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Environment Conservation Journal
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0972-3099 - ISSN (Online) 2278-5124
Published by Action for Sustainable Efficacious Development and Awareness Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Genetic parameters and association analysis for grain yield and yield
           attributing traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm lines

    • Authors: Yeshala Chandra Mohan, Kasanaboina Krishna, Lavuri Krishna, Thakur Veerendar Jeet Singh, R. Jagadeeshwar
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: The intensity of trait association and genetic variability of yield attributing variables in 217 rice genotypes was investigated during kharif 2018. The existence of genetic variability among the genotypes was demonstrated by analysis of variance, which recorded significant differences for all the seven studied parameters. The estimation of variability indicated that The full grain number per panicle (37.2 % and 34.1 %) & single plant yield (24.7 % and 20.55 %) had the highest intensity of phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficients of variation ( GCV), and High heritability along with high genetic advance as a per cent of mean (GAM) was found in Plant height (98.9 % and 20.8 %), panicle number per plant (95.4 % and 36 %), panicle length(96.8 % and 35.9 %), full grain number per panicle(99.5 % and 61.6 %), thousand seed weight (98.1 % and 40.25 %) and single plant yield (69.2 % and 35.2 %) , depicting additive gene action in inheritance of these parameters. A simple selection procedure can help to enhance these characteristics even further. Correlation and regression coefficient findings indicated that plant height (0.193**) and the full grain number per panicle (0.177**) had a significant impact on single plant yield. The full grain number per panicle (0.265**), followed by thousand seed weight (0.194**) and plant height (0.110**), had the maximum direct positive effect on single plant yield, as per path coefficient analysis. As a result, accessions with a higher full grain number per panicle, thousand seed weight and plant height would be suitable for yield enhancement programme.
      PubDate: 2023-04-11
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.14032416
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Diversification of traditional rice – wheat system with vegetables for
           sustainable productivity, profitability and energy efficiency

    • Authors: Avnee Mandial, S C Negi, Puneet Kaur, Navneet Kaur
      Pages: 8 - 13
      Abstract: Rice – wheat cropping system is backbone of agriculture and responsible for achieving food security in the country. However, because of threat to sustainability of this system there is urgent need of crop diversification. A field experiment to diversify the rice – wheat system in wet zone of Himachal Pradesh was carried out during the year 2017-18 at Bhadiarkhar research farm, Department of Agronomy, CSK HPKV, Palampur to evaluate productivity, profitability and energy pattern of eight different rice-based cropping systems. Results revealed that rice – palak – cucumber system resulted in significantly higher rice grain equivalent yield (16477 kg/ha), profitability (₹ 848.76/ha/day), productivity (63.62 kg/ha/day), net returns (₹ 219828/ha) and benefit cost ratio than other crop sequences whereas lowest rice grain equivalent yield (6259 kg/ha) and productivity (21.44 kg/ha/day) was recorded from traditional rice – wheat system. However, land utilization ratio and duration were found to be maximum from turmeric – pea – summer squash system (86.85) followed by rice – wheat. Energy utilization was noticed highest from rice – lettuce – potato + coriander system followed by turmeric – pea – summer squash. Maximum energy output (280.42×103MJ/ha) and energy efficiency (10.58) were observed in rice – palak – cucumber system.
      PubDate: 2023-04-11
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.14082418
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Genetic divergence studies for yield and its component traits in Mung bean
           (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek)

    • Authors: Sindoora Nalajala, N. Brajendra Singh, M. Samuel Jeberson, Sonika Yumnam, Bireshwar Sinha
      Pages: 14 - 20
      Abstract: The present investigation was carried out at Genetics and Plant Breeding (GPB) farm, College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal, Manipur during kharif 2021 using 60 genotypes of Mung bean. Mahalanobis D2 statistics was used to evaluate the diversity. A total of fourteen clusters were formed with maximum number of genotypes in cluster I i.e., 29 genotypes followed by cluster II with 17 genotypes, cluster XII with 3 genotypes, all the remaining clusters were mono genotypic. It was found that the pattern of genotype distribution into different clusters was random and unrelated to geographic diversity. Results on genotype diversity between clusters IV and IX revealed the greatest inter-cluster distances, whereas cluster XII had the greatest intra-cluster distances. The largest cluster mean for seed yield per plant was found in cluster IX. Further, maximum contribution towards divergence was by number of seeds per plant (52.49%) followed by seed yield (17.8%) and days to 50% flowering (7.34%), while minimum by pod length which had shown 0% contribution.
      PubDate: 2023-04-11
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.14422436
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Addition of Frerea indica Dalzell to the flora of Nashik district,
           Maharashtra, India

    • Authors: Balasaheb Shantilal Kale, Sanjay Appaji Khairnar , Mangesh Shankar Bhale
      Pages: 21 - 24
      Abstract: In the Indian subcontinent, the Western Ghats are a biodiversity hotspot. The Western Ghats mountain range runs for more than 1,600 kilometers along India's western coast, from 8.3188890 N to 21.273330 E. The Western Ghats biodiversity hill range is divided into three sub-regions: the Northern Western Ghats (NWG), Central Western Ghats (CWG), and Southern Western Ghats (SWG). The studied area of Nashik district is a part of the Northern Western Ghats of India. The current botanical investigation explored the rich plant biodiversity area of Nashik district. During floral exploration in the Nashik district, we explored critically endangered, endemic, and monotypic genus of the Frerea indica Dalzell flowering plant species reported for the first time from the studied area. F. indica is a jeopardized limited to Maharashtra state only in the Western Ghats of India.This significance plant species was first time located at Shivneri fort, Junnar tehsil, Pune district. In presence conditions, 9 regions of the northern Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India are reported only.
      PubDate: 2023-04-09
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.14752458
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • A comparison of apple varieties based on yield and production efficiency
           under north western plain zones of Uttar Pradesh

    • Authors: Arvind Kumar, Vibhu Pandey, Khushboo Sharma, Anuj Pal, Devendra Pal, Amit Kumar
      Pages: 25 - 30
      Abstract: Apple is largely cultivated in India's northwestern Himalayan area, which also encompasses the nation's mountainous north-eastern regions as well as the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. This research was conducted during 2019-2020 and 2020-21 at Horticultural Research Centre, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) and the number of treatments was 3, each replicated 4 times. Each treatment consists of one plant. Total 12 plants were selected for study. The plants were planted at spacing of 5x5 m. The obtained results showed that the no. of fruits per plant (176.62), no. of branches per plant (28.5) was found to be significant. On the other side canopy spread (4.84 m), stem girth (33.87 cm), plant height (4.06 m), number of flowers (1020.75), fruit size (length) (57.12 mm), fruit size (width) (52.61 mm), fruit weight per fruit (76.62 gm), ), fruit weight (5 fruits) (383.12) were found to be non-significant. The results of present study indicate that the basis of their vegetative behavior, Dorsett Golden appeared to be superior variety in terms of tree morphology and other as moderate. Further, it can be concluded that variety Dorsett Golden had more productivity and the fruits of ANNA and HRMN-99 were having more marketable fruit traits. The current study revealed the diversity of the apple cultivars analysed in this experiment, highlighting the significance of safeguarding these precious genetic resources and pursuing additional study to ensure their conservation, exchange, and utilisation in upcoming breeding initiatives for the development of novel, improved apple varieties.
      PubDate: 2023-04-09
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.14802460
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • The long-term impact of the integrated crop-livestock system on carbon
           emission, sustainability and livelihood security of small and medium

    • Authors: Kumara O, Kumar Naik A. H., Rajashekhar L., Shivanand Goudra
      Pages: 31 - 39
      Abstract: In India, 80 per cent of the farmers are small and marginal farmers. They primarily depend on agriculture and allied activities for their livelihood security. The rice-rice cropping system reduces farm income, declined soil fertility and other soil degradation problems. The farming system approach is a holistic tool to address the problems of mono-cropping through diversification that enhances farm income, production and employment. A field study was conducted during 2011–2018 to study the impact of the rice-based integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) for profitability, carbon emission and sustainability. Recycling of resources and residues led to higher productivity (58.9 %) and net profit (48.5 %) over the initial year by adopting rice-based ICLS. This system had a net profit of $ 3097/year and generated 776 man T days/ha/year employments. In ICLS, the recyclable farm waste material of 28.98 tons is converted into organic manures of 16.03 tons and saves the fertilizer’s cost of $ 504 per year. It can be a sustainable model with a sustainable yield index (0.11) of for wet situations with less carbon-emitting and profitable.
      PubDate: 2023-04-12
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.15452493
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Multivariate analysis for study of genetic divergence in mungbean [Vigna
           radiata (L.) Wilczek] genotypes

    • Authors: Shivangi Rahangdale, J P Lakhani, S K Singh, Akash Barela, Pratik Kumar, S S Prajapati
      Pages: 40 - 46
      Abstract: Forty mungbean genotypes were evaluated for fourteen quantitative traits, planted in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Mahalanobis' generalised distance D2 was used to assess the character data and Principal Component Analysis for estimating genetic diversity and identification of superior mungbean genotypes. Following Tocher's technique, the 40 genotypes were divided into 7 clusters in accordance with their genetic distance. Among them four clusters were polygenotypic and three were monogenotypic. The genotypes of cluster IV and VII showed highest (40.51) inter cluster distance followed by cluster III and VII (39.04). Cluster V has been discovered to have the largest intra-cluster distance. In order to increase the genetic diversity of Vigna radiata, genotypes from these clusters may be crossed. Based on Principal Component Analysis results, 5 PCs explained 75.87% of the variation among the 14 parameters and had eigen values greater than unit. Only six genotypes—TJM-37, TJM-134, TJM-140, TJM-235, Shikha, and PM-1632—contained with favourable yield and quality associated PCs, and had outstanding remark for yield traits—out of all genotypes contributing their existence in more than one PC with high PC score. These lines may be used in hybridization programmes to transmit desirable features, such as high yield and high quality, to recipient mungbean genotypes, resulting in the creation of promising cultivars.
      PubDate: 2023-04-12
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.15472494
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Traditional uses of ethno-medicinal plants for the treatment of skin
           ailments in district Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand, India

    • Authors: Renu, Bharti, Deepak Kumar, Pankaj Arya
      Pages: 47 - 53
      Abstract: This study was conducted among the local people of Pithoragarh district (Uttarakhand) to document the ethnomedicinal plants used as remedies for various skin diseases. A total of 52 plant species from 36 families were listed for curing skin ailments such as allergies, infections, pigmentation, acne, pimples, burns, wounds, etc. It is noted that most of the plant formulations were applied externally in the form of paste. However, phytochemical analysis and pharmacognostic research on these recorded plants should be conducted to determine their therapeutic potential as a first step toward the development of effective drugs. This valuable knowledge about indigenous uses of the reported plant species must be conserved for sustainable use and future generations.
      PubDate: 2023-04-09
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.14922464
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Disease incidence, larval parameters and mortality of mulberry silkworm,
           Bombyx mori L. effected by bed disinfectants

    • Authors: Pompi Konwar, Monimala Saikia, Surajit Kalita , Hemanta Saikia, Aparupa Borgohain
      Pages: 54 - 62
      Abstract: With an aim to find out an effective bed disinfectant regulating disease incidence, larval growth parameters and mortality of mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L. revealed a positive influence on the disease incidence, and larval growth of mulberry silkworm race, (CSR6 × CSR26) × (CSR2 × CSR27). The commercial bed disinfectant, Ankush manifested better result in terms of reduction in disease incidence (1.833 %) and larval parameters (larval duration, 21.888 days; full grown larval weight, 4.596 g; silk gland weight, 0.889 g and 24.181% SGTSI) compared to the control (22.667 days, 3.976 g, 0.817 g and 20.726 %, respectively) followed by Sericillin and Turmeric rhizome powder alone or in combinations. However, a combination of bed disinfectants viz., Ankush + Sericillin, Ankush + Turmeric rhizome powder and Sericillin + Turmeric rhizome powder recorded better results compared to Turmeric rhizome powder alone. Though bed disinfectants did not show any significant effect on mortality percentage but Ankush resulted highest reduction of mortality over control (46.933 %). The performance of all the bed disinfectants was found to be better during the late spring season.
      PubDate: 2023-04-09
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.14952465
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Preparation and evaluation of fresh pineapple, passion fruit and ginger
           blended ready-to-serve drink

    • Authors: Thejangulie Angami, S.R. Assumi, H. Kalita, Bharati Saloi, K. Suraj Singh, Letngam Touthang, Badapmain Makdoh, Ampee Tasung
      Pages: 63 - 66
      Abstract: Preliminary work was executed at the processing laboratory of ICAR (Research complex) for NEH Region, Arunachal Pradesh Centre, Basar, to prepare and assess the physico-chemical properties of fresh juice blends. The experiment comprised of nine treatments consisting of fresh pineapple, passion fruit and ginger juice blends in different ratios following CRD with three replications. It was found that the treatment (T5) passion fruit-ginger juice at the ratio of 90:10 blended RTS beverage exhibited the highest pH (4.33), ascorbic acid (18.73 mg per 100 ml) and beta carotene (245.33 µg per 100 ml). The TSS and acidity percent were non-significant as all the sample treatments were maintained almost uniform at 15 ºBrix and 0.30 percent. Further, it also revealed that both the sugar i.e. reducing and total sugar of the fresh mixed RTS drink was recorded maximum in (T2) pineapple-passion fruit juice ratio of 70:30. Organoleptic traits of freshly mixed ready to serve drinks after evaluated by a member of juries based on 9 Points Hedonic Scale vividly indicated that treatment (T1) pineapple-passion fruit RTS at 50:50 ratio recorded the most favoured taste, colour, flavour ultimately attributing to the highest overall acceptability.
      PubDate: 2023-04-12
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.16252518
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Energy budgeting and life cycle assessment of cashew cultivation under
           different planting densities

    • Authors: Manjunatha Krishnappa, Mundakochi Gangadhara Nayak, Shamsudheen Mangalassery, Preethi Palpandian, Muralidhara Bommanahalli Munivenkata, Siddanna Savadi
      Pages: 67 - 78
      Abstract: Energy budgeting is important for determining the sustainability and vulnerability of a crop production system. In the present study, an assessment of the energy requirements for cashew cultivation under three different planting densities was carried out during 2015-20. The study revealed that the total input energy consumption for cashew cultivation ranged from 75292.68 to 120903.58 MJ/ha. The energy productivity from 0.04 to 0.13 kg/MJ and energy use efficiency varied from 8.46 to 24.61% under three planting densities. The highest energy was consumed in terms of chemical fertilizers for all the planting densities followed by fuel (diesel), machinery, farmyard manure (FYM), pesticides, petrol and human energy. The analysis revealed the need to implement improved management practices to enhance the energy efficiency by reducing the energy consumption in inputs, by optimizing energy consumption and/or improving the crop yield by optimizing the cultivation methods and switching from non-renewable sources to renewable sources of energy. Among the three different planting densities, 2.5x2.5 m spacing consumed the highest energy followed by 5x5 m and 7.5x7.5m spacing. However, the planting density of 2.5x2.5 m spacing was more energy efficient over the years due to more yields per unit area.
      PubDate: 2023-04-11
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.14622444
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Principal component analysis among vegetable soybean genotypes (Glycine
           max L. Merrill)

    • Authors: Devi Sri Dunna, Nanita Devi Heisnam, Renuka Devi Thokchom, Bireswar Sinha, Okendro Singh
      Pages: 79 - 86
      Abstract: In the present study, 33 soybean genotypes were selected to study the association between the fourteen quantitative characters under study and to assess the magnitude of divergence between 33 genotypes for 14 traits during Kharif, 2021. For all measured traits, the results revealed significant variation among tested entries. The principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted for the 1quantitative characters and only 7 showed > 1 Eigen value and showed about 81.748% of total variation and remaining 7 components having a eigen value less than 1.00 and contributed only 18.252% of total Variation. Among the traits studied PC1 showed 20.7235 while, PC2 to PC 14 exhibited 15.205%, 12.69%, 9.476%, 9.142%,7.271%, 7.241%, 6.171%, 4.089%, 2.865%, 2.185%, 1.506%, 0.897% and 0.536% variability, respectively. Scree plots explained the percentage of variance. A high PC score for a specific genotype shows high value for those variables like EC 915989, EC 915900, EC 915993, EC 915975, EC 915903, EC 915898 and EC 915959 in PC1 and this indicated that these genotypes have high values for traits such as 100 Fresh pod weight and 100 Fresh seed weight.
      PubDate: 2023-04-11
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.14532442
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Interactive effects of non-fodder litter and fungal species on soil
           enzymes: A microcosm temporal assessment from Indian arid zone

    • Authors: Manohar Singh Suthar, Manish Mathur, Praveen Gehlot, Swami Sundarmoorthy
      Pages: 87 - 97
      Abstract: The interactive effects of three non-fodder Indian arid plant species, Tephrosia purpurea, Aerva persica, and Calotropis procera, and four Aspergillus fungal species on soil enzymes (acid and alkaline phosphatase, -glucosidase, dehydrogenase, urease, and amidase activities) were temporally assessed (15 and 30 days withdrawals). The results were statistically analysed using ANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCoA). Aside from these, a biochemical soil quality index was created by assigning a weighted score to each enzyme and analysing it using PCA. This study found that various litter-fungal species complexes acted differently and that their effects changed over time, specifically for acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, and amidase. Dehydrogenase and urease activities increased with predictors over time. With temporal backwash, all four fungal species with C. procera inhibit acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and beta-glucosidase activities (i.e., more at 15 days and lesser after 30 days). Our current findings suggest that (a) urease activities were modulated by A. persica in cooperation with fungi like A. terreus, A. niger, and A. flavus at specific enzyme levels; (b) In assistance with fungi such as A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. persica, amidase concentration was successfully managed through litter of the legume plant species T. purpuria. (c) When C. procera and A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus worked together, they were most effective at supporting beta-glucosidase and dehydrogenase (d) Alkaline phosphatase and (e) acid phosphatase was more responsive to T. purpurea-A. terreus complexes than were T. purpurea-A. flavus and C. procera-A. terreus complexes.
      PubDate: 2023-04-12
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.16392522
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Geospatial mapping of ecoraces of tasar silkworm (Antheraea mylitta Drury)
           using remote sensing and geographic information system techniques

    • Authors: Priti Pragyan Ray, Barsha Barala
      Pages: 98 - 104
      Abstract: Tropical Tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta Drury (Family: Saturniidae) produces Tasar silk which has very high demand globally and because of their wide range of distribution in tropical regions, they have adapted to different niches forming different ecoraces. In Odisha, alone seven types of ecoraces of A. mylitta have been reported, namely Modal, Sukinda, Nalia, Jata-Daba, Adaba, Umerkote, and Boudh. These ecoraces show differences in their phenotypes, genetic constitution, fecundity, voltinism, etc. In the past few decades, there is the substantial deterioration of habitats due to many anthropogenic activities. This has resulted in a large decline in wild Tasar cocoon production. Lepidopterans are accepted as ecological indicators of ecosystem health and it is apprehended that through anthropogenic and climatic factors this precious genetic resource, which took millions of years to evolve, may face the threat of extinction shortly if adequate conservation measures are not taken. This paper attempts the geospatial mapping of these ecoraces in the state of Odisha through RS and GIS tools, which will provide a greater scenario for their conservation
      PubDate: 2023-04-09
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.15052468
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Management of pod fly, Melanagromyza obtusa (Malloch) through newer

    • Authors: Marri Sravanthi, Sangita Limma, Kollu Praveen Kumar
      Pages: 105 - 108
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out at research farm of T.C.A., Dholi (Muzaffarpur) during Kharif season 2019-2020 to manage the pod fly Melanagromyza obtusa (Malloch) through newer insecticides. All eight novel insecticides were substantially potential over control in lowering the damage caused by pod fly and also recorded increased yields. Minimal pod and grain damage was recorded in chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC (11.63 % and 8.42 % respectively) followed by flubendiamide 480 SC (14.66% and 15.37%). The highest yield (1945 kg/ha) was recorded in chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC as against 682 kg/ha in untreated control with a Cost Benefit Ratio (CBR) of 1:41.8.
      PubDate: 2023-04-10
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.15172473
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Influence of biostimulants on growth and productivity of foxtail millet
           (Setaria italica L.) genotypes

    • Authors: Chethan G S, Hugar A. Y., Sarvajna B Salimath, Girijesh G K., Dushyantha Kumar B M
      Pages: 109 - 115
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out at AHRS, Bavikere, Karnataka during late kharif season of 2021to find out the “Influence of biostimulants on growth and productivity of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) genotypes’’. The field trial was laid out in split plot design with 12 treatment combinations. The study involves three genotypes in the main plot viz., SiA-3156 (G1), HMT-100-1 (G2) and DHFt-109-3 (G3). Foliar application of biostimulants in sub plots viz., 0.1 % humic acid (F1), 3 % panchagavya (F2), 0.1 % humic acid and 3 %panchagavya (F3) at 30 and 60 days after sowing (DAS) and recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) as control (F4). Genotypes and Foliar application of biostimulants exhibited significant variation in growth and yield components of foxtail millet. Among the different genotypes, HMT-100-1 recorded significantly higher plant height (142.00 cm), number of tillers per meter (81.87) and leaf area (18.40 dm2/plant) at harvest and also yield components like panicle length (16.60 cm), grain weight per panicle (4.02 g) and grain yield (1701.0 kg/ha) compared to DHFt-109-3 and SiA -3156. In biostimulants, Foliar application of 0.1 % humic acid and 3 % panchagavya recorded significantly higher plant height (142.32 cm), number of tillers per metre (83.75) and leaf area (18.51 dm2/plant) at harvest and also yield components like panicle length (16.99 cm), grain weight per panicle (4.33 g) and grain yield (1781.2 kg/ha). While, they were found to be at their lowest with application of RDF alone. Interaction between genotypes and biostimulants was also found to be significant in which combination of HMT-100-1 with foliar application of 0.1 % humic acid and 3 %panchagavya recorded significantly higher growth and yield compared to other treatment combinations.
      PubDate: 2023-04-10
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.15332480
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Water stress influence of Rajendrasonia and Pitamber turmeric varieties

    • Authors: Sambeta Kedarini, Singisala Nageswara Rao
      Pages: 116 - 125
      Abstract: Turmeric varieties viz., Rajendrasonia and Pitamber were subjected to water stress by irrigating at different intervals. Impact of water stress on morphological, physiological and yield parameters of both the varieties were investigated. In this study irrigation treatments divided into three groups. Group A, control receives water weekly once. For every two weeks once group B was irrigated and for every three weeks once group C was irrigated. Plants which are under heavy water stress showed gradual reduction in morphological, physiological and yield parameters, i.e. plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, Net Assimilation rate, Relative Growth rate , fresh and dry weight of rhizome. Pitamber and Rajendrasonia growth parameters, physiological and yield parameters were slightly affected in moderate stress compared to control. In heavy stress condition the two varieties severely affected compared to control and moderate stress. Among the two selected varieties Pitamber was less affected in all parameters except in leaves number, tuberous roots length and in dry weight in moderate and heavy stress.
      PubDate: 2023-04-10
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.15482486
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Comparative evaluation of low-cost natural farming, organic farming and
           conventional farming in major crops of South Saurashtra region at
           Junagadh, Gujarat, India

    • Authors: Hiteshvari Korat, Ratilal Mathukia, Harshang Talaviya
      Pages: 126 - 135
      Abstract: Conventional farming always modifying by good innovation in agriculture, while the holistic idea of organic farming checks the use of synthetic inputs where in opposite side, the concept of natural farming allowing farming with few traditional and locally available inputs. The all three farming concepts are fundamentally different, to check it on real field, a experiment was conducted on medium black calcareous clayey soil at Junagadh (Gujarat) during rabi 2019-20 to kharif 2020 in order to evaluate low cost natural farming, organic farming and conventional farming in major six crops of Gujarat. The experimental results revealed that conventional farming module significantly increased yields of crops as compared to organic farming and low cost natural farming. Significantly higher available nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium after harvest was found under conventional farming, while organic farming module registered significantly higher organic carbon, heat soluble S; DTPA-extractable Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn after harvest, which was found at par with conventional farming. Economic analysis showed that maximum net returns gross returns, and B:C ratio were observed under conventional farming module.
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.14912463
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Comparing the economics of hemp (Cannabis sativa ssp. sativa) cultivation
           for fiber and seed yield as influenced by spacing and nutrition

    • Authors: Meghana HR, Maruthi Prasad B.N., Dhananjaya B.N., Shankrappa T.H., Harshaavardhan redi sirupa
      Pages: 136 - 143
      Abstract: Hemp is dual purpose crop, where fibers and seeds have found its place in textile and food industry due to its strong fiber and nutrition content in seed. The cultivation of hemp is a new venture in India where farmers get dual income by both fibers and seeds hence, optimizing spacing and nutrient management to harness maximum yield of fiber and seed can double the income of farmers. The present investigation on economics of hemp cultivation revealed that the, maximum gross returns (Rs. 5,74,000/ ha) were obtained from plants grown at 10 cm × 5 cm spacing and supplied with 125 per cent RDF plus PGPR consortia but highest B:C ratio of 4.68 was observed in plants grown at spacing of 20 cm × 10 cm and nourished with 100 per cent of RDF plus PGPR consortia for fiber purposes. Upon considering seed economics maximum gross returns (Rs. 12,58,200/ ha) was recorded in the treatment combination of 10 cm × 10 cm spacing and supplied with 125 per cent RDF plus PGPR consortia while, maximum B:C ratio of 13.17 was noted from plots where plants were spaced at 15 cm × 10 cm and supplied with nutrition of 100 per cent RDF plus PGPR consortia for seed purposes.
      PubDate: 2023-06-25
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.16612528
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Genetic diversity for morphophysiological character studies in rainfed
           sorghum (Sorghum bicolor[L.] Moench) parental lines

    • Authors: Manish Chavhan, Laxman Jawale, Ambika More
      Pages: 144 - 151
      Abstract: The experimental trial was conducted at Sorghum Research Centre, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani during kharif 2021 in randomized design with 3 replications. Eighteen parental (B & R) lines were evaluated to study genetic diversities and variability for fifteen yield contributing characters. Among all the eighteen genotypes of parental lines significant differences were observed for yield and its yield contributing traits except total chlorophyll content. Coefficient of variance at phenotypic level showed higher values than at genotypic level among all traits. Coefficient of variance for the traits like chlorophyll stability index (G=23.035, P=23.714), leaf area (G=21.064, P=21.673), 1000 grain weight (G=28.845, P=29.929), fodder yield (G=21.858, P=22.458), grain number per panicle (G=29.564, P=30.158), leaf dry weight (G=29.044, P=29.903) was observed high at both level. Traits like plant height (H=90, GAM=21.041), grain yield (H=86, GAM=29.074), leaf dry weight (H=94, GAM=23.664), leaf area (H=94, GAM=42.17), chlorophyll stability index (H=94, GAM=46.093), grain number per panicle (H=96, GAM=59.703), fodder yield (H=94, GAM=43.823),1000 grain weight (H=92, GAM=52.270) and harvest index (H=84, GAM=32.321) were recorded high heritability with high genetic advancement. Genotype AKR 504, NR 39-15, KR 218, KR 219, PMS 100B, AKMS 90 B and INDORE 12 showed the better performance for all characters thus, should be used for development of hybrids and inbreds in breeding programmes by DUS (Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability) testing.
      PubDate: 2023-06-26
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.14462439
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Trait association studies in diverse genotypes of rice for their
           utilization in biofortification

    • Authors: Caleb Vanlalrinngama, Banshidhar Jha, S. K. Singh, A. Tigga, Bishawajit Kumar, Namata Kumari, M. K. Singh
      Pages: 152 - 156
      Abstract: Rice is the staple food crop for more than half of the world population. Thus, rice varieties enriched with various micronutrients qualifies as a better alternative to combat micronutrient deficiency. The present investigation was undertaken to study the degree and direction of association for grain characters especially grain Zinc (Zn) content and grain Iron (Fe) content in 30 genotypes of rice. The correlation coefficient analysis findings at the phenotypic level were used to determine whether the various traits were correlated with yield and the significance of the relationship among them. This data shows significant positive correlation at the phenotypic and genotypic level for grain yield per plant with days to 50% flowering (0.356 & 0.373), number of panicles per plant (0.340 & 0.522), panicle length (0.293 & 0.356), test weight (0.307 & 0.346) and kernel breadth (0.283 & 0.339). The signs (positive or negative) reflect the consequence of increasing or decreasing one variable over the other. The traits plant height ((-0.399 & -0.410) and kernel L/B ratio (-0.237 & -0.291) showed negative correlation with yield indicating that shorter plants as well as grains having shorter length with more breadth are more likely to produce more yield thus selection should be carried out against height . One possible reason for this could be that in plants with shorter stature have higher nutrient use efficiency and are resistant to lodging. The traits days to 50% flowering, number of panicles per plant, panicle length, and test weight and kernel breadth showed positive correlation indicating that selection towards higher values for these traits would consequently improve the yield. It was also found that the traits Zn and Fe content were positively correlated with each other implying that simultaneous selection of these traits could be done for the purpose of biofortification.
      PubDate: 2023-06-27
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.14472440
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Detecting air pollutants trends using Mann-Kendall tests and Sen’s
           slope estimates

    • Authors: Gowthaman T., Sathees Kumar K., Banjul Bhattacharyya
      Pages: 157 - 166
      Abstract: Recently, trend detection in ambient air pollutants has received a lot of interest, particularly in relation to climatic changes. Air pollutants data that were acquired from monitoring stations from 2015 to 2021 were used in the current investigation. The direction and size of the monotonic trend were determined using the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator. The findings showed that there was significant fluctuation in different parameters over time. According to the study, SO2 and NO2 indicate a slightly increasing tendency with approximate annual concentrations of 6mg/m3 and 40mg/m3, respectively, whereas PM2.5 shows a decreasing trend with an approximate annual concentration of 130mg/m3. For all of Odisha's districts, PM10 exhibits no trend, with annual concentrations of about 90mg/m3. The study found that while NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations were significantly over the standard allowed limits while SO2 concentrations were significantly below them. Specific actions are needed to reduce these pollutants' emissions in Odisha.
      PubDate: 2023-06-26
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.15062470
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Evaluation of some promising indigenous brinjal genotypes under terai
           region of West Bengal

    • Authors: Amar Biradar, Taru Dumi, Subhamoy Sikder, Shibnath Basfore, Ranjit Chatterjee
      Pages: 167 - 173
      Abstract: Present experiment was implemented under the Department of Vegetable and Spice Crops, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Coochbehar which situated at terai region of West Bengal during the autumn-winter season of 2019-20 and 2020-21 on 28 highly diversified brinjal genotypes on ten highly important yield and yield attributing traits to assess the extent of involvement of different genetic phenomena in manifestation of important yield related traits and to understand the inter relationship among them to design better selection criteria. Result revealed that there was close proximity in the magnitude among the component of coefficient of variation and these component exhibited high estimates coupled with high heritability for almost all the characters excepting days to first flowers and days to fruit maturity indicated less interference of the environmental factors in the manifestation of these traits. High magnitude of heritability coupled with genetic advance of mean for those character suggested possibility for selecting these characters based on phenotypic performance for further improvement at desired direction. Residual effect from path analysis was 0.1367 at genotypic level which suggested that contribution of the traits under study was approximately 86.5% on yield, argued for appropriate selection of traits for success of present experimental study. From character associationship and path coefficient it was found that expected yield was highly correlated in positive direction with average fruits per plant (0.68 and 0.801), average fruit weight (0.48 and 0.565), numbers of primary branches per plant (0.51 and 0.113); hence, these yield attributing traits were significantly positively related with each other which suggested that simultaneous selective breeding strategy considering these characters for improvement of yield could be rewarding due to their probable conditioning by additive gene action.
      PubDate: 2023-06-26
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.16052507
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Biomass partitioning, yield and economic performance of green gram (Vigna
           radiate L.) genotypes as influenced by different irrigation levels

    • Authors: Anil Kumar Dhaka, Satish Kumar, Prakriti Dhaka, Ram Dhan Jat, Bhagat Singh
      Pages: 174 - 185
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during the Kharif season of2020 with four main plot treatments consisting of irrigation levels (No post sowing irrigation, one irrigation at the flower initiation stage, one irrigation at the pod filling stage and two irrigations each at flower initiation and pod filling stage) and five subplot treatments as genotypes viz., MH 1142, MH 1468, MH 1703, MH 1762 and MH 1871 following split plot design by replicating thrice. Irrigating green gram, irrespective of the growth stage, increased the seed yield significantly. Two irrigations each at the flower initiation and podding stage bring about greater seed economic yield of green gram than 1 irrigation either at each stage. Among single irrigations, flower initiation stage provided significantly superior (8.6 %) seed yield compared to the pod filling stage. During the flower initiation stage, no rain and irrigation at this stage led to more development of crop plants, as is evident from a higher number of branches per plant and, ultimately, a higher number of pods. Two irrigations, i.e., each at flower initiation and podding phase, lead to considerably greater seed output than single irrigation at either growth stage, which may be attributed to the sufficient supply of water, which indirectly provided a smooth supply of nutrients to crop plants. The increase was 18.4 and 28.6 per cent over-irrigation at flowering and podding stage, respectively. Seed yield varied among green gram genotypes, which might be because of variations in the genetic potential of the genotypes. Genotype MH 1871 produced significantly higher seed yield among different genotypes. The cumulative effect of yield traits viz. pods per plant, branches per plant, seed index and seeds per pod attributed to the higher seed yield in MH 1871. This genotype was more efficient in utilizing radiations, as evident from the higher chlorophyll content recorded in this genotype. Genotype MH 1142 was the lowest yielder and MH 1762 although produced. To obtain a higher yield of green gram, genotype MH 1871 be taken with two irrigations each at flower initiation and pod filling stage.
      PubDate: 2023-06-25
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.15222512
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Evaluation of ginger genotypes for commercial cultivation in Mizoram and
           future prospects

    • Authors: Jeetendra Kumar Soni, B. Lalramhlimi, Vishambhar Dayal, Sunil Kumar Sunani, Lalhruaitluangi Sailo, Amarjeet Nibhoria, Shakuntala Ingudum, S Doley
      Pages: 186 - 198
      Abstract: A study was carried out for three years (2019, 2020 & 2021) in the experimental field at ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Mizoram Centre, Kolasib, Mizoram to check the performances of seven ginger genotypes viz., Gurubathani, Bold Nadia, Bhaise, John's ginger, PGS 121, PGS 95 and PGS 102 against Local ginger cv Thingria and their economic feasibility for commercialization in Mizoram, India. Out of seven genotypes when compared with Local ginger cv Thingria, five genotypes have out yielded Local cultivar in the range of 21.25 to 45.45% with Bhaise having 45.45% higher rhizome yield than Local ginger. On the other hand, Bold Nadia possesses a combination of good quality traits. The highest B:C ratio was obtained in Bhaise (2.08) followed by PGS 102 (1.99), Gorubathani (1.95) and Bold Nadia (1.87). The highest cost of cultivation was contributed by labour cost which was 53.40% of total cost of cultivation. The four genotypes viz., Bold Nadia, Bhaise, PGS 102 and Gorubathani can be selected as potential genotypes possessing optimum combination of all traits. Based on economic analysis, these genotypes can be considered for commercial purposes under Mizoram condition. Different production systems such as intercropping, pro-tray technology, and bulb extraction method may increase the overall income of farmers. Farmers need to venture the possibilities of value addition in ginger on commercial basis. Government intervention is required for creating marketing infrastructures, initiating youth-centered schemes, occasional skill training and developing farmer-friendly policies to protect them from market risks and exploitation. Ginger has been an important horticultural crop and widely marketed spice crop of Mizoram, a potential enterprise contributing to state economy
      PubDate: 2023-06-25
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.16332516
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Characterization of soils under different periods of eucalyptus
           cultivation and restoration in Malur and Hoskotetaluks of Karnataka, India

    • Authors: Haravina Manjunathaswamy Pruthvi Raj, Belvadi Nanjappa Dhananjaya, Bommalingaianapalya Narasahanumaiaha Maruthi Prasad, Ramapatna Lakshmaiah Raghunatha Reddy, Thyavanahally Hanumaiah Shankarappa
      Pages: 199 - 208
      Abstract: Considerable area under eucalyptus plantation in the form of farm forestry exists in Malur and Hoskotetaluks of Karnataka, India. But in the recent years, Government of Karnataka has checked the spread of eucalyptus and farmers are gradually converting their eucalyptus plantations into agricultural lands. This study was aimed to evaluate soils of eucalyptus during growing and after restoration and its adjacent croplands having no history of eucalyptus cultivation in Taluks of Malur and Hosakote, Karnataka for physico-chemical properties and evaluated during the year 2019-2020 at College of Horticulture, Kolar. The results revealed that soils under 12, 24 and 48 years of eucalyptus cultivation when compared to soils after two, six and ten years of restoration and adjacent soils, showed significantly high bulk density (1.28 to 1.51 Mg/m3) and low water holding capacity (30.30 to 45.61%). These soils were more acidic in reaction (pH: 6.21 to 6.65) and contained significantly lower amounts of total soluble salts (EC: 0.04 to 0.07 dS/m), organic carbon (OC: 0.24 to 0.59%), available N, P2O5 and K2O (163.07 to 235.42, 26.03 to 47.23 and 112.89 to 168.55 Kg/ha, respectively), exchangeable Ca and Mg (1.70 to 2.75 and 0.80 to 1.32 cmol (p+)/Kg, respectively) and available S (5.60 to 7.09 ppm) but contained significantly high amounts of available Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu (13.52 to 29.74, 14.06 to 20.14, 1.44 to 2.06 and 1.16 to 1.74 ppm, respectively). Further, bulk density, acidity and available micronutrient cations of soils tends to increase with prolonging the cultivation period of eucalyptus while, reverse trend was observed with respect to water holding capacity, organic carbon and available macronutrients contents. On the other hand, restored plots showed significantly decreased acidity, bulk density and available micronutrient cations and increased water holding capacity and macronutrients contents with increasing the restoration period.
      PubDate: 2023-06-27
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.16382521
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Impact of different quantity and quality of irrigation water on crop yield
           and biomass of winter maize using FAO-Aqua crop model

    • Authors: Ravish Chandra, Vipin Chandan, Manish Kumar
      Pages: 209 - 214
      Abstract: Irrigation has a major role to play in the productivity of winter maize. Precise information about the quantity and quality of irrigation water is the key for higher productivity of winter maize. In the present study attempt has been made to asses the impact of different depth of irrigation water on crop yield and biomass of winter maize using FAO-Aquacrop Model. In the first case crop yield and biomass was simulated for irrigation water depth varied from 20 mm to 80 mm, keeping the irrigation water quality constant. Similarly, in another case the optimum irrigation depth was kept constant and irrigation water quality varied from 1 to 10 ds/m. The simulated crop yield and biomass increases up to 40 cm depth of irrigation water application for all three seasons. When a similar comparison was made for 30 cm depth of irrigation water application the simulated yield reduction was only 0.79%, 2.2% and 2.4 % for the year 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19 respectively. The analysis suggested that this yield reduction can easily be compromised for saving 10 cm of irrigation water. This study indicated that 30 cm depth of irrigation water is optimum for Winter maize in BurhiGandak river basin of North Bihar In case of deficit irrigation of 20 cm depth of irrigation water application the simulated yield reduced by 14.4 %, 25.4 % and 11.4 % for the year 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19 respectively. Assessment of response of different quality irrigation water on simulated crop yield and biomass of winter maize using FAO-Aquacrop model suggests that simulated yield was found maximum with 1 ds/m. The reduction in simulated yield with 10 ds/m water quality was observed maximum with a value of 41.3 %, 44.4 % and 38.4 % respectively for the year 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19. FAO-Aquacrop model can be used as an important tool for efficient planning of irrigation water under diminishing water supply and deteriorating water quality.
      PubDate: 2023-06-27
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.16442523
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Preliminary checklist of butterfly diversity from the Himachal Pradesh
           Agricultural University, Palampur, India

    • Authors: Praveen Kumar, Bharti Parmar , Pardeep Kumar
      Pages: 215 - 221
      Abstract: Butterflies are the bio-indicator species for monitoring the health of the ecosystem. A preliminary checklist of the butterfly diversity was prepared by a long-term survey from 2019 to 2022 in varied habitats in the agriculture landscape of the Himachal Pradesh Agriculture University (HPAU), India. The study recorded 77 butterfly species belonging to six families Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Hesperiidae, Papilionidae and Riodinidae. In addition, there are some rare records of butterfly species such as Common Wall (Lasiommata schakra), Dark Blue Tiger (Tirumala septentrionis), Ringed Argus (Callerebia annada) and Pioneer (Belenois aurota). Some butterflies are habitat specific and few also show local migration from high-elevation areas of the surrounding Dhauladhar ranges. The preliminary checklist prepared from the present study was also compared with Central University of Himachal Pradesh (CUHP) located in the similar landscape of the study area. This will help to understand the long-term effect of habitat degradation from human-modified environment and agricultural activities to facilitate effective conservation strategies to protect Himalayan ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2023-06-26
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.16492525
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • LULC dynamics and application of nature based solution in high erosion
           prone areas of Malappuram District

    • Authors: Thenmozhi M Mani, Sreejith Prasad, Riyola George, Jayabharathi J
      Pages: 222 - 233
      Abstract: Kerala State is highly vulnerable to natural disasters, mainly soil erosion due to changing climatic dynamics in the steep slope. In 2018 and 2019 flood, some districts in Kerala State were affected by significant floods due to extreme and prolonged rainfall, leads to large and small landslides. Malappuram is one of the districts that got affected in 2018 and 2019 flood. Disaster risks are augmented by a critical factor that has been silently rising in the State now, which is change in the land use pattern and practices. Hence, the Land Use and Land Cover Dynamics study was conducted in the selected watersheds (Kakkarathode – Pulikkal and Palathingal) of Malappuram district, and spotted major landslides in the area. The LULC dynamics were carried out in the different time periods like 2013, 2018 and 2020. LISS IV (5.8 m resolution) satellite images were used for the analysis and field visit, to identify the related changes. Accuracy of the classification was evaluated using error matrices and kappa statistics. The overall accuracies for 2013, 2018 and 2020 were 84.93%, 86.21% and 87.5% respectively and the corresponding Kappa values were 0.82, 0.84 and 0.85 which indicates the high accuracy of the classification. The flood has mainly affected Plantation, Paddy and Mixed Plantation which had been decreased during 2018-20 and has resulted in the emergence of more Barren land and Waste Land. LULC helps in identifying the changes in the erosion prone areas. Moreover, erosion hazardous area and its prioritization in applying the soil management and conservation practices can be effectively done using LULC change assessment. Nature based solutions such as planting trees and grasses (like shrubs, vetiver grass etc.), construction of ponds, creation of green walls and assemblage of vegetations can be adopted in the region of high-risk hazardous area depending on the categorized zone.
      PubDate: 2023-06-26
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.16562529
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Evaluation of genetic variability parameters for yield, yield attributes
           and fibre quality traits in the F2 population of Gossypium hirsutum L.

    • Authors: Keerthivarman Krishnan, Subhashini Selvaraj, Banoth Madhu, Aravind Krishnamoorthi, Akilan Manoharan
      Pages: 234 - 239
      Abstract: The F2 populations of the crossings CO 14 × NDLH 1938 and CO17 × NDLH 1755 were used to investigate variability and heritability studies in order to better understand the gene action involved in each characteristic studied. Morphological data viz., days to first flowering, plant height (cm), number of sympodials, number of bolls per plant, boll weight (g), ginning outturn (%), upper half mean length (mm), elongation percentage (%) and micronaire value (µg/inch) were all recorded in each plant of both the populations. Studies of heritability and genetic advance as a percent of mean help us determine if a gene is additive or epistatic in nature, and so undergo appropriate breeding programmes for population enhancement. The value of PCV (Phenotypic Coefficient of variation) was always greater than GCV (Genotypic coefficient of variation) indicating the environment also plays a major role in contributing to the variations. The seed cotton yield per plant alone was shown to exhibit additive gene action with high heritability and strong genetic advance as percent of mean, suggesting that it might be used in direct selection since it is the most important attribute for population development.
      PubDate: 2023-06-25
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.16812531
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Influence of weed management practices on direct-seeded rice grown under
           rainfed and irrigated agroecosystems

    • Authors: Badal Verma, Manish Bhan, A.K. Jha, Muskan Porwal
      Pages: 240 - 248
      Abstract: Rice seedlings and weeds emerge concurrently in direct-seeded rice (DSR) production systems, while there is no flooding water to inhibit weed germination, emergence and development at crop emergence. Because of this, weeds are considered the biggest living barrier in DSR and significantly reduce yield. The purpose of the research was to devise an approach for management of weeds in the direct-seeded rice crop cultivated under various agroecosystems, while optimizing growth and production utilizing herbicides or herbicidal combinations. The impacts of several weed management techniques were assessed to determine the most efficient and cost-effective approach of managing weeds in DSR at the CoA, JNKVV, Jabalpur (MP) during 2019 rainy season under spilt plot design with 2 main plot treatments viz., rainfed agroecosystem, irrigated agroecosystem and 8 sub-plot treatments, i.e. different herbicide treatments with hand weeding and weedy check. Further growth parameters as well as yield attributes were documented. Conventional statistical techniques were used to evaluate the data. Bispyribac sodium at the dose of 25 g/ha efficiently controlled both narrow and broad leaved weeds under agroecosystems. Highest growth as well as yield parameters were recorded for irrigated agroecosystems compared to rainfed agroecosystems. The treatment with bispyribac sodium at the dose of 25 g/ha produced the greatest values for growth and yield indices as well as the maximum yield (3.68 t/ha), with the exception of manual weeding.
      PubDate: 2023-06-27
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.16622536
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Water and soil studies in Shrimp aquaculture systems

    • Authors: Praveen Joshi H.S, Ramachadra Naik A T
      Pages: 249 - 259
      Abstract: Litopeneaus vannamei is the most preferable species for culture by shrimp producers due to short time crop, hardy species and high market value. Present investigation was carried out to comprehend the significance of the carbon and nitrogen ratio in shrimp farming systems at Ankola, Uttara Kannada (District) and Haleyangadi, Mangaluru (Taluk) and Dakshina kannada (District). The pond water characteristics namely temperature, pH, alkalinity, salinity, Dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, Ammonia, NO2, NO3, PO4, SiO3 were found to vary from 28 to 35°C, 6.9 to 9.4, 25 to 125 mg/l, 0 to 36 ppt, 0 to 4.20mg/l, 0.020 to 0.259mg/l, 1.63 to 81.24mg/l, 0.12 to 36.45μg at./l as micro-mole per liter, 0.09 to 11.12 μg at./l, 0.26 to 32.15μg at./1, 0.15 to 26.18μg at./l, 2.40 to 90.18μg at./l respectively. The pond soil characteristics comprising of pH, organic carbon were ranged from 6.5 to 8.6, 0.235 to 1.994%, respectively while texture comprising of sand content varied from 48.41 to 96.26%, clay 0.3 to 2.45% and silt 3.14 to 51.24%. C/N ratio is varied 1.084-11.450 during the research phase. The outcomes of the water quality parameters shown quite higher nutrient all selected ponds and Organic carbon showed high in all ponds along with day of culture that’s impact data on water quality and influence on pond biomass and the C/N ratio. A culture system's ability to produce more can be greatly increased by maintaining the quality of the soil and water by removing toxicity though nitrification and continuous monitoring.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.16132511
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutritional effect of zinc and boron on growth, yield and oil content of
           hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    • Authors: Champak Kumar Kundu, Naorem Meena Devi, Lalatendu Nayak, Hirak Banerjee, Soumyajyoti Das, Tripti Nandi, Shantanu Jha
      Pages: 260 - 267
      Abstract: The experiment was conducted to assess the impactofZn and B application on sunflower growth, yield and oil content in sub-tropical condition. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with twelve treatmentsand replicated thrice. The treatments comprised viz; T1: Without fertilizers (absolute control), T2: RDF (N80P40K40), T3: N80P40K40Zn0.5%, T4: N80P40K40Zn4, T5: N80P40K40B0.2%, T6: N80P40K40B2, T7:N80P40K40Zn0.5%B0.2%,T8: N80P40K40Zn4B2, T9:N80P40K40Zn4Zn0.5%, T10: N80P40K40Zn4B0.2%, T11: N80P40K40B2B0.2%, T12: N80P40K40B2Zn0.5%.From the experimental results recorded it can be concluded that the growth and yield components of the tested crop were significantly influenced by the application of micronutrients as compared to the control (without fertilizer) and recommended dose of fertilizer alone. Among the treatmentsapplication of N80P40K40Zn4B2foundhigher diameter of capitulum (17.72 cm), number of seeds per capitulum (763), seed weight per capitulum(48.98 g), seed yield (2563 kg/ha) and oil yield (1097 kg/ha) of hybrid sunflower (variety KBSH 78) accounting 35.49%,43.25%, 26.66%, 46.50% and 51.32% more than control.
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.17352542
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Antimycotic activity of green tea phytocompounds against Candida glabrata

    • Authors: Priyanka Sirari, Jigisha Anand, Manjusha Tyagi, Rakesh Kuamar Bachheti, Ashish Thapliyal, Nishant Rai
      Pages: 268 - 273
      Abstract: One of the medically important opportunistic fungal pathogen for humans is Candida glabrata that causes various types of candidiasis. Its environmental adaptations and antimicrobial resistance is now a great concern for public health. In the present study, the green tea phytocompounds; EGCg, Chlorogenic acid, Coumaroyl quinic acid and Rutin trihydrate along with a known antimycotic Fluconazole were studied for their antimycotic activity against Candida glabrata. The MIC90 for C. glabrata was observed at 125µg/ml for EGC g, 250 µg/mlf or Chlorogenic acid, 500µg/ml for Coumaroyl quinic acid and Rutin trihydrate while 12.5µg/ml for Fluconazole in macro dilution assay while the MFC values were 1000 µg/ml for EGC g, 500 µg/ml for Chlorogenic acid, Coumaroyl quinic acid, Rutin trihydrate and 50 µg/ml for Fluconazole. In microdilution assay, the MIC90 for C. glabrata was observed 125µg/ml for EGC g and chlorogenic acid, 500µg/ml for Coumaroyl quinic acid, Rutin trihydrate and 12.5µg/ml for Fluconazole while the MFC values were 31.25 µg/ml for Fluconazole, 250 µg/ml for chlorogenic acid and 500 µg/ml for EGC g, Coumaroyl quinic acid and Rutin trihydrate. EGCg and Chlorogenic acid was found to be more effective against C. glabrata and therefore these two were used for synergistic study along with Fluconazole. The viability of HeLa cells (in per cent) was observed ≥100% green tea phyto compounds. The viability of treated cells (in per cent) with a combination of Green tea, phytocompounds and fluconazole was observed between ≥98± 0.79 to ≥ 98± 0.87. Green tea phytocompounds mainly EGC g and chlorogenic acid can be used as synergistic molecules having antimycotic activity against C. glabrata.
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.26042341
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Azo dye degrading bacteria and their mechanism: A review

    • Authors: Manasi Upadhyay, Ahana Mondal , Biswajit Saha
      Pages: 274 - 282
      Abstract: Major part of the aesthetics and beauty of idols, textiles, paper, paintings industries, etc. finds its roots in the use of colours (azo compound). These synthetic dyes can not degrade easily by physical and chemical means and are toxic for the environment and animals including humans. Even if they get degraded, it becomes difficult to get rid of the secondary toxic products. Microbes especially bacteria can be used which results cheap, eco friendly and complete degradation of azo dye products without production of any secondary toxic products (or secondary products with way lesser toxicity). Also, it requires no new chemical to be added (in an attempt to degrade azo dye) in an already polluted environment, as the bacterial enzymes would do the job without requiring any other added chemicals. This review article discusses the use of bacteria for azo dye degradation, the bacterial enzymes such as laccase etc. that degrade azo dye and how they work to decolourise the dyes, the common genetic elements found in the different bacteria that can degrade azo dye. This article also includes information on future prospects and some genetically modified organism (GMO) that are being/ (can be) brought to use for dye degradation and pollution reduction.
      PubDate: 2023-06-28
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.15672490
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Mulching: A diversified and multipurpose input in agriculture

    • Authors: Soumya T. M., Siddharth Hulmani, Vignesh, Manjunath Madhukar Mopagar, Akarsh S. V.
      Pages: 283 - 295
      Abstract: The ever-growing demand for food has led to the depletion of natural resources. Water scarcity, land degradation, and climate change are the main factors contributing to declining crop productivity. To address this issue, there is a need to adopt suitable agronomic strategies. Mulching is one way this practice addresses this issue. Since time immemorial, people have been using organic residues as mulching material. Nowadays, people find it cumbersome to utilise crop residues. The development of plastic mulching material overcame this issue due to its easy and plentiful availability. Plastic mulch has its own advantages and disadvantages. In today’s world, the haphazard use of this material has led to the threat of micro plastics. Micro plastics are small in size and escape waste management practices. They contaminate ecosystems, clog the soil pores, enter the food chain, and take a very long time to degrade. So, balanced use of both organic and inorganic materials is the need of the day. This article reviews the benefits of mulching as an agronomic strategy to boost present-day agriculture.
      PubDate: 2023-06-26
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.14352435
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Potential effects of audible sound signals including music on plants: A
           new trigger

    • Authors: Mousumi Das
      Pages: 296 - 304
      Abstract: Plants are highly sensitive organisms and can indeed benefit from specific sound signals in multi-layered processes. Scientific evidences have shown the potential applications of sound wave treatment in plant biology. However, there are some limitations to sound wave treatment that must be overcome. We still do not understand how do plants initially perceive and recognize sound signals, which is very critical to maximize the effectiveness of the use of sound treatment from practical viewpoint. Proper setup of sound treatment equipment and detailed understanding and evaluation of the effects of selected frequencies and intensities along with sound exposure times are also very crucial during sound treatment. More experimental studies with different models need to be done in a multidisciplinary approach toward establishing suitable mechanism for sound treatment application in agriculture production. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of findings associated with potential effects of audible sound waves including music on different biological, physiological and biochemical processes in plants.
      PubDate: 2023-06-28
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.15592489
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Influence of heat treatment on the properties of tin oxide nanoparticles:
           A potential material for environmental remediation applications

    • Authors: Manmeet Kaur, Dixit Prasher, Ranjana Sharma
      Pages: 305 - 310
      Abstract: Metal oxides have gained a growing interest in the field of material science owing to their size and shape dependent physiochemical properties. Tin oxide (SnO2) is considered as a multifaceted material with its widespread applications such as oxidation catalysis, energy harvesting, bio-imaging, gas sensing, storage devices and many more. This study reports the synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles derived via sol-gel route. To observe the effect of thermal treatment on the grown material, the samples were subjected to calcination at different temperature ranging from 350 °C to 550 °Cfor about 4 hrs. The structural, compositional, morphological and optical properties of Tin oxide were studied by XRD, EDAX, FESEM, and UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis respectively. The XRD pattern consists only SnO2 peaks with preferred orientation along (110) plane. The crystallite size increases with higher calcination temperature and is found in the range of 3-15 nm. All the peaks corresponding to SnO2 matches with the standard data indicating the growth of good quality single phase material. Compositional data reveals that that grown material manifested in required stoichiometric ratio of SnO. Scanning electron micrographs show uniform growth of SnO2 nanoparticles with particle size ranging from 10-20 nm. The energy band gap of the SnO2 calculated by optical studies was 3.1eV and 3.0 eV for 450 °Cand 550 °Crespectively. The calculated band gap lies in the visible region of the solar spectrum which could be beneficial for the enhanced photocatalytic performance of the SnO2 nanoparticles.
      PubDate: 2023-06-27
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.16482524
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Lignocellulosic biomass feedstock: A benchmarking green resource for
           sustainable production of bioplastics

    • Authors: Shivani Narwal, Rajesh Dhankhar, Savita Kalshan, Poonam Yadav, Azad Yadav, Tamanna Deswal
      Pages: 311 - 325
      Abstract: Presence of plastics in the surroundings is ubiquitous, as generation of plastics is booming globally and it gets accumulated in oceans leading to deleterious impacts on marine life, public health and the surrounding environment. Owing to its non-degradable nature, plastic particles remain in surroundings for extended periods which automatically facilitate its out spreading. Therefore, there is a need to shift to bio-based plastics, as bio-based green economy hinges on sustainable employment of bioresources for generating a broad spectrum of products, biofuels, chemicals and bioplastics. Typically bioplastics are synthesized from bio-based resources considered to contribute more to sustainable production of plastic as a part of the circular economy. Bioplastics are luring attention and growing as counterfeit material for petroleum-derived plastics owing to their biodegradability. Recently an engrossed interest has been burgeoning in producing drop-in polymers and new-fangled bioplastics by utilizing lignocellulosic feedstock. This paper reviews the enormous potential of lignocellulosic feedstock as a significant inedible substrate for bioplastic synthesis. Polyhydroxyalkanoates, polyurethanes, polylactic acid and starch-bioplastic are prevailing bio-based plastic comparably derived from lignocellulosic biomass. In forthcoming years bioplastic derived years’ bioplastic derived from lignocellulose will loom as valuable material in numerous fields for an extensive range of cutting-edge applications.
      PubDate: 2023-08-17
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.16352517
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
  • Role of eco-friendly dental clinic option in water saving

    • Authors: Hossam Mohamed Hassan Soliman
      Pages: 326 - 329
      Abstract: Water shortage is considered as a major problem worldwide. Moreover, the adverse effects of climate change would make the issue worse. Most classical dental facilities had inappropriate water consumption practices. Green dentistry is an innovative approach to a dental procedure that is environmentally sustainable while also saving money and time by minimizing waste, conserving water and energy, and lowering pollution through the use of cutting-edge techniques and procedures. However, scarcity of studies about this topic represented the main challenge to our study which was overcome by carrying out precise data collection. Our main objective was to clarify the role of eco-friendly dental technology in water saving. Environmental case study approach was used to answer research question and formulate a hypothesis. Data was collected from several evidence based sources. The study results showed that there was a significant reduction in water consumption after the implementation of Eco dental options. The current findings shed light on the significant role of green dentistry on water saving and serves as a base of future research.
      PubDate: 2023-04-12
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.16092509
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2023)
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