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Environment Conservation Journal
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0972-3099 - ISSN (Online) 2278-5124
Published by Action for Sustainable Efficacious Development and Awareness Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Comprehensive assessment of heavy metals contamination in soil and water
           in peri-urban areas of National Capital Territory, Delhi

    • Authors: Jaya N. Surya, Ashok Kumar, Gaurav Singh, D.K. Singh, Neelam Patel
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Contamination of soil and irrigation water by heavy metals (HMs) is a genuine concern due to the possible effect on human well-being via food chain. Thus, an assessment was carried out to find HMs concentration level in water and soil samples of peri-urban areas of National Capital Territory (NCT) Delhi. Analytical results revealed that significant amount of HMs concentration were found in irrigation water, out of which concentrations of Cu (2590 'g/L), Fe (5549 'g/L), Cr (1910 'g/L), Mn (2570 'g/L), Zn (2155 'g/L) and Cd (405 'g/L) in drain water were exceeded the permissible limit of FAO. Cu (108.94 'g/g) and Pb (163 'g/g) concentration in surface soils of majority of sites were recorded beyond the permissible limit of FAO. The overall mean HMs concentration in soil found in the sequence Zn>Cu>Fe>Mn>Cr>Ni>Pb>Cd. It reveals that increasing trend of HMs concentration in water used for irrigation results in metal accumulation in soil, and their consequent accrual in the crops lead to adverse impact on human well-being.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021821-2129
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Assessing the indoor air pollution level as per energy ladder and its
           effect on respiratory health

    • Authors: Anju Bala, Kiran Singh, Komal Chauhan, Manju Mehta
      Pages: 8 - 14
      Abstract: In rural areas of developing countries, where about 40 % of all people live, the household stove accounts for more of all national fuel combustion occur under cooking pots. The present study was undertaken in Hisar district of Haryana state to assess the indoor air pollution level as per the energy ladder and its effect on respiratory health. The study was conducted in the rural villages of Hisar district and rural women who were using traditional chullah were selected as the sample of the study. Results revealed that most of the women were using chullah for cooking their own food and hara for animal feed with fuel placed on the lower rung of energy ladder i.e. crop waste and dung cakes, wood, kerosene, and LPG. Major health problems faced by women were ‘headache’ and ‘irritation in eyes’ while using the traditional chullah and hara. The majority of them were also having respiratory problems like ‘phlegm’ (mean score-2.7) ‘shortness of breath’ (mean score-2.6), ‘cough’ (mean score-2.5), and ‘wheezing’ (attacks) with mean score of 2.0, respectively. Mean PEFR values for the traditional chullah and hara exposed women were significantly lower as compared with MDV chullah and improved hara. Therefore, it is recommended that the use of cheap improved chullah and hara are the best alternative, which is the permanent solution of smoke and also consumes less fuel than traditional chullah and hara.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021778-2105
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Effect of Ailanthus species and seasons on yarn parameters of eri silk

    • Authors: R. R. Borah, M. Saikia
      Pages: 15 - 21
      Abstract: Present research entails an in-depth analysis on the effect of two secondary host plants of eri silkworm viz., borpat (Ailanthus grandis Prain) and borkesseru (Ailanthus excels Roxb.) and seasons on yarn parameters of eri silk as quality of silk depends on food quality and rearing season. Seasons had significant effect on all the yarn parameters viz., yarn size, breaking load, tenacity and elongation except twist per inch. Significantly the highest yarn size (10.26s) was observed in autumn season which was at par with the spring season. But the maximum breaking load (0.67 kg) and tenacity (1.40 g/denier) were recorded in spring season and elongation (26.54%) in early summer season. Regardless of the seasons, significantly the higher breaking load (0.64 kg) and tenacity (1.51 g/denier) were recorded on the borkesseru leaves. The interaction effect of seasons and two host plants on eri silk yarn was found to be non-significant. Diversiform effect of both the seasons and the host plants pertaining to yarn characters were witnessed. It can be ensured that all the seasons and host plants are relevant with slight alteration in the yarn quality.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021850-2136
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Strategies and methods for improving phosphorus acquisition and its use
           efficiency: A review

    • Authors: Purushottam Dev, Sukhdev Singh Paliyal, Mridula, Navjot Rana, R.G. Upadhyay
      Pages: 22 - 30
      Abstract: Phosphorus (P) is considered an essential nutrient for all and is also essential from global food security point of view but it is a limited, non-renewable nutrient resource, making its use vitally important. Nowadays, lower productivity in phosphorus availability is major concern. The decreasing ores and suboptimal levels of plant available phosphorus (P) can lead to lower yield. Its interaction with several other plant nutrients makes it very hard for plant availability. Several approaches have been tried and tested and many of them have been found effective, sustainable and cost efficient. However, the need for novel approaches for better phosphorus acquisition like physiological manipulation, better root structure and genetic alteration will help for resource conservation and is environmentally sustainable. But to diagnose environmental impact on excess use of phosphate fertilizers more improvement is required in order so that limited phosphorus stocks can be managed. Thus, there is a need for integrative approach to solve the lower P in soil system.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021887-2153
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Standardization of asexual propagation techniques in rambutan (Nephelium
           lappaceum L.) for humid tropical region of India

    • Authors: Panchaal Bhattacharjee, T. Sakthivel, Subhash Chander, P. K. Nimbolkar
      Pages: 31 - 38
      Abstract: Rambutan (Nephilium lappaceum L.) a potential exotic crop, fetching high value demand in the tropical markets of the world. In India the states like Kerala and Karnataka are pioneer in cultivation of Rambutan. It is a natural habitat of warm and humid climate of South East Asia gradually finding its spread and cultivation across continents of both the spheres, but in order to sustain the demand of this crop, there is an urgent need to find out the best method of propagation. In order to assess and determine a suitable vegetative propagation protocol for true to type plant multiplication in Coorg region of Karnataka, different types of budding and grafting techniques were evaluated in Rambutan. Three different methods of budding (i.e. patch budding, forkert budding and chip budding) was employed, among the three methods patch budding was proven to the best with significantly higher rate of budding success (70.00 %), minimum days taken for sprouting (36.86 days) and with a lower rate of mortality (6.28 %). In a separate concurrent experiment, approach grafting method showed superior results among three different methods (viz. approach grafting, cleft grafting and veneer grafting) studied. It showed maximum rate of graft success (72.86 %), higher number of sprouted bud (4.29) and minimum days taken for sprouting (46.29 days) and also had a very low mortality rate (5.87 %).
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021922-2168
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Repurposing of drugs and leading vaccines work against COVID-19

    • Authors: Prabha Rana, Vagisha Rawal
      Pages: 39 - 48
      Abstract: The novel coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious and pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was reported / identified in Wuhan, China. In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared it a ‘pandemic’ due to its Worldwide spread. Researchers have been trying to find a suitable treatment from available drugs like Dexamethasone, and Remdesivir to fight the novel coronavirus outbreak. AstraZeneca-SK Bio, Moderna, Pfizer-BioNTech and Janssen vaccines were added to the WHO's list of emergency use. Our review work highlights the repurposing of drugs and leading vaccines to counter COVID-19.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021904-2161
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Biomethanated distillery spentwash application and its impact on soil
           health, growth and yield of Elephant foot yam

    • Authors: Ramaswamy Jayashree, Sharmi M, S. Asha Priyanka
      Pages: 49 - 54
      Abstract: Agrobased industries are contributing socio-economic development of the country, distillery industries are using sugarcane molasses as a raw material for alcohol production. Every litre of alcohol production ten to fifteen litres of waste water generated named as spentwash. The disposal of spentwash is a seroious issue and looking for recycling option to enhance soil health.r Distillery Spentwashis important organic liquid manure contain high amount of nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and sulfur and also it contains high amount of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, copper, manganese, boron and molybdenum. Field experiment was conducted to study the efficiency of Biomethanated distillery spentwash, on improving the yield and quality of Yam at Research and Development farm of Bannari Amman Sugars Ltd., Modur, Sathyamangalamtaluk, Erode district. Distillery Spentwashwas applied in a field with the treatments from 10 to 60 KL/ha and soil samples are collected at initial, vegetative and harvesting stage of Elephant foot yam. The application of spent wash as manure was improved soil health and resulted in increasedroot and shoot length quality and yield of Elephant foot Yam. There was enhanced available N andK status of soil with the application of spent wash, particularly for K.The increase in yield and quality parameters was observed at harvest stage of Elephant foot Yam.Application of Biomethanated Distillery Spentwashat 50 KL/ha recorded higher yield of 38.20 t /ha. Elephant foot yam quality parameters like Carbohydrate, Vitamin C, Beta carotene were significantly increased when compared to control field.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021794-2145
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Estimation of seasonal surplus labour in agriculture in different
           agro-climatic regions of Rajasthan

    • Authors: Arjun Singh Rajput, Latika Sharma, P S Shekhawat, Vikash pawariya
      Pages: 55 - 64
      Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken with a view to estimate the total surplus labour in agriculture to get an idea of how far agriculture provides employment to those who are fully engaged in it. The author then estimates the extent of surplus labour which is removable and the extent of seasonal surplus labour in different agro-climatic regions of Rajasthan as well as state as a whole. For this study, the primary data were collected from 200 households of 10 villages during 2018- 2019 and secondary data were used from census 2011. The results showed that there exists the total surplus labour ranging from 49.45 % in arid western and northern plain region to 80.13 % in semi-arid and flood prone region with the state level estimate of 68.33 % of labour availability. It was estimated that at the state level seasonal surplus labour is 10.51 % of the labour availability. Across the regions, the seasonal surplus labour ranges from 5.93 % in sub-humid and humid southern plain region to 19.61 % in arid western and northern plain region. This cause the unemployment, lower productivity of labour and migration of labour. To overcome such type of problems initiative to integrate MGNREGA with agriculture, create additional income opportunities for agricultural labourers, entrepreneurship training, small scale industries, and establishment of agri-business units.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021873-2142
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Detection of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from
           Egyptian vultures from arid regions of India

    • Authors: Khushboo Panwar, Taruna Bhati, Sanju Ritod, B. N. Shringi
      Pages: 65 - 71
      Abstract: Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus) wintering in north-western India remains for several months (October to March) and with due course they have become an inhabitant of a synanthropic site in Jorbeer, a livestock and other animal carcasses dumping and disposing site in the outskirts of Bikaner city of Rajasthan. The main purpose of this study was to isolate and identify E. coli from critically endangered Egyptian vultures through conventional and molecular methods along with determining their antibiotic resistance profile. Bacteriological analyses were conducted on 38 freshly voided fecal samples, leading to the isolation of E. coli in 30 samples which were identified by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing. In the antibiogram study, out of 12 antibiotics two antibiotics namely norfloxacin and co-trimoxazole were highly effective against most (93.33%) of the isolates. Highest resistance was against cephotaxime (56.65%) followed by amoxyclav (43.33%). Antibiogram showed a moderate spread of E. coli strains showing antibiotic resistance among Egyptian vultures at Jorbeer, Bikaner.
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021800-2115
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Assesment of divergence among soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] genotypes
           based on phenological and physiological traits

    • Authors: Subhash Bijarania, Anil Pandey, Mainak Barman, Monika Shahani, Gharsi ram
      Pages: 72 - 82
      Abstract: A study was conducted to understand genetic divergence in Randomized complete block design accommodating 30 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] genotypes randomly in three replications. These genotypes were evaluated for twenty-seven traits: five phenological, nine agro-morphological, eight physiological traits (from field-trial) and five physiological traits (from laboratory experiment) recorded and subjected to PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and cluster analysis. Among all the studied cultivars, significant diversity, as well as analysis of dispersion, was recorded for different agro-morphological characters. D2-statistic (Tocher method) framed (generalized distance-based) nine clusters: largest with eight and five were oligo-genotypic. Harvest index>seed yield per plant>germination relative index>seedling dry weight contributed maximum towards total divergence. From the most divergent clusters, 21 crosses involving cluster v genotypes (PS-1347, RKS-18, PS-1092, NRC-142, VLS-94, NRC-136, and Shalimar Soybean-1) with monogenotypic cluster VII (AMS-2014), VIII (RSC-11-15) and III (RSC-10-71) suggested for future hybridization. Out of eighteen, only eight principal components revealed more than 1.00 eigen value and exhibited about 85.03% variability among the traits studied. The highest variability (25.41%) by PC1 followed by PC2 (15.60%), PC3 (12.35%), PC4 (10.13%), PC5 (7.20%), PC6 (5.43%), PC7 (4.80%) and PC8 (4.11%) for characters under study.
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021808-2117
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Evaluating anti-microbial and anti-oxidative potential of red biopigment
           from Monascus purpureus

    • Authors: Vishu Chaudhary, Priya Katyal, Harsh Panwar, Anil Kumar Puniya, Anuj Kumar Poonia
      Pages: 83 - 93
      Abstract: In the present study, Monascus red biopigment produced by solid-state fermentation was evaluated for its anti-microbial and antioxidative potential. The antibacterial activity through Scanning Electron Microscopy against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus was found to show morphological damage in some cells, as evidenced by the outflow of cell contents, deep craters, burst cells, and cell death at concentration of 200 µg/ml of biopigment. Moreover, antibacterial activity through agar well diffusion method against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was in range of 2-6 mm by varying concentration of biopigment from 1 to 20 mg/ml.Next, the antifungal activity of the extracted biopigment was in the range of 2-9 mm for Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata. In addition, antioxidant efficacy of red biopigment through DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay results was found to show 59.69 %, 91.1 %, and 15.22 % free radical scavenging activity. The results of this study revealed that red biopigment has potential to modulate the antimicrobial and antioxidative activity.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021833-2131
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Effect of phosphorus and biofertilizers on growth and yield of Mothbean
           (Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal) in Prayagraj conditions

    • Authors: Anu Nawhal, Umesha C.
      Pages: 94 - 98
      Abstract: The present study was carried out during Kharif, 2020 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj to determine the effect of phosphorus and biofertilizers on growth and yield of Mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal). The experiment was set up in Randomized Block Design, consisting of 10 treatments replicated three times. The RMO 40 variety of Mothbean was sown in June, 2020.The results of the field experiment propound that application of 30 kg P/ha and seed inoculation by Rhizobia and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria significantly increased the growth parameters of mothbean viz., plant height (21.09 cm), branches per plant (6.53), nodules per plant (16.93), dry weight (5.481 g), crop growth rate (5.37 g/m2/day). This treatment also showed its positive effect on number of pods (20.40), number of seeds (3.87), test weight (22.06 g) and seed yield (452.88 kg/ha) of the crop.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021792-2111
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Subhash palekar natural farming - scope, efficacy and critics

    • Authors: Purushottam Dev, S. S. Paliyal, Navjot Rana
      Pages: 99 - 106
      Abstract: By 2050, India is expected to surpass China as the world's most populated country, with a population of almost 1.7 billion people. To feed this exponentially increasing population, the country must pursue a policy of vertical productivity growth, as the possibilities for additional horizontal expansion of cultivated land are rapidly diminishing. Furthermore, continual cropping depletes soil nutrient resources, necessitating the replenishment of soils with critical major and minor plant nutrients. The country cannot compromise with nutritional supply in order to end "Silent Hunger" and the immoral perpetuation of high concentrations of increasing number of malnourished children and anaemic moms. While the country is intending to restructure its agricultural production system, including R&D, to meet the needs of rising problems, the 2018-19 economic survey established a strong case for the widespread adoption of ‘Zero Budget Natural Farming' (ZBNF) to double farmers' revenue. As a result, crop productivity will remain low, and farmers will not be able to earn enough to double their income and get out of debt with this level of output. Also at the country level, we will not be able to meet the expanding populations food and nutritional demands and hence will fail to meet the sustainable goals of “Zero Hunger and Poverty Elimination” by 2030. Thus, with zero budget natural farming practices we can feed to the India and world, our emphasis is too elaborate all aspects.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021896-2158
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Response of different methods of sowing and organic manures on growth and
           yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    • Authors: Bandi Gnana Prakash, Joy Dawson, Thomas Abraham, M.R. Meshram
      Pages: 107 - 113
      Abstract: To study the retaliation performances of various methodologies of sowing by accompanying organic manures on growth, yield, and all other yield attributes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop. A field experiment was executed during the Rabi season of 2020-21 at the crop research farm of SHUATS, Prayagraj.The experiment was laid out in the most commonly encountered Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications of each treatment for all traits. Given this experiment three methods of sowing, i.e. M1 (Broadcasting), M2 (Line sowing), M3 (System of Wheat Intensification) as well as three organic manures i.e. O1 (Farmyard manure 12 t/ha), O2 (Poultry manure 5 t/ha), O3 (Vermicompost 4 t/ha) and two liquid manures Panchagavya 3% and Jeevamrutha 500 l/ha. And the liquid manures were foliar sprayed at 15, 30, and 45 days after sowing (DAS). Results were revealed that the maximum number of tillers (10.53), Dry weight (18.00 g/plant), Effective tillers (10.43), Spike length (11.73 cm), and Grains per spike (58.38) were found to be significantly higher with the application of treatment SWI + Poultry manure (5 t/ha) + Panchagavya 3% FS + Jeevamrutha 500/h FS as compared to the other treatments. Maximum values were ensured with Plant height (78.30 cm), test weight (36.73 g), Grain yield (3.16 t/ha), Straw yield (4.48 t/ha), and harvest index (41.39 %). Hence with the current experiment’s outputs, this study concluded that Line sowing + Poultry manure (5 t/ha) + Panchagavya 3% FS + Jeevamrutha 500 l/ha FS were produced more grains and productivity as compared to other organic treatment combinations.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021845-2157
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Conservation and successful utilization of landraces for rice improvement

    • Authors: Bidhan Roy, Surje Dinesh Tulsiram, Swarnajit Debbarman, Gadge Sushant Sundarrao, Monish Roy, Pallabi Saha, Sagnik Poddar, Utpal Maity, Murali H.A., Ranjeet Kumar
      Pages: 114 - 123
      Abstract: Germplasm is the basis of all plant improvement programmes. The collected landraces of rice possessed high probability of the useful genes for efficient application in the breeding programmes to develop high yielding varieties with quality and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Those landraces needs to be conserved ex situ or in situ. In the rice repository of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari has about 200 landraces collected from West Bengal, Assam and Manipur. Every Kharif season, they are being cultivated and seeds are collected to conserve since 2008. High variability has been observed among those varieties. Some special characteristics also have been identified during characterization and ex situ conservation of those landraces, such as, long and white sterile lemma, double and triple kernelled spikelets. Important landraces were used as donor in rice improvement. A number of desirable mutants, recombinant lines and somaclones have been have been developed which are in different yield trials. Some pure lines also have been isolated from the collected famers’ varieties.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021815-2137
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Integrating weather model & Remote sensing indices for wheat yield
           prediction in Haryana, India

    • Authors: Man jeet, Anurag, Ram Niwas , Dinesh Tomar
      Pages: 124 - 130
      Abstract: Wheat is a major food grain crop of main agricultural region i.e. northern plain of India. Haryana state holds a premium position in wheat production (Rabi Season) in the country. Pre-harvest yield estimation of wheat has key role in policy framing. In Haryana, Agriculture is a big support to its economy which continues to occupy a prominent position in State GDP. In present research, Agromet-Spectrals models have been developed for this purpose i.e.yield estimation in Haryana with the help of input data such as meteorological indices and satellite based NDVI(NASA’s-MODIS) from 2000-2017. Empirical models were developed for predicting wheat yield for Hisar and Karnal districts representation the two agro-climatic zone of state in Haryana, India.The models were developed used weather variable (Temperature (Minimum and Maximum), Relative Humidity (Morning and Evening) and Rainfall) and spectral indices Normalized Difference Vegetative Index viz. Agromet- model(weather model) and Agromet-spectral model (MODIS-NDVI). Weather or Agromet model was integrated with NDVI values for both location to enhanced the accuracy of models. Regression models were developed using significant weather variables and NDVI data for wheat yield prediction at both location. The result revealed that the models when integrated with remote sensing data (NDVI) gave better prediction as compared to agromet model that depends only on weather variables. Agromet-models (adjusted R2 = 0.38 to 0.78) whereas satellite data based NDVI i.e. MODIS-NDVI for both stationgave best result (Adjusted R2 = 0.61-0.86) as compared to weather models. MODIS-NDVI pixel based values observed to be more effective for wheat yield predication in integrated with weather parameters.This study could help the provincial government of Haryana as well as in northern plains in estimation of yield prior harvest at first week of April by using weather spectral (NDVI-MODIS) models.
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021811-2118
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Statistical and temporal trends analysis of rainfall in Bundelkhand
           region, Central India

    • Authors: Liansangpuii Fanai, K. N. Singh , R. Singh , R. M. Singh , D. Khalkho
      Pages: 131 - 142
      Abstract: Three timescale i.e. monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall data of Bundelkhand region, Central India, was analyzed for 40 years (1981-2020). The annual mean average rainfall for the region ranges between 657.7 mm and 1146.4 mm for the studied period with the month August receiving the highest amount of rainfall. The region receives about 90 % of its annual rainfall during South West Monsoon period i.e. from June to September. Temporal trend of rainfall for different timescale was analysed using nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimator. Increasing and decreasing trend were found for the three timescale in which the study was carried out. Annual rainfall trend of Bundelkhand region is found to follow decreasing trend except for Sagar district. A decreasing South West Monsoon rainfall trend was also observed in 11 districts of Bundelkhand region.
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021812-2119
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Effect of scouring and laundering on functional properties of natural
           colour cotton fabric

    • Authors: Sannapapamma K J, Sakeena Naikwadi, Deepa Bhairappanavar, Rajesh Patil, Y. R. Aladakatti
      Pages: 143 - 153
      Abstract: Natural color cotton is eco-supportive as they possess colour naturally in varied shades viz., brown, green, cream and other tints and shades of these colours. It has unique comfort and handle property which provides soothing to the wearer. A medium brown natural colour cotton fibre was spun into 20s count yarn on open end spinning and the pure colour cotton fabric was developed on handloom and subjected to scouring. The scoured natural colour cotton fabric undergone with multiple wash cycles and assessed for mechanical, functional properties, colour fastness to sunlight and washing properties. Results revealed that, the scoured natural color cotton fabrics at washing and sunlight was found to be increase in color strength and decrease in reflectance than the pure NCC fabric. After laundering at multiple washes, the scoured natural colour cotton fabric exposed to direct sunlight, it was found that the colour strength was significantly reduced and fabric became lighter, duller and yellower. However, the scoured natural colour cotton fabric subjected to washing and shade dried exhibited significantly greater K/S, which indicates the sample became darker, brighter and greener than the sample expose to direct sunlight. The natural colour cotton fabrics has better mechanical, functional and fastness properties can be suitable for production of diversified cotton products ranging from children garments to trendy outfits. Hence, the promotion of natural colour cotton fabrics is a sustainable approach for green environment.
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021787-2120
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Diversity of Geometrid moths (Geometridae: Lepidoptera) in Kashmir valley,

    • Authors: Deelak Amin, Zakir Husain Khan
      Pages: 154 - 163
      Abstract: A total of 2378 geometrid moth specimens were collected from four districts of Kashmir valley during 2018-2019, which comprised of 39 species belonging to 29 genera, 17 tribes and 4 subfamilies. Five species (Abraxas cashmiria sp. nov., Antipercnia pseudoalbinigrata sp. nov., Aspitates pseudogilvaria sp. nov., Chorodna Baramulia sp. nov. and Xenoplia kashmirensis sp. nov.) are reported for the first time from this area. Diversity indices was highest in Baramulla (H´ = 1.452760) lowest in Srinagar (H´=1.273559). Alcis repandata (Linnaeus) was found to be most dominant species (11.02%), while as Callipia vicinaria (Dognin) was found least dominant (0.25%).
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021799-2123
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Impact of growth hormones on vegetative propagation of Elaeocarpus
           ganitrus Roxb.

    • Authors: Abigail Rai , Amarendra Nath Dey, Nilesh Bhowmick, Mihir Ranjan Panda, Dinesha S. , Bidyut Sarkar
      Pages: 164 - 171
      Abstract: Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. commonly identified as ‘rudraksha’, belonging to Elaeocarpaceae possess a great religious, spiritual and materialistic significance which is placed under the threatened category in the tropical wet evergreen forests of North East India. Because of its over-exploitation, poor germination, low viability rate and hard seed coat, an attempt has been done for mass production of planting materials through cuttings and air layering’s. Cuttings trials were conducted during three different periods, mid - March, mid – July and mid – November by using Indol butyric acid and Napthalene acetic acid of 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000 ppm where air layering’s were done during mid - May by treating IBA and NAA solution of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm in combination with para-hydroxybenzoic acid of 2000 ppm as synergist. Application of IBA and NAA of different concentration did not encourage the growth in the cuttings in all three periods. Air layering’s treated with NAA 1000 ppm+2000ppm para- hydroxy benzoic acid and IBA 500 ppm +2000ppm para- hydroxy benzoic acid resulted the highest and same value of callusing and rooting percent (70 and 66.67%), respectively while minimum callusing and rooting percentage (56.67 and 51.67%) was recorded in control. The present study focused on the mass production of planting materials in shorter duration with a reasonable cost for enhancing production as well as socio-economic conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021818-2127
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Response of irrigation scheduling and nitrogen levels on growth and yield
           contributing parameters of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under mid hills of
           Himachal Pradesh

    • Authors: Archana Sharma, J C Sharma, Krishan Lal Gautam, Jigmet Namgial
      Pages: 172 - 182
      Abstract: An on-farm study of irrigation scheduling and nitrogen level on radish was conducted near Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India. It using a randomized block design (factorial) with 4 irrigation schedules i.e. I0, 4 cm irrigation at IW/CPE ratio (I1: 0.8), (I2:1.0), (I3:1.2) and three N levels i.e. N0, (N1:75 per cent of RD) and (N2:100 percent of RD). Results revealed that treatment combination N2I3 was recorded with maximum number of leaves (27.3 and 25.0), leaf length (32.53 cm and 29.44 cm), root length (22.21 cm and 32.91 cm), root diameter (4.58 cm and 5.28 cm), net root weight (156.2 g and 209.1 g), gross root weight (204.6 g and 341.3 g) and yield (309.0 quintals/ha and 288.1 quintals/ha during 2016-17 and 2017-18, respectively over the N0I0. The highest B:C ratio (3.61:1) was worked out under N2I3 which was rated as the most profitable combination followed by N2I2 (3.39:1). It can be concluded that among different irrigation schedules,I3 and I2 schedules were found to be equally good for maintaining optimum soil moisture content as compared to I1 and I0. Among different N levels, N2 was found to be best which might influence the growth and yield of radish (Raphanus sativus L.).
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021764-2140
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • The dynamics of the first wave of COVID-19 on environment and
           wildlife– a boon or a bane'

    • Authors: Yashita Sharma, Yashika Mago, Vagisha Rawal
      Pages: 183 - 191
      Abstract: Even though COVID-19 has drastically weighed upon the humankind, still there is a “silver lining” to see in this dark time. Amidst of this pandemic, most of the human activities were restricted to break the chain of infection which resulted the remarkable change in nature. It has been reported that due to halt in air travel, reduction in the use of fossil fuels, way less functioning of vehicles, shutdown of industries has complied the change in air pollution levels and also change in river water quality. Reports also showed the reduction in particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10), greenhouse gases emissions, massive improvement in the Air quality index (AQI), reduction in the NOX and SOX’s level has clearly stipulated that nature has got it’s time to “revive”. Even the global carbon emission has reported to reduced reluctantly which is expected to be the biggest such drop since World War II. Despite conducting water-cleansing projects and spending a lot of money, the situation of the water bodies were far better now during first lockdown. Moreover, migration and breeding of the birds and animals have been reported to be restored to normal pattern due to depletion in man-animal conflict. Apart from the positive, negative impacts on the nature are also being experienced. Our review work is highlighting such impacts witnessed during the first wave of COVID-19, like, the significant improvement in air and water quality, reduction in environmental noise, therefore an in turn cleaner and quieter habitat for the wildlife to mate and also to quench their curiosities by their surprising excursions; but there are also some negative aspects as well, like reduction in recycling and the increase in waste, increased poaching and even lone shuttering of zoo animals.
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021905-2162
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Diagnostic analysis of Baroda branch canal of Som Kamla Amba irrigation
           project, Rajasthan, India

    • Authors: Kishan Makadiya, RC Purohit, Jitendra Rajput, Dimple K., Ashish Rai
      Pages: 192 - 202
      Abstract: Irrigation projects are of paramount importance in meeting the water demand of agriculture sector. Therefore, evaluating the performance of irrigation systems makes it possible to improve agricultural water management and consequently enhances irrigation efficiency. In this perspective, the present study focuses on diagnostic analysis of the Baroda branch canal of the Som Kamla Amba irrigation project, Rajasthan, India. This study attempts to identify constraints attributed to poor irrigation efficiency and remedial strategies to improve irrigation management. Results revealed that poor maintenance and lacking immediate action of damaged water distribution network were culprits resulting in silting and vegetation infestation. Poor structures viz., tempered pipe outlets and gates, blockage of minors, unauthorized pumping, and poor operations of water distribution systems resulted in poor performance of Baroda branch canal. The performance of Baroda branch canal system can be improved by adoption of appropriate strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021699-2054
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Agroforestry: Viable alternatives for ensuring green fodder production
           around the year

    • Authors: Sneh Yadav, R. S. Dhillon, K.S. Ahlawat, Chhavi Sirohi, Vishal Johar, Ashish
      Pages: 203 - 210
      Abstract: Agroforestry is an integration of tree species with agricultural crops or livestock that can be directly used to enhance agro biodiversity, rural livelihood and to meet the demand of green fodder throughout the year. Considering this fact, a study was done at Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana to assess the productivity of fodder crops under poplar based agroforestry system. In February 2016, poplar was planted in six different spacing of 3× 3 m, 4×3 m, 5×3 m, 6×3 m, 7×3 m and 8×3 m. In this study, fodder crops (sorghum during Kharif season and oat and berseem during Rabi season) were intercropped in different spacing’s of poplar and compared with control in three replications. The results revealed that the maximum DBH (13.92 cm), basal diameter (16.90 cm) and crown spread (6.79 m) attained in 8×3 m spacing while maximum height (9.61 m) is attained in 3×3 m spacing. The highest pH (7.94) and EC (0.27 dS/m) were recorded in 8×3 m spacing while highest SOC (0.47 %), N (158.5 kg/ha), P (16.8 kg/ha) and K (343.8 kg/ha) were recorded in 3×3 m spacing. Green fodder biomass of sorghum (38.45 t/ha), berseem (64.56 t/ha) and oat (52.62 t/ha) was recorded higher in wider spacing (8×3 m) as compared to sole crops. The maximum light intensity (672.4 Lux) was recorded in 8×3 m at 1.00 pm in the month of July, 2018. Higher value of BCR was observed for poplar with oat (2.44) followed by poplar with sorghum (2.31) and poplar with berseem (2.28) under 3×3 m spacing indicating that closer spacing of 3×3 m of poplar is more economic than the other spacings due to more number of trees per unit area and more production of wood.
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021897-2159
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Forewarning of insect incidence based on weather variables for management
           of cropping practices in Sugarcane

    • Authors: Yogesh Garde, Hiral Gundaniya, Vishal Thorat, Rahul Pisal, Alok Shrivastava
      Pages: 211 - 216
      Abstract: The early shoot borer, top borer, root borer, internode borer are major insect occurs in most of the sugarcane growing areas of the Gujarat and cause extensive damage to the sugarcane crop, which leads to losses in the crop yield. The weather discrepancies acting an important role in development of sugarcane insect and pest. The proper management of cropping practices may leads to overcome on it. Therefore it need to develop weather based approaches for forewarning the insect incidence which helps to farmers takes timely control measures to reduce the damage and yield losses due to this borer complex. Current study, relationship between insects incidence with weekly average weather parameters has been workout by using Karl-Pearson’s correlation approach on the 18 years of the data (2000-01 to 2017-18) in the Navsari district. The some of the weather variables were found significantly correlated with insect incidence. The multiple linear regression (MLR) and discriminant function analysis approach were adopted for statistical forewarning of the insect incidence. It was observed that MLR technique found better than discriminant function analysis for forecasting of insect incidence for forewarning of early shoot borer at 90 DAP and top shoot borer incidence at 5th month of crop season respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021913-2166
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Evaluation of F2:3 rice population resistant to Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn
           inciting sheath blight disease

    • Authors: Uday Kumar Thera, Ashmita Timsina , Naveen Kumar Ramasamy, Mounika Aadika
      Pages: 217 - 226
      Abstract: Rice sheath blight caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn is an economically important disease in rice resulting in enormous yield losses worldwide. In the present investigation, a population constituting F3 lines resulted from the cross made between IC277332 (susceptible parent) and Tetep (resistant parent) were evaluated for sheath blight resistance and other agronomic traits over a season. The rice population lines were categorized into four groups viz., moderately resistant (11), moderately susceptible (63), susceptible (24), and highly susceptible (8), based on area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) values. During the study, nine moderate resistant lines showed, less AUDPC values in comparison to Tetep. Furthermore, 63 individuals (60%) exhibited moderate susceptibility with AUDPC values (677-987 per day). The principal component biplot analysis PC1 and PC2 showed 47.08% and 13.19% variation, respectively. The employment of Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA) cluster analysis led to the grouping of the 106 individuals into 2 major clusters A and B. The results suggested that none of the rice lines was resistant to sheath blight disease. However, few lines showed moderate resistance to the disease which can be exploited for the development of sheath blight-resistant cultivars.
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021918-2167
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Spatial variability map of micronutrients in vegetable growing area of

    • Authors: Kshirod chandra Sahoo, Rajeswari Das, Pramod Kumar Sharma
      Pages: 227 - 233
      Abstract: Soil pH and the availability of essential micronutrients is a deciding factor for vegetable production. Major nutrients i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, micronutrients are critical elements in enhancing vegetable growth and productivity. The present study focused on the micronutrient status of a vegetable growing area i.e. Shanshahpur village of Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. Spatial variability maps were prepared from 50 samples collected from individual vegetable intercropping system from farmer’s field for all the micronutrient element i.e. Fe, Mn, Zn & Cu respectively. Most of the soils of the vegetable growing area of Shanshahpur were alkaline (7.99-8.72) in nature and lies within a safe range of electrical conductivity (<0.20 dSm-1). However, a medium range of soil organic carbon (0.50-0.75%) status was observed throughout the area. According to the variability map for micronutrient status there was a medium to high status for available Cu (0.81 mgkg-1) but in contrast available Fe and Zn content of the vegetable growing lies in low status category(2.00-13.15mgkg-1 and 0.02-2.26 mgkg-1 respectively). Available Mn status was seen reduced with increased alkalinity (9.08-0.74 mgkg-1). But most of the micronutrients were deficient for vegetable production because maximum number of soil samples lies in alkaline category which throws a scope towards amelioration of the vegetable growing soils for reducing its pH.
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021930-2173
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Spatial mapping of groundwater quality using GIS for Jakham River basin of
           Southern Rajasthan

    • Authors: Vinay Kumar Gautam, Mahesh Kothari, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Sita Ram Bhakar, Kamal Kishore Yadav
      Pages: 234 - 243
      Abstract: The physico-chemical analysis of groundwater quality plays a significant role to manage the water resources for drinking as well as irrigation in the sub-humid and semi-arid agro-climatic areas. In this study, the hydrogeochemical analyses and spatial mapping of groundwater quality in the Jakham River Basin located in the southern part of Rajasthan were investigated.The groundwater quality samples were collected from 76 wells marked on the grid map of 5×5 km2 area.A spatial distribution in sampling location in the basin was prepared using GIS (Geographical information system) tool based on 6 physico-chemical parameters i.e., pH, EC, TDS, Cl, NO3and F.The groundwater quality data from the pre and post-monsoon seasons of 2019-20 were used to carry out a detailed analysis of water quality parameters.The water quality maps for the entire basin have been generated using anIDW interpolation technique for these parameters as per the identified location.The higher value of TDS and EC were found in the south-eastern part and along the roadside of study area, which were dominated by agriculture activities and industrial influence. The concentration was observed higher in the post-monsoon period. For EC and TDS, major part of the (>50%) of the study area comes under the safe limit of potable water. Major part of the basin witnessed fluoride concentration (0.40-80 mg/l) for both the season, which is lower than the permissible limit. Higher NO3 concentration was observed after the rainy season. The influence of geogenic activities could be clearly seen in the groundwater quality of the basin. Theresultant map shows that the entire basin has optimally goodgroundwater quality for human consumption. Hence, this study provides suggestion to prepare strategies for the proper management and augmentation of the groundwater condition in the Jakham River Basin.
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021936-2175
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Effect of tillage and cultivars on growth and growth indices of rice
           (Oryza sativa L.)

    • Authors: Ankit Saini, Sandeep Manuja, Suresh Kumar, Shilpa, Shabnam Kumari, Nikhil Dogra
      Pages: 244 - 250
      Abstract: A field experiment was undertaken at the Experimental Farm of Department of Agronomy of CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur (H.P.) during kharif 2019 to study the effect of different tillage system and varieties on yield of rice. The treatments consisted of three rice varieties (viz., HPR 1156, HPR 2656 and HPR 2795) which were tested under three tillage systems viz., conventional tillage, and minimum tillage without residue and minimum tillage with residue treatment. The trial was laid out in split plot design with tillage system in main plot and rice varieties in sub plot and was replicated thrice. Conventional tillage recorded taller plants (124.50 cm) and higher dry matter accumulation (858.49 g/m-2) which was followed by minimum tillage without residue. Among the varieties tested HPR 2795 recorded taller plants (128.31 cm) and higher dry matter accumulation (891.33 g/m-2) which was followed by HPR 2656. Higher value of AGR, CGR and RGR was recorded in conventional tillage and among the varieties; HPR 2795 resulted in higher growth indices.
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021953-2187
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Effect of pre-treatments on nutritional quality of dehydrated spine gourd
           (Momordica dioica Roxb.) powder

    • Authors: R Hamsa , Bhuvaneshwari; G. , Jagadeesh S. L. , Jameel, J. M. D. , Rudresh D. L.
      Pages: 251 - 257
      Abstract: An exploration was conducted in the year 2017-2018 at College of Horticulture, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India to evaluate nutritional quality of dehydrated spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) slices as influenced by different pre-treatments. Spine gourd is a high value underexploited vegetable which is rich in nutrition, medicinal value and also having potential to cure many diseases and disorders with good cultivation potential. In order to enhance its availability in the offseason along with proper retention of nutritional property dehydration was carried out with different pretreatments as a preservative method. The effect of pretreatments on nutritional attributes was observed in the present study. The treatment T2 which include blanching of spine gourd slices for 3 min. and steeping in 0.2 per cent KMS and 2 per cent salt solution for 10 min. showed significantly best results with respect to protein (1.93%), ash (8.11%), total phenols (831.20 mg GAE/100g) and L*(78.32), a*(0.68), except b* (32.28) values and carbohydrate per cent (p>0.01). The effect of pre-treatments showed non-significant results for moisture, water activity, fat, crude fibre and calorific value (kcal/100g). It was concluded form the study that the pretreatment with KMS (0.2 %) and salt (2%) solution along with blanching for 3 min. was considered best with respect to nutritional quality retention.
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021945-2207
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Water usage pattern in the aftermath of COVID-19

    • Authors: Venu Prasad H D, Naveena K
      Pages: 258 - 264
      Abstract: Maintenance of good health and avoiding a viral infection is the prime focus for an individual during COVID-19 pandemic. Water being a universal solvent is used widely to clean the disinfectants in public places and individual household level. This study was designed to find any change in the water consumption pattern among the households after the emergence of COVID-19. To study this, a questionnaire was prepared and sent to the respondents through Google Forms. Collected data was analysed using suitable statistical methods and the results indicate that there was a significant change in the consumption pattern of drinking water from cold to hot (37.98%) among the respondents and also with respect to the total water usage. As the disease is communicable in nature, more water is needed to clean and disinfect the surface areas, washing hands etc. This eventually has a significant burden on the water resources in countries where water is already deficient, like India. It is recommended to adopt water conservation practices/technologies at the individual level by means of rain water harvesting techniques or use of efficient water aerator taps etc. to reduce water consumption.
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021995-2210
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Evaluation of antibacterial activity and phytochemical investigation of
           Azadirachta indica L. against certain bacterial species

    • Authors: Aparajita Gupta, Shiwani Thakur
      Pages: 265 - 271
      Abstract: Historically, plants have been a source of herbal medicines and are used for treating various human ailments. Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, is a multipurpose tree with a wide range of health benefits. Various parts of neem tree have been shown to exhibit antimicrobial effects against a wide variety of microorganisms. The present study was carried out for screening of active components and antibacterial activity of leaves and bark extracts of A. indica. Ethanol and methanol extracts of leaves and bark of A. indica were tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria viz. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus. The agar well diffusion method was used for testing the antibacterial activity. Results revealed that methanol extract of bark and ethanolic extract of leaves exhibited significant antibacterial activity. Methanolic extract of bark of A. indica showed maximum antibacterial activity against B. cereus and K. pneumoniae (16 mm) followed by p. aeruginosa (15.6 mm), E. coli (15.3 mm) and least was found against S. aureus (15 mm). Whereas ethanolic extract of leaves exhibited maximum activity against P. aeruginosa (11.3 mm), followed by K. pneumoniae (11 mm), S. aureus (10.3 mm), E.coli (7 mm) and no activity was observed against B. cereus. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts gave positive results for alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins.
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.0211018-2228
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Evaluation and validation of disease management module for Alternaria
           Blight in Mustard

    • Authors: Jai Singh, Ashish Kumar, A. K. Chaubey
      Pages: 272 - 277
      Abstract: Leaf blight of mustard is one of the major constraints for its successful cultivation and may be attributed to cause substantially high yield losses. Integrated Disease Management (IDM) practices, found suitable against Alternaria blight, developed and evaluated elsewhere, are here by tested and validated as IDM module with slight modifications as per local requirements. This is basically to demonstrate the benefit of good available technology to farmers as on farm trials (OFT). The comparative efficacy of four different treatments were incredibly convincing for the farmers. It was realized that all three modules were significantly superior over prevailing farmers’ practice. Overall, seed treatment with aqueous garlic bulb extract @ 5% (w/v) along with one spray of aqueous garlic bulb extract @5% (w/v) at 45 DAS followed by one foliar spray of Mancozeb-75% WP @ 2.5g/l at 75 DAS (T4) found most effective in reducing disease incidence consecutively for three years and average reduction in disease severity of 71.90%. Besides, reduction in disease severity significant increase in yield and yield attributing characters could be observed using this treatment. The average yield increase of 37.30% could be recorded with maximum B:C of 2.56. In this way, treatment improved production and other yield parameters without imposing any drastic input burden to farmers, as evidenced by cost and benefit estimates. Therefore, it can be concluded that T4 can be considered for improved sustainable package of practice for Alternaria blight management of Mustard
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.0211096-2277
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Effect of plant size on growth and flower production of Phaius
           tankervilleae (Banks ex L'Hérit.) Blume - an endangered orchid of
           North-Eastern India

    • Authors: Ningombam Sushma Devi, Preeti Hatibarua, Sunil Kumar Borah, Nirmal Mazumdar
      Pages: 278 - 282
      Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted at Horticultural Research Station, Kahikuchi, Guwahati, to study the effect of different sizes of plants on vegetative growth and flower production of Phaius tankervilleae. Five different plants with varying sizes and numbers of pseudo bulb were adopted as treatments which were replicated 4 times. The flowers bloom from April and the experiment shows T3 produces the maximum number of spikes (2.38) per plant and earliest spike initiation (250.77) days while T5 produces the least number of spikes (0.5) plants and took longest days for spike initiation with (255.13) days. Meanwhile, T1 produce more new pseudo bulbs (4.0) and the least number was seen in T5 with (2.14). But T5 plants produced the biggest new pseudo bulbs (2.85cm diameter). Irrespective of the numbers of the pseudo bulb, plants with bigger pseudo bulb produced a bigger plant, long spike, more spike, bigger and more number of flowers which are a superior trait for a good quality cut flower. Beyond the production of flowers, this experiment further promotes the multiplication of pseudo bulbs, which are necessary for increasing the population of the plants for restoring and conserving the plant population without further exploitation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.0211001-2218
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Fluctuations in soil nutrients and physico-chemical properties following
           controlled fire in North-Western Himalayas

    • Authors: Sakshi Vishvamitera, Uday Sharma, Abhinav Guleria
      Pages: 283 - 289
      Abstract: Controlled fire effect on nutrients and physico-chemical properties of soil was investigated after a span of one year of controlled fire under four land uses viz. chir pine forest (Pinus roxburghii), grassland, scrubland and non-fire site in chir pine (control). In March 2018, a controlled fire was caused, and soil samples were taken after one year of burning at different soil depths (viz. 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm). The experiment consisted of five replications in factorial randomized block design. The results revealed that in comparison to pre-fire assessment, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium slightly increased, whereas, soil organic carbon decreased slightly in post-fire assessment. The soil pH, electrical conductivity, bulk density and soil texture did not show any significant change after one year of burning. The study concludes that controlled fire did not cause any drastic fluctuations in nutrients and physico-chemical properties of soil and can be used as an effective management practice for combating the negative effects of wildfire on soil.
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021984-2222
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Drought in Indian perspective, its impact on major crops and livestock and
           remedial measures

    • Authors: Alok Singh Jayara, K Indudhar Reddy, Roshan Lal Meena
      Pages: 290 - 301
      Abstract: Drought is one of the important natural disasters which lead to maximum severity to human among all others. The vulnerability increases with the resource poor nature of developing and under developing nations. Considering the extent of rainfed area in India, the vulnerability to drought is higher compared to other peer nations. It has implications on agriculture, livestock, fisheries, rural employment, human nutrition and health. However, the impact initiates with crop production and encompasses livestock in medium term which has severe economic implications for farmer. Therefore, it is desirable to present an extensive study on the impact of drought on major crops and livestock in India. Further, we have also emphasized on the remedial measures to be followed for crop production and livestock.
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021888-2154
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Assessment of water footprint based on estimated crop evapotranspiration
           for paddy, sugarcane and banana under semi-arid climate

    • Authors: J. Ramachandran , R. Lalitha, S. Vallal Kannan, K. Sivasubramanian
      Pages: 302 - 308
      Abstract: Climate change impact has adverse effects on water use in crop production. A better crop water use indicators to decide upon the water use policies of that region or country is necessary. Water footprint indicates relationship between water use and crop yield. Rice, sugarcane and banana are the major crops which require a significant amount of water in Lalgudi block of Trichy district in Tamil Nadu. This study analyzed the total water requirement, blue and green crop evapotranspiration, blue and green crop water use and blue, green and total water footprint for paddy, sugarcane and banana in Lalgudi block. The crop water footprint estimated by using FAO56-Kc for paddy, sugarcane and banana was 2173 m3 ton-1, 304 m3/ton and 501 m3/ton respectively. And by using ClimAdj-Kc, the crop water footprint for paddy, sugarcane and banana was 2228 m3 ton-1, 307 m3/tonand 503 m3/tonrespectively. It was found that quantity of water used for producing per ton of yield was higher in paddy in comparison to banana and sugarcane.
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021805-2121
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Regulation of soil organic carbon stock with physical properties in
           alluvial soils of Bihar

    • Authors: Vandana Kumari, Ranjan Laik, Shishpal Poonia , Debabrata Nath
      Pages: 309 - 314
      Abstract: Soil temperature and water content govern the breakdown of soil organic matter (SOM), which has a large impact on SOC storage. Apparently soil organic carbon is an excellent indicator of soil health. In this experiment, the association between several soil health indices such as soil organic carbon (SOC), soil texture, and wet aggregate stability was investigated (WAS). It was discovered that there is a substantial positive relationship between wet aggregate stability and soil organic carbon storage. Soil carbon store in East Champaran soils ranged from 5.27 to 19.60 mg/ha, with an average of 12.98 mg/ha. The wet aggregate stability ranged from 3.82 to 36.43 %, with a mean of 16.11 %. Wet aggregate stability was shown to increase as the organic carbon storage in the soil increased. This experiment also indicated that clay (%) and silt (%) had a direct impact on wet aggregate stability and, as a result, soil organic carbon storage. As a result, wet aggregate stability and soil texture have a direct and favourable influence on soil organic carbon storage in East Champaran, Bihar soils
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021791-2110
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Development of interspecific hybrids between urdbean & mungbean

    • Authors: Shailja Sharma, RK Mittal, VK Sood, HK Chaudhary
      Pages: 315 - 321
      Abstract: Interspecific hybridization was performed between five genotypes of urdbean & three genotypes of mungbean to check the crossability relationship. Thirteen cross combinations of urdbean x mungbean were successfully developed. Interspecific seeds showed no germination under soil conditions so various growth media were used for germination. Interspecific seeds germinated only on the salt solution. F1 seeds of cross UG-218 x Suketi exhibited highest crossability and showed maximum response on salt solution. The study put emphasis on the different kinds of fertilization barriers. In future genetic improvement studies can be carried out with the genotypes showing substantially high percent of crossability.
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021892-2171
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Performance of timely sown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under
           irrigated condition

    • Authors: Vikas Sriperambuduru, Umesha C , Meshram M.R., Lalith Kumar Sanodiya
      Pages: 322 - 327
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out during Rabi season, 2020 at Wheat Breeding Experimental Field, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences (SHUATS), Prayagraj (U.P). The soil of experimental site was sandy loam in texture and nearly neutral in soil reaction with (pH 6.7). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design and fourteen wheat genotypes were replicated fourfold. Study revealed that the genotype G12, i.e., NERI-312 recorded significantly higher plant height (100.50 cm), number of tillers/hill (10/hill), plant dry weight (26.14 g), length of the spike (13.5 cm), number of grains per spike (42.95), test weight (40.05 g), grain yield (4.18 t/ha) and straw yield (6.04 t/ha). It was evident that the genotype NERI-312 was found to be productive.
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021975-2206
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Evaluation of production and environmental aspects of different pig
           production systems in the Northern State of India, Punjab

    • Authors: Navjot Kaur, Inderpreet Kaur, Varinderpal Singh
      Pages: 328 - 334
      Abstract: Pig farming is stepping out from subsistence farming to commercial farming. In order to enhance the commercialized pork production for gaining self-sufficiency, it is necessary to study the production and related parameters of pig at farm level. This study aims to investigate the production parameters and disposal pattern of farm waste adopted by pig farmers in the Punjab. 90 piggery units were surveyed out of which sample size of total of 82 breeding-cum-finisher units of pig were categorized into small farms (< 10 sows), medium farms (10-25 sows) and large farms (> 25 sows). The study reveals that large size category favoured the ideal pig production parameters. It was observed that the 5.17 % of breedable sows were kept on an average for producing finisher pigs for sale (44.60 %). Large category was found having largest average litter size at birth (10.2). Similarly, average weight at saleable age of finisher pig is found to be highest in large size category (102.86 kg). Majority (59.07 %) of the small pig farmers dump the manure at waste heap or dispose it in the sewage posing environmental problems.
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021973-2204
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Garrett scoring technique for assessing the constraints faced by dairy
           farmers of Madhepura district, Bihar

    • Authors: Kishan Raj, Ramachandra
      Pages: 335 - 341
      Abstract: The present investigation is entitled as Garrett scoring technique for assessing the constraints faced by dairy farmers of Madhepura district, Bihar. The primary data were collected from 120 cooperative farmers through the random sampling method. During the study, various constraints under economics and marketing of milk were evaluated as per the response of sample dairy farmers of the study area. Major economic constraints recognised among the group of sample farmers were higher cost of cattle feed, easy availability of veterinary facilities, high cost of the improved animal, while major marketing constraints were low price of milk, lack of suitable transportation, delay in getting milk price. It was also found that the number of dairy farmers decreased in the cooperative milk collection centre with the increase of distance. There was also scope for reduction in the cost of milk production by using modern methods and technologies of dairy farming that was completely absent in the study area.
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021967-2193
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Soil biological properties as affected by the conjunction of chemical
           fertilizers, bacterial consortia and bio-enhancers in foxtail millet

    • Authors: Manduri Veerendra, B. Padmaja, M. Malla Reddy, S. Triveni
      Pages: 342 - 350
      Abstract: During Kharif 2019, a field experiment was conducted with eight treatments replicated three times in Randomized Block Design at College farm, PJTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. The aim of the study is to investigate the combined effect of chemical fertilizers and bio-agents (bacterial consortia and bio-enhancers) on soil biological parameters (bacterial population, urease, dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase) under foxtail millet cultivation in semi-arid region where soil and climatic constraints prevail in general. The bacterial population in the rhizosphere soil was found to be greater in all the treatments that received bacterial consortia appended with bio-enhancers compared to the remaining treatments as they are rich in microbial population. The soil enzyme activity was found to be higher when bioagents were used in conjunction with fertilizers, similar to bacterial population. The use of bacterial consortia or bio-enhancers alone also improved enzyme activity when compared to the control, while fertilizers alone, were poor in the activity of above enzymes. The percentage increase in the overall biological activity over the initial value was found to be highest when bioagents were used along with the chemical fertilizers at 50% flowering and harvest stages whereas it was found least in the control and lower in the treatments applied with chemical fertilizers alone.
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021959-2199
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Analysis of climate variability and influence of climate variables on
           major crop yields in Nalgonda District of Telangana State, India

    • Authors: Akshith Sai Pabba, Balaji Naik Banoth, Ravinder Naik Vankudothu, Sudha Rani Voliveru
      Pages: 351 - 364
      Abstract: Climate change has become a major concern globally, demanding immediate attention and action. In view of the extreme climatic uncertainties, it is obvious that Indian agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate change as climate is the direct input for production. This scenario emphasizes the dire need to understand the patterns of climate change and thus prepare agricultural systems for future climatic uncertainties. Therefore, the present study was conferred to analyse the climatic variability of Nalgonda district in Telangana State, considering 30 years (1988 to 2017) of historical weather data pertaining to rainfall and temperature (maximum and minimum). Climatic variability of the district was systematically analysed using box-and-whisker plot, Coefficient of Variation (CV), and trend analysis. The association between climatic variables (rainfall, maximum and minimum temperatures) and the major Kharif crop yields was calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The results revealed that the recent decade (2008-2017) had a stable increase in seasonal rainfall in almost all the months compared to the earlier two decades but with the least consistency in rainfall (CV 29.03 %) and higher fluctuations in the maximum temperature (CV 2.38%). September month had shown the higher risk of recording low rainfall conditions compared to July and August months in the district. The rice crop yields during the recent decade (2008-2017) were found to have significant positive and negative associations with the rainfall in September and October months, respectively. Similarly, the lint yields of cotton crops were found to have a significant negative association with the maximum temperatures of the October and November months of the district. The major finding of the study realized was that climate variability and change exist in Nalgonda district, and the climate variables had significant effects on the crop yields of the district.
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021932-2178
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Effect of different tillage systems and cultivars on yield and yield
           attributes of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    • Authors: Ankit Saini, Sandeep Manuja, Suresh Kumar, Shilpa K., Shabnam Kumari, Anil Kumar, Deepika Suri
      Pages: 365 - 369
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2019 at the Experimental Farm of the Department of Agronomy of CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur (H.P.) to investigate the effect of different tillage systems and varieties on yield of rice. The treatments consist of three rice varieties (HPR 1156, HPR 2656 and HPR 2795) which were tested under three tillage systems viz., conventional tillage, and minimum tillage without residue and minimum tillage with residue retention. The experiment was set up in a split plot design, with the tillage system in the main plot and rice cultivars in the sub plots, and it was triple replicated. The texture of the soil at the test site was silty clay loam in texture, acidic in reaction and in terms of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, it was evaluated as medium. Significantly higher no. of panicles per meter square were observed in minimum tillage without residue though this treatment was at par with conventional tillage while significantly lower number of panicles m-2 were recorded with minimum tillage with residue retention. Significantly greater number of grains per panicle and panicle length were recorded in conventional tillage while minimum tillage with residue retention recorded lower values of number of grains per panicle and panicle length. Different tillage practices had no effect on the test weight of rice. Among different varieties tested, HPR 2656 recorded greater number of panicles per square meter which was at par with variety HPR 1156. Significantly higher number of grains per panicle and panicle length were recorded with HPR 2795 while the other two varieties were at par with each other. Rice variety HPR 1156 produced grains that had significantly greater test weight while the other two varieties (HPR 2795 and HPR 2656) were at par with each other with respect to this parameter. In terms of yield, conventional tillage produced much larger grain yield, straw yield, and biological yield and was at par with minimum tillage without residue. Among different varieties tested, HPR 2795 recorded much greater grain, straw and biological yields.
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021928-2185
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Evaluation of spring water quality using water quality index method for
           Bageshwar District, Uttarakhand, India

    • Authors: Mohd Azam, Jyothi Prasad, H J Shiva Prasad
      Pages: 370 - 379
      Abstract: The quality of spring water is highly important to the people of hills for their everyday lives in Bageshwar district, which is located in Uttarakhand's Eastern Kumaon area between latitudes 29.49° N and 79.45° E, at an elevation of 1,004 meters above mean sea level. The study area map was created using the open-source freeware software QGIS, and the geocoding of the selected area was performed by entering Latitude and Longitude coordinates. Spring water were collected and analysed based on the standard methods for the eleven springs of Bageshwar city and its nearby villages for two seasons during the winter (December 2019) and in summer (March 2020). The present study assessed the drinking water quality of perennial spring in and around Bageshwar using the WQI by Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index Method. For calculating the WQI, 15 physicochemical parameters, namely, pH, alkalinity, Chloride, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid, Turbidity, Total Hardness, Potassium, Sodium, Fluoride, Iron, Nitrate, Calcium, Magnesium and Total Hardness were taken. The WQI values show that spring water with WQI values ranging from 4.57 to 17.83 in winter season 6.72 to 27.72 in summer season falls under excellent category, except for Bhaniya Dhaar-1 (BS8) village spring, which were classified to good water category. A paired t-test was applied to compare significant variations in water quality between two seasons, revealing a significant difference (p value<0.05) in water quality between seasons. Water from all of the evaluated spring sources is safe to drink, despite the fact that some parameters exceed permitted limits. To ensure the quality and security of the water supply to the people of these regions, it is preferable to conduct a simple filtration process before drinking the water sampled from the springs.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021989-2209
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Effect of varying altitudes on energy consumption and wheat production in
           Himachal Pradesh

    • Authors: Sarwan Kumar , Rajendra Prasad , Gurpreet Singh , Navjot Rana, S. S. Rana , R. G. Upadhaya, Ishavjot Singh Mandian
      Pages: 380 - 384
      Abstract: A field trial was conducted for the wheat crop at four different altitudes in Himachal Pradesh namely Palampur, Malan, Dhaulakuan and Bajaura. Energy is one of the most important inputs in agricultural production. It is used for farm operations, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides and is obtained from different renewable and non-renewable sources like diesel/petrol, human labour, animal draught, and electricity. The variation in crop production and energy consumption was determined at various altitudes. The most important set of features responsible for increased wheat yield, technology, input energy, and agro-climatic zone. At location, Bajaura produced the highest output energy (171081.7 MJ/ha) which means maximum grain and straw yield. The maximum energy consumption at Bajaura because of the long spell and good crop health to provide more irrigations required more labour for harvesting and threshing. The Increase in energy inputs enhances the output such as yield, biomass and productivity in different ecosystems. This involves making the most use of available energy inputs to boost output even higher in the key wheat growing regions.
      PubDate: 2022-05-22
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.0211259.2360
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Carbon dioxide sequestered by trees in an urban institution: A case study

    • Authors: Ritica Mohan , Saima Qamar, Anil K. Raina
      Pages: 385 - 391
      Abstract: The geographical location, climate, topography and most important human interference has contributed to the characteristic flora of the old campus of University of Jammu. A total of 24 tree species having 153 individuals belonging to 14 families have been recorded. Out of 24, 23 species belong to Angiosperms (22 dicots and 1 monocot) whereas, only 1 species belong to Gymnosperms. Overall, Moraceae was found to be the dominant family. The total growing stock, total biomass, total carbon content within university campus has been assessed to be 215663.99cm3, 107.83kg, 50.68kg respectively. The total CO2 sequestered by trees and net oxygen produced have been estimated to be 185.84kg and 495.65kg, respectively. Thus, the old campus of University of Jammu with lot of built-up area, roads, lawns, parking places, garden, etc. has sequestered considerably good amount of carbon and also produced considerable amount of oxygen as compared to its size, and its potential for sequestration can be enhanced with the help of management practices and plantation of more trees/shrubs within the permissible areas.
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.0211305.2371
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Assessment of the effects of fungicide (Thiram) on somatic cells of broad
           bean (Vicia faba L.)

    • Authors: Naina Srivastava
      Pages: 392 - 394
      Abstract: Present study was carried out to know the impact of fungicide (Thiram) on somatic cells of broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Thiram is one of the most effective fungicide. Significant inhibition of mitotic index and increase in the frequencies of chromosome aberrations were observed. Results of the study indicate that both the plant bioassay found to be sensitive indicators for the genotoxicity assessment as the outcome of majority test system. Using plant bioassays for testing and monitoring environmental chemicals or pollution has many advantages. The mitotic index decreases due to exposure of plant extract with thiram in higher concentration as 150, 300, 550, 800 ppm for 8h and show reducing effect that is 21.00, 20.70, 18.61 and 16.77 in comparison to control that is 21.19. The higher concentrations of fungicide showed the genotoxic effects and damage the chromosomal integrity. 
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.0211306.2372
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Species richness and abundance of Coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
           in agricultural ecosystem of Doiwala region, Dehradun (U.K), India

    • Authors: Pushpendra K. Sharma, Pramod Chandra Khanduri , Rashmi Tyagi Rawat
      Pages: 395 - 399
      Abstract: Present study was carried out to know the community structure of coccinellid beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in agricultural ecosystem of Doiwala region, Dehradun (U.K.), India during January 2021 to December 2021. During the study period, a total of 8 species of ladybird beetles, which belong to 7 genera under 1 family, 3 subfamilies and 3 tribes were recorded, viz., Brumoides suturalis (Fabricius), Coccinella septumpunctata (Linn.), Coccinella transversalis (Fab.), Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fab.), Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), Harmonia dimidiata (Fabr.), Oenopia sauzeti (Mulsant) and Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (Li). Out of these eight species, seven were predatory and one was phytophagous. The only phytophagous species was H. vigintioctopunctata (Li). Maximum species of coccinellids were collected from site-3 (7 species), then followed by site-4 (6 species),  site-1 and site-2 (5 species each).
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.0211208.2327
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Present status and future directions for management of root lesion
           nematode (Pratylenchus thornei) in chickpea

    • Authors: Ashish Kumar, Vedant Gautam, R. K. Tiwari, Stuti Sharma, Jayant Bhatt, Radheshyam Sharma, R. Shiv RamaKrishnan
      Pages: 400 - 409
      Abstract: Chickpea is a popular legume crop in Asia and Africa's semi-arid regions. Crop production gains, on the other hand, have been modest, owing to biotic and abiotic stressors. Among the different biotic stresses, nematodes portray serious threat to chickpea production and colossal losses have been reported due to stress-free infection by other pathogens on infection with root lesion nematode (RLN). The worldwide distribution of two major species of RLN namely P. thornei and P. neglectus made them a focus research area especially on management aspect. In dryland farming areas of southeastern Australia, the P. thornei alone can cause yield losses of up to 40% in cereals and legumes. Despite the fact that chickpea breeders have been working persistently to generate superior chickpea varieties with increased resilience or tolerance to biotic and abiotic challenges, contemporary biotechnology technologies can help to speed up this process. To incorporate these tools and/or accelerate breeding programmes, identification of RLN resistant source with its genetic factor is first step in developing improved cultivars. However, study of resistance screening methods for chickpea against RLN is limited and standardization of different factors for development of a stable screening methodology distinguishing various levels of resistance is the need of the hour in RLN research.
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.0211204.2337
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Chemical and morphological variations in Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.)
           Roxb. – a species of commercial ayurvedic formulation triphla from
           central India

    • Authors: Hariom Saxena, N. D. Kobragade, Samiksha Parihar, M. Kundu, G. Rajeshwar Rao, Ganesh Pawar
      Pages: 410 - 416
      Abstract: Terminalia bellirica is one of the high traded medicinal plant species, mainly known for its fruits which are bestowed with numerous biological activities and used in treatment of various ailments. The fruits are one of three ingredients of well-known Ayurvedic formulation ‘TRIPHLA’. The purpose of this study was to determine the variations for Gallic acid (GA), a chemical marker compound, as well as for key morphological traits (height, girth at breast height, clear bole height, fruit size) in trees from central Indian states viz. Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. In this investigation, we also explored the correlation between the chemical marker and morphological features. The study suggested the maximum GA content (0.98±0.42%) in populations of Keregaon range of Dhamtari forest division of Chhattisgarh state which can be considered as superior chemotypes/ populations. The correlation analysis exhibited the positive association between fruit size and GA content.
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.0211162.2305
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
  • Morphometric analysis for sustainable development of natural resource
           management by using remote sensing and GIS techniques in Tikamgarh
           District, M.P., Central India

    • Authors: Karuna Nidhan Singh, Ramesh Singh, Dhiraj Khalkho, Mahendra Prasad Tripathi
      Pages: 417 - 426
      Abstract: Study of morphometric parameters decides the suitable location and adjustable natural resource management (NRM) practices along with durability and sustainability. Morphometric study of a region provides the various geological, topographical and others parameters which supports during the design and implantations of various water conservation approaches. Garhkundar –Dabar (GKD) watershed having two parts as first treated watershed and second control watershed, located in Tikamgarh District of Madhya Pradesh, Central India was selected for this analysis. ArcGIS ver. 10.3 was used for analysis and found IVth order stream in treated watershed area of 850 ha (8.50 km2) and IInd order stream in control watershed area of 268 ha (2.68 km2). In treated watershed, 19 streams were found in first order while 12, 5 and 1 streams were obtained in second, third and fourth order respectively. Similarly, 6 and 4 streams were found in first and second order respectively in control watershed. This study conclude all aspects of morphometric parameters viz. linear, areal and relief which elaborate the geometric as well as topographic features to support and identified the best location for various conservation interventions and their implementation with a long sustainability. RS and GIS based morphometric analysis provides the way of replication of conservation practices and suggested for sustainable conservation treatment and watershed development.
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.021982-2220
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1&2 (2022)
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