Subjects -> MATHEMATICS (Total: 1013 journals)
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MATHEMATICS (714 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 538 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abakós     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Accounting Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Difference Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Fixed Point Theory     Open Access  
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Operator Theory     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Pure Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AKSIOMATIK : Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran Matematika     Open Access  
Al-Jabar : Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika     Open Access  
Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Computer Science and Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AL-Rafidain Journal of Computer Sciences and Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Algebra Colloquium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Algorithmic Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Algorithms     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Algorithms Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Mathematical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Mathematical and Management Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
American Journal of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Mathematical Monthly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
An International Journal of Optimization and Control: Theories & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Matematica     Open Access  
Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Anargya : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Matematika     Open Access  
Annales Mathematicae Silesianae     Open Access  
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio A – Mathematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis. Studia Mathematica     Open Access  
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Functional Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University - Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of West University of Timisoara - Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ANZIAM Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Mathematics - A Journal of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arab Journal of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arabian Journal of Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archive of Numerical Software     Open Access  
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Armenian Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Arnold Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Satellites     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Algebra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Research Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Asian-European Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Senior Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Automatic Documentation and Mathematical Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Axioms     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Banach Journal of Mathematical Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
Biomath     Open Access  
BIT Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Matemática Mexicana     Hybrid Journal  
Bollettino dell'Unione Matematica Italiana     Full-text available via subscription  
British Journal for the History of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Buletinul Academiei de Stiinte a Republicii Moldova. Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin des Sciences Mathamatiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Communications in Mathematical Modeling and Differential Equations Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Symbolic Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Series: Physics and Mathematics     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Australian Mathematical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Brazilian Mathematical Society, New Series     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of the Iranian Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society     Hybrid Journal  
Cadernos do IME : Série Matemática     Open Access  
Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Mathematics / Journal canadien de mathématiques     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Canadian Mathematical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Carpathian Mathematical Publications     Open Access  
Catalysis in Industry     Hybrid Journal  
CAUCHY     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
CHANCE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chinese Annals of Mathematics, Series B     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Ciencia     Open Access  
CODEE Journal     Open Access  
Cogent Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Collectanea Mathematica     Hybrid Journal  
College Mathematics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combinatorics, Probability and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Commentarii Mathematici Helvetici     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Combinatorics and Optimization     Open Access  
Communications in Contemporary Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Communications in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications On Pure & Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Complex Analysis and its Synergies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Complex Variables and Elliptic Equations: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Compositio Mathematica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus : Mathematique     Open Access  
Computational and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Computational and Mathematical Methods     Hybrid Journal  
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computational Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Methods and Function Theory     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Confluentes Mathematici     Hybrid Journal  
Constructive Mathematical Analysis     Open Access  
Contributions to Discrete Mathematics     Open Access  
Contributions to Game Theory and Management     Open Access  
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cross Section     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cryptography and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cuadernos de Investigación y Formación en Educación Matemática     Open Access  
Cubo. A Mathematical Journal     Open Access  
Current Research in Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Daya Matematis : Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan Matematika     Open Access  
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Design Journal : An International Journal for All Aspects of Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Desimal : Jurnal Matematika     Open Access  
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Differentsial'nye Uravneniya     Open Access  
Digital Experiences in Mathematics Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Discrete Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Discrete Mathematics, Algorithms and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discussiones Mathematicae - General Algebra and Applications     Open Access  
Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Diskretnaya Matematika     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Akademii Nauk     Open Access  
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Eco Matemático     Open Access  
Econometrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Axioms
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2075-1680
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 300: Smooth Versions of the
           Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon Statistics

    • Authors: Netti Herawati, Ibrahim A. Ahmad
      First page: 300
      Abstract: The well-known Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon (MWW) statistic is based on empirical distribution estimates. However, the data are often drawn from smooth populations. Therefore, the smoothness characteristic is not preserved. In addition, several authors have pointed out that empirical distribution is often an inadmissible estimate. Thus, in this work, we develop smooth versions of the MWW statistic based on smooth distribution function estimates. This approach preserves the data characteristics and allows the efficiency of the procedure to improve. In addition, our procedure is shown to be robust against a large class of dependent observations. Hence, by choosing a rectangular array of known distribution functions, our procedure allows the test to be a lot more reflective of the real data.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11070300
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 301: New Theorems in Solving Families of Improper
           Integrals

    • Authors: Mohammad Abu Ghuwaleh, Rania Saadeh, Aliaa Burqan
      First page: 301
      Abstract: Many improper integrals appear in the classical table of integrals by I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik. It is a challenge for some researchers to determine the method in which these integrations are formed or solved. In this article, we present some new theorems to solve different families of improper integrals. In addition, we establish new formulas of integrations that cannot be solved by mathematical software such as Mathematica or Maple. In this article, we present three main theorems that are essential in generating new formulas for solving improper integrals. To show the efficiency and the simplicity of the presented techniques, we present some applications and examples on integrations that cannot be solved by regular methods. Furthermore, we acquire new results for integrations and compare them to that obtained in the classical table of integrations. Some previous results, become special cases of our outcomes or generalizations to acquire new integrals.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11070301
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 302: Information Measures Based on T-Spherical
           Fuzzy Sets and Their Applications in Decision Making and Pattern
           Recognition

    • Authors: Xiaomin Shen, Sidra Sakhi, Kifayat Ullah, Muhammad Nabeel Abid, Yun Jin
      First page: 302
      Abstract: The T-spherical fuzzy set (TSFS) is a modification of the fuzzy set (FS), intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS), Pythagorean fuzzy set (PyFS), q-rung orthopair fuzzy set (q-ROFS), and picture fuzzy set (PFS), with three characteristic functions: the membership degree (MD) denoted by , the nonmembership degree (NMD) denoted by , and the abstinence degree (AD) denoted by . It can be used to solve problems of uncertain information with no restrictions. The distance measure (DM) is a tool that sums up the difference between points, while the similarity measure (SM) is a method applied to calculate the similarity between objects within an interval of . The current work aims to introduce novel DMs and SMs in the environment of TSFSs to show the limitations of the previously defined DMs and SMs. The suggested DMs and SMs provide more room for all three degrees to be selected without restriction. We investigated the effectiveness of the proposed DMs and SMs by applying a pattern-recognition technique, and we determined their applicability for multicriteria decision making (MCDM) using numerical examples. The newly proposed DMs and SMs are briefly compared to existing DMs and SMs, and appropriate conclusions are drawn.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11070302
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 303: A Simultaneous Estimation of the Baseline
           Intensity and Parameters for Modulated Renewal Processes

    • Authors: Jiancang Zhuang, Hai-Yen Siew
      First page: 303
      Abstract: This paper proposes a semiparametric solution to estimate the intensity (hazard) function of modulated renewal processes: a nonparametric estimate for the baseline intensity function together with a parametric estimate of the model parameters of the covariate processes. Based on the martingale property associated with the conditional intensity, we construct a statistic from a residual analysis to estimate the baseline renewal intensity function, when the model parameters of the covariate processes are known. In addition, when the baseline intensity is obtained, the model parameters can be estimated using the usual maximum likelihood estimation. In practice, both the baseline intensity and model parameters are suggested to be estimated simultaneously via an expectation–maximization (E–M)-type iterative algorithm. A more important feature of the newly proposed algorithm is that, given n events in the observation dataset, its computation time is of order O(n2), while the Nelson–Aalen–Breslow estimator takes a computation time of order O(n3). For illustration, we apply the proposed estimation procedure to a set of data simulated from a modulated gamma renewal process and the aftershock sequence following the Ms8 Wenchuan earthquake, which occurred in Sichuan Province, China on 12 May 2008.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11070303
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 304: Several Double Inequalities for Integer Powers
           of the Sinc and Sinhc Functions with Applications to the
           Neuman–Sándor Mean and the First Seiffert Mean

    • Authors: Wen-Hui Li, Qi-Xia Shen, Bai-Ni Guo
      First page: 304
      Abstract: In the paper, the authors establish a general inequality for the hyperbolic functions, extend the newly-established inequality to trigonometric functions, obtain some new inequalities involving the inverse sine and inverse hyperbolic sine functions, and apply these inequalities to the Neuman–Sándor mean and the first Seiffert mean.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11070304
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 305: Software Defects Prediction Based on Hybrid
           Beetle Antennae Search Algorithm and Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with
           Comparison

    • Authors: Ya Zhang, Tong Li, Zhen Li, Yu-Mei Wu, Hong Miao
      First page: 305
      Abstract: Software defects are problems in software that destroy normal operation ability and reflect the quality of the software. Software fault can be predicted by the software reliability model. In this paper, the hybrid algorithm is applied to parameter estimation in software defect prediction. As a biological heuristic algorithm, BAS (Beetle Antennae Search Algorithm) has fast convergence speed and is easy to implement. ABC (Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm) is better in optimization and has strong robustness. In this paper, the BAS-ABC hybrid algorithm is proposed by mixing the two algorithms and the goal of the proposed method is to improve the convergence and stability of the algorithm. Five datasets were used to carry out the experiments, and the data results showed that the hybrid algorithm was more accurate than the single algorithm, with stronger convergence and stability, so it was more suitable for parameter estimation of the software reliability model. Meanwhile, this paper implemented the comparison between hybrid BAS + ABC and hybrid PSO + SSA, and the result shows that BAS + ABC has better performance both in convergence and stability. The comparison result shows the strong ability in estimation and prediction of software defects hybrid BAS and ABC.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11070305
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 244: A Spatially Bounded Airspace Axiom

    • Authors: Peter Szabó, Miroslava Ferencová, Monika Blišťanová
      First page: 244
      Abstract: Free Route Airspace (FRA), a new concept implemented across European airspace, is designed to eliminate the adverse effects of air traffic, reduce fuel consumption, simplify and expand flight planning. In our research, we model FRA system by using graph theory and we use networks and convex analysis to study it. We work with 2-dimensional space defined by latitude a longitude. We know that the basic mathematical properties of a scientific discipline can be expressed using mathematical axioms. Therefore, in our work, we sought to answer the question, what are the basic mathematical properties of airspace' We found a mathematical object that can describe airspace in general. Using this object, we uttered an axiom describing airspace. Our axiom is given by means of practical, significant entry and entry-exit points in the airspace.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060244
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 245: Macdonald Formula, Ricci Curvature, and
           Concentration Locus for Classical Compact Lie Groups

    • Authors: Sergio Cacciatori, Pietro Ursino
      First page: 245
      Abstract: We consider the phenomenon of concentration of measures, which is restricted to the case of families of compact connected Lie groups. While in the literature, powerful general results regarding the existence of concentration and its relations to extremal amenability of infinite dimensional groups have been determined, there are few explicit examples, specially regarding the determination of the region where the measure concentrates. Since they can be relevant for concrete applications, both in mathematics and in physics, in the present paper, we provide a number of such examples, using compact Lie groups as basic ingredients. In particular, our strategy is to employ the Macdonald’s formula, giving the volume of compact simple Lie groups, and Ricci curvature of the bi-invariant metric for analyzing a “concentration locus”, which is a tool to detect where a sequence of metric, Borel measurable spaces concentrates its measure.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060245
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 246: Adaptive Enhancement for Coal-Rock Cutting
           Sound Based on Parameter Self-Tuning Bistable Stochastic Resonance Model

    • Authors: Jie Xu, Jing Xu, Chaofan Ren, Yanxin Liu, Ning Sun
      First page: 246
      Abstract: The traditional bistable stochastic resonance model has always had the drawback of being difficult when choosing accurate system parameters when a weak signal is enhanced. This paper proposes a parameter self-tuning adaptive optimization method based on the bat optimization algorithm to address this issue. The cubic mapping strategy of chaos optimization is introduced in the initial process of the individual position of the bat algorithm. Chaos is characterized by randomness, sensitivity, fractal dimension, and universality. The initial problem of the algorithm falling into local extremums is overcome. The global search capability of the basic bat optimization algorithm has been improved. The improved bat optimization algorithm’s objective function is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the target weak signal output by the bistable stochastic resonance model. An adaptive signal enhancement algorithm based on the improved bat optimization algorithm and bistable stochastic resonance (IBA-BSR) model is constructed to increase the proportion of weak signals in the mixed signal. Simulation signals are created to validate the proposed algorithm’s feasibility. The engineering application effect of this algorithm is further demonstrated by enhancing the sound signal of coal and rock cutting by a shearer in a coal face. Engineering test results demonstrate that this algorithm can significantly increase the SNR of coal and rock cutting sound signals by 42.4537 dB, and the effect is remarkable.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060246
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 247: Exact Solutions of Nonlinear Partial
           Differential Equations via the New Double Integral Transform Combined with
           Iterative Method

    • Authors: Shams A. Ahmed, Ahmad Qazza, Rania Saadeh
      First page: 247
      Abstract: This article demonstrates how the new Double Laplace–Sumudu transform (DLST) is successfully implemented in combination with the iterative method to obtain the exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (NLPDEs) by considering specified conditions. The solutions of nonlinear terms of these equations were determined by using the successive iterative procedure. The proposed technique has the advantage of generating exact solutions, and it is easy to apply analytically on the given problems. In addition, the theorems handling the mode properties of the DLST have been proved. To prove the usability and effectiveness of this method, examples have been given. The results show that the presented method holds promise for solving other types of NLPDEs.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060247
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 248: Edge Neighbor Toughness of Graphs

    • Authors: Xin Feng, Zongtian Wei, Yucheng Yang
      First page: 248
      Abstract: A new graph parameter, edge neighbor toughness is introduced to measure how difficult it is for a graph to be broken into many components through the deletion of the closed neighborhoods of a few edges. Let G=(V,E) be a graph. An edge e is said to be subverted when its neighborhood and the two endvertices are deleted from G. An edge set S⊆E(G) is called an edge cut-strategy if all the edges in S has been subverted from G and the survival subgraph, denoted by G/S, is disconnected, or is a single vertex, or is. The edge neighbor toughness of a graph G is defined to be tEN(G)=minS⊆E(G){ S c(G/S)}, where S is any edge cut strategy of G, c(G/S) is the number of the components of G/S. In this paper, the properties of this parameter are investigated, and the proof of the computation problem of edge neighbor toughness is NP-complete; finally, a polynomial algorithm for computing the edge neighbor toughness of trees is given.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060248
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 249: An Earthquake-Clustering Model in North Aegean
           Area (Greece)

    • Authors: Ourania Mangira, Rodolfo Console, Eleftheria Papadimitriou, Maura Murru, Vasileios Karakostas
      First page: 249
      Abstract: The investigation of short-term earthquake-clustering features is made feasible through the application of a purely stochastic Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model. The learning period that is used for the estimation of the parameters is composed by earthquakes with M ≥ 2.6 that occurred between January 2008 and May 2017. The model predictability is retrospectively examined for the 12 June 2017 Lesvos earthquake (Mw6.4) and the subsequent events. The construction of time-dependent seismicity maps and comparison between the observed and expected earthquake number are performed in order to temporally and spatially test the evolution of the sequence, respectively. The generation of 127 target events with M ≥ 3.0 in the period June–July 2017, just before the main shock occurrence, is examined in a quantitative evaluation. The statistical criteria used for assessing the model performance are the Relative Operating Characteristic Diagram, the R-score, and the probability gain. Reliable forecasts are provided through the epidemic model testifying its superiority towards a time-invariant Poisson model.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060249
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 250: Further Study on C-Eigenvalue Inclusion
           Intervals for Piezoelectric Tensors

    • Authors: Gang Wang, Xiaoxuan Yang, Wei Shao, Qiuling Hou
      First page: 250
      Abstract: The C-eigenpair of piezoelectric tensors finds applications in the area of the piezoelectric effect and converse piezoelectric effect. In this paper, we provide some characterizations of C-eigenvectors by exploring the structure of piezoelectric tensors, and establish sharp C-eigenvalue inclusion intervals via Cauchy–Schwartz inequality. Further, we propose the lower and upper bounds of the largest C-eigenvalue and evaluate the efficiency of the best rank-one approximation of piezoelectric tensors. Numerical examples are proposed to verify the efficiency of the obtained results.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060250
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 251: Interval Type-3 Fuzzy Aggregation of Neural
           Networks for Multiple Time Series Prediction: The Case of Financial
           Forecasting

    • Authors: Oscar Castillo, Juan R. Castro, Patricia Melin
      First page: 251
      Abstract: In this work, we present an approach for fuzzy aggregation of neural networks for forecasting. The interval type-3 aggregator is used to combine the outputs of the networks to improve the quality of the prediction. This is carried out in such a way that the final output is better than the outputs of the individual modules. In our approach, a fuzzy system is used to estimate the prediction increments that will be assigned to the output in the process of combining them with a set of fuzzy rules. The uncertainty in the process of aggregation is modeled with an interval type-3 fuzzy system, which, in theory, can outperform type-2 and type-1 fuzzy systems. Publicly available data sets of COVID-19 cases and the Dow Jones index were utilized to test the proposed approach, as it has been stated that a pandemic wave can have an effect on the economies of countries. The simulation results show that the COVID-19 data does have, in fact, an influence on the Dow Jones time series and its use in the proposed model improves the forecast of the Dow Jones future values.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060251
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 252: General Opial Type Inequality and New Green
           Functions

    • Authors: Ana Gudelj, Kristina Krulić Himmelreich, Josip Pečarić
      First page: 252
      Abstract: In this paper we provide many new results involving Opial type inequalities. We consider two functions—one is convex and the other is concave—and prove a new general inequality on a measure space (Ω,Σ,μ). We give an new result involving four new Green functions. Our results include Grüss and Ostrowski type inequalities related to the generalized Opial type inequality. The obtained inequalities are of Opial type because the integrals contain the function and its integral representation. They are not a direct generalization of the Opial inequality.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060252
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 253: Development of Patent Technology Prediction
           Model Based on Machine Learning

    • Authors: Chih-Wei Lee, Feng Tao, Yu-Yu Ma, Hung-Lung Lin
      First page: 253
      Abstract: Intellectual property rights have a great impact on the development of the automobile industry. Issues related to the timeliness of patent applications often arise, such as the inability of firms to predict new technologies and patents developed by peers. To find the proper direction of product development, the R&D departments of enterprises need to accurately predict the technology trends. Machine learning adopts calculation through a large amount of data through mathematical models and methods and finds the best solution at the fastest speed through repeated simulation and experiments, to provide decision makers with a reference basis. Therefore, this paper provides accurate forecasts through established models. In terms of the significance of management, the planning of future enterprise strategy can be divided into three stages as a short-term plan of 1–3 years, a medium-term plan of 3–5 years, and a long-term plan of 5–10 years. This study will give appropriate suggestions for the development of automobile industry technology.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060253
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 254: Total Rainbow Connection Number of Some Graph
           Operations

    • Authors: Hengzhe Li, Yingbin Ma, Yan Zhao
      First page: 254
      Abstract: In a graph H with a total coloring, a path Q is a total rainbow if all elements in V(Q)∪E(Q), except for its end vertices, are assigned different colors. The total coloring of a graph H is a total rainbow connected coloring if, for any x,y∈V(H), there is a total rainbow path joining them. The total rainbow connection number trc(H) of H is the minimum integer r such that there is a total rainbow-connected coloring of H using r colors. In this paper, we study the total rainbow connection number of several graph operations (specifically, adding an edge, deleting an edge, and the Cartesian product) for which the total rainbow connection number is upper-bounded by a linear function of its radius.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060254
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 255: On the Generalized Gaussian Fibonacci Numbers
           and Horadam Hybrid Numbers: A Unified Approach

    • Authors: Fatih Yılmaz, Mustafa Özkan
      First page: 255
      Abstract: In this paper, we consider an approach based on the elementary matrix theory. In other words, we take into account the generalized Gaussian Fibonacci numbers. In this context, we consider a general tridiagonal matrix family. Then, we obtain determinants of the matrix family via the Chebyshev polynomials. Moreover, we consider one type of tridiagonal matrix, whose determinants are Horadam hybrid polynomials, i.e., the most general form of hybrid numbers. Then, we obtain its determinants by means of the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind. We provided several illustrative examples, as well.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060255
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 256: Dynamical Analysis of a Modified Epidemic
           Model with Saturated Incidence Rate and Incomplete Treatment

    • Authors: Lazarus Kalvein Beay, Nursanti Anggriani
      First page: 256
      Abstract: This paper addresses a modified epidemic model with saturated incidence and incomplete treatment. The existence of all equilibrium points is analyzed. A reproduction number R0 is determined. Next, it is found that the non-endemic point P0 is stable in case R0<1, but unstable in case R0>1. The special conditions to analyze the local and global stability of the non-endemic and endemic points are investigated. Globally, the sensitivity analysis of the system is studied by combining the Latin Hypercube Sampling and Partial Rating Correlation Coefficients methods. By using the Pontryagins maximum principle, the optimal control problem is studied. Various numerical results are given to support our analysis.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060256
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 257: Recursive Aggregation and Its Fusion Process
           for Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers Based on Non-Additive Measure

    • Authors: Yongfu Shi, Zengtai Gong
      First page: 257
      Abstract: In this paper, the recursive aggregation of OWA operators for intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFN) based on a non-additive measure (NAM) with σ−λ rules is constructed and investigated in light of the σ−λ rules of a non-additive measure (NAM). Additionally, an integrator is designed by drawing on the genetic algorithm and the process of calculation is elaborated by an example.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060257
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 258: Analysis of Interval-Valued Intuitionistic
           Fuzzy Aczel–Alsina Geometric Aggregation Operators and Their
           Application to Multiple Attribute Decision-Making

    • Authors: Tapan Senapati, Radko Mesiar, Vladimir Simic, Aiyared Iampan, Ronnason Chinram, Rifaqat Ali
      First page: 258
      Abstract: When dealing with the haziness that is intrinsic in decision analysis-driven decision making procedures, interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IVIFSs) can be quite effective. Our approach to solving the multiple attribute decision making (MADM) difficulties, where all of the evidence provided by the decision-makers is demonstrated as interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy (IVIF) decision matrices, in which all of the components are distinguished by an IVIF number (IVIFN), is based on Aczel–Alsina operational processes. We begin by introducing novel IVIFN operations including the Aczel–Alsina sum, product, scalar multiplication, and exponential. We may then create IVIF aggregation operators, such as the IVIF Aczel–Alsina weighted geometric operator, the IVIF Aczel–Alsina ordered weighted geometric operator, and the IVIF Aczel–Alsina hybrid geometric operator, among others. We present a MADM approach that relies on the IVIF aggregation operators that have been developed. A case study is used to demonstrate the practical applicability of the strategies proposed in this paper. By contrasting the newly developed technique with existing techniques, the method is capable of demonstrating the advantages of the newly developed approach. A key result of this work is the discovery that some of the current IVIF aggregation operators are subsets of the operators reported in this article.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060258
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 259: Volatility Co-Movement between Bitcoin and
           

    • Authors: Kuo-Shing Chen, Shen-Ho Chang
      First page: 259
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate and measure Bitcoin and the five largest stablecoin market volatilities by incorporating various range-based volatility estimators to the BEKK- GARCH and Copula-DCC-GARCH models. Specifically, we further measure Bitcoins’ volatility related to five major stablecoins and examine the connectedness between Bitcoin and the stablecoins. Our empirical findings document that the connectedness between Bitcoin and stablecoin market volatility behaviors exhibits the presence of stable interconnection. This study is of particular importance since it is crucial for market participation in the ongoing crypto assets to be informed about both the volatility patterns of major cryptocurrencies and the relative volatility of Bitcoin against the stablecoin markets. Eventually, we find that there is no systematic evidence for the various parity deviations of the stablecoins that are profoundly impacted by Bitcoin volatility. Thus, Bitcoin and the largest stablecoin Tether could stabilize together. However, Bitcoin shall not be generalized to other stablecoins in terms of stability results.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060259
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 260: Spectral Invariants and Their Application on
           Spectral Characterization of Graphs

    • Authors: Jun Yin, Haixing Zhao, Sun Xie
      First page: 260
      Abstract: In this paper, we give a method to characterize graphs determined by their adjacency spectrum. At first, we give two parameters Π1(G) and Π2(G), which are related to coefficients of the characteristic polynomial of graph G. All connected graphs with Π1(G) ∈ {1,0,−1,−2,−3} and Π2(G) ∈ {0,−1,−2,−3} are characterized. Some interesting properties of Π1(G) and Π2(G) are also given. We then find the necessary and sufficient conditions for two classes of graphs to be determined by their adjacency spectrum.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060260
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 261: The Expected Value of Hosoya Index and
           Merrifield–Simmons Index in a Random Cyclooctylene Chain

    • Authors: Yushuang Sun, Xianya Geng
      First page: 261
      Abstract: The Hosoya index m(G) and the Merrifield–Simmons index i(G) of a graph G are the number of matchings and the number of independent sets in G. In this paper, we establish exact formulas for the expected value of the Hosoya index and Merrifield–Simmons index of the random cyclooctylene chains, which are graphs of a chemical chain consisting of n octagons, each of which is connected to the end of the previous octagon by an edge. In addition, we obtain the expected values and the average values of the two indexes through the relevant chemical diagrams and a series of accurate formulas with respect to the set of all cyclooctylene chains with n octagons.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060261
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 262: Bounds for Quotients of Inverse Trigonometric
           and Inverse Hyperbolic Functions

    • Authors: Sumedh B. Thool, Yogesh J. Bagul, Ramkrishna M. Dhaigude, Christophe Chesneau
      First page: 262
      Abstract: We establish new simple bounds for the quotients of inverse trigonometric and inverse hyperbolic functions such as sin−1xsinh−1x and tanh−1xtan−1x. The main results provide polynomial bounds using even quadratic functions and exponential bounds under the form eax2. Graph validation is also performed.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060262
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 263: A GIS-MCDM Method for Ranking Potential
           Station Locations in the Expansion of Bike-Sharing Systems

    • Authors: Mohammad Sadegh Bahadori, Alexandre B. Gonçalves, Filipe Moura
      First page: 263
      Abstract: Bicycle-sharing systems (BSSs) are an effective solution to reduce private car usage in most cities and are an influential factor in encouraging citizens to shift to more sustainable transport modes. In this sense, the location of BSS stations has a critical impact on the system’s efficiency. This study proposed an integrated geographic information system–multi-criteria decision-making (GIS-MCDM) framework that includes the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), technique for order preference by similarity to the ideal solution (TOPSIS), and spatial data processing in GIS to determine a ranking of potential locations for BSS stations. The results of the proposed GIS-MCDM method can be used for both planning a new BSS or expanding one that is currently under operation. The framework was applied to a case study for expanding GIRA, the BSS of Lisbon, Portugal. In it, location criteria were selected in four categories, including criteria from the literature and extracted from available transaction data; in addition, we also suggested some criteria. The rebalancing operator’s staff were the decision makers in this study via their responses to the AHP questionnaire. The rebalancing staff believed that the main criterion of “city infrastructure” with the two sub-criteria of “population density” and “slope” were the most important. Furthermore, the proximity to the “bike network” with the sub-criterion of “proximity to the current bike stations” had less importance. Each criterion’s weight and inconsistency rate were obtained using the Expert Choice software. The geographic values of each criterion were created utilizing the ArcGIS software, and its network analyst module was employed for applying location techniques. Based on the created suitability map, the city’s center was the main suitable area for establishing new stations. Forty-five new bike stations were identified in those areas and ranked using the TOPSIS technique.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060263
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 264: Mathematical Modeling Research Output
           Impacting New Technological Development: An Axiomatization to Build
           Novelty

    • Authors: Mohd Razip Bajuri, Zailan Siri, Mohd Nor Syahrir Abdullah
      First page: 264
      Abstract: The mathematical modeling of research-based output impacting new technology development is crucial for a developing country. However, the complexity of modern mathematical modeling research output makes it unclear over how it can impact the development of new technology. Therefore, this study aims to explore, categorize and formulize the axioms of mathematical modeling research output that impacts the development of new technology. Seven participants were involved in this research. Interviews were conducted to explore their remarkable mathematical modeling output and how the output can impact the development of new technology. The categorization axioms are: i. mathematical modeling for theorizing, ii. mathematical modeling for simulations, iii. mathematical modeling for useable innovation and iv. patent and product commercialization. Finally, the categorization can be formulized as an axiom of mathematical modeling novelty, which is the desired research output. Moreover, patents and commercialization are the elements that mathematical modeling should possess for new technological development. The limited number of participants involved in this study makes this study formulation limited to only some types of mathematical modeling output. However, this substantive formulation could give some ideas in proposing the path and processes on how to enhance the effort for society to develop the culture of mathematical modeling in developing new technology.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060264
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 265: A Recommendation Model for Selling Rules in
           the Telecom Retail Industry

    • Authors: Tsung-Ying Ou, Wen-Lung Tsai, Yi-Chen Lee, Tien-Hsiang Chang, Shih-Hsiung Lee, Fen-Fen Huang
      First page: 265
      Abstract: The recommendation of the optimal selling rules for any product or service is challenging, owing to the complexity of the customer’s behavior and the competitiveness existing in the telecom retail industry. This study proposes a recommendation model for selling rules that utilizes a hybrid decision-making approach based on K-means and the C5.0 decision tree to analyze the historical sales information of telecom retailers. To evaluate the efficacy of the proposed recommendation model, it was used to analyze original data from a case company. The results indicated that the proposed hybrid decision-making approach resulted in sales content with a high gross profit and high agreement rates. The experimental results show each cluster that can be used to identify rules for the combination of good tariff items in different tariff ranges. Rules for the recommendation of special tariffs are also established to assist salespeople.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060265
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 266: On Fractional Inequalities Using Generalized
           Proportional Hadamard Fractional Integral Operator

    • Authors: Vaijanath L. Chinchane, Asha B. Nale, Satish K. Panchal, Christophe Chesneau, Amol D. Khandagale
      First page: 266
      Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to use the generalized proportional Hadamard fractional integral operator to establish some new fractional integral inequalities for extended Chebyshev functionals. In addition, we investigate some fractional integral inequalities for positive continuous functions by employing a generalized proportional Hadamard fractional integral operator. The findings of this study are theoretical but have the potential to help solve additional practical problems in mathematical physics, statistics, and approximation theory.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060266
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 267: An Avant-Garde Construction for Subclasses of
           Analytic Bi-Univalent Functions

    • Authors: Feras Yousef, Ala Amourah, Basem Aref Frasin, Teodor Bulboacă
      First page: 267
      Abstract: The zero-truncated Poisson distribution is an important and appropriate model for many real-world applications. Here, we exploit the zero-truncated Poisson distribution probabilities to construct a new subclass of analytic bi-univalent functions involving Gegenbauer polynomials. For functions in the constructed class, we explore estimates of Taylor–Maclaurin coefficients a2 and a3, and next, we solve the Fekete–Szegő functional problem. A number of new interesting results are presented to follow upon specializing the parameters involved in our main results.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060267
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 268: On r-Ideals and m-k-Ideals in BN-Algebras

    • Authors: Sri Gemawati, Musnis Musraini, Abdul Hadi, La Zakaria, Elsi Fitria
      First page: 268
      Abstract: A BN-algebra is a non-empty set X with a binary operation “∗” and a constant 0 that satisfies the following axioms: (B1) x∗x=0, (B2) x∗0=x, and (BN) (x∗y)∗z=(0∗z)∗(y∗x) for all x, y, z ∈X. A non-empty subset I of X is called an ideal in BN-algebra X if it satisfies 0∈X and if y∈I and x∗y∈I, then x∈I for all x,y∈X. In this paper, we define several new ideal types in BN-algebras, namely, r-ideal, k-ideal, and m-k-ideal. Furthermore, some of their properties are constructed. Then, the relationships between ideals in BN-algebra with r-ideal, k-ideal, and m-k-ideal properties are investigated. Finally, the concept of r-ideal homomorphisms is discussed in BN-algebra.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060268
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 269: Robust Spectral Clustering Incorporating
           Statistical Sub-Graph Affinity Model

    • Authors: Zhenxian Lin, Jiagang Wang, Chengmao Wu
      First page: 269
      Abstract: Hyperspectral image (HSI) clustering is a challenging work due to its high complexity. Subspace clustering has been proven to successfully excavate the intrinsic relationships between data points, while traditional subspace clustering methods ignore the inherent structural information between data points. This study uses graph convolutional subspace clustering (GCSC) for robust HSI clustering. The model remaps the self-expression of the data to non-Euclidean domains, which can generate a robust graph embedding dictionary. The EKGCSC model can achieve a globally optimal closed-form solution by using a subspace clustering model with the Frobenius norm and a Gaussian kernel function, making it easier to implement, train, and apply. However, the presence of noise can have a noteworthy negative impact on the segmentation performance. To diminish the impact of image noise, the concept of sub-graph affinity is introduced, where each node in the primary graph is modeled as a sub-graph describing the neighborhood around the node. A statistical sub-graph affinity matrix is then constructed based on the statistical relationships between sub-graphs of connected nodes in the primary graph, thus counteracting the uncertainty image noise by using more information. The model used in this work was named statistical sub-graph affinity kernel graph convolutional subspace clustering (SSAKGCSC). Experiment results on Salinas, Indian Pines, Pavia Center, and Pavia University data sets showed that the SSAKGCSC model can achieve improved segmentation performance and better noise resistance ability.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060269
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 270: k-Path-Connectivity of Completely Balanced
           Tripartite Graphs

    • Authors: Pi Wang, Shasha Li, Xiaoxue Gao
      First page: 270
      Abstract: For a graph G=(V,E) and a set S⊆V(G) of a size at least 2, a path in G is said to be an S-path if it connects all vertices of S. Two S-paths P1 and P2 are said to be internally disjoint if E(P1)∩E(P2)=∅ and V(P1)∩V(P2)=S; that is, they share no vertices and edges apart from S. Let πG(S) denote the maximum number of internally disjoint S-paths in G. The k-path-connectivity πk(G) of G is then defined as the minimum πG(S), where S ranges over all k-subsets of V(G). In this paper, we study the k-path-connectivity of the complete balanced tripartite graph Kn,n,n and obtain πkKn,n,n=2nk−1 for 3≤k≤n.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060270
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 271: Solvability of Conformable Type Frictionless
           Contact Problem via Hemivariational Inequalities

    • Authors: Jianwei Hao, Jinrong Wang, Jiangfeng Han
      First page: 271
      Abstract: In this paper, we study a class of conformable frictionless contact problems with the surface traction driven by the conformable impulsive differential equation. The existence of a mild solution for conformable impulsive hemivariational inequality is obtained by the Rothe method, subjectivity of multivalued pseudomonotone operators and the property of the conformable derivative. Notice that we imply some new fractional viscoelastic constitutive laws.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060271
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 272: On a Class of Positive Definite Operators and
           Their Application in Fractional Calculus

    • Authors: Temirkhan Aleroev
      First page: 272
      Abstract: This paper is devoted to the spectral analysis of one class of integral operators, associated with the boundary value problems for differential equations of fractional order. Approximation matrices are also investigated. In particular, the positive definiteness of the studied operators is shown, which makes it possible to select areas in the complex plane where there are no eigenvalues of these operators.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060272
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 273: Topological and Geometrical Properties of
           k-Symplectic Structures

    • Authors: Essabab Said, Fanich El Mokhtar, Awane Azzouz
      First page: 273
      Abstract: We study new geometrical and topological aspects of polarized k-symplectic manifolds. In addition, we study the De Rham cohomology groups of the k-symplectic group. In this work, we pay particular attention to the problem of the orientation of polarized k-symplectic manifolds in a way analogous to symplectic manifolds which are all orientable.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060273
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 274: Homogeneity of Complex Fuzzy Operations

    • Authors: Bo Hu, Wei Wu, Songsong Dai
      First page: 274
      Abstract: The homogeneity of binary functions on the unit interval [0, 1] is a very useful property in many real practical applications. This paper studies the homogeneity of binary functions on the unit circle of the complex plane. The homogeneity is a generalization of both rotational invariance and ratio scale invariance for complex fuzzy operations. We show that a binary function is homogeneous if and only if it is both rotationally invariant and ratio scale invariant. Moreover, we consider the simplification of the homogeneity for complex fuzzy binary operators.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060274
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 275: A Novel Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Method
           Based on Rough Sets and Fuzzy Measures

    • Authors: Jingqian Wang, Xiaohong Zhang
      First page: 275
      Abstract: Rough set theory provides a useful tool for data analysis, data mining and decision making. For multi-criteria decision making (MCDM), rough sets are used to obtain decision rules by reducing attributes and objects. However, different reduction methods correspond to different rules, which will influence the decision result. To solve this problem, we propose a novel method for MCDM based on rough sets and a fuzzy measure in this paper. Firstly, a type of non-additive measure of attributes is presented by the importance degree in rough sets, which is a fuzzy measure and called an attribute measure. Secondly, for a decision information system, the notion of the matching degree between two objects is presented under an attribute. Thirdly, based on the notions of the attribute measure and matching degree, a Choquet integral is constructed. Moreover, a novel MCDM method is presented by the Choquet integral. Finally, the presented method is compared with other methods through a numerical example, which is used to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our method.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060275
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 276: Interval Type-3 Fuzzy Control for Automated
           Tuning of Image Quality in Televisions

    • Authors: Oscar Castillo, Juan R. Castro, Patricia Melin
      First page: 276
      Abstract: In this article, an intelligent system utilizing type-3 fuzzy logic for automated image quality tuning in televisions is presented. The tuning problem can be formulated as controlling the television imaging system to achieve the requirements of production quality. Previously, the tuning process has been carried out by experts, by manually adjusting the television imaging system on production lines to meet the quality control standards. In this approach, interval type-3 fuzzy logic is utilized with the goal of automating the tuning of televisions manufactured on production lines. An interval type-3 fuzzy approach for image tuning is proposed, so that the best image quality is obtained and, in this way, meet quality requirements. A system based on type-3 fuzzy control is implemented with good simulation results. The validation of the type-3 fuzzy approach is made by comparing the results with human experts on the process of electrical tuning of televisions. The key contribution is the utilization of type-3 fuzzy in the image tuning application, which has not been reported previously in the literature.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060276
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 277: Super Connected Direct Product of Graphs and
           Cycles

    • Authors: Jiaqiong Yin, Yingzhi Tian
      First page: 277
      Abstract: The topology of an interconnection network can be modeled by a graph G=(V(G),E(G)). The connectivity of graph G is a parameter used to measure the reliability of a corresponding network. The direct product is an important graph product. This paper mainly focuses on the super connectedness of the direct product of graphs and cycles. The connectivity of G, denoted by κ(G), is the size of a minimum vertex set S⊆V(G) such that G−S is not connected or has only one vertex. The graph G is said to be super connected, simply super-κ, if every minimum vertex cut is the neighborhood of a vertex with minimum degree. The direct product of two graphs G and H, denoted by G×H, is the graph with vertex set V(G×H)=V(G)×V(H) and edge set E(G×H)={(u1,v1)(u2,v2) u1u2∈E(G),v1v2∈E(H)}. In this paper, we give some sufficient conditions for the direct product G×Cn to be super connected, where Cn is the cycle on n vertices. Furthermore, those sufficient conditions are the best possible.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060277
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 278: On the Laplacian, the Kirchhoff Index, and the
           Number of Spanning Trees of the Linear Pentagonal Derivation Chain

    • Authors: Yue Tu, Xiaoling Ma, Yuqing Zhang, Junyu Ren
      First page: 278
      Abstract: Let Pn be a pentagonal chain with 2n pentagons in which two pentagons with two edges in common can be regarded as adding one vertex and two edges to a hexagon. Thus, the linear pentagonal derivation chains QPn represent the graph obtained by attaching four-membered rings to every two pentagons of Pn. In this article, the Laplacian spectrum of QPn consisting of the eigenvalues of two symmetric matrices is determined. Next, the formulas for two graph invariants that can be represented by the Laplacian spectrum, namely, the Kirchhoff index and the number of spanning trees, are studied. Surprisingly, the Kirchhoff index is almost one half of the Wiener index of a linear pentagonal derivation chain QPn.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060278
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 279: New Inequalities and Generalizations for
           Symmetric Means Induced by Majorization Theory

    • Authors: Huan-Nan Shi, Wei-Shih Du
      First page: 279
      Abstract: In this paper, the authors study new inequalities and generalizations for symmetric means and give new proofs for some known results by applying majorization theory.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060279
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 280: Application of Deep Learning and Neural
           Network to Speeding Ticket and Insurance Claim Count Data

    • Authors: Jong-Min Kim, Jihun Kim, Il Do Ha
      First page: 280
      Abstract: With the popularity of big data analysis with insurance claim count data, diverse regression models for count response variable have been developed. However, there is a multicollinearlity issue with multivariate input variables to the count response regression models. Recently, deep learning and neural network models for count response have been proposed, and a Keras and Tensorflow-based deep learning model has been also proposed. To apply the deep learning and neural network models to non-normal insurance claim count data, we perform the root mean square error accuracy comparison of gradient boosting machines (a popular machine learning regression tree algorithm), principal component analysis (PCA)-based Poisson regression, PCA-based negative binomial regression, and PCA-based zero inflated poisson regression to avoid the multicollinearity of multivariate input variables with the simulated normal distribution data and the non-normal simulated data combined with normally distributed data, binary data, copula-based asymmetrical data, and two real data sets, which consist of speeding ticket and Singapore insurance claim count data.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060280
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 281: Nonoscillation and Oscillation Criteria for a
           Class of Second-Order Nonlinear Neutral Delay Differential Equations with
           Positive and Negative Coefficients

    • Authors: Rongrong Guo, Qingdao Huang, Haifeng Tian
      First page: 281
      Abstract: In this paper, we investigate some nonoscillatory and oscillatory solutions for a class of second-order nonlinear neutral delay differential equations with positive and negative coefficients. By means of the method of contraction mapping principle and some integral inequality techniques, we extend the recent results provided in the literature.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060281
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 282: The Existence of Radial Solutions to the
           Schrödinger System Containing a Nonlinear Operator

    • Authors: Guotao Wang, Zhuobin Zhang, Zedong Yang
      First page: 282
      Abstract: In this paper, we investigate a class of nonlinear Schrödinger systems containing a nonlinear operator under Osgood-type conditions. By employing the iterative technique, the existence conditions for entire positive radial solutions of the above problem are given under the cases where components μ and ν are bounded, μ and ν are blow-up, and one of the components is bounded, while the other is blow-up. Finally, we present two examples to verify our results.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060282
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 283: Controllability of a Class of Impulsive
           ψ-Caputo Fractional Evolution Equations of Sobolev Type

    • Authors: Qing Yang, Chuanzhi Bai, Dandan Yang
      First page: 283
      Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the controllability of a class of impulsive ψ-Caputo fractional evolution equations of Sobolev type in Banach spaces. Sufficient conditions are presented by two new characteristic solution operators, fractional calculus, and Schauder fixed point theorem. Our works are generalizations and continuations of the recent results about controllability of a class of impulsive ψ-Caputo fractional evolution equations. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the main results.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060283
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 284: Evaluating the Digital Transformation
           Performance of Retail by the DEA Approach

    • Authors: Ling-Jing Kao, Chih-Chou Chiu, Hung-Tse Lin, Yun-Wei Hung, Cheng-Chin Lu
      First page: 284
      Abstract: In recent years, under the impact of digitization, all industries around the world have undergone unprecedented changes. Such changes have not only altered people’s consumption behavior but have also forced enterprises to accelerate the pace of digitization and actively start digital transformation. In this study, a literature review and focus group interview (FGI) were used to develop the dimensions and criteria to assess enterprise digital transformation status. To illustrate the digital transformation criteria proposed in this research, the retail industry was used as an example to measure the overall digital transformation performance by data envelopment analysis (DEA). The results show that the poor technical efficiency demonstrated by a vendor was not only due to the gradually decreasing returns to scale of the market; a decline in pure technical efficiency was also a contributor. In addition to adjusting their production on the basis of market conditions, vendors should properly manage their internal operations and pay attention to their resource and scale allocations to prevent reductions in their pure technical efficiency.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060284
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 285: Some Generalized Euclidean Operator Radius
           Inequalities

    • Authors: Mohammad W. Alomari, Khalid Shebrawi, Christophe Chesneau
      First page: 285
      Abstract: In this work, some generalized Euclidean operator radius inequalities are established. Refinements of some well-known results are provided. Among others, some bounds in terms of the Cartesian decomposition of a given Hilbert space operator are proven.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060285
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 286: A Selection Principle and Products in
           Topological Groups

    • Authors: Marion Scheepers
      First page: 286
      Abstract: We consider the preservation under products, finite powers, and forcing of a selection-principle-based covering property of T0 topological groups. Though the paper is partly a survey, it contributes some new information: (1) The product of a strictly o-bounded group with an o-bounded group is an o-bounded group—Corollary 1. (2) In the generic extension by a finite support iteration of ℵ1 Hechler reals the product of any o-bounded group with a ground model ℵ0 bounded group is an o-bounded group—Theorem 11. (3) In the generic extension by a countable support iteration of Mathias reals the product of any o-bounded group with a ground model ℵ0 bounded group is an o-bounded group—Theorem 12.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060286
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 287: A Story of Computational Science: Colonel
           Titus’ Problem from the 17th Century

    • Authors: Trond Steihaug
      First page: 287
      Abstract: Experimentation and the evaluation of algorithms have a long history in algebra. In this paper we follow a single test example over more than 250 years. In 1685, John Wallis published A treatise of algebra, both historical and practical, containing a solution of Colonel Titus’ problem that was proposed to him around 1650. The Colonel Titus problem consists of three algebraic quadratic equations in three unknowns, which Wallis transformed into the problem of finding the roots of a fourth-order (quartic) polynomial. When Joseph Raphson published his method in 1690, he demonstrated the method on 32 algebraic equations and one of the examples was this quartic equation. Edmund Halley later used the same polynomial as an example for his new methods in 1694. Although Wallis used the method of Vietè, which is a digit–by–digit method, the more efficient methods of Halley and Raphson are clearly demonstrated in the works by Raphson and Halley. For more than 250 years the quartic equation has been used as an example in a wide range of solution methods for nonlinear equations. This paper provides an overview of the Colonel Titus problem and the equation first derived by Wallis. The quartic equation has four positive roots and the equation has been found to be very useful for analyzing the number of roots and finding intervals for the individual roots, in the Cardan–Ferrari direct approach for solving quartic equations, and in Sturm’s method of determining the number of real roots of an algebraic equation. The quartic equation, together with two other algebraic equations, have likely been the first set of test examples used to compare different iteration methods of solving algebraic equations.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060287
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 288: On Unique Factorization Modules: A Submodule
           Approach

    • Authors: Sri Wahyuni, Hidetoshi Marubayashi, Iwan Ernanto, I Putu Yudi Prabhadika
      First page: 288
      Abstract: Let M be a torsion-free module over an integral domain D. We define a concept of a unique factorization module in terms of v-submodules of M. If M is a unique factorization module (UFM), then D is a unique factorization domain. However, the converse situation is not necessarily to be held, and we give four different characterizations of unique factorization modules. Further, it is shown that the concept of the UFM is equivalent to Nicolas’s UFM, which is defined in terms of irreducible elements of D and M.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060288
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 289: Pipeline Corrosion Prediction Using the Grey
           Model and Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    • Authors: Shiguo Li, Hualong Du, Qiuyu Cui, Pengfei Liu, Xin Ma, He Wang
      First page: 289
      Abstract: Pipeline corrosion prediction (PCP) is an important technology for pipeline maintenance and management. How to accurately predict pipeline corrosion is a challenging task. To address the drawback of the poor prediction accuracy of the grey model (GM(1,1)), this paper proposes a method named ETGM(1,1)-RABC. The proposed method consists of two parts. First, the exponentially transformed grey model (ETGM(1,1)) is an improvement of the GM(1,1), in which exponential transformation (ET) is used to preprocess the raw data. Next, dynamic coefficients, instead of background fixed coefficients, are optimized by the reformative artificial bee colony (RABC) algorithm, which is a variation of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm. Experiments are performed on actual pipe corrosion data, and four different methods are included in the comparative study, including GM(1,1), ETGM(1,1), and three ETGM(1,1)-ABC variants. The results show that the proposed method proves to be superior for the PCP in terms of Taylor diagram and absolute error.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060289
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 290: Some Cardinal and Geometric Properties of the
           Space of Permutation Degree

    • Authors: Ljubiša D. R. Kočinac, Farkhod G. Mukhamadiev, Anvar K. Sadullaev
      First page: 290
      Abstract: This paper is devoted to the investigation of cardinal invariants such as the hereditary density, hereditary weak density, and hereditary Lindelöf number. The relation between the spread and the extent of the space SP2(R,τ(A)) of permutation degree of the Hattori space is discussed. In particular, it is shown that the space SP2(R,τS) contains a closed discrete subset of cardinality c. Moreover, it is shown that the functor SPGn preserves the homotopy and the retraction of topological spaces. In addition, we prove that if the spaces X and Y are homotopically equivalent, then the spaces SPGnX and SPGnY are also homotopically equivalent. As a result, it has been proved that the functor SPGn is a covariant homotopy functor.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060290
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 291: Characterizations of Matrix Equalities for
           Generalized Inverses of Matrix Products

    • Authors: Yongge Tian
      First page: 291
      Abstract: This paper considers how to construct and describe matrix equalities that are composed of algebraic operations of matrices and their generalized inverses. We select a group of known and new reverse-order laws for generalized inverses of several matrix products and derive various necessary and sufficient conditions for them to hold using the matrix rank method and the block matrix method.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060291
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 292: Multitask Learning Based on Least Squares
           Support Vector Regression for Stock Forecast

    • Authors: Heng-Chang Zhang, Qing Wu, Fei-Yan Li, Hong Li
      First page: 292
      Abstract: Various factors make stock market forecasting difficult and arduous. Single-task learning models fail to achieve good results because they ignore the correlation between multiple related tasks. Multitask learning methods can capture the cross-correlation among subtasks and achieve a satisfactory learning effect by training all tasks simultaneously. With this motivation, we assume that the related tasks are close enough to share a common model whereas having their own independent models. Based on this hypothesis, we propose a multitask learning least squares support vector regression (MTL-LS-SVR) algorithm, and an extension, EMTL-LS-SVR. Theoretical analysis shows that these models can be converted to linear systems. A Krylov-Cholesky algorithm is introduced to determine the optimal solutions of the models. We tested the proposed models by applying them to forecasts of the Chinese stock market index trend and the stock prices of five stated-owned banks. The experimental results demonstrate their validity.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060292
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 293: Parameter Estimation of the Exponentiated
           Pareto Distribution Using Ranked Set Sampling and Simple Random Sampling

    • Authors: Hossein Jabbari Khamnei, Ieva Meidute-Kavaliauskiene, Masood Fathi, Asta Valackienė, Shahryar Ghorbani
      First page: 293
      Abstract: In this paper, we have considered that ranked set sampling is able to estimate the parameters of exponentiated Pareto distribution. The method with which the maximum likelihood estimators for the parameters of exponentiated Pareto distribution is studied is numerical since there is no presence or possibility of a closed-form at the hands of estimators or any other intellectual. The numerical approach is a well-suited one for this study as there has been struggles in achieving it with any other technique. In order to compare the different sampling methods, simulation studies are performed as the main technique. As for the illustrative purposes, analysis of a simulated dataset is desired for the objective of the presentation. The conclusion that we can reach based on these is that the estimators based on the ranked set sample have far better efficiency than the simple random sample at the same sample size.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060293
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 294: RbfDeSolver: A Software Tool to Approximate
           Differential Equations Using Radial Basis Functions

    • Authors: Ioannis G. Tsoulos, Alexandros Tzallas, Evangelos Karvounis
      First page: 294
      Abstract: A new method for solving differential equations is presented in this work. The solution of the differential equations is done by adapting an artificial neural network, RBF, to the function under study. The adaptation of the parameters of the network is done with a hybrid genetic algorithm. In addition, this text presents in detail the software developed for the above method in ANSI C++. The user can code the underlying differential equation either in C++ or in Fortran format. The method was applied to a wide range of test functions of different types and the results are presented and analyzed in detail.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060294
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 295: Existence Results for a Multipoint Fractional
           Boundary Value Problem in the Fractional Derivative Banach Space

    • Authors: Djalal Boucenna, Amar Chidouh, Delfim F. M. Torres
      First page: 295
      Abstract: We study a class of nonlinear implicit fractional differential equations subject to nonlocal boundary conditions expressed in terms of nonlinear integro-differential equations. Using the Krasnosel’skii fixed-point theorem we prove, via the Kolmogorov–Riesz criteria, the existence of solutions. The existence results are established in a specific fractional derivative Banach space and they are illustrated by two numerical examples.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060295
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 296: Public Opinion Spread and Guidance Strategy
           under COVID-19: A SIS Model Analysis

    • Authors: Ge You, Shangqian Gan, Hao Guo, Abd Alwahed Dagestani
      First page: 296
      Abstract: Both the suddenness and seriousness of COVID-19 have caused a variety of public opinions on social media, which becomes the focus of social attention. This paper aims to analyze the strategies regarding the prevention and guidance of public opinion spread under COVID-19 in social networks from the perspective of the emotional characteristics of user texts. Firstly, a model is established to mine text-based emotional tendency based on the Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) model. In addition, a mathematical and simulation analysis of the model is presented. Finally, an empirical study based on the data of microblog contents regarding COVID-19 public opinion in the Sina Weibo platform from January to March 2020 is conducted to analyze the factors that boost and hinder COVID-19 public opinion. The results show that when positive emotion is higher than 0.8, the spread of negative public opinion can be blocked. When the negative emotion and neutral emotion are both below 0.2, the spread of COVID-19 public opinion would be weakened. To accurately guide public opinion on COVID-19, the government authorities should establish a public opinion risk evaluation and an early warning mechanism. Platforms should strengthen public opinion supervision and users should improve their media literacy. The media organizations should insist on positive reporting, improve social cohesion, and guide the trend of public opinion.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060296
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 297: Context-Free Grammars for Several Triangular
           Arrays

    • Authors: Roberta Rui Zhou, Jean Yeh, Fuquan Ren
      First page: 297
      Abstract: In this paper, we present a unified grammatical interpretation of the numbers that satisfy a kind of four-term recurrence relation, including the Bell triangle, the coefficients of modified Hermite polynomials, and the Bessel polynomials. Additionally, as an application, a criterion for real zeros of row-generating polynomials is also presented.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060297
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 298: Dynamic Behaviors of an Obligate Commensal
           Symbiosis Model with Crowley–Martin Functional Responses

    • Authors: Lili Xu, Yalong Xue, Xiangdong Xie, Qifa Lin
      First page: 298
      Abstract: A two species obligate commensal symbiosis model with Crowley–Martin functional response was proposed and studied in this paper. For an autonomous case, local and global dynamic behaviors of the system were investigated, respectively. The conditions that ensure the existence of the positive equilibrium is coincidentla to the conditions of global stability of a positive equilibrium. For nonautonomous cases, persistent and extinction properties of the system are investigated.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060298
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 299: A New Survey of Measures of Noncompactness and
           Their Applications

    • Authors: Moosa Gabeleh, Eberhard Malkowsky, Mohammad Mursaleen, Vladimir Rakočević
      First page: 299
      Abstract: We present a survey of the theory of measures of noncompactness and discuss some fixed point theorems of Darbo’s type. We apply the technique of measures of noncompactness to the characterization of classes of compact operators between certain sequence spaces, in solving infinite systems of integral equations in some sequence spaces. We also present some recent results related to the existence of best proximity points (pairs) for some classes of cyclic and noncyclic condensing operators in Banach spaces equipped with a suitable measure of noncompactness. Finally, we discuss the existence of an optimal solution for systems of integro–differentials.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11060299
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 206: A Cross-Country European Efficiency
           Measurement of Maritime Transport: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    • Authors: Phi-Hung Nguyen, Thi-Ly Nguyen, Thi-Giang Nguyen, Duc-Thinh Nguyen, Thi-Hoai Tran, Hong-Cham Le, Huong-Thuy Phung
      First page: 206
      Abstract: Maritime transport, which includes shipping and port operations, is the fundamental basis of international trade and globalization. In transportation management, efficiency is critical for verifying performance and proposing the best countermeasure to meet predetermined goals. Various efforts in this field have been made to solve this problem satisfactorily. However, the significant proportion of conventional approaches are based on long-term observations and professional expertise, with only a few exceptions based on practice-based historical data. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a non-parametric technique for analyzing various output and input variables parallelly. The efficiency of maritime transport in European countries is explored using a two-stage DEA approach based on Malmquist and Epsilon-Based Measure (EBM). First, the Malmquist model analyses countries’ total productivity growth rates and their breakdown into technical efficiency (catch-up) and technology change (frontier-shift). Second, the EBM model is used to determine the efficiency and inefficiency of the maritime transportation systems in each European country. Apart from identifying the best-performing countries in specific areas over the study period (2016–2019), the results highlight that the gap in applying the EBM method to maritime transport has been successfully closed and that the emerging paradigm, when combined with the Malmquist model, can be a sustainable and appropriate evaluation model for other research areas.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050206
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 207: The Boundary Value Problem with Stationary
           Inhomogeneities for a Hyperbolic-Type Equation with a Fractional
           Derivative

    • Authors: Ludmila Vladimirovna Kirianova
      First page: 207
      Abstract: The paper presents an analytical solution of a partial differential equation of hyperbolic-type, containing both second-order partial derivatives and fractional derivatives of order below the second. Examples of applying the solution of a boundary value problem with stationary inhomogeneities for a hyperbolic-type equation with a fractional derivative in modeling the behavior of polymer concrete under the action of loads are considered.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050207
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 208: The Classification of All Singular
           Nonsymmetric Macdonald Polynomials

    • Authors: Charles F. Dunkl
      First page: 208
      Abstract: The affine Hecke algebra of type A has two parameters q,t and acts on polynomials in N variables. There are two important pairwise commuting sets of elements in the algebra: the Cherednik operators and the Jucys–Murphy elements whose simultaneous eigenfunctions are the nonsymmetric Macdonald polynomials, and basis vectors of irreducible modules of the Hecke algebra, respectively. For certain parameter values, it is possible for special polynomials to be simultaneous eigenfunctions with equal corresponding eigenvalues of both sets of operators. These are called singular polynomials. The possible parameter values are of the form qm=t−n with 2≤n≤N. For a fixed parameter, the singular polynomials span an irreducible module of the Hecke algebra. Colmenarejo and the author (SIGMA 16 (2020), 010) showed that there exist singular polynomials for each of these parameter values, they coincide with specializations of nonsymmetric Macdonald polynomials, and the isotype (a partition of N) of the Hecke algebra module is dn−1,n−1,…,n−1,r for some d≥1. In the present paper, it is shown that there are no other singular polynomials.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050208
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 209: Applications of Confluent Hypergeometric
           Function in Strong Superordination Theory

    • Authors: Georgia Irina Oros, Gheorghe Oros, Ancuța Maria Rus
      First page: 209
      Abstract: In the research presented in this paper, confluent hypergeometric function is embedded in the theory of strong differential superordinations. In order to proceed with the study, the form of the confluent hypergeometric function is adapted taking into consideration certain classes of analytic functions depending on an extra parameter previously introduced related to the theory of strong differential subordination and superordination. Operators previously defined using confluent hypergeometric function, namely Kummer–Bernardi and Kummer–Libera integral operators, are also adapted to those classes and strong differential superordinations are obtained for which they are the best subordinants. Similar results are obtained regarding the derivatives of the operators. The examples presented at the end of the study are proof of the applicability of the original results.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050209
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 210: Randić Index of a Line Graph

    • Authors: Jiangfu Zhang, Baoyindureng Wu
      First page: 210
      Abstract: The Randić index of a graph G, denoted by R(G), is defined as the sum of 1/d(u)d(v) for all edges uv of G, where d(u) denotes the degree of a vertex u in G. In this note, we show that R(L(T))>n4 for any tree T of order n≥3. A number of relevant conjectures are proposed.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050210
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 211: Extended Form of Robust Solutions for
           Uncertain Continuous-Time Linear Programming Problems with Time-Dependent
           Matrices

    • Authors: Hsien-Chung Wu
      First page: 211
      Abstract: An extended form of robust continuous-time linear programming problem with time-dependent matrices is formulated in this paper. This complicated problem is studied theoretically in this paper. We also design a computational procedure to solve this problem numerically. The desired data that appeared in the problem are considered to be uncertain quantities, which are treated according to the concept of robust optimization. A discretization problem of the robust counterpart is formulated and solved to obtain the ϵ-optimal solutions.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050211
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 212: Finite Time Blowup in a Fourth-Order
           Dispersive Wave Equation with Nonlinear Damping and a Non-Local Source

    • Authors: Stella Vernier-Piro
      First page: 212
      Abstract: In this work, we consider a class of initial boundary value problems for fourth-order dispersive wave equations with superlinear damping and non-local source terms as well as time-dependent coefficients in Ω×(t>0), where Ω is a bounded domain in RN and N≥2. We prove that there exists a safe time interval of existence in the solution [0,T], with T being a lower bound of the blowup time t*. Moreover, we find an explicit lower bound of t*, assuming the coefficients are positive constants.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050212
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 213: Change-Point Detection in Homogeneous Segments
           of COVID-19 Daily Infection

    • Authors: Segun Light Jegede, Krzysztof J. Szajowski
      First page: 213
      Abstract: Modeling the number of individuals in different states is a principal tool in the event of an epidemic. The natural transition of individuals between possible states often includes deliberate interference such as isolation or vaccination. Thus, the mathematical model may need to be re-calibrated due to various factors. The model considered in this paper is the SIRD epidemic model. An additional parameter is the moment of changing the description of the phenomenon when the parameters of the model change and the change is not pre-specified. Detecting and estimating the moment of change in real time is the subject of statistical research. A sequential (online) approach was applied using the Bayesian shift point detection algorithm and trimmed exact linear time. We show how methods of analysis behave in different instances. These methods are verified on simulated data and applied to pandemic data of a selected European country. The simulation is performed with a social network graph to obtain a practical representation ability. The epidemiological data used come from the territory of Poland and concern the COVID-19 epidemic in Poland. The results show satisfactory detection of the moments where the applied model needs to be verified and re-calibrated. These show the effectiveness of the proposed combination of methods.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050213
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 214: Cheap Control in a Non-Scalarizable
           Linear-Quadratic Pursuit-Evasion Game: Asymptotic Analysis

    • Authors: Vladimir Turetsky, Valery Y. Glizer
      First page: 214
      Abstract: In this work, a finite-horizon zero-sum linear-quadratic differential game, modeling a pursuit-evasion problem, was considered. In the game’s cost function, the cost of the control of the minimizing player (the minimizer/the pursuer) was much smaller than the cost of the control of the maximizing player (the maximizer/the evader) and the cost of the state variable. This smallness was expressed by a positive small multiplier (a small parameter) of the square of the L2-norm of the minimizer’s control in the cost function. Parameter-free sufficient conditions for the existence of the game’s solution (the players’ optimal state-feedback controls and the game value), valid for all sufficiently small values of the parameter, were presented. The boundedness (with respect to the small parameter) of the time realizations of the optimal state-feedback controls along the corresponding game’s trajectory was established. The best achievable game value from the minimizer’s viewpoint was derived. A relation between solutions of the original cheap control game and the game that was obtained from the original one by replacing the small minimizer’s control cost with zero, was established. An illustrative real-life example is presented.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050214
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 215: Countermeasures of Double Carbon Targets in
           Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region by Using Grey Model

    • Authors: Zhenxiu Liu, Meng Wang, Lifeng Wu
      First page: 215
      Abstract: In this paper, by combining the development characteristics of the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, the fractional accumulation GM (1,1) model was used to predict the peak time of the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, and the carbon peak year was predicted to be 2044. Then, according to the urbanization level and the proportion of the added value of the secondary industry in different regions in 2018, regions were divided into four categories: the first to reach the peak, the peak on schedule (easy), the peak on schedule (general), and the peak may be delayed. The Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region plans to achieve a carbon peak by 2044 and proposes specific suggestions to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060 to achieve coordinated development of Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei and high-quality development.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050215
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 216: Interval-Valued Pseudo Overlap Functions and
           Application

    • Authors: Rong Liang, Xiaohong Zhang
      First page: 216
      Abstract: A class of interval-valued OWA operators can be constructed from interval-valued overlap functions with interval-valued weights, which plays an important role in solving multi-attribute decision making (MADM) problems considering interval numbers as attribute values. Among them, when the importance of multiple attributes is different, it can only be calculated by changing the interval-valued weights. In fact, we can directly abandon the commutativity and extend the interval-valued overlap functions (IO) to interval-valued pseudo overlap functions (IPO) so that function itself implies the weights of the attributes, thus there is no need to calculate the OWA operator, which is more flexible in applications. In addition, the similar generalization on interval-valued pseudo t-norms obtained from interval-valued t-norms further enhances the feasibility of our study. In this paper, we mainly present the notion of interval-valued pseudo overlap functions and a few their qualities, including migrativity and homogeneity, and give some construction theorems and specific examples. Then, we propose the definitions of residuated implications induced by interval-valued pseudo overlap functions, give their equivalent forms, and prove some properties satisfied by them. Finally, two application examples about IPO to interval-valued multi-attribute decision making (I-MADM) are described. The results show that interval-valued pseudo overlap functions can not only be used to obtain the same rankings, but also be more flexible, simple and widely used.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050216
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 217: A Symplectic Algorithm for Constrained
           Hamiltonian Systems

    • Authors: Jingli Fu, Lijun Zhang, Shan Cao, Chun Xiang, Weijia Zao
      First page: 217
      Abstract: In this paper, a symplectic algorithm is utilized to investigate constrained Hamiltonian systems. However, the symplectic method cannot be applied directly to the constrained Hamiltonian equations due to the non-canonicity. We firstly discuss the canonicalization method of the constrained Hamiltonian systems. The symplectic method is used to constrain Hamiltonian systems on the basis of the canonicalization, and then the numerical simulation of the system is carried out. An example is presented to illustrate the application of the results. By using the symplectic method of constrained Hamiltonian systems, one can solve the singular dynamic problems of nonconservative constrained mechanical systems, nonholonomic constrained mechanical systems as well as physical problems in quantum dynamics, and also available in many electromechanical coupled systems.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050217
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 218: On the Group of Absolutely Summable Sequences

    • Authors: Lydia Außenhofer
      First page: 218
      Abstract: For an abelian topological group G, the sequence group ℓ1(G) of all absolutely summable sequences in G is studied. It is shown that ℓ1(G) is a Pontryagin reflexive group in case G is a reflexive metrizable group or an LCA group. Further, ℓ1(G) has the Schur property if and only if G has it and ℓ1(G) is a Schwartz group if and only if G is linearly topologized.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050218
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 219: Characterizing Forbidden Pairs for the
           Edge-Connectivity of a Connected Graph to Be Its Minimum Degree

    • Authors: Junfeng Du, Ziwen Huang, Liming Xiong
      First page: 219
      Abstract: Let H be a class of given graphs. A graph G is said to be H-free if G contains no induced copies of H for any H∈H. In this article, we characterize all connected subgraph pairs {R,S} guranteeing the edge-connectivity of a connected {R,S}-free graph to have the same minimum degree. Our result is a supplement of Wang et al. Furthermore, we obtain a relationship of forbidden sets when those general parameters have the recurrence relation.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050219
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 220: New Fuzzy Extensions on Binomial Distribution

    • Authors: Gia Sirbiladze, Janusz Kacprzyk, Teimuraz Manjafarashvili, Bidzina Midodashvili, Bidzina Matsaberidze
      First page: 220
      Abstract: The use of discrete probabilistic distributions is relevant to many practical tasks, especially in present-day situations where the data on distribution are insufficient and expert knowledge and evaluations are the only instruments for the restoration of probability distributions. However, in such cases, uncertainty arises, and it becomes necessary to build suitable approaches to overcome it. In this direction, this paper discusses a new approach of fuzzy binomial distributions (BDs) and their extensions. Four cases are considered: (1) When the elementary events are fuzzy. Based on this information, the probabilistic distribution of the corresponding fuzzy-random binomial variable is calculated. The conditions of restrictions on this distribution are obtained, and it is shown that these conditions depend on the ratio of success and failure of membership levels. The formulas for the generating function (GF) of the constructed distribution and the first and second order moments are also obtained. The Poisson distribution is calculated as the limit case of a fuzzy-random binomial experiment. (2) When the number of successes is of a fuzzy nature and is represented as a fuzzy subset of the set of possible success numbers. The formula for calculating the probability of convolution of binomial dependent fuzzy events is obtained, and the corresponding GF is built. As a result, the scheme for calculating the mathematical expectation of the number of fuzzy successes is defined. (3) When the spectrum of the extended distribution is fuzzy. The discussion is based on the concepts of a fuzzy-random event and its probability, as well as the notion of fuzzy random events independence. The fuzzy binomial upper distribution is specifically considered. In this case the fuzziness is represented by the membership levels of the binomial and non-binomial events of the complete failure complex. The GF of the constructed distribution and the first-order moment of the distribution are also calculated. Sufficient conditions for the existence of a limit distribution and a Poisson distribution are also obtained. (4) As is known, based on the analysis of lexical material, the linguistic spectrum of the statistical process of word-formation becomes two-component when switching to vocabulary. For this, two variants of the hybrid fuzzy-probabilistic process are constructed, which can be used in the analysis of the linguistic spectrum of the statistical process of word-formation. A fuzzy extension of standard Fuchs distribution is also presented, where the fuzziness is reflected in the growing numbers of failures. For better representation of the results, the examples of fuzzy BD are illustrated in each section.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050220
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 221: Aspects of Differential Calculus Related to
           Infinite-Dimensional Vector Bundles and Poisson Vector Spaces

    • Authors: Helge Glöckner
      First page: 221
      Abstract: We prove various results in infinite-dimensional differential calculus that relate the differentiability properties of functions and associated operator-valued functions (e.g., differentials). The results are applied in two areas: (1) in the theory of infinite-dimensional vector bundles, to construct new bundles from given ones, such as dual bundles, topological tensor products, infinite direct sums, and completions (under suitable hypotheses); (2) in the theory of locally convex Poisson vector spaces, to prove continuity of the Poisson bracket and continuity of passage from a function to the associated Hamiltonian vector field. Topological properties of topological vector spaces are essential for the studies, which allow the hypocontinuity of bilinear mappings to be exploited. Notably, we encounter kR-spaces and locally convex spaces E such that E×E is a kR-space.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050221
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 222: Exact Criteria for the Existence of a Moving
           Singular Point in a Complex Domain for a Nonlinear Differential
           Third-Degree Equation with a Polynomial Seventh-Degree Right-Hand Side

    • Authors: Victor Orlov, Magomedyusuf Gasanov
      First page: 222
      Abstract: Earlier, the authors formulated and proved interval and point criteria for the existence of moving singular points of a third-degree nonlinear differential equation with a polynomial seventh-degree right-hand side for a real domain. For the complex domain, these criteria are associated with specificity of transition to phase spaces. Necessary as well as necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of moving singular points are obtained. The results of these studies are the basis of the algorithm for obtaining moving singular points of nonlinear differential equations in the complex domain. The results of this paper allow us to expand the classes of the studied nonlinear differential equations with moving peculiarities.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050222
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 223: Co-Training Method Based on Semi-Decoupling
           Features for MOOC Learner Behavior Prediction

    • Authors: Huanhuan Wang, Libo Xu, Zhenrui Huang, Jiagong Wang
      First page: 223
      Abstract: Facing the problem of massive unlabeled data and limited labeled samples, semi-supervised learning is favored, especially co-training. Standard co-training requires sufficiently redundant and conditionally independent dual views; however, in fact, few dual views exist that satisfy this condition. To solve this problem, we propose a co-training method based on semi-decoupling features, that is, semi-decoupling features based on a known single view and then constructing independent and redundant dual views: (1) take a small number of important features as shared features of the dual views according to the importance of the features; (2) separate the remaining features one by one or in small batches according to the correlation between the features to make “divergent” features of the dual views; (3) combine the shared features and the “divergent” features to construct dual views. In this paper, the experimental dataset was from the edX dataset jointly released by Harvard University and MIT; the evaluation metrics adopted F1, Precision, and Recall. The analysis methods included three experiments: multiple models, iterations, and hyperparameters. The experimental results show that the effect of this model on MOOC learner behavior prediction was better than the other models, and the best prediction result was obtained in iteration 2. These all verify the effectiveness and superiority of this algorithm and provide a scientific and feasible reference for the development of the future education industry.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050223
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 224: Krein’s Theorem in the Context of
           Topological Abelian Groups

    • Authors: Tayomara Borsich, Xabier Domínguez, Elena Martín-Peinador
      First page: 224
      Abstract: A topological abelian group G is said to have the quasi-convex compactness property (briefly, qcp) if the quasi-convex hull of every compact subset of G is again compact. In this paper we prove that there exist locally quasi-convex metrizable complete groups G which endowed with the weak topology associated to their character groups G∧, do not have the qcp. Thus, Krein’s Theorem, a well known result in the framework of locally convex spaces, cannot be fully extended to locally quasi-convex groups. Some features of the qcp are also studied.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050224
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 225: Tensor Product of Operators Satisfying
           Zariouh’s Property (gaz), and Stability under Perturbations

    • Authors: Elvis Aponte, Narayanapillai Jayanthi, Domingo Quiroz, Ponraj Vasanthakumar
      First page: 225
      Abstract: For bounded linear operators defined on complex infinite-dimensional Banach space, H. Zariouh, in an article (Property (gz) for bounded linear operators, (2013)) introduced and studied the property (gaz). In this study, through techniques using the local spectral theory of operators, we discover the sufficient conditions that allow the transfer of the property (gaz) from two tensor factors T and S to their tensor product T⊗S. The stability of the property (gaz) in the tensor product under perturbations is also investigated. The theory is exemplified by considering suitable classes of operators such as shift operators, convolution operators, and m-invertible contractions.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050225
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 226: A Note on the Reverse Order Law for g-Inverse
           of Operator Product

    • Authors: Yingying Qin, Zhiping Xiong
      First page: 226
      Abstract: The generalized inverse has many important applications in aspects of the theoretical research of matrices and statistics. One of the core problems of the generalized inverse is finding the necessary and sufficient conditions of the reverse order laws for the generalized inverse of the operator product. In this paper, we study the reverse order law for the g-inverse of an operator product T1T2T3 using the technique of matrix form of bounded linear operators. In particular, some necessary and sufficient conditions for the inclusion T3{1}T2{1}T1{1} ⊆ (T1T2T3){1} is presented. Moreover, some finite dimensional results are extended to infinite dimensional settings.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050226
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 227: Some Generalizations of the Jensen-Type
           Inequalities with Applications

    • Authors: Mirna Rodić
      First page: 227
      Abstract: Motivated by some results about reverses of the Jensen inequality for positive measure, in this paper we give generalizations of those results for real Stieltjes measure dλ which is not necessarily positive using several Green functions. Utilizing these results we define some new mean value theorems of Lagrange and Cauchy types, and derive some new Cauchy-type means.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050227
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 228: A Two-Stage Multi-Criteria Supplier Selection
           Model for Sustainable Automotive Supply Chain under Uncertainty

    • Authors: Thanh-Tuan Dang, Ngoc-Ai-Thy Nguyen, Van-Thanh-Tien Nguyen, Le-Thanh-Hieu Dang
      First page: 228
      Abstract: Sustainable supplier selection (SSS) is gaining popularity as a practical method to supply chain sustainability among academics and practitioners. However, in addition to balancing economic, social, and environmental factors, the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the selection of long-term suppliers to ensure sustainable supply chains, recover better from the pandemic and effectively respond to any future unprecedented crises. The purpose of this study is to assess and choose a possible supplier based on their capability to adapt to the COVID-19 epidemic in a sustainable manner. For this assessment, a framework based on multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) is provided that integrates spherical fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process (SF-AHP) and grey Complex Proportional Assessment (G-COPRAS), in which spherical fuzzy sets and grey numbers are used to express the ambiguous linguistic evaluation statements of experts. In the first stage, the evaluation criteria system is identified through a literature review and experts’ opinions. The SF-AHP is then used to determine the criteria weights. Finally, the G-COPRAS method is utilized to select sustainable suppliers. A case study in the automotive industry in Vietnam is presented to demonstrate the proposed approach’s effectiveness. From the SF-AHP findings, “quality”, “use of personal protective equipment”, “cost/price”, “safety and health practices and wellbeing of suppliers”, and “economic recovery programs” have been ranked as the five most important criteria. From G-COPRAS analysis, THACO Parts (Supplier 02) is the best supplier. A sensitivity study was also conducted to verify the robustness of the proposed model, in which the priority rankings of the best suppliers are very similar. For long-term development and increased competitiveness, industrial businesses must stress the integration of response mechanisms during SSS implementation in the COVID-19 epidemic, according to the findings. This will result in significant cost and resource savings, as well as reduced environmental consequences and a long-term supply chain, independent of the crisis.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050228
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 229: The Possibility of Combining and Implementing
           Deep Neural Network Compression Methods

    • Authors: Bratislav Predić, Uroš Vukić, Muzafer Saračević, Darjan Karabašević, Dragiša Stanujkić
      First page: 229
      Abstract: In the paper, the possibility of combining deep neural network (DNN) model compression methods to achieve better compression results was considered. To compare the advantages and disadvantages of each method, all methods were applied to the ResNet18 model for pretraining to the NCT-CRC-HE-100K dataset while using CRC-VAL-HE-7K as the validation dataset. In the proposed method, quantization, pruning, weight clustering, QAT (quantization-aware training), preserve cluster QAT (hereinafter PCQAT), and distillation were performed for the compression of ResNet18. The final evaluation of the obtained models was carried out on a Raspberry Pi 4 device using the validation dataset. The greatest model compression result on the disk was achieved by applying the PCQAT method, whose application led to a reduction in size of the initial model by as much as 45 times, whereas the greatest model acceleration result was achieved via distillation on the MobileNetV2 model. All methods led to the compression of the initial size of the model, with a slight loss in the model accuracy or an increase in the model accuracy in the case of QAT and weight clustering. INT8 quantization and knowledge distillation also led to a significant decrease in the model execution time.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050229
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 230: Evaluation of Digital Marketing Technologies
           with Fuzzy Linguistic MCDM Methods

    • Authors: Ngo Quang Trung, Nguyen Van Thanh
      First page: 230
      Abstract: Technology is becoming the tool that changes how people live every day, and the marketing strategies of businesses are also gradually shifting to the industry 4.0 mindset of constant growth and development. Digital marketing has changed human habits of information accessibility, determined their interactions, and witnessed the birth of a variety of new marketing technologies. Marketers are creating digital marketing products and services that enhance the experience for consumers, products, and services that are also delivered through high digital marketing networks. As a result, data sources become more abundant and allow consumers to have more choices. All products, services, technologies, and data are increasingly meeting the needs of consumers, thereby confirming the effectiveness of digital marketing in today’s market. However, the evaluation and selection of digital marketing technology is very complex since it has many conflicting criteria and goals. The multi-criteria decision-making model (MCDM) is a powerful technique widely used for solving this type of problem. Thus, the author proposed a fuzzy linguistic MCDM method for evaluation of digital marketing technologies. After determining the evaluation criteria and alternatives, two MCDM methods, including Spherical Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (SF-AHP) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), are used in the evaluation and selection of digital marketing technologies procedure. Finally, an application is present to demonstrate the potential use of the proposed methodology. The main contribution of this study is to propose a Spherical fuzzy MCDM model to support planners and decision makers in the digital marketing technology evaluation and selection processes. A case study is also performed to showcase the feasibility of the proposed approach.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050230
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 231: Taylor’s Formula for Generalized
           Weighted Fractional Derivatives with Nonsingular Kernels

    • Authors: Houssine Zine, El Mehdi Lotfi, Delfim F. M. Torres, Noura Yousfi
      First page: 231
      Abstract: We prove a new Taylor’s theorem for generalized weighted fractional calculus with nonsingular kernels. The proof is based on the establishment of new relations for nth-weighted generalized fractional integrals and derivatives. As an application, new mean value theorems for generalized weighted fractional operators are obtained. Direct corollaries allow one to obtain the recent Taylor’s and mean value theorems for Caputo–Fabrizio, Atangana–Baleanu–Caputo (ABC) and weighted ABC derivatives.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050231
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 232: Modeling Preferences through Personality and
           Satisfaction to Guide the Decision Making of a Virtual Agent

    • Authors: Jorge Castro-Rivera, María Lucila Morales-Rodríguez, Nelson Rangel-Valdez, Claudia Gómez-Santillán, Luciano Aguilera-Vázquez
      First page: 232
      Abstract: Satisfaction is relevant for decision makers (DM, Decision Makers). Satisfaction is the feeling produced in individuals by executing actions to satisfy their needs, for example, the payment of debts, jobs, or academic achievements, and the acquisition of goods or services. In the satisfaction literature, some theories model the satisfaction of individuals from job and customer approaches. However, considering personality elements to influence satisfaction and define preferences in strategies that optimize decision making provides the unique characteristics of a DM. These characteristics favor the scope of solutions closer to the satisfaction expectation. Satisfaction theories do not include specific elements of personality and preferences, so integrating these elements will offer more efficient decisions in computable models. In this work, a model of satisfaction with personality characteristics that influence the preferences of a DM is proposed. The proposed model is integrated into a preference-based optimizer that improves the decision-making process of a Virtual Decision Maker (VDM) in an optimization context. The optimization context addressed in this work is the product selection process within a food product shopping problem. An experimental design is proposed that compares two configurations that represent the cognitive part of an agent’s decision process to validate the operation of the proposed model in the context of optimization: (1) satisfaction, personality, and preferences, and (2) personality and preferences. The results show that considering satisfaction and personality in combination with preferences provides solutions closer to the interests of an individual, reflecting a more realistic behavior. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that it is possible to create a configurable model that allows adapting to different aptitudes and reflecting them in a computable model.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050232
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 233: Some Upper Bounds for RKHS Approximation by
           Bessel Functions

    • Authors: Mingdang Tian, Baohuai Sheng, Shuhua Wang
      First page: 233
      Abstract: A reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) approximation problem arising from learning theory is investigated. Some K-functionals and moduli of smoothness with respect to RKHSs are defined with Fourier–Bessel series and Fourier–Bessel transforms, respectively. Their equivalent relation is shown, with which the upper bound estimate for the best RKHS approximation is provided. The convergence rate is bounded with the defined modulus of smoothness, which shows that the RKHS approximation can attain the same approximation ability as that of the Fourier–Bessel series and Fourier–Bessel transform. In particular, it is shown that for a RKHS produced by the Bessel operator, the convergence rate sums up to the bound of a corresponding convolution operator approximation. The investigations show some new applications of Bessel functions. The results obtained can be used to bound the approximation error in learning theory.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050233
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 234: Investigation into the Explicit Solutions of
           the Integrable (2+1)-Dimensional Maccari System via the Variational
           Approach

    • Authors: Kang-Jia Wang, Jing Si
      First page: 234
      Abstract: In this paper, the integrable (2+1)-dimensional Maccari system (MS), which can model many complex phenomena in hydrodynamics, plasma physics and nonlinear optics, is investigated by the variational approach (VA). This proposed approach that based on the variational theory and Ritz-like method can construct the explicit solutions via the stationary conditions only taking two steps. Finally, the dynamic behaviors of the solutions are exhibited by choosing the appropriate parameters through the 3-D and density plots. It can be seen that the proposed method is concise and straightforward, and can be adopted to study the travelling wave theory in physics.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050234
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 235: Projective Integration for Hyperbolic Shallow
           Water Moment Equations

    • Authors: Amrita Amrita, Julian Koellermeier
      First page: 235
      Abstract: In free surface flows, shallow water models simplify the flow conditions by assuming a constant velocity profile over the water depth. Recently developed Shallow Water Moment Equations allow for variations of the velocity profile at the expense of a more complex PDE system. The resulting equations can become stiff depending on the friction parameters, which leads to severe time step constraints of standard numerical schemes. In this paper, we apply Projective Integration schemes to stiff Shallow Water Moment Equations to overcome the time step constraints in the stiff regime and accelerate the numerical computations while still achieving high accuracy. In different dam break and smooth wave test cases, we obtain a speedup of up to 55 with respect to standard schemes.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050235
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 236: Bounds for the Neuman–Sándor Mean
           in Terms of the Arithmetic and Contra-Harmonic Means

    • Authors: Wen-Hui Li, Peng Miao, Bai-Ni Guo
      First page: 236
      Abstract: In this paper, the authors provide several sharp upper and lower bounds for the Neuman–Sándor mean in terms of the arithmetic and contra-harmonic means, and present some new sharp inequalities involving hyperbolic sine function and hyperbolic cosine function.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050236
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 237: Certain Subclasses of Bi-Starlike Function of
           

    • Authors: Alhanouf Alburaikan, Gangadharan Murugusundaramoorthy, Sheza M. El-Deeb
      First page: 237
      Abstract: In the present paper, we introduce new subclasses of bi-starlike and bi-convex functions of complex order associated with Erdély–Kober-type integral operator in the open unit disc and find the estimates of initial coefficients in these classes. Moreover, we obtain Fekete-Szegő inequalities for functions in these classes. Some of the significances of our results are pointed out as corollaries.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050237
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 238: An Application of the Super-SBM MAX and
           LTS(A,A,A) Models to Analyze the Business Performance of Hydropower
           Suppliers in Vietnam

    • Authors: Thi Kim Lien Nguyen, Huu Ngoan Nguyen, Van Dan Dinh, Quoc Ngu Nguyen, Van Hung Le
      First page: 238
      Abstract: As Vietnam continues to industrialize and modernize, such economic development and high-tech will require a major electrical energy source to operate the electrical equipment; hence, the hydropower plants are established and growing up to demand. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the business performance of Vietnamese hydropower suppliers by integrating the LTS(A,A,A) model of the Additive Holt-winters method in Tableau and a super-slacks-based measure (super-SBM) max model in data envelopment analysis (DEA). The LTS(A,A,A) model is applied to forecast future valuation from 2022 to 2025 based on historical time series from 2012 to 2021. Next, with the actual and predicted data, the researcher uses the super-SBM max model to calculate the business performance of these hydropower suppliers from past to future. The empirical result reveals efficient and inefficient cases to explore which hydropower suppliers can achieve the business performance in their operational process. The position of hydropower suppliers in Vietnam from past to future time is determined particularly based on their scores every year. Further, the empirical result recommends a solution to deal with inefficient cases by deducting the input excesses and raising the output shortages based on the principle of the super-SBM Max model in DEA. The finding results create an overview of the operational process with the continuing variations in each period to equip hydropower suppliers in Vietnam which will determine their future and operational orientation.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050238
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 239: Two Invariants for Geometric Mappings

    • Authors: Nenad O. Vesić, Vladislava M. Milenković, Mića S. Stanković
      First page: 239
      Abstract: Two invariants for mappings of affine connection spaces with a special form of deformation tensors are obtained in this paper. We used the methodology of Vesić to obtain the form of these invariants. At the end of this paper, we used these forms to obtain two invariants for third-type almost-geodesic mappings of symmetric affine connection.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050239
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 240: Fuzzy Caratheodory’s Theorem and Outer
           ∗-Fuzzy Measure

    • Authors: Radko Mesiar, Chenkuan Li, Abbas Ghaffari, Reza Saadati
      First page: 240
      Abstract: The goal of this paper is to introduce two new concepts ∗-fuzzy premeasure and outer ∗-fuzzy measure, and to further prove some properties, such as Caratheodory’s Theorem, as well as the unique extension of ∗-fuzzy premeasure. This theorem is remarkable for it allows one to construct a ∗-fuzzy measure by first defining it on a small algebra of sets, where its ∗-additivity could be easy to verify, and then this theorem guarantees its extension to a sigma-algebra.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050240
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 241: Retrial Queuing-Inventory Systems with Delayed
           Feedback and Instantaneous Damaging of Items

    • Authors: Agassi Melikov, Sevinj Aliyeva, Sajeev S. Nair, B. Krishna Kumar
      First page: 241
      Abstract: This paper studies a Markov model of a queuing-inventory system with primary, retrial, and feedback customers. Primary customers form a Poisson flow, and if an inventory level is positive upon their arrival, they instantly receive the items. If the inventory level is equal to zero upon arrival of a primary customer, then this customer, according to the Bernoulli scheme, either leaves the system or goes into an infinite buffer to repeat their request in the future. The rate of retrial customers is constant, and if the inventory level is zero upon arrival of a retrial customer, then this customer, according to the Bernoulli scheme, either leaves orbit or remains in orbit to repeat its request in the future. According to the Bernoulli scheme, each served primary or retrial customer either leaves the system or feedbacks into orbit to repeat their request. Destructive customers that form a Poisson flow cause damage to items. Unlike primary, retrial, and feedback customers, destructive customers do not require items, since, upon arrival of such customers, the inventory level instantly decreases by one. The system adopted one of two replenishment policies: (s, Q) or (s, S). In both policies, the lead time is a random variable that has an exponential distribution. It is shown that the mathematical model of the system under study was a two-dimensional Markov chain with an infinite state space. Algorithms for calculating the elements of the generating matrices of the constructed chains were developed, and the ergodicity conditions for both policies were found. To calculate the steady-state probabilities, a matrix-geometric method was used. Formulas were found for calculating the main performance measures of the system. The results of the numerical experiments, including the minimization of the total cost, are demonstrated.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050241
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 242: The State of the Art of Data Mining Algorithms
           for Predicting the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Keila Vasthi Cortés-Martínez, Hugo Estrada-Esquivel, Alicia Martínez-Rebollar, Yasmín Hernández-Pérez, Javier Ortiz-Hernández
      First page: 242
      Abstract: Current computer systems are accumulating huge amounts of information in several application domains. The outbreak of COVID-19 has increased rekindled interest in the use of data mining techniques for the analysis of factors that are related to the emergence of an epidemic. Data mining techniques are being used in the analysis and interpretation of information, which helps in the discovery of patterns, planning of isolation policies, and even predicting the speed of proliferation of contagion in a viral disease such as COVID-19. This research provides a comprehensive study of various data mining algorithms that are used in conjunction with epidemiological prediction models. The document considers that there is an opportunity to improve or develop tools that offer an accurate prognosis in the management of viral diseases through the use of data mining tools, based on a comparative study of 35 research papers.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050242
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axioms, Vol. 11, Pages 243: Some New Bounds for the Inverse Sum Indeg
           Energy of Graphs

    • Authors: Fengwei Li, Qingfang Ye, Hajo Broersma
      First page: 243
      Abstract: Let G be a (molecular) graph with n vertices, and di be the degree of its i-th vertex. Then, the inverse sum indeg matrix of G is the n×n matrix C(G) with entries cij=didjdi+dj, if the i-th and the j-th vertices are adjacent and 0 otherwise. Let μ1≥μ2≥…≥μn be the eigenvalues of C arranged in order. The inverse sum indeg energy of G, εisi(G) can be represented as ∑j=1n μi . In this paper, we establish several novel upper and lower sharp bounds on μ1 and εisi(G) via some other graph parameters, and describe the structures of the extremal graphs.
      Citation: Axioms
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/axioms11050243
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
 
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