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Environment Conservation Journal
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0972-3099 - ISSN (Online) 2278-5124
Published by Action for Sustainable Efficacious Development and Awareness Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Characterization of the green gram (Vigna radiata L.) genotypes through
           both morphological and biochemical parameters

    • Authors: Aninda Chakraborty, Sanjoy Kumar Bordolui, Debarati Nandi
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Eight genotypes of greengram were collected in the present investigation from AICRP on MULLaRP, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV) and they were characterized with ten quantitative, nineteen qualitative and two biochemical parameters as per the NBPGR descriptor. Grouping based on DUS descriptors indicate the existence of genetic diversity within the genotypes. These eight genotypes were evaluated and characterized for 31 DUS descriptors. However, 21 characters out of 31 characters of DUS descriptors differed significantly indicating a large and exploitable amount of genetic variability for the individual elite improved line profile development for identification and protection. The elite lines are similar for the important plant traits like semi erect and determinate growth habit but the development of erect types is the need of hour and indicates the incorporation of new germplasm for the improvement of this trait in the present material. Genotypes could be easily identified through some unique characters: SML-1822 could be identified amongst genotypes studied here in through its semi-erect growth habit, green stem colour with purple shade, dark green leaf colour, light yellow flower colour and bearing pods below canopy; identification of IPM-512-1 and TMB-37 could be made through seeds with drum shape and dull seed luster respectively; and Pusa Vishal through its leaves with dark green colour along with intermediate pod position and larger seed size. Samrat is having highest amount of protein as well as carbohydrate content among these genotypes. Thus, the DUS descriptor data generated with unique profiles of the elite improved lines can be used for the registration with PPV & FRA and seed purity testing.
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.9622191
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • The Resistance screening and in-vitro efficacy of fungicides for the
           management of dry root rot of chickpea caused by Rhizoctonia bataticola

    • Authors: Mukesh Bankoliya, V.K. Yadav, Ashish Kumar, Pawan Amrate, Jayant Bhatt
      Pages: 8 - 13
      Abstract: Dry root rot caused by Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler is an emerging threat for chickpea production. It is among one of the chief and common soil borne diseases of chickpea. The present investigation was conducted firstly to identify the resistant source for dry root rot in chickpea and secondly to evaluate the efficacy of different fungicides in inhibiting the growth of R. bataticola under in vitro conditions. Screening of a set of 50 chickpea entries resulted in identification of three entries namely ICCV 191317, ICCV 191306, and Ujjain 21 as moderately resistant to dry root rot of chickpea. No entry could be identified as completely resistant for dry root rot in chickpea. Further, among the different fungicides tested, pyraclostrobin alone and in combination of Thiophanate methyl completely checked the growth of R. bataticola at 100 ppm concentration under in vitro conditions. However, another combination product of fungicides namely carboxin + thiram and carbendazim + mancozeb also showed complete inhibition in growth of test pathogen at higher concentration of fungicides i.e. at 300 ppm concentration.The identified moderately resistant genotypes could be a useful resource for development of resistant varieties in chickpea for dry root rot using molecular breeding approaches.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.11702317
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Status of soil and plant micronutrients and their uptake by barley
           varieties intercropped with Populus deltoides plantation

    • Authors: Ashish Kumar, K. S. Ahlawat, Chhavi Sirohi , K. K. Bhardwaj , Sushil Kumari, Charan Singh, Ritambhara, Sandeep Bedwal
      Pages: 14 - 22
      Abstract: In Agroforestry systems, crops grown in interspaces of tree plantations undergo different kind of interactions with the environment, consequently affecting soil fertility in different ways. In the present study, soil and plants micronutrients and their uptake by five barley varieties (BH 946, BH 959, BH 393, BH 885 and BH 902) grown under poplar plantation as well as sole crop were examined. During this investigation, a significant increase in DTPA (Diethylene triamnine penta acetic acid) extractable micronutrients (Zinc, Copper, Manganese and Iron) was observed at all depths (0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm) under poplar plantation than sole crop. Sole crop exhibited higher micronutrient uptake than under poplar plantations. Maximum uptake of soil micronutrients like Zn, Mn and Cu (495.5, 527.06 and 53.8 g ha-1) were recorded in variety BH 946. However, variety BH 959 exhibited minimum uptake of soil micronutrients (401.85, 439.46 and 44.07 g ha-1) during this study.
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.11422296
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Micro-morphological diversity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as seen under

    • Authors: Kavyashree N M, Jayateertha R Diwan, Mahantashivayogayya K, Lokesha R, Nagaraj M Naik
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Rice being the global grain, its genetic diversity is essential to support farmers' adaptation to climate change for sustainable production. Genetic variability analysis is essential to identify the diverse genotypes and to use them in hybridization programs. Although several advanced molecular techniques are now being used to characterize plants, morphological characterization is always preferred owing to their ease of detection. However, not all morphological traits can be observed through naked eyes. Observing micro-morphological variations requires the help of specialized optical instruments. "Foldscope" is a simple and portable optical instrument, which offers a great opportunity to exploit micro-morphological variations in crop plants. Hence, the current study was aimed at the micro-morphological characterization of rice crop using a foldscope. A total of 24 elite rice genotypes including checks were evaluated using Randomized Complete Block Design during Kharif 2018 at Agricultural Research Station Gangavati, to explore their genetic diversity. Five often neglected micro-morphological traits but associated with the traits of economic importance were recorded using 'foldscope' to assess the variability existing among the selected genotypes. The analysis of variance revealed substantial variations across all genotypes for all the characteristics investigated. The traits viz., length of leaf serrations, length of hairs on the lemma, and root hair length exhibited higher GCV, PCV, heritability, and GAM most likely because of additive gene effects. So, selection for these traits may be effective. The study also showed that foldscope can be effectively used in agriculture to study micro-morphological diversity between crop genotypes.
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.9682200
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Identification of the race of root knot nematode by differential host test

    • Authors: Suraj Kishanrao Daware , Dattatray Kadam , Palande Pallavi
      Pages: 31 - 34
      Abstract: Root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) cause major damage to the fruit crops, vegetable crops and field crops. Infected plants showed declined symptoms and poor fruit yield also displayed stunting and yellowing symptoms. In order to choose appropriate management control techniques, nematode diagnosis and specimen identification must be accurate, quick and precise. The population of the nematode obtained from the experimental field of Post Graduate Institute, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri were assessed for their host-race status by the differential host test which relies on the combination of resistant and susceptible reactions of six differential hosts to the nematode population. Result revealed that the nematode population infected tobacco (NC 95), pepper (California Wonder), watermelon (Charleston grey), tomato (Rutgers) and unable to reproduce on cotton (Deltapine- 16) and peanut (Florunner) which indicated presence of race 2 of Meloidogyne incognita.
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.9702208
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Evaluation of entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) isolate, Heterorhabditis

    • Authors: Koosari Supriya, Soumya Shephalika Dash, Dnyaneshwar Babanrao Ingole, Digvijay Pradeep Kashyap, N. V. Lavhe, V. J. Tambe
      Pages: 35 - 41
      Abstract: The present study on pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes against Spodoptera litura in laboratory conditions was undertaken during 2020-21, with the aim to ascertain the effectiveness of entomopathogenic nematodes, against an obnoxious cosmopolitan pest S. litura. Experiments were conducted by using entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) isolate Heterorhabditis indica (CICR-Guava), on filter paper, against Galleria mellonella and S. litura at the treatment dose of 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80 and 100 IJs/100µl along with control (Sterile distilled water). The results of our study revealed that, EPN isolate H. indica (CICR-Guava) caused 100% mortality at the treatment dose of 40 IJs/100µl within 72 h of infection in 5th instar larvae of G. mellonella and in case of S. litura, 100% mortality was recorded within 72 h of infection at the treatment dose of 100 IJs/100µl in 3rd instar larvae, which was found more susceptible. The median lethal concentration of H. indica (CICR-Guava) for 5th instar larvae was 2.29 IJs/100µl. The result of reproductive potential of isolates of entomopathogenic nematodes revealed that the highest yield was obtained from 5th instar larvae of G. mellonella at treatment dose of 100 IJs/100µl 278667 IJs per larva. In case of S. litura, the highest yield obtained was 152533 IJs. It could be concluded that, there was a positive correlation between nematode treatment concentration, time of exposure and the insect mortality of the tobacco cut worm and multiplication rate of IJs increased with increase of exposure time and size of larvae. This EPN isolate, H. indica (CICR-Guava) can be suggested as biocontrol agents for the control of S. litura in the Vidarbha region.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.11372293
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Compatibility studies of Heterorhabditis indica with newer insecticides
           under laboratory condition

    • Authors: Soumya Shephalika Dash, Supriya Koosari, Dnyaneshwar Babanrao Ingole, Digvijay Pradeep Kashyap, V.J. Tambe, N.V. Lavhe
      Pages: 42 - 46
      Abstract: Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been identified as promising biocontrol agents for controlling economically important insect pests of agricultural and horticultural crops. The compatibility of entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis indica with 7 CIB registered insecticides was investigated under laboratory conditions. The effect of these insecticides on nematode survival at recommended concentrations was observed after 12, 24, 48, 72 hours upon direct exposure. EPN H. indica was compatible with Imidacloprid 17.8% SL as maximum per cent of live H. indica were observed after 72 h of exposure to this insecticide. Similarly, H. indica was compatible with Fipronil 5% SC up to 48 h of exposure whereas, less than 70% live EPN were there in Thiamethoxam 25% WG, Diafenthiuron 50% WP and Cypermethrin 25% EC resulting these insecticides to be least compatible. Emamectin benzoate 5% SG and chlorpyriphos 20% EC were incompatible with H. indica after 48 h of exposure. The result of this experiment will help in reducing the dependence on chemical insecticides and thus slowing down the development of insecticide resistance and preventing adverse effects on public health and the environment.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.11362292
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • An overview of Covid-19 with special reference to Janapadodhwamsa

    • Authors: Priyanka K., Ramesh Chandra Tiwari, Rakesh Bhutiani
      Pages: 47 - 53
      Abstract: Virus, bacteria and fungi are the most common causes for spreading illness in human and in animals. These are the microorganisms and they can cause epidemic and pandemic diseases. World is passing through many viral epidemics affecting respiratory system since last twenty years. It includes SARS-CoV 2002-2003, H1N1 Influenza 2009, MERS-CoV 2012 to the recent COVID-2019. COVID-19 is a viral pandemic infection this is air borne illness that is spreading through droplet infection. This virus especially affects the respiratory system by doing immunosuppression in person. In Ayurveda there are references of Janapadodhwamsa in Charaka samhita vimansthan. Janapadodhwamsa – is the term coined by Charak which means destruction of population living in same place at the same time because of 4 main reasons i.e. Dushit vayu (Air), Dushit jala (water), Dushit desh (land), Dushit kaal (time) Janapadodhwamsha causes death of individuals in the affected area inflicting huge destruction.
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.15502485
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Impact of various irrigation and establishment methods on yield and water
           use efficiency in rice

    • Authors: Theerthana T, P.S Fathima, G.R. Denesh
      Pages: 54 - 61
      Abstract: The field experiment was executed to evaluate the impact of various irrigation and establishment methods on yield and water use efficiency in rice during Kharif 2018. Split plot design was used in the experiment which consists of three irrigation treatments in the main plot and five rice establishment treatments in the sub plot. The results revealed that, higher yield parameters like number of panicles/m2 (364.83), number of grains per panicle (73.98), number of filled grains per panicle (60.29) were recorded with maintenance of saturation up to panicle initiation (PI) and flooding after PI. Manual transplanting among rice establishment methods recorded significantly higher test weight (25.04 g), grain yield (5253 kg/ha) and harvest index (0.45). Whereas, mechanical transplanting recorded significantly higher number of grains per panicle (74.61) straw yield (7939 kg/ha). Among different irrigation methods, alternate wetting and drying up to PI followed by flooding after PI recorded significantly lower total water usage (94.94 cm) and higher water use efficiency (52.39 kg/ha-cm). Among rice establishment methods, mechanical transplanting recorded significantly lower total water usage (117.81 cm) and higher water use efficiency (48.80 kg/ha-cm). Interaction between alternate wetting and drying up to PI followed by flooding after PI and mechanical transplanting recorded lower total water usage (81.88 cm) and also recorded higher water use efficiency (68.75 ha-cm).
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10142227
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Zinc and Iron fortification through enriched organics and foliar nutrition
           on growth, yield and economics of foxtail millet (Setaria italica

    • Authors: Krupashree R, Satyanarayana Rao, B. K. Desai, Ananda N, S. N. Bhat
      Pages: 62 - 70
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the impacts of zinc and iron enriched organic manures on growth and yield of foxtail millet in an Organic block. Results revealed that significantly higher grain and stover yield, net returns and Benefit cost ratio (1262 kg/ha, 4210 kg/ha, ' 27185 /ha and 2.83 respectively) were recorded with application of Zn and Fe enriched compost along with foliar spray of panchagavya and was found on par with the treatment receiving Zn and Fe enriched vermicompost along with foliar spray of ZnSO4 and FeSO4 (0.5 %) at 30 DAS (1232 kg /ha, 4195 kg /ha,' 25522 /ha and 2.62 respectively) and Zn and Fe enriched vermicompost along with foliar spray of panchagavya (3%) at 30 and 45 DAS (1137 kg /ha, 4092 kg /ha, ' 21897 /ha and 2.31 respectively). These treatments also showed similar effects with respect to growth and yield parameters contributing for the higher yield and monetary benefits.
      PubDate: 2022-08-21
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.9982217
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Lactic acid bacteria as an adjunct starter culture in the development of
           metabiotic functional black pearl grapes beverage

    • Authors: Ritika Modi, Ishwerpreet Kaur, ParamPal Sahota
      Pages: 71 - 80
      Abstract: Black pearl Grapes are highly nutritious and one of the richest sources of polyphenols, but due to being delicate with very high loss at harvest and during distribution, is not consumed adequately. This study intended to develop functional lactic acid starter culture based fermented grapes beverage, in order to improve the quality and stability of this low pH fruit and to develop a fermented non-dairy beverage. Results showed that grapes blend was an excellent matrix for LAB growth with more than 9.38 log10 CFUml-1 of viability at the end of fermentation. LAB fermentation affectedly enhanced the total polyphenols and flavonoids content. Likewise, antioxidants capacities based on DPPH and FRAP activity were considerably increased correlating with each other, impacting the color and sensory properties of the grapes beverage. This way, the lactic acid fermentation can be considered as an appropriate tool for developing black pearl grapes based novel bio-intervention with enhanced antioxidants, polyphenols and flavonoids with anti-proliferative activity and antagonistic efficacy against recurring food borne pathogen in this post-antibiotic era.
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10102225
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens in manganese uptake by chickpea (Cicer
           arietinum L.) cultivars infected by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne

    • Authors: Pranaya Pradhan, Dhirendra Kumar Nayak , Anjali Tamireddy, Jayashankar Pradhan, Ankit Moharana
      Pages: 81 - 86
      Abstract: Chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) is one of the most dominant pulse crops in India, which contributes 38 percent of the area and 50 percent production of pulses compare to the total pulse production of India. Chickpea contains protein-2.1%, carbohydrates-61.5%, and fat-4.5% and more iron, calcium and niacin content. The main constrain of chickpea production due to parasitic nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) is about 14% of total global production in annual yield loss. Pseudomonas fluorescens is a bacterial bio-agent that can help in nematode suppression in chickpea plants. This experiment was conducted to experience the differences, if any, in manganese content concerning chickpea inoculated with M. incognita with a combination of Pseudomonas fluorescens as a bioagent, where different treatments of nematode, bacteria, and chemicals are used sustaining the enhancement of disease resistance in chickpea cultivars RSG 974, GG 5, GNG 2144. The total manganese content of chickpea variety GNG 2144 was found highest in treatment, where only bacteria (P. fluorescens) was inoculated, i.e., 6.44 mg/100g of a root, followed by GG 5, i.e., 5.63 mg/100g of root and RSG 974 was, i.e., 4.14 mg/100g of root respectively. Application of Pseudomonas fluorescence combined or alone gradually increased the manganese concentration in roots of chickpea plants i.e., RSG 974 (4.14 mg/100g), GG 5(5.63 mg/100g), GNG 2144 (6.44 mg/100g) compared to the health check.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.9922223
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cold plasma technology – An overview of basics and Principle

    • Authors: Ankit Deshmukh, Gopika Talwar, Mohit Singla
      Pages: 87 - 101
      Abstract: Thermal processing can produce non-enzymatic browning, protein denaturation, flavor alterations, and vitamin loss in food products. A cold plasma treatment, which is non-thermal, is the greatest option for preserving food products, keeping bioactive ingredients, and prolonging shelf life. It is used for brief treatment durations at moderate temperatures. The review's goal is to discuss cold plasma procedures, parameters, and processes for microbial and enzyme inactivation. It also discusses the numerous uses in the dairy business as well as their impact on quality factors. The cold plasma technique shows an excellent performance in the elimination of spoilage microorganisms and maintaining the quality characteristics of food products.
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.8722147
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Efficacy of oral probiotics on morphometric measurements and their
           allometric relationships in Asian elephants

    • Authors: Dharmendra Chharang, Sheela Choudhary
      Pages: 102 - 107
      Abstract: An experiment was undertaken on 18 Asian elephants to study the effect of oral probiotics on body measurements for two months. Simultaneously, the efficacy of existing prediction equations and allometric relationship of heart girth-body weight (BW), height-forefoot circumference (FFC) and height-body weight were also observed. The animals were divided into three groups, with six each. The experimental probiotics; Lactobacillus acidophilus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were supplemented @ 1 gm 1 × 109 cfu/gm for every 50 kg BW/day to the elephants of LACTO (T2) and SAC (T3) groups, respectively, whereas no probiotic was given to the control group. Heart girth was measured four times, on days 0, 20, 50 and 60 of the experiment to determine BW. Other morphometric estimations, like length, height, hind girth, and FFC were documented once, at the end of study. The data of heart girth and body weight revealed non-significant effect of the treatment. Irrespective of probiotics treatment, allometric parameters such as heart girth-body weight and height-FFC showed an isometric relationship whereas, the height-body weight relationship wasn’t found to yield an equivalent accuracy. The equations involving heart girth and FFC were observed to be most authentic to calculate BW and height, respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.11342290
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Yield and economic response of Rabi maize (Zea mays L.) to different
           mulching and nutrient management

    • Authors: Susmita Moi, Bappa Mandal, Mahadev Pramanick
      Pages: 108 - 112
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2019-20 with the objective of evaluating the effect of mulching and nutrient management practices on growth, yield and economics of maize (Zea mays L.) at Balindi Research Complex, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, West Bengal, India on clay loam soil. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with nine treatment (T) combinations such as T1- Live mulch (Trifolium alexandrium)+50% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) [120:60:40 kg /ha N, P2O5 and K2O], T2- Live Mulch+75% RDF, T3- Live Mulch+100% RDF, T4- Straw Mulch (rice straw)+ 50 % RDF, T5- Straw Mulch+75% RDF, T6- Straw Mulch+100% RDF, T7- No Mulch+50% RDF ,T8- No Mulch+75% RDF and T9- No Mulch+100 % RDF, replicated thrice. Experimental results revealed that different mulching and nutrient levels exerted significant influence on growth, yield, net return and benefit-cost ratio (B:C). Application of straw mulch+100% RDF (T6) resulted in the highest plant height (164.57 cm), grain yield (5.28 tonnes /ha), stover yield (7.65 tonnes/ha) and B: C (2.16), however, treatment T7 recorded the lowest grain and stover yield. So, the integrated application of straw mulch along with 100% RDF could be recommended for better yield and higher profit of Rabi maize. Integration of organic mulch might be useful for long-term soil health benefits for the nutrient exhaustive maize crop.
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.9392180
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Morphological, biochemical and SSR marker based genetic diversity and
           identification of trait-specific accessions in exotic germplasm collection
           of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    • Authors: Amarnath M, Shyamalamma S, Anilkumar C, Brijesh Patil M.P
      Pages: 113 - 121
      Abstract: Characterization and evaluation of genetic base of exotic collections of germplasm hastens the process of crop breeding. Exotic collections of 25 tomato germplasm accessions along with a local check ‘Vaibhav’ were characterized at morphological, biochemical and DNA marker level in the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore. Both morphometric and biochemical trait data divided the accessions into five clusters by model-based K-means cluster analysis. Accessions EC-620481 and EC-620554 were found highly diverse and promising to broaden the genetic base of breeding stocks in tomato. SSR marker based genetic parameter estimates inferred lower genetic differences at marker loci. However, UPGMA classification displayed similar kind of diversity as exhibited at morphometric level. Traits specific accessions identified have potential to accelerate trait specific breeding for economically important traits. This investigation resulted in the identification of such potential accessions for their use in commercial tomato breeding.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10862263
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Agronomic practices for sustainable diseases management in rice: A review

    • Authors: Intikhab A. Jehangir, M. Ashraf Ahangar, Tabasum Hassan, Ashiq Hussain, Fayaz A. Mohiddin, Asma Majid, Showkat A. Waza, Wasim Raja
      Pages: 122 - 134
      Abstract: Rice is globally the most important food crop and there is a dire need to feed the ever-increasing population by improving its productivity. It has been realised that diseases are the major impediment towards enhancing the productivity of this crop. Despite the advent of modern effective disease control measures such as use of chemicals, bioagents and resistant varieties; agronomic practices still play a vital role in disease management in rice. Optimum use of different agro-techniques can be exploited for efficient control of various devastating diseases like rice blast, sheath blight, bakanae and many more by providing a favourable environment to better crop survival. Besides, appropriate selection of a variety, use of quality seed, method of establishment, planting time, nutrient, water and weed management practices can be well exploited to control various diseases. This manuscript entails to review the work pertaining to use of agronomic practices for exploiting the potential of crop environment interaction through reduced disease infection and to bridge the yield gap for ensuring sustained food security.
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.9742205
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Assessment of heavy metal contamination by multivariate statistical
           methods from the sediment of Ulhas river estuary, Maharashtra, India

    • Authors: Shailendra Raut, Vidya Shree Bharti, Nishikant Gupta
      Pages: 135 - 144
      Abstract: Ulhas River estuary is one of the most significant estuarine systems situated western coast of India. This estuary has been polluted by several point and nonpoint source and therefore, the multivariate statistical methods were used to determine sediments parameter concentrations, their distributions, and their relationship. In the present study, sediment samples were collected from five different stations and analyzed eight heavy metals' concentrations with seven other parameters. The multivariate statistical methods (PCA, nMDS, and ANOSIM) were used to determine sediments parameter concentrations, their distributions, and their relationship. The PCA results showed that the concentrations of N%, H%, S%, C/N, C/H, EC, and OC% were significant contributors to PC1 (36%) while the heavy metals such as Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni, Si, and Hg concentration were major contributor to PC2 (20%). Both PCs are indicated anthropogenic pollutant deposition towards the mouth of the estuary. Other results of nMDS showed a high degree of similarities within the stations such as 2, 3, and 4. Moreover, analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) results also support them at a significant level of 0.01% with a global R-value (0.6). The observed level of heavy metals contamination in the sediment samples was in the order of Cr >Pb >Cu > Ni >Zn > Hg >Si>Cd. Industrial discharges within the catchment area may be the potential source of sediment pollution and warrants immediate targeted actions to protect this vital ecosystem and its biodiversity.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10632253
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Assessment of water quality using different physicochemical and biological
           parameters: a case study of Buddha nallah, Punjab, India

    • Authors: Harpreet Kaur, Priya Katyal, Sumita Chandel
      Pages: 145 - 159
      Abstract: For the assessment of physicochemical and microbiological quality of Buddha Nallah the water samples were drawn from 7 different sites and analysed during winter (December 2020) and summer (May 2021) for most probable number, heterotrophic plate count, total coliform, fecal coliform, indicator, emerging pathogens and physicochemical parameters. A strong correlation was found among the indicator organisms (r= 0.504-0.898), while relatively weak or no correlation was found between indicator and emerging pathogens. Moreover, the correlation between indicator and emerging pathogens was found to be heavily dependent on physicochemical parameters. Cluster analysis successfully classified the different polluted sites based on physicochemical and microbiological parameters. The water quality index (WQI) score of all sites was found between 0-25 indicating poor water quality and emergency treatment is required for reuse. Based on present study results, it has been concluded that water of study area is highly polluted and pose serious health risk concerns due to presence of fecal and emerging pathogens in samples.
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10392241
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Assessment of groundwater quality from Sahibabad to Modinagar Meerut Uttar
           Pradesh, India using water quality index

    • Authors: Mukesh Ruhela, Purushottam Jhariya , Sweta Bhardwaj, Faheem Ahamad
      Pages: 160 - 167
      Abstract: Groundwater quality and quantity both are important for the survival of human beings on this planet. In the present study an attempt has been made to assess the groundwater quality at mass using points. To fulfil the objectives of the present study, four sites (Sahibabad, Ghaziabad, Muradnagar, and Modinagar) were selected along the metro line construction from Delhi to Meerut. At all these sites, workers of metro line projects are living and working and using the groundwater for drinking purpose. Sampling was carried out from July 2021 to June 2022 using grab method of sampling. The samples were analysed for pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, and fluoride. The data was processed using water quality index (WQI) and Pearson correlation metrix. TDS at all the study sites ranged from 514mg/l to 549.3mg/l and the values are above the standard limit of BIS (500mg/l). Values of TH, calcium and magnesium were found above the limits prescribed. Concentration of Chloride, nitrate, sulphate, and fluoride were found below the limits prescribed by BIS. However, nitrate is approaching to the standard limit (45mg/l). Correlation metrix shows that calcium is responsible for increasing values of TDS. As per the values of WQI, water quality of site 2 (46.7762), 3 (48.3523) and 4 (48.6281) falls in good category while at site 1 (50.9363) in poor category.  There is an urgent need of strict actions to stop the increasing water pollution in the area to prevent the huge population of this area from various water related implications.
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.15525455
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Urbanization’s environmental imprint: A review

    • Authors: Jyotsana Pandit, Anish Kumar Sharma
      Pages: 168 - 177
      Abstract: The urban population interact with their environment and change it through the consumption of resources. The changed condition may impact the wellbeing and life nature of the urban population. The uncontrollable growth of urbanization has been reported to be dangerous for mental health and sanity of many citizens. Urban areas whether small or megacities each generate an ecological foot print.The present day urbanization, consequently requires a sustainable development pattern and changes in present day styles of boom to cause them to be more equitable and more resource and energy efficientAs of now, urban administration is to a great extent concentrated on single issues, for example, water, transportation, or waste. A multi scale administration framework that expressly inscribes interconnected asset chains and interconnected spots is essential as a way to transition closer to sustainable urbanizationwhich require, prevention of urban pollution, decreasing production capacity and supporting recycling, while discouraging non-profit development and fading poor and rich differences. . Therefore, the present study was conducted to clarify the effect of urbanization on the environmental quality, resource use and sustainability. The study conducted throughout the globe indicated sustainable urbanization can be achieved by following concept of development wherein natural resources are restored and not replaced by technology.
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10942268
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Bio-management of rice root-knot nematode, M. graminicola by using various
           organic amendments and bio-control agents on rice nursery

    • Authors: Rohit Kumar, Deepak Kumar, Vinod Kumar, Anil Kumar
      Pages: 178 - 183
      Abstract: A screen house experiment was conducted during kharif season, 2020-21 to know the effect of organic amendments and bio-agents (alone and in combination) in comparison with chemical on the population of rice root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola) in rice. Nursery was grown in 5 kg soil capacity earthen pan filled with infested soil having initial nematode population 285 J2/200 cc soil. Seeds of the rice (Variety- Pusa 1121) were soaked in tap water for 24 h and the sprouted seeds were sown in pots. Hundred seeds of rice were sown in each pot and each treatment was replicated four times. Organic amendments (neem cake and FYM) and bio-agents (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Purpureocillium lilacinum and Trichoderma viride) were added 10 days before sowing. Weighted amount of bio-agents was mixed in neem cake and FYM for enrichment with 7-10 days waiting period. Carbofuran (Furadan 3G) was added at time of sowing. The earthen pots without organic amendments, bio-agents and chemical were treated as control. Observations on plant growth parameters (seedling length in cm fresh and dry seedling weight in g) and nematode multiplication (number of galls/20 seedling, number of eggs/20 seedling and final nematode population in the soil/200 cc soil) were made at transplanting time. The plant parameters were maximum and significantly highest in treated nursery (neem cake @ 50 g/pot + Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 50 g/pot) under screen house conditions. Nematode reproduction and multiplication parameters such as number of galls/seedling, number of eggs/seedling and final nematode population were significantly reduced in neem cake @ 50 g/pot + Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 50 g/pot.
      PubDate: 2022-08-21
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10692260
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Economic characters of muga silkworm cocoons influenced by regions and
           commercial seasons

    • Authors: Shilpa Saikia, Monimala Saikia, Roshmi Borah Dutta, Hemanta Saikia, Manasee Hazarika
      Pages: 184 - 191
      Abstract: Muga cocoons were procured from Jorhat, Kamrup and Lakhimpur districts in spring and autumn season. The objective was to determine the impact of three regions and commercial seasons on cocoon characters in terms of cocoon size, cocoon weight, pupal weight, shell weight and shell ratio. The experiment was laid out in completely randomised design with three replications. The impact of three regions and two seasons was found to be significant on cocoon parameters. Large sized cocoons were obtained from Kamrup district followed by Lakhimpur and Jorhat in autumn season compared to those obtained in spring season. Cocoon weight, shell weight, pupal weight and shell ratio percentage (5.73g, 0.51g, 5.19g and 8.74% respectively) were found to be significantly higher in Kamrup as compared to Lakhimpur (5.4g, 0.46g, 4.94g and 8.43% respectively) while lowest was recorded in Jorhat district (5.27g, 0.43g, 4.83g and 8.20% respectively) irrespective of the seasons. Considering the seasons, cocoons obtained from autumn were superior in terms of cocoon characters (5.66g cocoon weight, 0.49g shell weight, 5.16g pupal weight and 8.63% shell ratio) than those of spring season. Kamrup district and autumn season have turned out to be the best region and best season clearly indicating that region and season influences the cocoon characters of muga silkworm.
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.9902215
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Fertility capability classification (FCC) of soils of a lower Brahmaputra
           valley area of Assam, India

    • Authors: Surabhi Hota, Vidyanand Mishra, Krishna Kumar Mourya, Uday Shankar Saikia, Sanjay Kumar Ray
      Pages: 192 - 201
      Abstract: Fertility capability classification (FCC) is a system of classification which uses pedological data of soils and coverts it into capability classes based on major fertility constraints portrayed by the soils. The present study was aimed to classify the soils major landforms of a lower Brahmaputra valley region of Assam, India in to FCC classes, to suggest specific management practices in order to overcome the fertility constraints and improve the crop productivity.The major strata types used were found to be loamy top soil, 'L' and clayey top soil 'C'. The sub-strata type found were loamy sub soil, 'L' and clayey sub soils, 'C'. The major condition modifiers or the major fertility constraints were found to be Al toxicity 'a’ and 'a-', high leaching potential, 'e', low nutrient reserves 'k' and 'g' waterlogging. The paddy soils of alluvial plains were classified into La-eg and Lg+a-e. The tea growing soils of younger alluvial plains were classified into Car+e. The non-paddy soils of alluvial plains were categorized as Ca-gke. The soils of uplands and inselberg were categorized into LCae class. The study revealed that FCC classification can successfully bring out the soil fertility constraints and can be very much helpful in soil fertility management for sustainable crop productions.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10462244
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Assessing the genetic diversity for yield traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
           genotypes using multivariate analysis under controlled and water stress

    • Authors: Hamsa Poorna Prakash, Suman Rawte , Ritu Ravi Saxena , Satish Balakrishna Verulkar, Ravi Ratna Saxena
      Pages: 202 - 210
      Abstract: The genetic diversity of yield and yield attributing characteristics was explored in this research. In the topical study, fifty-two rice genotypes including four checks were used under three environmental conditions i.e. irrigated (IR), rainfed (RF) and terminal stage drought (TSD) conditions. The prevalence of genetic divergence was evaluated using clustering and Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the relative contribution of various traits. To fulfill the aim of the study, fifty-two genotypes were grouped into three distinct and non-overlapping clusters among these 3 clusters, cluster-I was the largest with the highest number of genotypes i.e. 47, 49 and 49 under IR, RF and TSD conditions, respectively. The highest average intra-cluster distance was observed in cluster-I, also the genotypes showed high variability under all three conditions. The highest inter-cluster distance between the cluster-II and cluster-III (IR and TSD) and cluster-I and cluster-II (RF) was observed, indicated that genotypes from the group should be considered for direct use as parents in hybridization programme to produce high yield. Only five of the 13 principal components (PCs) have been considered in the study based on the Eigen values and variability criteria. From the complex matrix it was revealed that the first-PC accounted for the highest variability. Genotypes which fall under a common PC were observed to be the most important factor for grain yield.
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.9692201
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Effect of preceding rice herbicide residue towards control of weeds and
           urdbean productivity in rice -Bhendi-urdbean sequence under high rainfall

    • Authors: N Bommayasamy, C R Chinnamuthu
      Pages: 211 - 216
      Abstract: Field experiment was conducted at Field Crops Research unit, ICAR- Central Island Research Institute, Bloomsdale, Port Blair during summer season, 2018. To study the preceding rice herbicide residual effect in control of weeds, growth and yield of urdbean in rice-bhendi-urdbean sequence under high rainfall area. At 20 DAS, grassy weeds (48.00 weeds/m2) were predominant species of weeds followed by sedges and broad leaf weeds of 29.67 and 22.67 nos./m2 respectively. Among the irrespective of weed control treatments, at 20 DAS, residual effect of 1.25 kg/ha butachlor at 3 DAP + manual weeding at 40 DAP in rice + two manual weeding on 20 and 40 DAS in both bhendi and urdbean recorded significantly lower grass, sedges, broad leaf weeds population and weed biomass of 11.67, 8.67, 6.67 weeds/m2 and 2.93, 2.02, 1.84 g/m2 respectively. Residual effect of 1.25 kg/ha butachlor applied at 3 DAP along with manual weeding at 40 DAP in rice + two manual weeding on 20 and 40 DAS in both bhendi and urdbean obtained 299 kg/ha higher seed yield as compared to weedy control.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10552250
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Biodegradation of harmful industrial dyes by an extra-cellular bacterial

    • Authors: Neelam K., Shamsher S Kanwar
      Pages: 217 - 232
      Abstract: Nowadays the treatment of environmental pollutants such as synthetic dyes (used in multiple industries such as paper, textile, food, plastic and pharmaceutical) has received much attention, especially for biotechnological treatments using both native and artificial enzymes. In this context, many enzymes have been reported to efficiently perform dye degradation. Peroxidase is one such enzyme, which causes dye degradation either by precipitation of chemical structure of aromatic dyes or by opening up their aromatic ring structure. In the present study an extra-cellular peroxidase extracted from a bacterial strain Bacillus sp. F31 JX984444.1 was tested for its capability to decolorize 16 different dyes used in various industries. Out of 16 different textile dyes the Bacillus sp. peroxidase efficiently decolorized 5 dyes out of which 4 triphenyl methane dyes (Basic Fuchsin (BF), Rhodamine B (RB), Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBBG) and Malachite Green (MG) showed decolorization up to 95.5%, 70.8%, 70% and 40%, respectively, while a polymeric heterocyclic dye Methylene Blue (MB) showed 66.2% decolorization. These 5 dyes were studied to further enhance their decolorization by peroxidase after purification by optimizing different reaction conditions (temperature, time, enzyme concentration, buffer pH, dye concentration and effect of various salt ions, H2O2 concentration). This study indicates that the extracellular peroxidase (purified) from Bacillus sp. can be used as a useful tool for the treatment (degradation/decolorization) of industrial effluents contaminated with harmful industrial dyes.
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.8702144
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Effect of planting geometry and fertilizer levels on growth and yield of
           finger millet (Eleusine coracana L)

    • Authors: Rajan Kumar, Umesha C., Lalit Kumar Sanodiya, Ravi Kumar Dwivedi, Shubham Kumar, Mayur Meshram
      Pages: 233 - 239
      Abstract: The experiment was done on finger millet during the zaid season of 2021-22 at crop research farm, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences (SHUATS), Prayagraj (Uttar Pradesh). The treatments consisted of three planting geometry viz., 20 cm × 20 cm, 25 cm × 25 cm and 30 cm × 30 cm and three NPK levels viz., 75%, 100% and 125%. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with nine numbers of treatments and replicated thrice. The results showed that treatment with 30 cm × 30 cm spacing at 125 % NPK /ha growth parameters viz., maximum plant height (69.73 cm), number of tillers per plant (17.36 g/plant), dry weight per plant (7.36 g) while yield were recorded highest with treatment 20 cm × 20 cm spacing at 125 % NPK /ha. viz., Grain yield (45.76 t/ha), Straw yield (4.33 t/ha) and harvest index (44.91) of finger millet at harvest. This may due to the highest plant population with close spacing treatment and higher number of heads/ m2 as compare with wide spacing.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.11802313
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Nutritional quality evaluation of oil and fatty acid profile in various

    • Authors: Durgeshwari Gadpayale, Alka Katiyar, Mahak Singh, Lallu Singh
      Pages: 240 - 246
      Abstract: Brassicas are one of the most agronomically eminent oilseeds that are employed as a variety of oilseed, vegetable, and fodder crops. The experiment was conducted with thirty-four genotypes/varieties seeds of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea Czern & Coss (L.)] for oil content, Iodine value, oil stability index and fatty acid composition during 2018-2019. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with three replications. The range of variability of contents of oil, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate, linolenate, ecosenate, doecosenate, iodine value and oil stability index varied from 33.52 to 42.15%, 1.53 to 4.98%, 0.16 to 2.71%, 5.06 to 17.78%, 17.88 to 32.15%, 11.82 to 19.85%, 5.44 to 11.89%, 28.82 to 47.66%, 114.43 to 131.71 and 1.08 to 1.99, respectively. The Brassica juncea genotype-KMR-15-6 followed by genotype- KMR-17-6 had the higher oil content, oleic acid content and low value of erucic acid which indicates that seed oil this B. juncea species genotype is possibly suitable for both human consumption and industrial purposes.
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10132226
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Analysis of pharmacognostical standardization, antioxidant capacity and
           separation of phytocompounds from five different vegetable peels using
           different solvents

    • Authors: Priya Chaudhary, Nidhi Varshney, Devendra Singh, Pracheta Janmeda
      Pages: 247 - 259
      Abstract: Vegetables are one of the most preferred food commodities and can be consumed either raw or as processed due to their health-promoting nutrients. In the present work, analysis of pharmacognostical standards, antioxidant capacity, and separation of phytocompounds through thin layer chromatography (TLC) from cabbage, cauliflower, pea, carrot, and potato peels were carried out. Microscopic analysis revealed the presence of wood fibers, trichomes, crystals, and annular xylem vessels in the vegetable peels. Physicochemical analysis showed that all the vegetable peel samples which were analysed have low (7.08%-10%) moisture content. The total ash content of vegetable peels varied in cauliflower peels (1.95±0.58) to the peels of pea (19.86±1.9). The content of acid insoluble ash varied from 1.46±0.63 to 3.09±0.59 in cauliflower and pea. Potato peel has the lowest water-soluble ash content (1.16±1.90) as compared to other peels. The highest pH value was found in the peels of pea (7), while the lowest pH was found in the peels of cabbage (4). Among all extracts, the petroleum ether extract has shown the greatest yield (5.6±0.45). The fluorescence analysis showed various colours like green, brown, pale green, and yellow under different chemical treatments. Different types of pri-secondary metabolites were detected in small, moderate, and high amounts and notified to provide numerous health benefits to humans. In case of DPPH assay, aqueous extract of cauliflower has shown the low value of IC50 (24.82 µg/ml) in comparison to standard, suggested the higher antioxidant activity of the extract. Among all the extracts, aqueous and methanol extracts of cauliflower have shown the better reducing and total antioxidant activity in comparison to standard. TLC profiling of methanolic extract of cabbage and cauliflower peels revealed the presence of different compounds of varying Rf values. Above results indicate that the food waste consists of valuable components and may be utilized as noticeable and cheap source in pharmaceuticals for the treatment of several life-threatening diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.15102433
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Effect of seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) extract on rainfed aerobic rice
           (Oryza sativa L.)

    • Authors: Kakali Deb, Shikha Singh
      Pages: 260 - 266
      Abstract: Rice is grown throughout the year in India, in a variety of agro-climatic conditions, and it is grown on 43.39 million hectares with a production of 159.20 MT with an average productivity of 3623 kg/ha. Aerobically produced rice may be an option for farmers on rainfed areas where rainfall is not sufficient or availability of water is rare and expensive too for flooded rice production but enough for cultivation of upland rice. The field experiment took place at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India, during the kharif season of 2020. The experiment was done by using Randomized Block Design with three replications. The findings of the experiments revealed a considerable rise in the growth parameter viz., plant height (46.0 cm), total tillers/m2 (564.3), plant dry matter accumulation (1938.0 g/m2), leaf area index (19.07) and crop growth rate (49.47 g/m2/day) and yield attributing parameters viz., effective tillers/m2 (362.3), weight of panicle/m2 (856.9), number of filled grain/panicle (115.7), grain yield ( 4.7 t/ha), test weight (28.9 g), straw yield (11.3 t/ha) with foliar application of 7.5 percent Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed sap four times, plus RDF and two foliar applications of 10% K-sap yielded the greatest harvest index (32.7%).
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10072231
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cultivation of oyster mushroom to combat pandemics: medicinal and social

    • Authors: Mannu Kumari, Aparajita Gupta
      Pages: 267 - 272
      Abstract: Mushrooms are the spore bearings fruiting bodies that have been used by human being since ancient times for good health. Mushroom is the choicest food of nutrition because it provides important nutrients like proteins, selenium, potassium, riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin D and more. Oyster mushroom are known for their health benefits. Oyster mushroom protect the heart against cardiovascular diseases, helps in lowering the blood pressure, regulate the cholesterol level, improve immune health and have anti cancer, anti inflammatory and other properties. , Cultivation of oyster mushroom on waste straw  not only solve the pollution  problem but also improves  the economic conditions of farmers.
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.13552398
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Morphometric evaluation of Ranikhola watershed in Sikkim, India using
           geospatial technique

    • Authors: Nirmalya Kumar Nath, Abhishek Agrawal, Vinay Kumar Gautam, Abhinav Kumar, Pritam Das
      Pages: 273 - 284
      Abstract: Morphological parameters are linked with the hydrological behaviour of the watershed. It helps to understand different basin characteristics. Characterization of quantitative morphology and river basin analysis is the way to implement proper river basin planning and management of soil and water conservation measures. In the present study, Cartosat-1 Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was used in Geographic Information System (GIS) environment to determine the morphometric parameters (stream length, stream order, stream frequency, bifurcation ratio, form factor, drainage density, circulatory ratio, etc.) of the Ranikhola watershed of Sikkim state, India. The slope of a major portion of the watershed area was found to be less than 30% (42 km2) and has a drainage density of 0.585 km-1. The lower value of drainage density in the watershed indicates a relatively lower streams frequency over the watershed. The elongation ratio, form factor, and circulatory ratio were estimated as 0.665, 0.347, and 0.510, respectively, which indicate that the watershed is elongated in shape, having gentle slopes and long flow paths. The relief ratio for the watershed was estimated to be 0.187, which indicates the watershed has a low elevation difference, low runoff, and high groundwater potential. This kind of morphometric analysis is required for the watershed characterization and helps to understand the hydrogeological behavior of the watershed.
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10672257
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Characterization of irrigation water quality of groundnut belt of
           erstwhile Mahbubnagar district of Telangana

    • Authors: Sushma Sannidi, G. S. Madhu Bindu, T. L. Neelima, M. Umadevi
      Pages: 285 - 294
      Abstract: An investigation was performed to characterize the irrigation water quality of the groundnut belt in the erstwhile Mahabubnagar district, Telangana for which 35 irrigation water samples from both canal and groundwater sources from the study area were collected through a preliminary survey in the selected farmer’s fields. The samples which were analyzed for pH, EC, RSC, SAR Mg/Ca ratio and Kelly’s ratio in the laboratory interpreted that the pH was slightly alkaline (pH: 7.58) with medium salinity (0.64 dS/m) and high Mg/Ca (1.15) ratio though the RSC (5.05) and SAR (2.68) fall in the safe ranges and were classified under C2S1 and C3S1 irrigation water classes. Considering the pH range in the irrigation water, proper management of the soil through incorporation of organic manures at regular intervals is suggested in all the regions of the groundnut belt (highly and marginally potential zones) having pH above 7.50 to prevent mounting up of soil pH when irrigated continuously over a period of time.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.9582189
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Effect of vermicompost and fertilizer on uptake and efficiency of
           nutrients in pot culture rice

    • Authors: Kumar Chiranjeeb, S. S. Prasad , Vivek Kumar, Rajani K., Munmun Majhi, Megha Bhadani
      Pages: 295 - 302
      Abstract: Rice is the major dominant crop in the asian continent and all over the world. A research was carried out at Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa in kharif, 2018 containing four different levels of vermicompost (0 t/ ha , 1.25 t/ ha, 2.5 t/ ha, 3.7 t/ ha) and three levels (0 %, 100 %, 50 % Recommended Dose of Fertilizer) of fertilizer RDF were combined with each other and analyzed for nutrient uptake and efficiencies in pot cultured rice crop variety Rajendra Bhagawati. Study revealed that nutrient uptake in grain (446.03 mg/ pot N, 104.95 mg/ pot P , 112.06 mg/ pot K) and straw (303.81 mg/ pot N , 49.83 mg/ pot P, 578.78 mg/ pot K) and the total nutrient uptake i.e. N (227.67 mg/ pot ), P(0.083 mg/ pot ), K(690.84 mg/ pot) were superior in the combined application of 3.75 t/ ha vermicompost and 100% RDF over other and showed higher stability in case of apparent nutrient use efficiency in 3.75 t/ ha vermicompost and 50% RDF except potassium for balanced growth of rice crop and declining straight 50% cost off chemical fertilizer substituted with organic sources.
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10052224
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Impact of sowing dates on different growth attributes and yield of wheat
           in North Western Himalayas

    • Authors: Sarwan Kumar, Rajendra Prasad, SS Rana, Sandeep Manuja, Gurudev Singh, Navjot Rana
      Pages: 303 - 308
      Abstract: Sowing time is an important agronomic factor that significantly affects plant growth, development and yield. Similarly, suitable cultivar also plays an appreciable role in final productivity. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the Impact of sowing dates and varieties on different growth attributes and yield of wheat in North Western Himalayas. A Field experiment were conducted at Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Centre (HAREC), Bajaura (1074m altitude) and HAREC, Dhaulakuan (411m altitude) during rabi season of 2016-17 which comprises of three dates of sowings (25th October, 25th November, 25th December) and four varieties (HS-542, HS-490, HPW-349, VL-907) which was laid down in Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with three replications. Altitude plays a major role at both the locations and found that with decrease in temperature in delayed sowing the number of days taken to complete the physiological maturity decreased in all the dates and at all the locations. For grain and straw yield, Bajaura was found to be the most suitable location, showing significant superiority over all other locations. 25th October and 25th November sowings being at par with each other was significantly higher than 25th December sowing at all the locations. Among varieties, VL-907, HS-542 and HPW-349 being at par with each other had significantly higher grain and straw yield than HS-490. Bajaura gave significantly more number of effective tillers/m2 and emergence count. Sowing at 25th October and 25th November being at par with each other gave significantly more number of plants per metre square than 25th December sowing at both of the locations.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.9412197
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • The Influential role of organic sources on yield and economics of black
           gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper]

    • Authors: Vinod Kumar Nallagatla, M.B. Patil , B.T. Nadagouda , Ramesh Beerge
      Pages: 309 - 312
      Abstract: Present study for investigating the role of organic amendments on the growth and production of the black gram (Vigna mungo). The findings of the research illustrate that, the application of vermicompost + ghanajeevamrutha based on 100 % RDP + Rhizobium + PSB documented a significantly greater Dry matter yield (2740 kg/ha), number of pods/plant (19.33), number of seeds/pod (6.33), the grain yield (701.33 kg/ha), the haulm yield (2038.76 kg/ha) as compared to others and higher gross returns ('. 54540 ha-1), net returns ( '. 23083 ha-1) and Benefit-Cost ratio (1.74) in black gram production.
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.9252177
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Effect of phosphorus and sulphur levels on growth and yield of lentil
           (Lens culinaris L.)

    • Authors: Niranjan Reddy Yadavalli, Umesha C., L.K. Sanodiya
      Pages: 313 - 319
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried for the duration of Rabi 2020-21 at crop research farm of SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P.).The soil of experimental site was sandy loam in texture, almost impartial in soil reaction (PH 7.4), specified in randomized block design. It includes of two factors, Phosphorus levels i.e., P1-(30 kg/ ha), P2-(40 kg/ ha), P3-(50 kg/ ha) and Sulphur levels i.e., S1- (15 kg/ ha), S2-(20 kg/ ha), and S3 (25 kg/ ha) which was replicated thrice. Results shown significantly increase in growth parameters viz. , plant height (44.97 cm), number of number of nodules (10.26), dry weight (15.63g), yield attributes viz., number of pods per plant (90.67), number of seeds per pod (1.93), test weight (18.53g) and yield viz., seed yield (1986.66 kg/ ha), straw yield (3450.00 kg/ ha), harvest index (35.98 %).Higher gross returns (' 118536/ha), net returns (' 84360.50) and B:C ratio (2.46) Therefore, concluded that combination of phosphorus 50 kg/ ha + sulphur 25 kg/ ha recorded significantly in all parameters.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.9792221
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Standardization of harvest maturity of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus
           lam.) by morpho-physical investigation

    • Authors: Suma Budnimath, A.G. Babu, S. L. Jagadeesh, B.G. Prakash
      Pages: 320 - 325
      Abstract: An experiment was carried out to investigate the standardization of harvest maturity indicators in Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.)The mean number of spines/cm2 was lowest in tree 1 (8.0), the mean metallic sound (hedonic scale) was highest in tree 1 (2.8), the mean fruit length was significantly increasing and reaching its maximum in tree 1 (39.00 cm), and the mean fruit circumference was significantly increasing and reaching its maximum in tree 1 (39.00 cm) (41.48 cm).The experiment's data were considered non-replicated, and the recorded data were statistically analyzed using a one-way ANOVA design in the computer software MS Excel. Considering morphological analysis the characters viz., fruit circumference(39.00 cm), low spine density(8.0), moderate to high spreading of spines, presence of sensible hollow metallic sound could be used as the maturity indices of jackfruit. It is also noted that jackfruit could be harvested after 100 days of fruit set.
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.9352196
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Assessment of certain plant products toxixity against Sitophilus oryzae in
           milled rice grains in coastal Odisha

    • Authors: Gayatree Sahoo, Braja Kishore Sahoo
      Pages: 326 - 334
      Abstract: The rice variety, Jyotirmayee was treated with plant products for the assessment of toxicity towards rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae in milled rice grains in the laboratory of Department of Entomology of College of Agriculture under Odisha University of agriculture and technology, Bhubaneswar in coastal climatic condition of Odisha. The toxicity assessment revealed that the average rate of mortality over the time and doses was significantly highest in black pepper with 81.86% mortality which was statistically at par with tobacco (80.37%), turmeric (70.00%) and chilli (68.51%). Theprobit analysis data revealed that at 24 HAT and 48 HAT the lowest LC50 value of 0.02 and 0.06% was recorded respectively in black pepper. But at 72 HAT the lowest LC50 value of 0.08% was recorded with chilli followed by turmeric (0.14%), black pepper (0.21%), eucalyptus (0.71%) and tobacco (0.95%).
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10732270
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Growth trends of lac production during XII plan vis-a-vis XI plan period
           in Chhattisgarh, India

    • Authors: A K Jaiswal, Alok Kumar, B Anand Babu
      Pages: 335 - 342
      Abstract: The study is based on secondary data on lac production during the XI (2007-08 to 2011-12) and XII plans (2012-13 to 2016-17). Some econometric parameters, viz. Minimum, maximum, mean production, growth rate, percentage changes in mean during the XII plan over the XI plan period, and instability were rated. The state of Chhattisgarh, which contributed 30.21 per cent of national production during the XI plan period, decreased during the XII plan to 16.03%. During the XII plan, there is a 39.49 per cent reduction in the mean value. The negative growth rate recorded during the XI plan of 25.17 per cent decreased to 4.32 per cent during XII plan. The district-related percentage change in the mean from the XI to the XII plan showed that only the Bastar district recorded an increase of 39.18 per cent. The mean value decreased in the rest of the districts. Highest decline was recorded in Rajnandgaon (-72.23 %) followed by Raipur (-57.06%), Korba (-46.55%), Dhamtari (-41.97%), Bilaspur (-40.06%), Bastar (-39.18%), Durg (-34.05%), Kanker (-28.89 %), Janjgir- Champa (-22.44 %), Mahasamund (-17.61%), and Surguja district (-7.65%). In respect of instability in production during the XII plan, only Bastar and Janjgir districts recorded lower instability than states record of 14.85 per cent. Crop wise lac production data for different lac growing districts were also analyzed to assess major suffered districts during XI and XII plan periods in Chhattisgarh.
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.9812213
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Mathematical modelling for the phosphate and nitrate carrying capacity of
           dams in Uttarakhand

    • Authors: Sachin Panwar, Shivam K, Nupur Goyal, Mangey Ram, Madhu Thapliyal , Prabhakar Semwal , Ashish Thapliyal
      Pages: 343 - 352
      Abstract: The Himalayan State of Uttarakhand has abundant natural water resources and 98 Hydro Electric Power Project (HEP’s) have been constructed, 25 are under construction and, 336 are planned for the future.  The water bodies of these HEP’s can also be utilized for other purposes besides electric power generation. To conserve the endemic aquatic biodiversity, it is necessary to understand the phosphate and nitrate dynamics of these water bodies. As there are several HEP’s on a single river and the human population around them, water bodies have changed drastically during the last decade. In this study, we have calculated the phosphate and nitrate load-carrying capacity of six dams in the Uttarakhand state of India using the Vollen-Weider mathematical model modified by Dillon, Rigler and Beveridge.  We have also measured the phosphate & nitrate content of these water bodies to confirm if our modelling methods confirmed with actual finding of sampling sites. The phosphate and nitrate carrying capacity of these six dams were found to be in the range of 0.155 mg/l to 0.557 mg/l and 0.6 mg/l to 1.3 mg/l. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in Uttarakhand that addresses the phosphate and nitrate carrying capacity using a mathematical model.
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.15512475
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Morpho-quantitative and biochemical characterization of Chia (Salvia
           hispanica L.) seeds to understand its benefits and to increase its

    • Authors: Subhash Yadav Nagalla, Kailash Chandra Samal, Laxmipreeya Behera, Jyoti Prakash Sahoo, Dayanidhi Mishra, Asit Ranjan Sahoo, Jannila Praveena, Chetan Singh Nargave
      Pages: 353 - 360
      Abstract: Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), of the mint family Lamiaceae, is one of the most highly nutritious crops in the world. It has a high economic value in both national and international markets. The present study was carried out with the prime objective of assessing Chia's morphological, biochemical, and nutritional characterization. An average yield of Chia (784 kg/ha) from the field experiment was observed. The biochemical studies showed the presence of higher amounts of carbohydrates, phenols, flavanols and antioxidants. The seed protein content of Chia was evaluated, and it was found to be 183 mg/g, which was greater than other major crops like wheat, rice and maize. The Carbohydrate content (371 mg/g) was also high in Chia seeds. High amounts of phenols (1.29 mgGAE/g) and flavonoids (0.48 mg/g) in Chia seeds were also observed. The mineral content estimated by ICP-OES showed the presence of micronutrients like Fe (11.7 mg/100g), Mg (335 mg/100g), Mn (5.97 mg/100g), Zn (12.01 mg/100g), Cu (1.94 mg/100g), Ca (397.78 mg/100g), Na (42.15 mg/100g) and K (605.83 mg/100g). The FTIR analysis showed the presence of the functional groups, and high peak banding was found related to protein, pectin (polysaccharides), PUFA (fatty acids), lipids etc. The HPTLC analysis indicated the presence of Gallic acid. Thus the present study unveils that the seeds of the Chia crop are a rich source of different essential elements. Hence this pseudo-cereal Chia can be used to provide good food supplements. As this is a newly introduced crop in India, there is very less study on the crop. To utilize the benefits of this crop, further research in various aspects to increase the environment adaptability and yield should be done.
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10882265
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Studies of genetic correlation and path coefficient analysis between
           resistance to brown spot disease and yield related traits in rice (Oryza
           sativa L.)

    • Authors: Banshidhar Jha, Priyanka Jaiswal, Rajesh Kumar, Mithilesh Kumar Singh , Neelanjay K., Ashutosh Kumar, Avinash Kumar
      Pages: 361 - 366
      Abstract: Brown spot disease in rice is caused by Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Anamorph: Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker, 1959 (Synonyms: Helminthosporium oryzae). It causes significant losses by affecting both economic yield and grain quality. Though, it is a minor disease in most of the parts of the world but the historical famines like Krishna Godaveri Delta famine and Bengal famines and huge crop losses in a number of incidences as in Guyana and Nigeria renders it as a potential threat to rice crop and adverted the requirement of efficient, sustainable and economical strategies to cope with the pathogen. In this context, availability of resistant sources against the pathogen is a noteworthy alternative for disease management. Realising the importance of resistant sources, the present research investigation was undertaken to study association between resistance to brown spot disease and yield attributing traits in rice via correlation studies and path analysis to identify high yielding resistant lines for brown spot disease in rice. In this study disease resistance expressed in terms of AUDPC showed negative correlation with yield and yield attributing traits and direct negative effect on yield. Thus, AUDPC can be utilised as a selection parameter for developing improved cultivars with higher grain yield and lower susceptibility towards the brown spot pathogen.
      PubDate: 2022-08-21
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10252240
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Sulphur and its significance in higher pulse production

    • Authors: Kodavali Monika Reddy, MPS Khurana
      Pages: 367 - 373
      Abstract: Sulphur is one of the emerging plant nutrients, required for pulse crops. After nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium, it is forth key nutrient for plant nutrition. It is taken up by the plants in the form of sulphates form from the soil. The factors that are responsible for the wide spread deficiency of sulphur are excess use of high analysis fertilizers, inadequate use of crop residue, high yielding varieties of crops and its removal of sulphur by the crops. Sulphur plays a pivotal role in overall pulse production, by synthesis of sulphur containing amino acids, enhancing protein content, nodule formation and plant biomass. However, the requirement of sulphur for effective crop production is not showing promising trend. Comparing the sources of sulphur fertilizers, gypsum showed its superiority by producing high grain and straw yield in pulses. In some of the field experiments on pulses, addition of sulphur @30kg and 40kgof S/ha along with the recommended dose, increased the growth (plant height and number of branches) and yield and quality parameters (grain yield and protein content). This review highlights the different response of crops to Sulphur application, sources, uptake and its interactions with other nutrients for profitable crop production. Moreover, it provides new insights to revisit the significance of sulphur in higher pulse production.
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.9072164
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Morphological characterization of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids under
           excessive soil moisture stress

    • Authors: Sri Sai Subramanyam Dash, Devraj Lenka, Jyoti Prakash Sahoo, Swapan Kumar Tripathy, Kailash Chandra Samal, Devidutta Lenka, Digvijay Swain
      Pages: 374 - 386
      Abstract: A critical assessment of 32 maize hybrids with two replications for excessive soil moisture stress (ESM) was carried out during Kharif 2019-20. The plants were exposed to waterlogging stress for 12 days at the flowering stage by maintaining a water level of 3-5 cm. High genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were attained for maize plants with adventitious roots and senescence percentage after stress. High heritability along with high genetic advance was determined for number of plants with adventitious roots, senescence percentage, plant height and 100 kernel weight. Plant yield depicted a highly significant positive genotypic and phenotypic correlation with plant height, ear height, number of plants with adventitious roots and number of kernels per row, along with a significant negative correlation with senescence percentage. Kernels per row and plant height manifested the highest positive direct effect on plant yield at phenotypic and genotypic levels, respectively, reflecting that the characters can be considered for plant selection under ESM stress.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10592252
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Genetic divergence analysis in Taramira (Eruca sativa Mill.) under
           different environment conditions with special reference to principal
           component analysis

    • Authors: Mahaveer Prasad Ola, M.L. Jakhar, Sumer singh Punia, Mali Ram Nehra, Gayatri Kumawat, Naveen Chandra Pant
      Pages: 387 - 394
      Abstract: The field experiment was conducted to identify the principal component among ten morphological one (biochemical) oil content traits of thirty germplasm lines from the All India coordinate research project oilseeds (Taramira) in a randomize block design (RBD) with three replications in each of the test conditions, which were generated using 3 separate sowing dates with fifteen days interval from October 2nd week to November 3rd week (15th October, 30th October & 15th November 2018-19). First three principal components contributed 76.8% proportion of variation with an eigen value more than one (1.329). The largest percent contribution (30.11) to overall genetic divergence was shown by siliqua per plant followed by test weight, number of primary & secondary branches per plant & seed yield per plant. The genotypes were divided into nine groups, with Cluster II having the most genotypes (12), followed by Cluster I with five genotypes. Based on mean value of seed yield, oil content & cluster analysis, eight germplasms with cross combination viz., RTM-1806 X (RTM-314, RTM-1351, RTM-1805, RTM-1810, RTM-1800, RTM-1791, RTM-1815) & RTM-1804 X (RTM-314, RTM-1351) were identified as high yielding which can be widely utilized as a parents in hybridization programme for the development of 9 new diverse varieties/ hybrids for enhanced seed yield as well as oil content.
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.8272169
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Ameliorative effect of herbal extracts on lipid profile in albino rats,
           Rattus norvegicus exposed to metanil yellow

    • Authors: Shyam Babu Gangwar, Beenam Saxena, M.K. Sinha
      Pages: 395 - 399
      Abstract: Synthetic food colours are used as key component by food manufacturers to increase the consumer acceptance towards food items and beverages as well as for having certain properties like low cost, high colour intensity and more colour stability. These food items and beverages may have more than recommended amount of permitted food colours or some non-permitted synthetic food colours, which may lead to several health problems like disturbances in biochemical parameters, allergic reaction, cancer, mutations etc. Some herbs are having active chemical components and could be used regularly to ameliorate the toxic effect of synthetic food colours. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of garlic and turmeric extract as a herbal antihyperlipidemic agent in albino rats fed on an azo dye, metanil yellow. The albino rats were divided into four groups (6 rats in each group). Group I (Negative control) fed on normal pellet diet, Group II (Positive control) fed on metanil yellow (MY), Group III fed on MY+ garlic extract and Group IV fed on MY+ turmeric extract. All experimental group fed on normal pellet diet and water ad libitum. Total cholesterol (TC), LDL, HDL and triglycerides (TG) were observed in serum of albino rats from all the groups. The results showed that administration of garlic and turmeric extract raise the level of HDL and lowered the level of LDL, TC and TG in blood serum of albino rats exposed to metanil yellow for 12 and 24 weeks of exposure periods. Garlic was found to be more potent in correcting the lipid profile of metanil yellow fed albino rats in comparison to turmeric extract. However, it has been concluded that both the herbs could be used as antihyperlipidemic agent to avoid health risk in human beings caused by chronic consumption of food colours in different food types consumed daily.
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.15552453
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Impact of gamma irradiation on vegetative growth of Gladiolus cv. White

    • Authors: Dinanter pal Kaur, Jujhar Singh, Bharti Singh, Ravindra Kumar
      Pages: 400 - 403
      Abstract: The present research was carried out at Experimental Farm, Department of Agriculture, Mata Gujri College, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab during winter season of 2020-21. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with seven treatments (Control, 20gy, 40gy, 60gy, 80gy, 100gy and 120gy) and the treatments were replicated thrice. From the experiment it can be concluded that the lower dose (20gy) of gamma irradiation show positive result on growth i.e. maximum plant height (90.03 cm), size of leave (28.44 cm) and take less number of days to sprout (12.65 days) and flowering of Gladiolus cultivar White Prosperity. As the dose of gamma irradiation increases (60gy-120gy), it affect the vegetative characteristic like days taken to sprouting, plant height, number of leaves, size and length of longest leaf, it reduces with the dose increase, but it has no effect on number of sprouts/corm and on size of corm.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.8852151
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Bioefficacy and economics of certain new molecule of insecticides against
           Gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in chickpea

    • Authors: Nitish Kumar Alok, Sameer Kumar Singh, Umesh Chandra
      Pages: 404 - 411
      Abstract: Gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera) is a major insect pest of chickpea. The gram pod borer begins to infest at vegetative stage and later feeds on flowers and developing pods. A field investigation was conducted to evaluate the bioefficacy of certain new molecule insecticides against Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) on chickpea during Rabi 2020-21 in randomized block design with three replications. The outcomes revealed that the application of Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 25g a.i./ha and Cyantraniliprole 10.26% OD @ 60g a.i./ha were established to be most effective treatments and application of Fipronil 5% SC @ 50g a.i./ha was least effective in respect of reduction of H. armigera larval population. The maximum yield was recorded in Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 25g a.i./ha (14.00 q/ha) followed by Cyantraniliprole 10.26% OD @ 60g a.i./ha (13.73 q/ha) and lowest yield was recorded from Novaluron 75g a.i./ha (10.15 q/ha) treated plot. The economics of different new molecule insecticides indicated that higher benefit cost ratio (BCR) was observed from Lambda Cyhalothrin 30g a.i./ha (7.86:1) followed by Emamectin benzoate 12g a.i/ha (6.75:1) and the lower BCR was recorded from Cyantraniliprole 60g a.i./ha (1.64:1) and Novaluron 75g a.i./ha (1.58:1). Chlorantraniliprole and Cyantraniliprole are newer group of insecticides, which are relatively safer and more effective against gram pod borer as comparison to conventional insecticides and can be used in successful management of this key pest of chickpea.
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10332235
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • A review on impact of salt stress in soil health and its suitable control

    • Authors: Amit Sharma, Yumnam Bijilaxmi Devi , Thounaojam Thomas Meetei
      Pages: 412 - 424
      Abstract: Soil salinity is associated with the accumulation of soluble salts in higher concentration deteriorating soil health associated with unfavourable environment for plant growth. It is mostly confined to those regions where there is high temperature and low precipitation, mostly in arid and semi-arid regions. Major factors responsible for soil salinity can be categorised into primary and secondary factor affecting at the spatial and temporal scale. Higher concentration of soluble salts in soil increase the osmotic potential disrupting the movement of water from root to leaf. So, soil salinity is primarily associated with the water stress condition in plants which is a direct impact to plants. Indirectly it interferes with the nutrients absorption which is one of the most important factors for proper plant growth. Plants poses different mechanisms to avoid salt stress condition in soil but maximum of it are an active processes were additional energy must have to spend for it that can impact proper growth and production. The ions primarily responsible for both the soil and plant stress under soil salinity are Na+ and Cl- which concentration increases with certain primary and secondary soil salinization factors. So, primary aim to control the impact of soil salinity is to reduce the activity/concentration of both Na+ and Cl- from the soil. So, use of the essential nutrients (K+ and SO4-2) that has an antagonistic relationship with the salts is a new approach. Due to similar charge and physico chemical properties of K+ and SO4-2 with toxic ions Na+ and Cl- respectively, there lies an antagonistic relationship. Furthermore, SO4-2 of its less toxicity to plants and improve soil pH condition especially in arid and semi-arid region, the combination of K+ and SO4-2 salt is a good combination to ameliorate the Na+ and Cl- toxicity under saline soil.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.12182325
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Possible remediation of hexavalent chromium by native fungi of Sukinda
           mining area: a review

    • Authors: Subhra Subhadarsini, Debasis Dash
      Pages: 425 - 438
      Abstract: The expeditious industrialization is helping the world to give a new modern era with all sorts of amenities. But the consequences are following great risks that might result in a terrifying future. Heavy metal pollution and its hazardous effects are one of them. Though India is the 3rd largest chromium producing country and the Sukinda valley of Odisha, is the chief source for chromium, hence here the threat of chromium pollution is at a high point. Countermeasures to this problem have become of prime importance. Among several remedial measures, bioremediation is an approaching process to control the accelerated growth of heavy metal contamination including chromium. In the world of microorganisms, the congenital characteristics of fungi have great importance as they can grow easily in polluted habitats. Again, there is evidence of native fungi having the potential to bind with heavy metals and remove toxic agents from natural environments. The pathway of chromium toxicity and its possible remediation potential by fungi have been studied extensively in the Sukinda area. This study signifies some positive aspects that can be practised in the future as a convenient option for bioremediation. Fungal bioremediation improved with biotechnology tools will be suitable output for rapid remediation which is vital for this moment.
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10502246
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Growth, yield and economics of amla (Emblica officinalis L.) based
           agri-horticultural system in Alfisols of semi-arid tropic

    • Authors: Thimmegowda M N, Mudalagiriyappa, Ramachandrappa B K, Vasanti B. G. , Savitha M. S. , Santosh Nagappa Ningoji, M. Madan Kumar , K.M. Puneetha
      Pages: 439 - 449
      Abstract: An intercropping trial conducted during 2011 to 2017 using five year old amla (Emblica officinalis L.) orchard planted at 4 X 4 m spacing and grown under rainfed condition to identify the suitable and profitable intercrops. The intercrops viz, finger millet, fodder maize, field bean, grain amaranth, cowpea, horsegram were considered in the study besides their pure stand. Growth parameter of amla such as plant height (369 cm), number of branches/tree (2.73), stem diameter (35.31 cm), canopy spread (279 cm) and biomass yield (296 kg/ha ) was found to be statistically significant with Amla intercropped with field bean compared with sole amla. The higher amla equivalent yield was recorded in intercropping with finger millet (1517 kg/ha) and was at par with cowpea (1298 kg/ha). Finger millet proved to be better intercrop in amla and registered 57.11 per cent higher net returns and Benefit cost ratio than sole amla. Overall, Amla + finger millet cropping system was found to be more sustainable both interms of benefit cost ratio (2.43) and improving system productivity (104.44 %) followed by pulse crop such as cowpea and field bean. The higher sustainable yield index (0.83) was with amla + finger millet intercropping system while Land Equivalent Ratio and Area Time Equivalent Ratio were higher with amla + field bean intercropping system.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.9962236
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Varietal and moisture effect on physical properties of various pearl
           millet (Pennisetum glaucum) cultivars

    • Authors: Monika Satankar, Pramod Kumar Sahoo , Indra Mani Mishra, Arun Kumar T.V.
      Pages: 450 - 457
      Abstract: Engineering properties of pearl millet varieties (Pusa composite 443, Pusa composite 701, Pusa1201 and Pusa1801) were evaluated at varying moisture content (10-25% wb). A significant varietal difference was found on studied properties. GMD, Surface area, thousand grain mass, the angle of repose, porosity, internal coefficient of friction, static coefficient of friction (Poly, GI, MS and Al) increased linearly with increase in moisture content within the range of 10 to 25% (w.b.) while the bulk density, true density and hardness decreased linearly with increase in moisture content within the same range. But the value of sphericity showed that direct and indirect relation with moisture content depending variety. The mean value of different cultivars observed and found extreme high and low value of bulk density, true density and porosity for PC701 and Pusa1201, geometric mean diameter and surface area for pusa1801 to Pusa1201, sphericity and internal coefficient of friction for Pusa1201 and PC443, grain mass for Pusa1801 and PC 701, angle of repose for Pusa1201 and PC701, hardness for PC701 and PC443 respectively at moisture ranges from 10 to 25% (wb).
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10422251
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Yield attributing traits of high zinc rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes
           with special reference to principal component analysis

    • Authors: Partha Pratim Behera, Shravan Kumar Singh, Kasireddy Sivasankarreddy, Prasanta Kumar Majhi, Bodeddula Jayasankar Reddy, Dhirendra Kumar Singh
      Pages: 458 - 470
      Abstract: Total 21 high zinc rice genotypes were evaluated under five different locations for 14 different yield attributing traits, including grain yield/plant (gm) to determine the pattern of variation, the relationship among the individuals and their characteristics through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) during the Kharif-2017. PCA was done for all the locations individually as well as pooled analysis for all locations using R software. Out of the 14 PCs, the initial four PCs contributed more to the total variability. The highest cumulative variability of the first four PCs found at Bhikaripur (81.11%) followed by BHU Agriculture research farm-II (79.23%) etc. and Pooled variability was 76.61%. Pooled data analysis indicates PCA biplot or loading plot of first two principal components revealed that days to maturity, days to 1st flowering date and days to 50% flowering loaded more on the first component and number of spikelets per panicles, number of grains/panicles, grain weight per panicle, grain yield/plant accounted more variation in the second component compared to the other parameters. Thus, the pooled analysis of principal component analysis revealed the characters contributing to the variation and genetic variability that exists in these rice genotypes. This is because the genotypes BRRIdhan 72, Sambamahsuri and Swarna were identified in different principle components related to grain yield and grain quality, and were also located farthest away from biplot origin in individual PCA based biplot. So they may be employed to improve yield attributing factors like total effective tiller number. PC1, PC2 and PC3 have days to first flowering and days to 50% flowering, hence their genotypes may be valuable in producing early maturing cultivars. Thus, the results revealed that wide range of variability was shown by different traits of the genotypes which can be utilized in rice improvement programmes.
      PubDate: 2022-08-21
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.10302233
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • State of the science of environment, spirituality and health: An overview

    • Authors: M. M. Tiwari , Vivek Goel, Faheem Ahamad
      Pages: 471 - 478
      Abstract: Indian culture is the oldest culture known in the world. It is enriched with the well-organized system of life and large number of literature, which enlighten cultural wealth of ancient India. Veda, Upanishads, Samhitas etc. provide sufficient knowledge about the cultural heritage and spiritualties and science. Health of human being is related to the state of mind, which is governed by various factors like anxiety, workload, mental tension etc. The objective of the present study was to elaborate the knowledge regarding vedic science, spirituality, environment, and health. To fulfill the objectives of the present study, searches were performed on the various research platforms (Web of Science, google scholar, research gate, science direct, and Scopus database). It was observed that there is a continuous debate on the definition of spirituality from its origin to till date. Spirituality and human health are related in positive and negative ways. People’s health improved after practicing the spirituality and in certain cases, a downfall in health of spiritual people was noticed. Vedas considered as the base of modern science in literature. Spirituality was also found closely attached with the environment, as it not only revives the human soul but also to the environment. Spirituality and religious persons called environment as Mother Nature therefore the never damage its components. A clean and refreshing environment is the basis of good health of the persons living on the earth. Therefore, to revive the degrading human society, environment and health, there is a need of huge number of people with high spiritual mind.
      PubDate: 2022-10-30
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.15772491
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
  • Lactose Intolerance: A Review for facts and fictions

    • Authors: Shubham Arjun Lonkar Shubham, Anju Boora Khatkar, Narender Kumar Chandla, Pranav Kumar Singh, Sanjeev Kumar, Mukul Sain, Dr. Sunil Kumar Khatkar Sunil
      Pages: 479 - 485
      Abstract: Milk is assumed to be a complete food, due to its high nutritional status. Regular consumption of milk reduces the problems of nutrition deficiency. Milk contains sugar, mainly lactose in higher amount and lactose, with other ingredients of milk, also contributes to maintain the energy level of body. But, in some cases a problem arises due to the intake of lactose mainly owing to the deficiency of '-galactosidase (Lactase) enzyme. Deficiency of lactase enzyme in human body, results in inefficiency of body for degrading the lactose into its smaller constituents. Un-degraded/ undigested lactose consumed by the bacteria and converts it into several acids and gases, which results in arise of several types of intestinal disorders. In this article, main focus is given on the lactose intolerance, its types, and remedies.
      PubDate: 2022-10-30
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.7382076
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2022)
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