than the control class. PubDate: 2021-12-20 DOI: 10.24042/ajpm.v12i2.9983 Issue No:Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)

Authors:Aulia Syafitri, Nizlel Huda, Haryanto Haryanto Pages: 427 - 436 Abstract: This study was conducted at SMP Negeri 9 Jambi City to determine the effect of the Problem-based Learning (PBL) model on mathematical literacy skills in the Pythagorean Theorem material. The quasi-experimental design was used with a non-equivalent pretest and posttest control group design. The researchers collected the mathematical literacy ability data using a description test instrument. Furthermore, the visual-verbal ability data was collected using a visual-verbal ability questionnaire. This research was conducted on the seventh-grade students, with 69 students divided into two classes (experimental and control classes). A random sampling technique determined the sample. Based on the two-way ANOVA test, applying the Problem-based Learning (PBL) model on students' mathematical literacy skills was an effect. There was an effect of visual-verbal ability on literacy skills. PubDate: 2021-12-20 DOI: 10.24042/ajpm.v12i2.10366 Issue No:Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)

Authors:La Ili, Muhammad Irfan Rumasoreng, Anggit Prabowo, Dafid Slamet Setiana Pages: 437 - 446 Abstract: Mathematics is regarded as one of the most important lessons that any student must learn. Internal and external factors, in general, influence students' mathematics learning achievement. One of the internal factor variables is students’ learning interest in mathematics. Many research publications show that the variable of interest is strongly related to mathematics learning achievement, so this study aims to prove and quantify the size of the relationship between mathematics learning interest and mathematics learning achievement using quantitative meta-analysis research approaches. The independent variable is student learning interest, and the dependent variable is mathematical learning achievement. The data was acquired from an online database search on Google Scholar within the 2009 to 2019 timeframe. Thirty research publications that satisfied the required criteria were utilized as the sample. Data analysis uses a quantitative meta-analysis approach with a correlation meta-analysis. The findings revealed a favorable and substantial (5% significance level) link between learning interest and student mathematics learning achievement. The average weight value of effect size was 0.540 in the range of 0.430 to 0.640 in the medium category. These findings have demonstrated the consistency of previous researchers' conclusions. PubDate: 2021-12-20 DOI: 10.24042/ajpm.v12i2.9715 Issue No:Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)

Authors:Samsul Arifin First page: 447 Abstract: One of the encryption algorithms is the Hill Cipher. The square key matrix in the Hill Cipher method must have an inverse modulo. The unimodular matrix is one of the few matrices that must have an inverse. In the encryption process, a unimodular matrix can be utilized as a key. The goal of this research is to demonstrate that there is another approach to protect text message data. Symmetric cryptography is the sort of encryption utilized. A Bernoulli Map is used to create a unimodular matrix. To begin, we use an identity matrix to generate a unimodular matrix. The series of real values in (0,1) of the Bernoulli Map is translated to integers between 0 and 255. The numbers are then inserted into the unimodular matrix's top triangular entries. To acquire the full matrix as the key, we utilize Elementary Row Operations. The data is then encrypted using modulo matrix multiplication. PubDate: 2021-12-26 DOI: 10.24042/ajpm.v12i2.10469 Issue No:Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)

Authors:Dion Aris Simanjuntak, Makmuri Makmuri, Wardani Rahayu Pages: 457 - 466 Abstract: The higher-order thinking ability of students in Indonesia is still in the low category. This research aims to see the effect of the application of a problem-based learning model on higher-order mathematical thinking skills in terms of student's initial abilities and mathematical beliefs. This research uses a quasi-experimental design with a Non-Equivalent Control Group Design. Data on students' higher-order mathematical thinking skills were taken using a test instrument. This research was conducted at SMP Negeri 27 Jakarta with a total of 165 students obtained from cluster random sampling. Based on the analysis of the three-way ANOVA test, it was found that the problem-based learning model had a positive effect on students' higher-order thinking skills. Problem-based learning model gives better results than conventional learning models. This also applies to students with the initial ability and mathematical beliefs in the high category. Problem-based learning can be an alternative for teachers to improve students' higher-order mathematical thinking skills. PubDate: 2021-12-28 DOI: 10.24042/ajpm.v12i2.10137 Issue No:Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)

Authors:Yatha Yuni, Arie Purwa Kusuma, Nurul Huda Pages: 467 - 480 Abstract: This research was aimed to determine the effectiveness of the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) model in mathematics learning on students' reflective thinking skills and self-regulated learning. The researchers employed the quantitative-qualitative method. The quantitative data was obtained through pretest and posttest, and qualitative data were obtained through interviews with three students selected using a purposive random sampling technique. The research subjects were selected using the accidental sampling technique because it was still in the new normal era of the COVID-19 pandemic. The subjects consisted of 33 eighth-grade students. The data was collected using test instruments and questionnaires. Furthermore, the data was tested using the independent sample t-test. This research found three results. First, there was a significant increase in reflective and self-regulated thinking skills through the application of the PBL model. Second, based on the t-test, there was a reflective thinking skills difference between pretest and posttest, with a higher score was found in the posttest. Third, there was no self-regulated learning difference between the pretest and posttest. PubDate: 2021-12-28 DOI: 10.24042/ajpm.v12i2.10847 Issue No:Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)