Subjects -> MATHEMATICS (Total: 1013 journals)
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    - MATHEMATICS (714 journals)
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MATHEMATICS (714 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 538 of 538 Journals sorted alphabetically
Results in Control and Optimization     Open Access  
Results in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Results in Nonlinear Analysis     Open Access  
Review of Symbolic Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revista Baiana de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Revista Bases de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Revista BoEM - Boletim online de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Matemáticas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciencias     Open Access  
Revista de Educación Matemática     Open Access  
Revista de la Escuela de Perfeccionamiento en Investigación Operativa     Open Access  
Revista de la Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales. Serie A. Matematicas     Partially Free  
Revista de Matemática : Teoría y Aplicaciones     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Digital: Matemática, Educación e Internet     Open Access  
Revista Electrónica de Conocimientos, Saberes y Prácticas     Open Access  
Revista Integración : Temas de Matemáticas     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Sistemas     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Etnomatemática     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Investigación en Matemática Educativa     Open Access  
Revista Matemática Complutense     Hybrid Journal  
Revista REAMEC : Rede Amazônica de Educação em Ciências e Matemática     Open Access  
Revista SIGMA     Open Access  
Ricerche di Matematica     Hybrid Journal  
RMS : Research in Mathematics & Statistics     Open Access  
Royal Society Open Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Sahand Communications in Mathematical Analysis     Open Access  
Sampling Theory, Signal Processing, and Data Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
São Paulo Journal of Mathematical Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Science China Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science Progress     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sciences & Technologie A : sciences exactes     Open Access  
Selecta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
SeMA Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Semigroup Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Set-Valued and Variational Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
SIAM Journal on Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
SIAM Journal on Discrete Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
SIAM Journal on Financial Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
SIAM Journal on Mathematics of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
SIAM Journal on Matrix Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
SIAM Journal on Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Siberian Advances in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Siberian Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Sigmae     Open Access  
SILICON     Hybrid Journal  
SN Partial Differential Equations and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Soft Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Statistics and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Stochastic Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Stochastic Partial Differential Equations : Analysis and Computations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Stochastic Processes and their Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Stochastics and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Studia Scientiarum Mathematicarum Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Studia Universitatis Babeș-Bolyai Informatica     Open Access  
Studies In Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Studies in Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Superficies y vacio     Open Access  
Suska Journal of Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Swiss Journal of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Algorithms and Software in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Synthesis Lectures on Mathematics and Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tamkang Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Tatra Mountains Mathematical Publications     Open Access  
Teaching Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Teaching Mathematics and its Applications: An International Journal of the IMA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Teaching Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Technometrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
The Journal of Supercomputing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
The Mathematica journal     Open Access  
The Mathematical Gazette     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The Mathematical Intelligencer     Hybrid Journal  
The Ramanujan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
The VLDB Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Theoretical and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Theory and Applications of Graphs     Open Access  
Topological Methods in Nonlinear Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Transactions of the London Mathematical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transformation Groups     Hybrid Journal  
Turkish Journal of Mathematics     Open Access  
Ukrainian Mathematical Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Uniciencia     Open Access  
Uniform Distribution Theory     Open Access  
Unisda Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science     Open Access  
Unnes Journal of Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Unnes Journal of Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Unnes Journal of Mathematics Education Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ural Mathematical Journal     Open Access  
Vestnik Samarskogo Gosudarstvennogo Tekhnicheskogo Universiteta. Seriya Fiziko-Matematicheskie Nauki     Open Access  
Vestnik St. Petersburg University: Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
VFAST Transactions on Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Vietnam Journal of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Vinculum     Full-text available via subscription  
Visnyk of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. Ser. Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water SA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Water Waves     Hybrid Journal  
Zamm-Zeitschrift Fuer Angewandte Mathematik Und Mechanik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ZDM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift fur Energiewirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Zetetike     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4     

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Science Progress
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.351
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0036-8504 - ISSN (Online) 2047-7163
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Multi-UAV cooperative reconnaissance mission planning novel method under
           multi-radar detection

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      Authors: Yongjian Shi, Yanfei Liu, Bingchen Ju, Zhong Wang, Xingceng Du
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Past swarm intelligence algorithms for solving UAV path planning problems have suffered from slow convergence, lack of complex constraints and guidance for local optimisation. It no longer meets the requirements of the Multi-UAV Cooperative Reconnaissance Mission Planning (MUCRMP) problem in the context of multi-radar detection. In this paper, a global optimisation model with the objective of a shorter distance within radar detection range of the UAV is proposed at first, including the planning of reconnaissance sequence between and within target groups, relative position to targets. More importantly, the imaging characteristics of the UAV and its minimum turning radius have been considered in depth in this study. Then an improved synthetic heuristic algorithm is proposed to solve the model, which obtains valuable reconnaissance mission plan. Finally, an example solution for a problem with 68 target point sizes is carried out, and the validity and feasibility of the model and algorithm are illustrated through the analysis given. Compared with the existing algorithms, the improved synthetic heuristic algorithm can give better anti-radar attributes to the UAV and efficiently improved the convergence speed in the specific reconnaissance mission.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T05:15:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221103785
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Semantic segmentation-based mechanized harvesting soybean quality
           detection

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      Authors: Chengqian Jin, Shikun Liu, Man Chen
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Crushing rate and impurity rate are important quality indicators of mechanically harvested soybeans. Intelligent quality detection of mechanically harvested soybeans based on machine vision is of great significance to evaluate soybean quality accurately and rapidly. This study proposes an improved U-Net method for identifying intact soybean grains, crushing soybean grains, and impurities. Based on the accurate identification of soybean components and using the quantitative model of soybean crushing rate and impurity rate, the quality of soybean samples can be detected in real-time. To this end, a soybean quality inspection system is designed to realize the dynamic collection and detection of soybean samples. The test results show that the comprehensive evaluation index values of the improved U-Net segmentation algorithm in identifying intact soybean grains, crushing soybean grains, and impurities are 93.04%, 89.40%, and 96.49%, respectively. Compared with the traditional U-Net model, the performance of the indicators is improved by 3.23%, 0.17% and 0.72%, respectively. Compared with manual detection, the maximum absolute error of the crushing rate detection of the soybean quality detection system is 0.57%, and the maximum absolute error of the impurity rate detection is 0.69%. The proposed soybean quality inspection system can be used as an effective tool for real-time online inspection of soybean quality.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221108518
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • The effect of direct-acting antiviral regimens and telemedicine on the
           treatment of inmates with hepatitis C virus infection in Israeli prisons

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      Authors: Vered Richter, Liav Goldstein, Daniel L Cohen, Anton Bermont, Dana Zelnik Yovel, Miriam Madar, Ron Rabinovitch, Haim Shirin, Efrat Broide
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      BackgroundDirect-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens and telemedicine services are both options for treating hepatitis C virus (HCV) within the prison setting. We aimed to compare factors associated with HCV treatment success over the past decade in Israeli prisons, specifically the influence of DAAs and telemedicine.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical records of inmates with HCV infection in Israeli prisons from 2010 through 2020. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded, including treatment regimens and success rates.ResultsA total of 273 inmates were treated; mean age 45 ± 9.36 years; 98.2% males; 63.9% with a history of drug abuse. Advanced fibrosis was documented in 42.9%. The most common genotypes were 1 (46%) followed by 3 (40.7%). Interferon-based regimens were given to 68 inmates between 2010 and 2017. DAA agents were introduced in 2016, with pan-genotype regimens being exclusively used since 2019. Telemedicine services were used in 140 patients (51.3%), starting in February 2019. The sustained viral response (SVR) rate with interferon-based therapy was 78.8% and 98.8% with DAA treatment, giving an overall SVR of 93.2%. This difference between regimens proved to be the only statistically significant predictor of treatment success. The number of prisoners being treated with DAAs increased exponentially after telemedicine was introduced. Comparable SVR rates were achieved with either in-person or telemedicine consultation.ConclusionScreening of this high-risk population and using telemedicine for treatment may be an effective strategy for the elimination of HCV from the prison population.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:16:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221105173
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Quality-Achieving Reliability Assessment of Rolling Bearing Based on
           Bootstrap Maximum Entropy Method and Similarity Method

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      Authors: Li Cheng, Wensuo Ma, Xintao Xia, Liangwen Wang
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Rolling bearing reliability is often affected by the processing quality, however the life reliability or operating reliability do not involve the study of rolling bearing processing quality assessment. In order to avoid bearing failure caused by bearing processing quality, it is necessary to evaluate the reliability of the bearing quality assurance capability. The difficulty in reliable evaluation of bearing's quality assurance capability is how to quantify the uncertain relationships between the bearing quality and its influence factors, and then determine the weight of different influencing factors. Therefore, in this paper, a novel method for determining the weight of bearing quality-influencing factors based on bootstrap maximum entropy method and similarity method is proposed, and then the quality-achieving reliability model is established. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively quantify the relationship between the bearing quality and its influencing factors, and accurately assess the bearing quality assurance capability and bearing quality processing level under the condition of a small number of experimental bearings. Compared with other quality-achieving reliability method, the proposed method is more effective.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T07:02:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221102737
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Association between anticoagulant therapy, exacerbations and mortality in
           a Danish cohort of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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      Authors: A Kristensen, P Sivapalan, K Bagge, T Biering-Sørensen, R Sørensen, J Eklöf, JUS Jensen
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Objectives:Pulmonary Embolism has been frequently reported in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (AE-COPD). The study aimed to determine whether COPD patients who receive anticoagulant (AC) therapy have a reduced risk of hospitalization due to AE-COPD and death.Methods:This nationwide population-based study was based on data from the Danish Register of COPD (DrCOPD), which contains complete data on COPD outpatients between 1st January 2010 and 31st December 2018. National registers were used to obtain information regarding comorbidities and vital status. Propensity-score matching and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess AE-COPD and death after one year.Results:The study cohort consisted of 58,067 patients with COPD. Of these, 5194 patients were on AC therapy. The population was matched 1:1 based on clinical confounders and AC therapy, resulting in two groups of 5180 patients. We found no association between AC therapy and AE-COPD or all-cause mortality in the propensity-score matched population (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96-1.10, p = 0.37). These findings were confirmed in a competing risk analysis. In the sensitivity analysis, we performed an adjusted analysis of the complete cohort and found a slightly increased risk of AE-COPD or death in patients treated with AC therapy. This study found a low incidence of pulmonary embolisms and deep venous thrombosis in both groups.Conclusions:AC therapy was not associated with the risk of hospitalization due to AE-COPD or all-cause mortality.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T06:07:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221104331
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Revisiting the potential role of BCG and MMR vaccines in COVID-19

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      Authors: Zeina Bayram, Umayya Musharrafieh, Abdul Rahman Bizri
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Despite the development and deployment of effective COVID-19 vaccines, many regions remain poorly covered. Seeking alternative tools for achieving immunity against COVID-19 remains to be of high importance. “Trained immunity” is the nonspecific immune response usually established through administering live attenuated vaccines and is a potential preventive tool against unrelated infections. Evidence regarding a possible protective role for certain live attenuated vaccines against COVID-19 has emerged mainly for those administered as part of childhood vaccination protocols. This review summarizes the relevant literature about the potential impact of Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) and measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccines on COVID-19. Existing available data suggest a potential role for BCG and MMR in reducing COVID-19 casualties and burden. However, more investigation and comparative studies are required for a better understanding of their impact on COVID-19 outcomes.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T05:47:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221105172
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Mechanical properties and metallurgical features of two similar endodontic
           rotary instruments with different heat treatments (FireWire™ and Gold)

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      Authors: Alessio Zanza, Paola Russo, Paola Di Matteo, Rodolfo Reda, Dario Di Nardo, Gianluca Gambarini, Luca Testarelli
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      The aim of this study was to explain the mechanical differences between EdgeTaper Platinum (ETP) and ProTaper Gold (PTG) determining the transition temperatures and the composition of the alloy of ETP, since no data are present in literature. A total of 130 instruments were selected: 65 ETP F2 and 65 PTG F2. 20 instruments per type were submitted to each mechanical tests. The cyclic fatigue and torsional tests were performed at a pre-set temperature of 35 °C ± 1 °C. During the cyclic fatigue test, Time to fracture, number of cycles to fracture (NCF) and the fragment length (FL) were recorded. During the static torsional, Torque to Fracture (TtF) and FL were recorded. The fracture surface of 5 randomly selected fragments from each test was examined through a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and an EDX analysis was performed. 20 instruments per type were submitted to a bending test The force generated (grams) to bend each was recorded. Recorded data of mechanical and metallurgical tests were statistically analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test with significance set to a 95% confidence level. ETP F2 showed a higher cyclic fatigue resistance and bending ability than PTG F2, with a statistically significant difference (p 
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T08:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221103763
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Auto-Tuning parameters of motion cueing algorithms for high performance
           driving simulator based on Kuka Robocoaster

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      Authors: Duc-An Pham, Duc-Toan Nguyen
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Driving simulators have been utilized to test and evaluate products and services for a long time. Their complexity and price range from extremely simple low-cost simulators with a fixed base to very complex high-end and pricey six-degree-of-freedom simulators with the XY table. The recent novel technique that uses an industrial robot - KUKA Robocoaster - as an interactive motion simulator platform, allowing for a highly flexible workspace as well as significantly lower prices due to mass production of the fundamental mechanics. In the constrained workspace of driving simulators, motion cueing algorithms (MCAs) are commonly employed to merge the tilt gravity and translational acceleration components for simulating the linear acceleration in the real vehicle. However, there is a few MCAs developed for the motion platform, almost MCAs were implemented for the standard six-degree-of-freedom simulators in the Cartesian coordinate. The classical MCA in the cylindrical coordinate (ClCy) MCA was first developed for the novel motion platform to take advantage of enormous rotational motion to simulate lateral acceleration while compensating for the bothersome longitudinal acceleration (due to centrifugal acceleration appearing in the rotational motion) with a proper pitch tilted angle. The process of tuning MCAs for the novel motion platform is time-consuming due to both trial and error method and the disturbing motion cues generated by rotational motion, thus it needs the involvement of experts. Although there are several auto-tuning approaches for classical, optimal, and model-predictive control MCA based on fuzzy control theory or genetic optimization method, the methods were purely applied for Cartersian coordinate without taking the bothersome longitudinal acceleration into account. Therefore, this paper firstly presents the process of integrating MCAs in the novel motion platform utilizing rotational motion for simulating lateral acceleration. For the case, besides the ClCy algorithm, the classical algorithm developed for the standart six-degree-of-freedom simulators was a sample implementation due to its popular and familiar characteristics. Secondly, the proposal of the use of the mean-variance mapping optimization (MVMO) for auto-tuning parameters of the two algorithms for reducing both rotational false cues in roll and pitch channel, and longitudinal acceleration as well as washout effect. The simulation results prove that 1) The classical and other MCAs can be applied in the novel motion platform with the proposed motion conversion; 2) both algorithms with auto-tuned parameters have high performance in exploiting effectively the workspace of the motion platform, producing no false cues of angular velocity, conpensating the disturbed longitudinal acceleration, and pulling the motion platform to the initial position after the simulation task; 3) The auto-tuning method is so transparent that can manipulates the specific simulated quantities according to the tuning goals.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T05:49:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221104333
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • A New inversion method of the initial state of Annulus in killing

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      Authors: Pu Liu, Yonglie Zhan, Quanlin Xiao, Zhengqiang Tang, Xuan Li, Luo Zuo
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Blowout is a major safety concern for well control in oil and gas well engineering and well killing is an important technical means to avoid blowout. Mastering the initial state of the wellbore is the basis to ensure well killing. The traditional gas column model cannot effectively explain the development law of wellbore pressure. Therefore, this paper is based on the actual killing conditions and the principle of gas-liquid two-phase flow. This paper establishes the physical model and mathematical model of the initial state of the wellbore annulus under overflow conditions. By means of the finite difference method and cyclic iteration calculation, the initial state of the wellbore annulus can be accurately inverted, and the calculation results are verified by an example. The results show that, when the wellhead pressure is determined, the wellbore pressure distribution and annular air phase distribution are more reasonable and the initial length of the overflow section is larger, the calculation results of the inversion method are closer to the actual engineering situation. The findings of this study can help to better understand wellbore state before killing and provide a theoretical basis for optimizing killing parameters, which is of great significance for avoiding well control safety risks during killing.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T05:49:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221102746
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Relationship of stranded cetaceans in Thai territorial waters to global
           populations: Mitochondrial DNA diversity of Cuvier's beaked whale, Indo
           Pacific finless porpoise, pygmy sperm whale, and dwarf sperm whale

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      Authors: Promporn Piboon, Napat Kriengsakpichit, Anocha Poommouang, Kittisak Buddhachat, Janine L. Brown, Jatupol Kampuansai, Siriwadee Chomdej, Patcharaporn Kaewmong, Kongkiat Kittiwattanawong, Korakot Nganvongpanit
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Cetaceans inhabit oceans throughout the world. Four specific odontocetes, namely Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris), Indo Pacific finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), and dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima), have occasionally been found stranded along Thailand's coastal waters (the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand). Although shared haplotypes of each species for many locations have been found, and some species have revealed genetic structure through haplotype networks, cetaceans in Thai waters have never been investigated in terms of comparing haplotypes to those that have existed before. Herein, we have illustrated the matrilineally phylogeographic relationships among worldwide populations through Bayesian Phylogenetic tree computations using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and Median-Joining Networks (MJNs). Unique haplotypes of the control region mitochondrial DNA of Thai odontocetes were found for all species. Moreover, a high degree of worldwide haplotype diversity (hd) above 0.8 among the four species was detected, while the lowest degree of nucleotide diversity (π) was observed in the Indo Pacific finless porpoise (1.12% ± 0.184%). An expansion of the effective female population size worldwide of three odontocete species was detected using Bayesian Skyline Reconstruction, but this did not include the Indo Pacific finless porpoise. Because Thai seas are located within the Indo Polynesian province, where this biodiversity hotspot exists, we speculate that these odontocetes may also inhabit specific habitats within the Malay Peninsula and Thailand's territorial waters. Therefore, closer attention and monitoring of these cetacean populations will be necessary for future conservation efforts.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T06:44:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221103776
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Motion analysis of suturing technique with Leap Motion ControllerTM.
           Proof-of-concept

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      Authors: Shota Tsuyuki, Katsuyuki Hoshina, Kazuhiro Miyahara, Masamitsu Suhara, Mitsuru Matsukura, Toshihiko Isaji, Toshio Takayama
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      PurposeLeap Motion Controller is a device that can capture hand gestures and reproduce these as data comprising several parametric elements. We analyzed surgical suture motion using this device and investigated the optical methodology for clinical applications.MethodsWe recruited medical students and residents (novice group) and vascular surgeons (specialist group). The operators applied sutures once on a prosthetic graft, and the captured motion was analyzed.ResultsTen novices, who each received procedural instruction for at least 2 h, and 10 specialists were recruited. The hand gesture consisted of four elements (roll, pitch, yaw, and wrist angle). Since “roll” was the only element in this simple suture movement that showed some difference between the two groups, we analyzed three parameters: (1) the suturing time, (2) the difference in the degree between two piercing points, and (3) slope of the roll. We found that the specialist group demonstrated significantly shorter suturing times and a larger degree of the slope.ConclusionLeap Motion Controller analysis with the roll revealed that the novices could use the roll motion after only 2 h of instruction; however, the suturing speed and smoothness were secondary to those of the specialists.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T06:44:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221103777
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Correlation between anthropometric measurements and blood pressure in a
           population of Palestinian adults

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      Authors: Moath Abu Ejheisheh, Ahmad Batran, Ahmad Ayed, María Correa-Rodríguez, Ángel Fernández-Aparicio, José Luis Gómez-Urquiza, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Obesity can be a major problem due to its potential to cause a number of health issues, including high blood pressure and diabetes. Many reports have come out of Palestine on overweight and obesity and their direct link to non-communicable diseases, although there is only limited evidence available on the connection between obesity and hypertension in Palestinian adults. We aimed to look at the associations between anthropometric and body composition variables and blood pressure in a large population of Palestinian adults (1337 subjects) and determine which anthropometric indices most strongly correlate with high blood pressure. Anthropometric measurements including height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), body mass index (BMI), and total body fat (TBF) were assessed. A body composition analyzer was used to measure body weight, fat mass and fat-free mass. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure were measured using a Dinamap vital signs monitor. In both males and females, all the anthropometric measurements showed significant strong positive correlations with mean SBP and mean DBP (p 
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T06:43:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221102782
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • The level of vitamin D in follicular fluid and ovarian reserve in an in
           vitro fertilization program: A pilot study

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      Authors: Ji Yeon Han, Sung Woo Kim, Hoon Kim, Seung-Yup Ku
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      BackgroundThe level of vitamin D in follicular fluid (FF) according to the ovarian reserve has never been investigated, and the effect of FF vitamin D on the outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART) remains controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between FF vitamin D levels and baseline anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) / ART outcomes.MethodsForty-seven patients who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation at the fertility clinic of an academic tertiary care center were enrolled for a prospective observational study. FF was collected from the first aspirated leading follicle of each ovary and assayed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between baseline AMH and FF vitamin D levels with adjustment for basal FSH and serum vitamin D levels.ResultsBoth the AMH and serum vitamin D were significant predictors for FF vitamin D. The estimated marginal mean of FF vitamin D level was higher in women with decreased ovarian reserve (DOR) than those with normal ovarian reserve (24.1 ± 2.1 vs. 18.8 ± 1.4 ng/ml, p = 0.048). However, FF vitamin D did not demonstrate any significant associations with cycle outcomes, including fertilization rate and the number and proportion of good embryos at day three.ConclusionWe observed significantly higher FF vitamin D levels in women with DOR. However, FF vitamin D did not demonstrate any significant associations with the outcome of ART. A larger prospective study is needed to investigate the effect of FF vitamin D on the clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T05:43:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221103782
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Rumex nervosus could alleviate streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy
           in rats by activating Nrf2 signaling

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      Authors: Lujain A AlMousa, Nora A AlFaris, Ghedeir M Alshammari, Muneer M Alsayadi, Jozaa Z ALTamimi, Reham I Alagal, Mohammed Abdo Yahya
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      This study tested the protective effect of Rumex nervous (R. nervosus) methanol extract against streptozotocin (STZ)-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)-induced nephropathy in rats and examined if this protection involves activating the nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor-2 (Nrf2). Rats were divided into control, R. nervous (300 mg), STZ (T1DM), STZ + R. nervosus (100, 200, or 300 mg/kg), and STZ + R. nervosus (300 mg/kg) + brusatol (an Nrf2 inhibitor). With no effect on fasting glucose and insulin levels, R. nervosus methanol extract preserved kidney histological structure and alterations kidney function markers (e.g. albumin, creatinine, and urine volume) in the STZ-diabetic rats. R. nervosus also reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukine-6 (IL-6), nuclear levels of the nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), and mRNA of caspase-3 and Bax in the kidneys of these diabetic rats. Concomitantly, it stimulated renal mRNA levels of Bcl2 and Nrf2, cytoplasmic and nuclear levels of Nrf2, and levels of glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). All these effects were dose-dependent, with the maximum effect seen with the 300 mg/kg dose, all prevented by brusatol. Also, these effects occurred without any alteration in the transcription of the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (keap-1). Similar effects on levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, and NF-κB, as well as expression of Nrf2, were also observed in the kidney of control + R. nervous-treated rats. In conclusion, R. nervosus prevents diabetic nephropathy in rats by upregulating and activating Nrf2.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T05:43:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221102751
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Effectiveness of rational emotive occupational health coaching in reducing
           burnout symptoms among teachers of children with autism

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      Authors: Uchenna E Uzodinma, Charity N Onyishi, Antonia N Ngwoke, Joy I Ugwu, Cornelius O Okorie, Benjamin A. Amujiri, Casimir KC Ani, Christopher N Ngwu, Felix M Nwankwo, Charles N Okoli, Hillary O Eze, Florence O Orabueze, Esther O Ogbu, Kingsley N Okoro, Kingsley C Solomon, Ifeanyi J Okeke, Bright E Nwamuo, Uchenna Ani, Shedrack C Moguluwa, Immaculata N Akanaeme
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Background/ObjectivesThe negative impacts of Job-related burnout on job performance have been widely documented in the literature. Burnout accounts for both physical and mental health outcomes that increase work turnover in teachers, especially those who teach special needs children, like those with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The current study assessed the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Occupational Health Coaching (REOHC) in minimizing job burnout amongst autistic children teachers in Anambra state, Nigeria.MethodThe study used a group-randomized waitlist control trial design. teachers who teach ASD children in private and public special and inclusive schools participated in the study. All participants were randomly allocated to REOHC and waitlist group (WLG). REOHC group were exposed to a single session 120 min REOHC programme every week for 12 weeks. Data were collected using Maslach Burnout Inventory for Educators (MBI-ES), at baseline; post-intervention as well as follow-up evaluations 1 and 2 evaluations. All the data gathered for the study were analysed using mean, Standard Deviation (SD), t-test statistics, repeated measures ANOVA, and charts.ResultsResults indicated a significant decrease in teachers’ burnout, following REOHC intervention, which was sustained through follow-ups 1 and 2.ConclusionIn conclusion, we stated that REOHC is valuable in treating burnout symptoms in teachers of children with ASDs.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T05:43:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221100907
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Feelings of the health personnel in Spain, towards their work, after five
           waves of the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Borja N Santana López, Yeray G Santana Padilla, Mª Desamparados Bernat Adell, Jesús María González Martín, Luciano Santana Cabrera
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Health personnel have faced highly adverse circumstances in the workplace since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. Prolonged exposure to stressful situations at work is considered to affect the physical, psychological, and emotional health of these workers, as well as job performance. The objective of this study was to analyze the beliefs, attitudes, and feelings of health personnel from one Spanish region towards their work after five waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. A Cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out using an electronic questionnaire, adapted, and validated through the Delphi technique. A convenience sampling of 783 was recruited among health personnel from the Canary Islands during the fifth wave of the pandemic in September 2021. Bivariate analyzes have been performed by the Chi-square test accepting statistical significance (p 0.050). The 94.3% (n=738) of the respondents considered the pandemic to have highlighted the shortcomings of the Spanish health system. A clear level of exhaustion and/or a reduction in the level of commitment can be observed in these workers as the pandemic continues, as participants reported feeling both mentally and physically exhausted when finishing their shifts, and even “burned out by their work”. This study highlights the resilience and vocation of healthcare professionals, who even considering the effects of the pandemic would choose the same profession. On the other hand, these professionals felt undervalued by their institutions, and almost one of every five, precised psychological support in some point during the health crisis.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T06:25:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221102798
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Eltrombopag improves refractory thrombocytopenia in patients with
           Sjögren's syndrome

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      Authors: Liping Xu, Yan Zhang, Na Lin, Xinwei Song, Qiaoding Dai
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Introduction:Eltrombopag, a kind of thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonist, plays the role on the megakaryocyte to activate the platelet production and rapidly increase the number of circulating platelets in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Eltrombopag provides an opportunity for rapid tapering and/or cessation of corticosteroid therapy. However, it is not clear about the platelet response to Eltrombopag in ITP associated with Sjögren's Syndrome(SS).Methods:A retrospective research was conducted on the clinical course of three patients, each with ITP secondary to SS, and initially received therapy of corticosteroids or other immunomodulatory. They took this drug for bleeding diseases. Referring to the description, Eltrombopag was prescribed and adjusted with an initial dose of 25 mg daily, then weekly, then monthly according to the monitoring of platelet counts.Results:All patients maintained a satisfactory level of platelet counts (>100,000/mm3 for>2 years) following corticosteroid withdrawal. Meanwhile, Eltrombopag was well-tolerated, and there were no adverse effects, such as thrombotic events.Conclusions:Eltrombopag is effective and safe for patients with ITP associated with SS during corticosteroid withdrawal. Thus it may be a crucial therapeutic strategy for reducing corticosteroid-related side effects in SS patients with ITP.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T06:25:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221102786
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Fatigue life prediction of brake discs for high-speed trains via thermal
           stress

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      Authors: Jiao Luo, Jiazhi Liu, Ziyun You, Xintian Liu
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      As one of the essential components of the braking system, the high-speed train brake disc is an integral part of ensuring the safety of the train. The main objective of this study is to conduct thermal analysis and reliable life prediction on brake discs. The research was conducted by developing a programmer spectrum of brake discs with high-speed train brake discs. According to the results of numerical analysis and the S-N curve of the material, the temperature distribution on the surface of the brake disc is determined, and the fatigue life of the brake disc is predicted. The comparison with the service life of the brake disc verifies the rationality of the calculation results. In addition, a fatigue damage probability model of brake discs is established based on the theory of fatigue cumulative damage. Through the relationship between the reliability of mechanical parts and the number of load cycles, the reliable life of the brake disc under different working conditions is predicted. This work establishes a method of reliable life analysis for brake discs of high-speed trains based on the load spectrum, which could analyze the life and reliability of brake discs more systematically.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T06:24:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221102742
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Walking and resting blood pressure: An inter-individual response
           difference meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

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      Authors: George A Kelley, Kristi S Kelley, Brian L Stauffer
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Whether true inter-individual response differences (IIRD) exist with respect to walking training and chronic changes in resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in adults is not known. To address this gap, data from a meta-analysis representing up to 5060 normotensive and high normal/hypertensive (SBP ≥ 130 and/or DBP ≥ 85 mmHg) participants 16 to 84 years of age (2881 walking, 2179 control) nested in 73 randomized controlled trials were included. Walking and control group change outcome standard deviations treated as point estimates for both resting SBP and DBP were used to calculate true IIRD from each study. The inverse variance heterogeneity (IVhet) model was used to pool IIRD as well as traditional pairwise results. Both 95% confidence intervals (CI) and prediction intervals (PI) were calculated. While statistically significant reductions in resting SBP ([math], −3.9 mmHg, 95% CI, −5.4 to −2.3 mmHg) and DBP ([math], −1.4 mmHg, 95% CI, −2.5 to −0.3 mmHg) were found, true IIRD were neither statistically significant nor clinically important for both SBP ([math], −1.4 mmHg, 95% CI, −2.0 to 2.8 mmHg) and DBP ([math], 0.9 mmHg, 95% CI, −2.5 to 2.8 mmHg). The 95% prediction interval for true IIRD was −2.1 to 2.8 mmHg for SBP and −3.2 to 3.4 mmHg for DBP.ConclusionsWhile walking is associated with reductions in resting SBP and DBP, a lack of true IIRD exists, suggesting that factors other than training response variation (random variation, physiological responses associated with behavioral changes that are not the result of walking) are responsible for the observed variation in resting SBP and DBP.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T08:42:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221101636
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Classification of the loosening zones and estimation of the loosening
           pressures of tunnels in layered jointed rock strata

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      Authors: Zhiwei Wang, Weibin Ma
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Due to the complexity of tunnels, accurate prediction of their loosening pressures in layered jointed rock strata is a very difficult engineering task. To recognize loosening patterns and estimate loosening pressures, numerical tests were employed in areas where tunnels were excavated in layered jointed rock strata. A total of 12 influential factors, including joints, tunnel depth, and strata, were considered in each of the numerical models. Three loosening patterns were found in the numerical testing: a ringent trumpet-shaped boundary, an arch-shaped boundary, and a closing-trend trumpet-shaped loosening zone. Empirical expressions for the loosening zone boundaries were further established and, in the form of the 12 influential factors, considered in the simulation. Given the boundary function, the loosening pressures were further deduced, which were categorized according to loosening pattern, i.e., ringent trumpet shape or arch shape, and the excavation condition of whether or not the embedded depth was deeper than the soft layer. Two case studies were used to test this method. The newly-proposed method was found to perform better than existing methods, with loosening pressure values that were slightly larger than, but very close to, actual measured field data.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T08:42:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221098886
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Assessment technologies of rail systems’ structural adequacy — A
           review from mechanical engineering perspectives

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      Authors: Xia Hua, Wael Zatar, Alisha Gadedesi, Zhicheng Liao
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      The structural adequacy challenges of railroad track structures have received considerable attention globally. Track defects and failures due to weak strength and buckling effect account for one-third of all railroad accidents. The current paper provides a comprehensive study of the recent work on the structural adequacy/bearing capacity of rail systems from mechanical engineering perspectives; existing techniques for track stiffness/modulus evaluations, including standstill and continuous methods. Further, this paper demonstrates the current techniques for track stiffness/modulus evaluation. Prevailing track modulus techniques, while accurate but time-taking, effortful, requires a track closure and provides only single-point information. Also, this review provides a suggestion on the non-destructive and non-invasive technologies for example Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and evaluation of the substructures of tracks as they have great potential for image subsurface features.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T04:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221099877
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Henri-Michaelis-Menten kinetics of reversible enzymic reactions, and the
           determination of rate constants from kinetic constants

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      Authors: Eric A. Barnsley
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      The Michaelis constants derived for two reversible uni-reactant - uni-product reaction models, given originally by Haldane, are corrected. In the direction starting with the reactant having the lower binding constant, the steady state is one in which the enzyme-reactant intermediate has a concentration approximating the final equilibrium concentration., Consequently, the Haldane relationship is generally invalid, and kinetic analyses to validate the use of the kinetic constant ratio (kcat/Km) as a measure of specificity are also generally invalid. This correction of Michaelis constants is pertinent to attempts to back calculate rate constants from experimental values: the Michaelis constant used must be correct.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T03:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221100027
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Preview repetitive control for polytopic nonlinear discrete-time systems

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      Authors: Li Li, Chen Jia
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      In this study, a preview repetitive control (PRC) strategy was developed for uncertain nonlinear discrete-time systems subjected to a previewable periodic reference signal. The proposed preview repetitive controller was designed such that the system output tracked a previewable periodic reference signal even with model uncertainties and nonlinear terms. An augmented two-dimensional (2D) model was constructed based on the 2D model approach and state augmented technique. Second, considering the state unmeasured and periodic tracking reference signal, a static output PRC law was designed using the linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed controller was verified through two illustrative examples.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T07:49:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221075472
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of the safety of 500 mg intravenous push thiamine at a tertiary
           academic medical center

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      Authors: Mohammed Aldhaeefi, Kevin McLaughlin, Melanie Goodberlet, Paul Szumita
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Background: Thiamine, also known as vitamin B1, is an essential water-soluble micronutrient. Although thiamine has minimal safety concerns, parenteral administration has been associated with rare cases of anaphylactic shock, cardiac arrest, and injection site reaction. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the incidence of anaphylaxis and injection site reactions associated with the administration of thiamine 500 mg as an intravenous (IV) push in adult patients. Method: This single-center, retrospective analysis was performed at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic health records were used to identify all adult patients who were ordered for thiamine 500 mg IV push between July 1, 2020, and December 31, 2020. For the major and minor endpoints, anaphylaxis and injection site reactions were assessed, respectively. Descriptive statistics were used as appropriate. Results: A total of 463 doses of thiamine in 69 patients were evaluated. Thiamine was administered peripherally for 392 (84.7%) doses and centrally for 68 (14.7) doses. No anaphylactic reactions were observed. A total of 4 injection site reactions (0.86%) were noted with 4 unique doses. All reactions were classified as low-grade based on our institutional grading system. All injection site reactions were classified as “possible” (Naranjo score of 1–4). Conclusion: Administration of IV push 500 mg thiamine was not associated with anaphylactic events and was associated with a low rate of injection site reactions.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T07:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221096539
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Entropy and stability analysis on blood flow with nanoparticles through a
           stenosed artery having permeable walls

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      Authors: Muhammad Hasnain Shahzad, Aziz Ullah Awan, Salman Akhtar, Sohail Nadeem
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      In this research, the electro-osmotic effects are highlighted for a blood-based hybrid nanofluid flow across an artery infected with multiple stenosis. The artery has permeable walls together with slip boundary effects. The slip and permeable boundary conditions model the more realistic blood flow problems. The governing equations of the problem are converted into non-dimensional form by introducing adequate dimensionless variables and acquired the exact solutions. The detailed study of heat transfer is given by Joule heating and viscous dissipation effects. The disorder of fluid flow is investigated by the mathematical study of entropy generation. Analytically attained solutions are examined graphically for both symmetric and non-symmetric shapes of stenosis. Streamlines are analyzed for varying values of flow rate Q and electro-osmotic parameter m. The flow velocity has smallest values on the axis of channel and gets higher value near the boundary walls. The temperature profile delineates opposite behavior to the velocity, and it is parabolic in nature. The velocity reduces towards the non-uniform stenosis except for electroosmotic parameter m. The temperature has larger magnitude in the case of anti-symmetric stenosis. Moreover, the stability of velocity solution is also analyzed.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T07:45:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221096000
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Tangential elastic contact model of the cylindrical contact with different
           axis crossing angles

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      Authors: Tieneng Guo, Ruguo Ji, Yunfei Ma, Liwei Peng
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      In this paper, a cylinder contact model with different axis crossing angles is proposed, and the axis crossing angle is introduced into the normal and tangential constitutive equations. This paper uses the method of formula derivation to establish the analytical solution of the tangential elastic contact of the cylinder with different axis cross angles, and gives the relational expression of the tangential load and the tangential displacement. The finite element method (FEM) is used to verify the tangential displacement load curve and the tangential stiffness curve of the two cylinders. The influence of various factors on mechanical properties such as tangential stiffness, tangential displacement and contact area is explored, and the distribution of stress and strain on the contact surface is analyzed. The research results show that the tangential displacement and tangential stiffness of the cylindrical contact model correspond well to the simulation results.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T08:32:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221094183
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Th1 immune maturation effects of Nocardia rubra cell-wall skeleton via
           PI3K/Akt/PAX8 regulatory axis

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      Authors: Meixiang Zhou, Shuping Zhou, Kun Han, Jie Zhang, Qingyu Chen, Cong Tian, Hongling Zhu, Mengyi Jiang, Daliu Min
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Nocardia rubra cell-wall skeleton (Nr-CWS) is reported as an external immunotherapeutic enhancer with the advantage of antitumor effect on human cancers. However, the immune regulatory role of Nr-CWS is not fully illustrated. We studied mouse CD4+ T lymphocytes isolated from mice spleen were induced by Nr-CWS and observed that the differentiation of Th1 CD4+ T cells and the cytokines of IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ were all enhanced by Nr-CWS. Furthermore, RNA sequencing was conducted to investigate the different mRNA profiling induced by Nr-CWS. We observed that paired box 8 (PAX8) was significantly up-regulated in Nr-CWS-treated Th1 cells compared to control. As a transcription factor, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing was carried out to study the genome-wide distribution of PAX8. Interestingly, we found that the binding domain of PAX8 was elevated by Nr-CWS, and the target genes associated with these binding sites showed a positive correlation between their transcription and PAX8 binding strength. Finally, we determined that Nr-CWS could enhance the activity of the PI3 K/Akt signaling pathway. Akt agonist could mimic the effect of Nr-CWS for PAX8 up-regulation, while Akt inhibitor compromised the expression of PAX8. Taken together, we determined a novel role of Nr-CWS in boosting the activity of Th1 maturation via the PI3 K/Akt/PAX8 axis.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T08:30:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221092901
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Design of active fault-tolerant control system for Air-fuel ratio control
           of internal combustion engines using fuzzy logic controller

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      Authors: Umar Riaz, Arslan Ahmed Amin, Muhammad Tayyeb
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Background:Fault-Tolerant Control Systems (FTCS) are used in critical and safety applications to improve performance and stability despite failure modes. As a result, costly production losses related to unusual and unplanned shutdowns can be prevented by incorporating these systems in the critical process plant machines. The Internal Combustion (IC) engines are highly used process plant machines and faults in their sensors will cause their shutdown instigating the need to install FTCS in them.Introduction:In this paper, an Active Fault-Tolerant Control System (AFTCS) based on a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is suggested to improve the reliability of the Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) control system of an IC engine.Methodology:For analytical redundancy, a nonlinear Fuzzy Logic (FL) based observer is implemented in the proposed system for the Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) unit for nonlinear sensors of the AFR system. Lyapunov stability analysis was used for designing a stable system in both faulty and normal conditions. To evaluate its performance, this system was developed in the MATLAB/Simulink platform.Results:The simulation results show that the developed system is robust under sensor fault conditions, retaining stability with a minimum decrease of AFR. This study's comparison with the existing literature demonstrates that the proposed system is effective for maintaining the AFR in IC engines during sensor faulty conditions thus reducing shutdown of engine and production loss for increased profits.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T05:04:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221094723
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Elevated PaCO2 levels increase pulmonary artery pressure

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      Authors: Apostolos Triantaris, Isaak Aidonidis, Apostolia Hatziefthimiou, Konstantinos Gourgoulianis, Georgios Zakynthinos, Demosthenes Makris
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Permissive hypercapnia is commonly used in mechanically ventilated patients to avoid lung injury but its effect on pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) is still unclear, particularly in combination with tidal volume (Vt). Therefore, an in vivo study was performed on adult rabbits ventilated with low (9 ml/Kg, LVt group) or high (15 ml/Kg, HVt group) tidal volume (Vt) and alterations in PAP were estimated. Both groups of animals initially were ventilated with FiO2 0.3 (Normocapnia-1) followed by inhalation of enriched CO2 gas mixture (FiCO2 0.10) to develop hypercapnia (Hypercapnia-1). After 30 min of hypercapnia, animals were re-ventilated with FiO2 0.3 to develop normocapnia (Normocapnia-2) again and then with FiCO2 0.10 to develop hypercapnia (Hypercapnia-2). Systolic, diastolic and mean PAP were assessed with a catheter in the pulmonary artery. In HP-1 and HP-2, PaCO2 increased (p 
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T06:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221094161
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Morpho-Anatomical Study And Botanical Identification of Pogostemon
           auricularius (L.) Hassk. (Lamiaceae)

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      Authors: Linh Thuy Thi Tran, Tan Khanh Nguyen, Hoai Thi Nguyen, Phu Phong Nguyen, Nhi Yen Thi Dang, Manh Hung Tran, Vinh Phu Tran Pham, Anh Tuan Le
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Pogostemon Desf. includes a wide range of taxa found in subtropical and tropical areas. Few works, however, have studied microanatomical characteristics of Pogostemon species and as yet identified features of Pogostemon auricularius (L.) Hassk. Thus, in this paper, we examined the taxonomic implications of root, stem and leaf morphology for species P. auricularius collected from Quang Tri Province. Light microscopy was mainly used in our study. Qualitative characters like stem quadrangular, hirsute; leaves opposite, ovate, margin serrulate; calyx campanulate; corolla small with separate equal lobes have been found in P. auricularius. Epidermal anatomy on the aerial parts of the species like epidermal cell shape, anticlinal walls, trichomes types, stomata types and calcium oxalate crystals types were examined as well. Quantitative characters like the length and width of leaf blade and inflorescence; the size of oil droplet, stomata and calcium oxalate crystals measured provided taxonomic significance. Based on identifying morphological characteristics of P. auricularius, we aimed to contribute to the taxonomic investigation into the genus Pogostemon and give relative morphological and microanatomical features compared with other taxa.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T06:36:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221094156
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Role of helmet ventilation during the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic

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      Authors: Ke-Yun Chao, Jong-Shyan Wang, Wei-Lun Liu
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization; it has affected millions of people and caused hundreds of thousands of deaths. Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia may develop acute hypoxia respiratory failure and require noninvasive respiratory support or invasive respiratory management. Healthcare workers have a high risk of contracting COVID-19 while fitting respiratory devices. Recently, European experts have suggested that the use of helmet continuous positive airway pressure should be the first choice for acute hypoxia respiratory failure caused by COVID-19 because it reduces the spread of the virus in the ambient air. By contrast, in the United States, helmets were restricted for respiratory care before the COVID-19 pandemic until the Food and Drug Administration provided the ‘Umbrella Emergency Use Authorization for Ventilators and Ventilator Accessories’. This narrative review provides an evidence-based overview of the use of helmet ventilation for patients with respiratory failure.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T02:55:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221092891
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Clinical relevance of Tai Chi on pain and physical function in adults with
           knee osteoarthritis: An ancillary meta-analysis of randomized controlled
           trials

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      Authors: George A Kelley, Kristi S Kelley, Leigh F Callahan
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      The clinical relevance of Tai Chi on pain, stiffness, and physical function in adults with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) has not been established. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to address this gap. Eight randomized controlled trials from a recent meta-analysis representing 407 participants (216 Tai Chi, 191 control) in adults ≥18 years of age with KOA and included the assessment of pain, stiffness, and physical function using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) were assessed. The inverse variance heterogeneity model (IVhet) was first used to pool standardized mean difference effect sizes (ES) for each outcome. Clinical relevance, i.e., number-needed-to treat (NNT) ≤10 and relative risk reduction (RRR) ≥25% was calculated across assumed controlled risks (ACR) ranging from 0.01 to 0.99. Statistically significant improvements were found for pain (ES, −0.75, 95% CI, −0.99, −0.51; Q = 8.9, p = 0.26; I2 = 21%), stiffness (ES, −0.70, 95% CI, −0.95, −0.46; Q = 9.6, p = 0.21; I2 = 27%), and physical function (ES, −0.91, 95% CI, −1.12, −0.70; Q = 7.2, p = 0.40; I2 = 3%). The intersection of results for a NNT ≤10 and RRR ≥25% yielded high evidence and clinically relevant improvements across a wide range of ACR for pain (0.15 to 0.88), stiffness (0.15 to 0.87), and physical function (0.13 to 0.97). These findings suggest that Tai Chi results in statistically significant as well as clinically important improvements in pain, stiffness, and physical function across a wide range of ACR in adults with KOA.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T07:01:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221088375
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Aerogel and expanded perlite incorporated lightweight cementitious
           composites containing crushed glass: Evaluation of the drying shrinkage
           and alkali-silica expansion

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      Authors: Syed Nasir Shah, Tee How Tan, Onn Wee Tey, Geok Wen Leong, Yoong Sheng Chin, Choon Wah Yuen, Kim Hung Mo
      Abstract: Science Progress, Volume 105, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Lightweight cementitious composite (LCC) produced by incorporating lightweight silica aerogel was explored in this study. Silica aerogel was incorporated as 60% replacement of fine aggregate (sand/crushed glass) in producing the LCC. The effect of aerogel on the drying shrinkage and alkali-silica expansion of LCC was evaluated and compared with those of lightweight expanded perlite aggregate. At the density of 1600  ±  100 kg/m3, the aerogel/ expanded perlite LCC had attained compressive strength of about 17/24 MPa and 22/26 MPa in mixtures with sand and crushed glass as a fine aggregate, respectively. The inclusion of aerogel and expanded perlite increased the drying shrinkage. The drying shrinkage of aerogel LCC was up to about 3 times of the control mixtures. Although the presence of aerogel and expanded perlite could reduce the alkali-silica expansion when partially replacing crushed glass, the aerogel-glass LCC still recorded expansion exceeding the maximum limit of 0.10% at 14 days. However, when 15% cement was replaced with fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag, the alkali-silica expansion was reduced to 0.03% and 0.10%, respectively. Microstructural observations also revealed that the aerogel with fly ash can help in reducing the alkali-silica expansion in mixes containing the reactive crushed glass aggregate.
      Citation: Science Progress
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T06:50:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00368504221091186
      Issue No: Vol. 105, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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