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  Subjects -> MATHEMATICS (Total: 886 journals)
    - APPLIED MATHEMATICS (72 journals)
    - GEOMETRY AND TOPOLOGY (20 journals)
    - MATHEMATICS (656 journals)
    - MATHEMATICS (GENERAL) (42 journals)
    - NUMERICAL ANALYSIS (19 journals)
    - PROBABILITIES AND MATH STATISTICS (77 journals)

MATHEMATICS (656 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 538 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abakós     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Academic Voices : A Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Accounting Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Difference Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fixed Point Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Materials Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Pure and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Pure Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AKSIOMA Journal of Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Jabar : Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika     Open Access  
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Algebra Colloquium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Algorithmic Operations Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Algorithms     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Algorithms Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Mathematical Analysis     Open Access  
American Journal of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Mathematical Monthly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
An International Journal of Optimization and Control: Theories & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Analysis Mathematica     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales Mathematicae Silesianae     Open Access  
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales UMCS, Mathematica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis. Studia Mathematica     Open Access  
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Discrete Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University - Mathematics     Open Access  
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of West University of Timisoara - Mathematics     Open Access  
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Mathematics - A Journal of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Mathematics Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arab Journal of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arabian Journal of Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archive of Numerical Software     Open Access  
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arnold Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Satellites : The Journal of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Algebra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian-European Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Senior Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Automatic Documentation and Mathematical Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Axioms     Open Access  
Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
BIT Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
BoEM - Boletim online de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Matemática Mexicana     Hybrid Journal  
Bollettino dell'Unione Matematica Italiana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Bruno Pini Mathematical Analysis Seminar     Open Access  
Buletinul Academiei de Stiinte a Republicii Moldova. Matematica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin des Sciences Mathamatiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Communications in Mathematical Modeling and Differential Equations Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Brazilian Mathematical Society, New Series     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society     Hybrid Journal  
Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Carpathian Mathematical Publications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Catalysis in Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
CHANCE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chinese Annals of Mathematics, Series B     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Collectanea Mathematica     Hybrid Journal  
College Mathematics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Commentarii Mathematici Helvetici     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Contemporary Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Communications in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications On Pure & Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Complex Analysis and its Synergies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Complex Variables and Elliptic Equations: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Complexus     Full-text available via subscription  
Composite Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Comptes Rendus Mathematique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Methods and Function Theory     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Concrete Operators     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Confluentes Mathematici     Hybrid Journal  
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal  
Cryptography and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cuadernos de Investigación y Formación en Educación Matemática     Open Access  
Cubo. A Mathematical Journal     Open Access  
Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Demonstratio Mathematica     Open Access  
Dependence Modeling     Open Access  
Design Journal : An International Journal for All Aspects of Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Developments in Clay Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Developments in Mineral Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discrete Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science     Open Access  
Discrete Mathematics, Algorithms and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dnipropetrovsk University Mathematics Bulletin     Open Access  
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Duke Mathematical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Edited Series on Advances in Nonlinear Science and Complexity     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Graph Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Elemente der Mathematik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Energy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Ensino da Matemática em Debate     Open Access  
Entropy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ESAIM: Control Optimisation and Calculus of Variations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Combinatorics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Experimental Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Expositiones Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Mathematics and Informatics     Open Access  
Fasciculi Mathematici     Open Access  
Finite Fields and Their Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fixed Point Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover CEAS Space Journal
  [SJR: 0.221]   [H-I: 5]   [0 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1868-2510 - ISSN (Online) 1868-2502
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • A new method for optimization of low-thrust gravity-assist sequences
    • Authors: V. Maiwald
      Pages: 243 - 256
      Abstract: Abstract Recently missions like Hayabusa and Dawn have shown the relevance and benefits of low-thrust spacecraft concerning the exploration of our solar system. In general, the efficiency of low-thrust propulsion is one means of improving mission payload mass. At the same time, gravity-assist maneuvers can serve as mission enablers, as they have the capability to provide “free energy.” A combination of both, gravity-assist and low-thrust propulsion, has the potential to generally improve mission performance, i.e. planning and optimization of gravity-assist sequences for low-thrust missions is a desirable asset. Currently no established methods exist to include the gravity-assist partners as optimization variable for low-thrust missions. The present paper explains how gravity-assists are planned and optimized, including the gravity-assist partners, for high-thrust missions and discusses the possibility to transfer the established method, based on the Tisserand Criterion, to low-thrust missions. It is shown how the Tisserand Criterion needs to be adapted using a correction term for the low-thrust situation. It is explained why this necessary correction term excludes an a priori evaluation of sequences and therefore their planning and an alternate approach is proposed. Preliminary results of this method, by application of a Differential Evolution optimization algorithm, are presented and discussed, showing that the method is valid but can be improved. Two constraints on the search space are briefly presented for that aim.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-017-0147-7
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Exploratory numerical experiments with a macroscopic theory of interfacial
           interactions
    • Authors: D. Giordano; P. Solano-López; J. M. Donoso
      Pages: 257 - 277
      Abstract: Abstract Phenomenological theories of interfacial interactions are founded on the core idea to model macroscopically the thin layer that forms between media in contact as a two-dimensional continuum (surface phase or interface) characterised by physical properties per unit area; the temporal evolution of the latter is governed by surface balance equations whose set acts as bridging channel in between the governing equations of the volume phases. These theories have targeted terrestrial applications since long time and their exploitation has inspired our research programme to build up, on the same core idea, a macroscopic theory of gas–surface interactions targeting the complex phenomenology of hypersonic reentry flows as alternative to standard methods in aerothermodynamics based on accommodation coefficients. The objective of this paper is the description of methods employed and results achieved in the exploratory study that kicked off our research programme, that is, the unsteady heat transfer between two solids in contact in planar and cylindrical configurations with and without interface. It is a simple numerical-demonstrator test case designed to facilitate quick numerical calculations but, at the same time, to bring forth already sufficiently meaningful aspects relevant to thermal protection due to the formation of the interface. The paper begins with a brief introduction on the subject matter and a review of relevant literature within an aerothermodynamics perspective. Then the case is considered in which the interface is absent. The importance of tension (force per unit area) continuity as boundary condition on the same footing of heat-flux continuity is recognised and the role of the former in governing the establishment of the temperature-difference distribution over the separation surface is explicitly shown. Evidence is given that the standard temperature-continuity boundary condition is just a particular case. Subsequently the case in which the interface is formed between the solids is analysed. The coupling among the heat-transfer equations applicable in the solids and the balance equation for the surface thermodynamic energy more conveniently formulated in terms of the surface temperature is discussed. Results are illustrated and commented for planar and cylindrical configuration; they show unequivocally that the thermal-protection action of the interface turns out to be driven exclusively by thermophysical properties of the solids and of the interface; accommodation coefficients are not needed. Future work of more fluid-dynamics nature is mentioned in the concluding section.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-017-0148-6
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Sea-level transitioning dual bell nozzles
    • Authors: Ralf Stark; Chloé Génin
      Pages: 279 - 287
      Abstract: Abstract A detailed study was conducted to evaluate the impact of sea-level transitioning dual bell nozzles on the payload mass delivered into geostationary transfer orbit by Ariane 5 ECA. For this purpose, a multitude of Vulcain 2 and Vulcain 2.1 nozzle extension contours were designed. The two variable parameters were the position of the wall inflection and the constant wall pressure of the nozzle extension. Accounting for the two variable parameters, an approved analytical method was applied to predict the impact of the dual bell nozzles on the payload mass.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-017-0154-8
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Laser optics in space failure risk due to laser induced contamination
    • Authors: D. Kokkinos; H. Schroeder; K. Fleury-Frenette; M. P. Georges; W. Riede; G. Tzeremes; P. Rochus
      Pages: 153 - 162
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a study of the evolution and morphology of UV laser-induced contamination (LIC) on optical surfaces due to hydrocarbons will be presented. LIC is a major hazard for lasers that operate in vacuum conditions. Recent studies have shown that the manufacturing method and cleaning of optical components can significantly mitigate LIC growth but never stop it completely. To better understand and model the evolution of LIC the deposition rate and transmission decay were observed via a CCD camera that measured laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and energy detectors, respectively. The affected sites were observed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Phase Shift Interferometry (PSI). The LIC affected area diameters obtained by different experimental conditions were then compared with the theoretical prediction derived by the model. Very good agreement between this empirical model and the experimental results was found for the relevant parameter regimes under investigation. A novel methodology to determine the possibility of permanent optical damage due to LIC produced thermal effects is also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-016-0137-1
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Survey on the implementation and reliability of CubeSat electrical bus
           interfaces
    • Authors: Jasper Bouwmeester; Martin Langer; Eberhard Gill
      Pages: 163 - 173
      Abstract: Abstract This paper provides results and conclusions on a survey on the implementation and reliability aspects of CubeSat bus interfaces, with an emphasis on the data bus and power distribution. It provides recommendations for a future CubeSat bus standard. The survey is based on a literature study and a questionnaire representing 60 launched CubeSats and 44 to be launched CubeSats. It is found that the bus interfaces are not the main driver for mission failures. However, it is concluded that the Inter Integrated Circuit (I2C) data bus, as implemented in a great majority of the CubeSats, caused some catastrophic satellite failures and a vast amount of bus lockups. The power distribution may lead to catastrophic failures if the power lines are not protected against overcurrent. A connector and wiring standard widely implemented in CubeSats is based on the PC/104 standard. Most participants find the 104 pin connector of this standard too large. For a future CubeSat bus interface standard, it is recommended to implement a reliable data bus, a power distribution with overcurrent protection and a wiring harness with smaller connectors compared with PC/104.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-016-0138-0
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The TICTOP nozzle: a new nozzle contouring concept
    • Authors: Manuel Frey; Konrad Makowka; Thomas Aichner
      Pages: 175 - 181
      Abstract: Abstract Currently, mainly two types of nozzle contouring methods are applied in space propulsion: the truncated ideal contour (TIC) and the thrust-optimized parabola (TOP). This article presents a new nozzle contouring method called TICTOP, combining elements of TIC and TOP design. The resulting nozzle is shock-free as the TIC and therefore does not induce restricted shock separation leading to excessive side-loads. Simultaneously, the TICTOP nozzle will allow higher nozzle wall exit pressures and hence give a better separation margin than is the case for a TIC. Hence, this new nozzle type combines the good properties of TIC and TOP nozzles and eliminates their drawbacks. It is especially suited for first stage application in launchers where flow separation and side-loads are design drivers.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-016-0139-z
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Model-based software engineering for an optical navigation system for
           spacecraft
    • Authors: T. Franz; D. Lüdtke; O. Maibaum; A. Gerndt
      Abstract: Abstract The project Autonomous Terrain-based Optical Navigation (ATON) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is developing an optical navigation system for future landing missions on celestial bodies such as the moon or asteroids. Image data obtained by optical sensors can be used for autonomous determination of the spacecraft’s position and attitude. Camera-in-the-loop experiments in the Testbed for Robotic Optical Navigation (TRON) laboratory and flight campaigns with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) are performed to gather flight data for further development and to test the system in a closed-loop scenario. The software modules are executed in the C++ Tasking Framework that provides the means to concurrently run the modules in separated tasks, send messages between tasks, and schedule task execution based on events. Since the project is developed in collaboration with several institutes in different domains at DLR, clearly defined and well-documented interfaces are necessary. Preventing misconceptions caused by differences between various development philosophies and standards turned out to be challenging. After the first development cycles with manual Interface Control Documents (ICD) and manual implementation of the complex interactions between modules, we switched to a model-based approach. The ATON model covers a graphical description of the modules, their parameters and communication patterns. Type and consistency checks on this formal level help to reduce errors in the system. The model enables the generation of interfaces and unified data types as well as their documentation. Furthermore, the C++ code for the exchange of data between the modules and the scheduling of the software tasks is created automatically. With this approach, changing the data flow in the system or adding additional components (e.g., a second camera) have become trivial.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-017-0173-5
       
  • NanoVipa: a miniaturized high-resolution echelle spectrometer, for the
           monitoring of young stars from a 6U Cubesat
    • Authors: G. Bourdarot; E. Le Coarer; X. Bonfils; E. Alecian; P. Rabou; Y. Magnard
      Abstract: Abstract We introduce to astrophysical instrumentation and space optics the use of virtually imaged phased array (VIPA) to shrink échelle spectrometers and/or increase their resolution. Here, we report on both a concept of an echelle spectrometer with resolution \(R=50{,}000\) (@653nm), which fits a 6U nanosatellite platform ( \({{1{\rm U}= 10\,{\rm cm} \times 10\,{\rm cm} \times 10\,{\rm cm}}}\) ), and on our laboratory tests on a \(R=200{,}000\) demonstrator. The outline of our paper is as follows: Sect. 1 introduces our concept of a 6U payload comprising an échelle spectrometer based on the VIPA. We present also the science cases of monitoring young stars, and the wider science landscape amenable with larger telescopes. Section 2 gives a more detailed description of the VIPA and of its implementation in a cross-dispersed spectrometer. Section 3 shows the first results at \(R=200{,}000\) we already achieved at the Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG). Finally, Sect. 4 is a discussion on the remaining technical points to study.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-017-0168-2
       
  • Implementing model-based system engineering for the whole lifecycle of a
           spacecraft
    • Authors: P. M. Fischer; D. Lüdtke; C. Lange; F.-C. Roshani; F. Dannemann; A. Gerndt
      Abstract: Abstract Design information of a spacecraft is collected over all phases in the lifecycle of a project. A lot of this information is exchanged between different engineering tasks and business processes. In some lifecycle phases, model-based system engineering (MBSE) has introduced system models and databases that help to organize such information and to keep it consistent for everyone. Nevertheless, none of the existing databases approached the whole lifecycle yet. Virtual Satellite is the MBSE database developed at DLR. It has been used for quite some time in Phase A studies and is currently extended for implementing it in the whole lifecycle of spacecraft projects. Since it is unforeseeable which future use cases such a database needs to support in all these different projects, the underlying data model has to provide tailoring and extension mechanisms to its conceptual data model (CDM). This paper explains the mechanisms as they are implemented in Virtual Satellite, which enables extending the CDM along the project without corrupting already stored information. As an upcoming major use case, Virtual Satellite will be implemented as MBSE tool in the S2TEP project. This project provides a new satellite bus for internal research and several different payload missions in the future. This paper explains how Virtual Satellite will be used to manage configuration control problems associated with such a multi-mission platform. It discusses how the S2TEP project starts using the software for collecting the first design information from concurrent engineering studies, then making use of the extension mechanisms of the CDM to introduce further information artefacts such as functional electrical architecture, thus linking more and more processes into an integrated MBSE approach.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-017-0166-4
       
  • 3D thermography for improving temperature measurements in thermal vacuum
           testing
    • Authors: D. W. Robinson; R. Simpson; J. A. Parian; A. Cozzani; G. Casarosa; S. Sablerolle; H. Ertel
      Abstract: Abstract The application of thermography to thermal vacuum (TV) testing of spacecrafts is becoming a vital additional tool in the mapping of structures during thermal cycles and thermal balance (TB) testing. Many of the customers at the European Space Agency (ESA) test centre, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), The Netherlands, now make use of a thermal camera during TB-TV campaigns. This complements the use of embedded thermocouples on the structure, providing the prospect of monitoring temperatures at high resolution and high frequency. For simple flat structures with a well-defined emissivity, it is possible to determine the surface temperatures with reasonable confidence. However, for most real spacecraft and sub-systems, the complexity of the structure’s shape and its test environment creates inter-reflections from external structures. This and the additional complication of angular and spectral variations of the spacecraft surface emissivity make the interpretation of the radiation detected by a thermal camera more difficult in terms of determining a validated temperature with high confidence and well-defined uncertainty. One solution to this problem is: to map the geometry of the test specimen and thermal test environment; to model the surface temperatures and emissivity variations of the structures and materials; and to use this model to correct the apparent temperatures recorded by the thermal camera. This approach has been used by a team from NPL (National Physical Laboratory), Psi-tran, and PhotoCore, working with ESA, to develop a 3D thermography system to provide a means to validate thermal camera temperatures, based on a combination of thermal imaging photogrammetry and ray-tracing scene modeling. The system has been tested at ESTEC in ambient conditions with a dummy spacecraft structure containing a representative set of surface temperatures, shapes, and spacecraft materials, and with hot external sources and a high power lamp as a sun simulator. The results are presented here with estimated temperature measurement uncertainties and defined confidence levels according to the internationally accepted Guide to Uncertainty of Measurement as used in the IEC/ISO17025 test and measurement standard. This work is understood to represent the first application of well-understood thermal imaging theory, commercial photogrammetry software, and open-source ray-tracing software (adapted to realize the Planck function for thermal wavebands and target emission), and to produce from these elements a complete system for determining true surface temperatures for complex spacecraft-testing applications.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-017-0167-3
       
  • Spacecraft formation control using analytical finite-duration approaches
    • Authors: Mohamed Khalil Ben Larbi; Enrico Stoll
      Abstract: Abstract This paper derives a control concept for formation flight (FF) applications assuming circular reference orbits. The paper focuses on a general impulsive control concept for FF which is then extended to the more realistic case of non-impulsive thrust maneuvers. The control concept uses a description of the FF in relative orbital elements (ROE) instead of the classical Cartesian description since the ROE provide a direct insight into key aspects of the relative motion and are particularly suitable for relative orbit control purposes and collision avoidance analysis. Although Gauss’ variational equations have been first derived to offer a mathematical tool for processing orbit perturbations, they are suitable for several different applications. If the perturbation acceleration is due to a control thrust, Gauss’ variational equations show the effect of such a control thrust on the Keplerian orbital elements. Integrating the Gauss’ variational equations offers a direct relation between velocity increments in the local vertical local horizontal frame and the subsequent change of Keplerian orbital elements. For proximity operations, these equations can be generalized from describing the motion of single spacecraft to the description of the relative motion of two spacecraft. This will be shown for impulsive and finite-duration maneuvers. Based on that, an analytical tool to estimate the error induced through impulsive maneuver planning is presented. The resulting control schemes are simple and effective and thus also suitable for on-board implementation. Simulations show that the proposed concept improves the timing of the thrust maneuver executions and thus reduces the residual error of the formation control.
      PubDate: 2017-06-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-017-0162-8
       
  • On the Radau pseudospectral method: theoretical and implementation
           advances
    • Authors: Marco Sagliano; Stephan Theil; Michiel Bergsma; Vincenzo D’Onofrio; Lisa Whittle; Giulia Viavattene
      Abstract: Abstract In the last decades the theoretical development of more and more refined direct methods, together with a new generation of CPUs, led to a significant improvement of numerical approaches for solving optimal-control problems. One of the most promising class of methods is based on pseudospectral optimal control. These methods do not only provide an efficient algorithm to solve optimal-control problems, but also define a theoretical framework for linking the discrete numerical solution to the analytical one in virtue of the covector mapping theorem. However, several aspects in their implementation can be refined. In this framework SPARTAN, the first European tool based on flipped-Radau pseudospectral method, has been developed. This paper illustrates the aspects implemented for SPARTAN, which can potentially be valid for any other transcription. The novelties included in this work consist specifically of a new hybridization of the Jacobian matrix computation made of four distinct parts. These contributions include a new analytical formulation for expressing Lagrange cost function for open final-time problems, and the use of dual-number theory for ensuring exact differentiation. Moreover, a self-scaling strategy for primal and dual variables, which combines the projected-Jacobian rows normalization and the covector mapping, is described. Three concrete examples show the validity of the novelties introduced, and the quality of the results obtained with the proposed methods.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-017-0165-5
       
  • Repetitive laser ignition by optical breakdown of a LOX/H 2 rocket
           combustion chamber with multi-injector head configuration
    • Authors: Michael Börner; Chiara Manfletti; Gerhard Kroupa; Michael Oschwald
      Abstract: Abstract This paper reports on the repetitive laser ignition by optical breakdown within an experimental rocket combustion chamber. Ignition was performed by focusing a laser pulse generated by a miniaturized diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser system. The system, which delivers 33.2 mJ in 2.3 ns, was mounted directly to the combustion chamber. The ignition process and flame stabilization was investigated using an optical probe system monitoring the flame attachment across the 15 coaxial injector configuration. 1195 successful ignitions were performed proving the reliability of this laser ignition system and its applicability to the propellant combination LOX/hydrogen at temperatures of \(T_{{{\text{H}}_{ 2} }}\)  = 120–282 K and \(T_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}\)  = 110–281 K.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-017-0163-7
       
  • Laser ignition of an experimental combustion chamber with a multi-injector
           configuration at low pressure conditions
    • Authors: Michael Börner; Chiara Manfletti; Gerhard Kroupa; Michael Oschwald
      Abstract: Abstract In search of reliable and light-weight ignition systems for re-ignitable upper stage engines, a laser ignition system was adapted and tested on an experimental combustion chamber for propellant injection into low combustion chamber pressures at 50–80 mbar. The injector head pattern consisted of five coaxial injector elements. Both, laser-ablation-driven ignition and laser-plasma-driven ignition were tested for the propellant combination liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen. The 122 test runs demonstrated the reliability of the ignition system for different ignition configurations and negligible degradation due to testing. For the laser-plasma-driven scheme, minimum laser pulse energies needed for 100% ignition probability were found to decrease when increasing the distance of the ignition location from the injector faceplate with a minimum of 2.6 mJ. For laser-ablation-driven ignition, the minimum pulse energy was found to be independent of the ablation material tested and was about 1.7 mJ. The ignition process was characterized using both high-speed Schlieren and OH* emission diagnostics. Based on these findings and on the increased fiber-based pulse transport capabilities recently published, new ignition system configurations for space propulsion systems relying on fiber-based pulse delivery are formulated. If the laser ignition system delivers enough pulse energy, the laser-plasma-driven configuration represents the more versatile configuration. If the laser ignition pulse power is limited, the application of laser-ablation-driven ignition is an option to realize ignition, but implies restrictions concerning the location of ignition.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-017-0161-9
       
  • All-fiber versatile laser frequency reference at 2 μm for CO 2
           space-borne lidar applications
    • Authors: Stéphane Schilt; Renaud Matthey; Kenny Hey Tow; Luc Thévenaz; Thomas Südmeyer
      Abstract: Abstract We present a frequency stabilized laser at 2051 nm based on a versatile all-fibered stabilization setup. A modulation sideband locking technique is implemented to lock the laser at a controlled frequency detuning from the center of the CO2 R(30) transition envisaged for space-borne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) applications. This method relies on the use of a compact all-fibered gas reference cell that makes the setup robust and immune to mechanically induced optical misalignments. The gas cell is fabricated using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with pure CO2 at a low pressure of ~20 mbar and hermetically sealed at both ends by splices to silica fibers. Different configurations of this fibered cell have been developed and are presented. With this technique, frequency stabilities below 40 kHz at 1-s integration time and <100 kHz up to 1000-s averaging time were achieved for a laser detuning by around 1 GHz from the center of the CO2 transition. These stabilities are compliant with typical requirements for the reference seed source for a space CO2 DIAL.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-017-0164-6
       
  • The PILOT optical alignment for its first flight
    • Authors: B. Mot; Y. Longval; J.-Ph. Bernard; P. Ade; Y. André; J. Aumont; L. Bautista; N. Bray; P. deBernardis; O. Boulade; F. Bousquet; M. Bouzit; V. Buttice; A. Caillat; M. Chaigneau; C. Coudournac; B. Crane; F. Douchin; E. Doumayrou; J.-P. Dubois; C. Engel; P. Etcheto; P. Gélot; M. Griffin; G. Foenard; S. Grabarnik; P. Hargrave; A. Hughes; R. Laureijs; Y. Lepennec; B. Leriche; S. Maestre; B. Maffei; A. Mangilli; J. Martignac; C. Marty; W. Marty; S. Masi; F. Mirc; R. Misawa; J. Montel; L. Montier; J. Narbonne; J-M. Nicot; F. Pajot; G. Parot; E. Pérot; J. Pimentao; G. Pisano; N. Ponthieu; I. Ristorcelli; L. Rodriguez; G. Roudil; M. Saccoccio; M. Salatino; G. Savini; S. Stever; O. Simonella; P. Tapie; J. Tauber; C. Tibbs; J.-P. Torre; C. Tucker
      Abstract: Abstract PILOT is a balloon-borne astronomy experiment designed to study the polarization of dust emission in the diffuse interstellar medium in our Galaxy at wavelengths 240 and 550 µm  with an angular resolution of about two arc-min. PILOT optics is composed of an off-axis Gregorian telescope and a refractive re-imager system. All these optical elements, except the primary mirror, are in a cryostat cooled to 3K. We used optical and 3D measurements combined with thermo-elastic modeling to perform the optical alignment. This paper describes the system analysis, the alignment procedure, and finally the performances obtained during the first flight in September 2015
      PubDate: 2017-06-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-017-0159-3
       
  • Using the attitude response of aerostable spacecraft to measure
           thermospheric wind
    • Authors: Josep Virgili-Llop; Peter C. E. Roberts; Zhou Hao
      Abstract: Abstract In situ measurements of the thermospheric wind can be obtained by observing the attitude response of an aerostable spacecraft. In the proposed method, the aerostable spacecraft is left uncontrolled, freely reacting to the aerodynamic torques, and oscillating around its equilibrium attitude. The wind’s magnitude and direction is determined by combining the attitude observations with estimates of the other perturbing torques, atmospheric density, and spacecraft’s aerodynamic properties. The spatial resolution of the measurements is proportional to the natural frequency of the attitude’s oscillation. Spacecraft with high aerodynamic stiffness to inertia ratios operating at low altitudes exhibit higher natural frequencies, making them particularly suited for this method. A one degree-of-freedom case is used to present and illustrate the proposed method as well as to analyze its performance.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-017-0153-9
       
  • Launch vehicle design and GNC sizing with ASTOS
    • Authors: Francesco Cremaschi; Sebastian Winter; Valerio Rossi; Andreas Wiegand
      Abstract: Abstract The European Space Agency (ESA) is currently involved in several activities related to launch vehicle designs (Future Launcher Preparatory Program, Ariane 6, VEGA evolutions, etc.). Within these activities, ESA has identified the importance of developing a simulation infrastructure capable of supporting the multi-disciplinary design and preliminary guidance navigation and control (GNC) design of different launch vehicle configurations. Astos Solutions has developed the multi-disciplinary optimization and launcher GNC simulation and sizing tool (LGSST) under ESA contract. The functionality is integrated in the Analysis, Simulation and Trajectory Optimization Software for space applications (ASTOS) and is intended to be used from the early design phases up to phase B1 activities. ASTOS shall enable the user to perform detailed vehicle design tasks and assessment of GNC systems, covering all aspects of rapid configuration and scenario management, sizing of stages, trajectory-dependent estimation of structural masses, rigid and flexible body dynamics, navigation, guidance and control, worst case analysis, launch safety analysis, performance analysis, and reporting.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-017-0160-x
       
  • Development of micro-mirror slicer integral field unit for space-borne
           solar spectrographs
    • Authors: Yoshinori Suematsu; Kosuke Saito; Masatsugu Koyama; Yukiya Enokida; Yukinobu Okura; Tomoyasu Nakayasu; Takashi Sukegawa
      Abstract: Abstract We present an innovative optical design for image slicer integral field unit (IFU) and a manufacturing method that overcomes optical limitations of metallic mirrors. Our IFU consists of a micro-mirror slicer of 45 arrayed, highly narrow, flat metallic mirrors and a pseudo-pupil-mirror array of off-axis conic aspheres forming three pseudo slits of re-arranged slicer images. A prototype IFU demonstrates that the final optical quality is sufficiently high for a visible light spectrograph. Each slicer micro-mirror is 1.58 mm long and 30 \(\upmu\) m wide with surface roughness \(\le\) 1 nm rms, and edge sharpness \(\le\) 0.1 \(\upmu\) m, etc. This IFU is small size and can be implemented in a multi-slit spectrograph without any moving mechanism and fore optics, in which one slit is real and the others are pseudo slits from the IFU. The IFU mirrors were deposited by a space-qualified, protected silver coating for high reflectivity in visible and near IR wavelength regions. These properties are well suitable for space-borne spectrograph such as the future Japanese solar space mission SOLAR-C. We present the optical design, performance of prototype IFU, and space qualification tests of the silver coating.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-017-0157-5
       
  • Fused silica GRISMs manufactured by hydrophilic direct bonding at moderate
           heating
    • Authors: G. Kalkowski; K. Grabowski; G. Harnisch; T. Flügel-Paul; U. Zeitner; S. Risse
      Abstract: Abstract For high-resolution spectroscopy in space, GRISM elements—obtained by patterning gratings onto a prism surface—find increasing applications. We report on GRISM manufacturing by joining the individual functional elements—prisms and gratings—to suitable components by the technology of hydrophilic direct bonding. Fused silica was used as a substrate material and binary gratings were fabricated by standard e-beam lithography and dry etching. Alignment of the grating dispersion direction to the prism angle was realized by passive adjustment on dedicated bonding gear matched to the substrate geometry. Materials adapted bonds of high transmission, stiffness, and strength were obtained after heat treatment at temperatures of about 200 °C in vacuum. Examples for bonding uncoated as well as coated grating surfaces are given. The results illustrate the great potential of hydrophilic glass direct bonding for manufacturing transmission optics to be used in space or other heavy duty applications.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12567-017-0158-4
       
 
 
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