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Authors:BARNES; JAMES S., GOH, JUN LE, SHORE, RICHARD A. Pages: 133 - 149 Abstract: Theorems of hyperarithmetic analysis (THAs) occupy an unusual neighborhood in the realms of reverse mathematics and recursion-theoretic complexity. They lie above all the fixed (recursive) iterations of the Turing jump but below ATR (and so -CA or the hyperjump). There is a long history of proof-theoretic principles which are THAs. Until the papers reported on in this communication, there was only one mathematical example. Barnes, Goh, and Shore [1] analyze an array of ubiquity theorems in graph theory descended from Halin’s [9] work on rays in graphs. They seem to be typical applications of ACA but are actually THAs. These results answer Question 30 of Montalbán’s Open Questions in Reverse Mathematics [19] and supply several other natural principles of different and unusual levels of complexity.This work led in [25] to a new neighborhood of the reverse mathematical zoo: almost theorems of hyperarithmetic analysis (ATHAs). When combined with ACA they are THAs but on their own are very weak. Denizens both mathematical and logical are provided. Generalizations of several conservativity classes (, r-, and Tanaka) are defined and these ATHAs as well as many other principles are shown to be conservative over RCA in all these senses and weak in other recursion-theoretic ways as well. These results answer a question raised by Hirschfeldt and reported in [19] by providing a long list of pairs of principles one of which is very weak over RCA but over ACA is equivalent to the other which may be strong (THA) or very strong going up a standard hierarchy and at the end being stronger than full second-order arithmetic. PubDate: 2022-03-31 DOI: 10.1017/bsl.2021.70

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Authors:BUTTON; TIM Pages: 1 - 26 Abstract: On a very natural conception of sets, every set has an absolute complement. The ordinary cumulative hierarchy dismisses this idea outright. But we can rectify this, whilst retaining classical logic. Indeed, we can develop a boolean algebra of sets arranged in well-ordered levels. I show this by presenting Boolean Level Theory, which fuses ordinary Level Theory (from Part 1) with ideas due to Thomas Forster, Alonzo Church, and Urs Oswald. BLT neatly implement Conway’s games and surreal numbers; and a natural extension of BLT is definitionally equivalent with ZF. PubDate: 2021-04-28 DOI: 10.1017/bsl.2021.15

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Authors:HÖLZL; RUPERT, PORTER, CHRISTOPHER P. Pages: 27 - 70 Abstract: In this survey we discuss work of Levin and V’yugin on collections of sequences that are non-negligible in the sense that they can be computed by a probabilistic algorithm with positive probability. More precisely, Levin and V’yugin introduced an ordering on collections of sequences that are closed under Turing equivalence. Roughly speaking, given two such collections and , is below in this ordering if is negligible. The degree structure associated with this ordering, the Levin–V’yugin degrees (or -degrees), can be shown to be a Boolean algebra, and in fact a measure algebra. We demonstrate the interactions of this work with recent results in computability theory and algorithmic randomness: First, we recall the definition of the Levin–V’yugin algebra and identify connections between its properties and classical properties from computability theory. In particular, we apply results on the interactions between notions of randomness and Turing reducibility to establish new facts about specific LV-degrees, such as the LV-degree of the collection of 1-generic sequences, that of the collection of sequences of hyperimmune degree, and those collections corresponding to various notions of effective randomness. Next, we provide a detailed explanation of a complex technique developed by V’yugin that allows the construction of semi-measures into which computability-theoretic properties can be encoded. We provide two examples of the use of this technique by explicating a result of V’yugin’s about the LV-degree of the collection of Martin-Löf random sequences and extending the result to the LV-degree of the collection of sequences of DNC degree. PubDate: 2021-09-27 DOI: 10.1017/bsl.2021.46

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Authors:HARRISON-TRAINOR; MATTHEW Pages: 71 - 103 Abstract: Every countable structure has a sentence of the infinitary logic which characterizes that structure up to isomorphism among countable structures. Such a sentence is called a Scott sentence, and can be thought of as a description of the structure. The least complexity of a Scott sentence for a structure can be thought of as a measurement of the complexity of describing the structure. We begin with an introduction to the area, with short and simple proofs where possible, followed by a survey of recent advances. PubDate: 2021-11-15 DOI: 10.1017/bsl.2021.62

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Authors:SAGI; GIL Pages: 104 - 132 Abstract: Invariance criteria are widely accepted as a means to demarcate the logical vocabulary of a language. In previous work, I proposed a framework of “semantic constraints” for model-theoretic consequence which does not rely on a strict distinction between logical and nonlogical terms, but rather on a range of constraints on models restricting the interpretations of terms in the language in different ways. In this paper I show how invariance criteria can be generalized so as to apply to semantic constraints on models. Some obviously unpalatable semantic constraints turn out to be invariant under isomorphisms. I shall connect the discussion to known counter-examples to invariance criteria for logical terms, and so the generalization will also shed light on the current existing debate on logicality. I analyse the failure of invariance to fulfil its role as a criterion for logicality, and argue that invariance conditions should best be thought of as merely methodological meta-constraints restricting the ways the model-theoretic apparatus should be used. PubDate: 2021-12-02 DOI: 10.1017/bsl.2021.67