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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 142 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 245)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 341)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2514-8486 - ISSN (Online) 2514-8494
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1151 journals]
  • Environmental justice, settler colonialism, and more-than-humans in the
           occupied West Bank: An introduction
    • Authors: Irus Braverman
      Pages: 3 - 27
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Volume 4, Issue 1, Page 3-27, March 2021.
      Our special issue provides a first-of-its kind attempt to examine environmental injustices in the occupied West Bank through interdisciplinary perspectives, pointing to the broader settler colonial and neoliberal contexts within which they occur and to their more-than-human implications. Specifically, we seek to understand what environmental justice—a movement originating from, and rooted in, the United States—means in the context of Palestine/Israel. Moving beyond the settler-native dialectic, we draw attention to the more-than-human flows that occur in the region—which include water, air, waste, cement, trees, donkeys, watermelons, and insects—to consider the dynamic, and often gradational, meanings of frontier, enclosure, and Indigeneity in the West Bank, challenging the all-too-binary assumptions at the core of settler colonialism. Against the backdrop of the settler colonial project of territorial dispossession and elimination, we illuminate the infrastructural connections and disruptions among lives and matter in the West Bank, interpreting these through the lens of environmental justice. We finally ask what forms of ecological decolonization might emerge from this landscape of accumulating waste, concrete, and ruin. Such alternative visions that move beyond the single axis of settler-native enable the emergence of more nuanced, and even hopeful, ecological imaginaries that focus on sumud, dignity, and recognition.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T09:36:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848621995397
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The technopolitics of energy transitions: Materiality, expertise, and
           fixed capital in Japan’s power grid disputes
    • Authors: Hudson Spivey
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines recent controversies in Japan surrounding access to the power grid by renewable energy producers to think through the possibilities of a political ecology of socio-technical systems. Beginning in summer 2016, regional power utilities across Japan began denying applications from renewable energy producers seeking access to the grid because it was “at capacity.” Questions about what constituted “capacity,” how and by whom capacity was determined, and what energy sources were given preferential access to the grid were significant topics of contention among renewables developers, solar advocates, power utility administrators, and central government bureaucrats. On days with excess sun or wind and low power demand, renewables producers have also been denied access to maintain grid stability. Bringing together literature on the material politics of socio-technical systems and the political economy of electric power, this article examines the grid as a networked infrastructure with its own intrinsic materiality that shapes the trajectories of renewable energy transitions. It draws on interviews with central government policymakers, utility representatives, and renewables advocates to argue that regional grid operators appeal to technical constraints to restrict the amount of renewable energy on the power grid and safeguard fixed capital investments in nuclear power. It highlights the role of expertise and counter-expertise in these disputes and calls for greater attention to how the materiality of the power grid shapes the political dynamics of renewable energy transitions.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T01:52:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25148486211006560
       
  • Greening extractivism: Environmental discourses and resource governance in
           the ‘Lithium Triangle’
    • Authors: Daniel Macmillen Voskoboynik, Diego Andreucci
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      The lithium extractive industry is expanding, as technological and economic shifts associated with climate change mitigation goals drive global demand for lithium-ion batteries. This article explores the case of the ‘Lithium Triangle’, a region of Latin America (spanning Bolivia, Chile and Argentina) that contains the world’s largest reserves, and where environmental conflicts associated with lithium mining have proliferated. Emphasising the centrality of discourse in resource governance, we analyse the discursive strategies employed by institutional actors seeking to promote and render acceptable lithium extraction in the region. We argue that such strategies reproduce imaginaries of prosperity and modernisation long attached to oil and mineral wealth, while at the same time introducing a novel association of mining with high-tech industries, ‘green jobs’ and ‘climate-friendly’ extraction, seeking to obscure the social and ecological costs of lithium production. This inaugurates an era of ‘green extractivism’, whereby intensive resource exploitation is framed not only as compatible with climate change, but indeed as necessary to its mitigation. Our findings contribute to ongoing conversations regarding post-fossil fuel ‘transitions’, by highlighting the contradictory character of mitigation strategies that rely on mineral-intensive development.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T06:34:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25148486211006345
       
  • Airplanes, cameras, computers, wildebeests: The technological mediation of
           spaces for humans and wildlife in the Serengeti since 1950
    • Authors: Simone Schleper
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Drawing on the concept of technological mediation, this article examines the spatial politics of observation technologies and associated practices that have been used to monitor the movement of migratory wildebeests in the Serengeti from the 1950s until the 2000s. It shows that key technologies, and the types of research collaborations they sustained, mediated notably different normative ideas about human–wildlife interaction and the sharing of space in and around protected areas. During the 1950s and 1960s, observations of animal migration were conducted by airplane. Direct observation was characterized by the study of movement of migratory ungulates, such as the wildebeest, and humans across space in real time. Aerial observations depended on a close cooperation between scientists and park authorities, and on the knowledge and observational skills of game wardens. The experience of the movement of animals and people in real time allowed, to some degree, for experimentation with forms of human land-use. During the 1970s, many small-scale and short-term projects shifted the research focus toward data recording by camera. Aerial photographs created supposedly complete spatial overviews of inhabitation, which supported interpretations of spatial conflicts between humans occupying the park’s surrounding areas and animal populations inside the park. From the 1980s onward, computer technology allowed for long-term calculations of past and future trends in population densities of individual species. The understanding of the wildebeest as a keystone species and the Serengeti as a baseline ecosystem turned communities of local pastoralists and agriculturalists into a future threat. As observation technologies are here to stay, it remains important to pay attention to technologies’ potential roles in creating additional distances between researchers and research subjects. Historical insights, such as the ones presented in this article, can help reflect on how various forms of remote sensing may mediate normative views on human–wildlife interactions and consequentially affect local livelihoods.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-04-07T08:45:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25148486211005659
       
  • Nonscalability and generating digital outer space natures in No
           Man’s Sky
    • Authors: Emma R Tait, Ingrid L Nelson
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines the generation of digital outer space natures in the space exploration game, No Man’s Sky. Using procedural generation, No Man’s Sky offers nearly infinite planets, flora, and fauna on the fly. With the rapid development of gaming technology and tools, game developers and others are attempting to diversify the representation of various forms of nature in gaming content and to expand the use of games in behavioral change, education, conservation, and other fields. Many scholars argue that games offer promising ways for various publics to understand their place and their interconnectedness with microbes, ecosystems, planet Earth, and beyond. We examine how No Man’s Sky struggled to coproduce digital outer space natures at the two scalar extremes of the vast expanse of outer space and of the embodied player relating within complex biomes. Our results from an in-depth, qualitative analysis of the initial version of the game, of player world-building experiences in No Man’s Sky, and of subsequent developer modifications to the game demonstrate that nonscalability theory is useful for studying what digital outer space natures do in games. We also argue that nonscalability theory would benefit from a more robust engagement with the digital. No Man’s Sky was initially scalable to such an extreme that it made players into objects without an origin story, broader purpose or way to build meaningful relations in the game. For a brief period, this game undermined players’ interplanetary colonial imaginaries. Subsequent updates to the game introduced a limited scope of nonscalability, but only to the extent of satisfying gamers’ desires to become more impactful agents of exploration. We see great potential for analyzing the role of innovations in computing and game design in linking multiscalar digital, outer, and earth spaces, which as other scholars have shown, bear significantly on our understanding of multiple worlds and natures.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-03-31T01:05:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25148486211000746
       
  • Foregrounding the community: Geo-historical entanglements of community
           energy, environmental justice, and place in Taihsi Village, Taiwan
    • Authors: Huei-Ling Lai
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Studies on community energy have generated many useful insights concerning its potentials and challenges in facilitating energy transitions. However, this line of inquiry tends to overlook the crucial significance of site-specific contexts, concerns, and needs beyond the energy system and often generalizes these under a “civil society” umbrella. To study community energy on its own terms, this paper proposes a more grounded approach based on the relational place-making framework. It draws upon the case of the Taihsi Green Energy and Health Community Initiative in Taiwan to investigate how the emergence, development, and framing of this initiative are entangled with geo-historically produced concerns about the village’s socio-economic marginalization and suffering from petrochemical pollution. The findings suggest that community energy in this context was a proactive continuation of place-based activism for environmental justice; its value to this damaged community lied in its potential to create self-reliant socio-material relations alternative to those relied on the patronage of petrochemical interests. However, this justice-oriented aspiration tended to be discounted in national-level energy transitions agenda, revealing a tension between citizen-oriented and community-based energy projects. The paper argues that a relational place-based analysis is crucial in recognizing the grounded meanings and values of a community energy initiative, which can address the decontextualizing tendency in many community energy studies to better help policymakers and advocates enhance energy justice in disadvantaged communities.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-03-26T08:07:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25148486211000745
       
  • Towards conceptions of green gentrification as more-than-human
    • Authors: Katherine Kocisky
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      This article seeks to expand scholarly conceptions of green gentrification by emphasizing the complex and contradictory connections between nonhumans and humans as critical for understanding neighborhood change. Drawing from posthumanist scholarship, as well as literature on urban political ecology, urban greening, gentrification and “just green enough,” this article argues that to understand green amenities not only as sites of injustice, but rather as dynamic sites of injustice and resistance, requires disaggregating amenities from traditional conceptions of green gentrification. In doing so, it is possible to analyze the complex agencies of greenspace itself as connected to pluralized forms of (in)justice associated with race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, and class. To illustrate this, I use a more-than-human framework to reconceptualize three existing “just green enough” case studies of (1) riverfront development, (2) urban linear parks, and (3) community gardens to show how injustice and resistance are not only broad-based, but unique to amenity and place. The aim of this review is to offer new ways of understanding and analyzing the dialectic of injustice and resistance associated with green gentrification.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-03-25T07:07:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/25148486211001754
       
  • Sanitary governmentalities: Producing and naturalizing social
           differentiation in Maputo City, Mozambique (1887–2017)
    • Authors: Adriano Biza, Michelle Kooy, Sandra Manuel, Margreet Zwarteveen
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Maputo, Mozambique’s capital city, is marked by clear socio-spatial divisions in access to sanitation services and distributions of environmental risks. Current development plans tend to reproduce these inequalities and suggest that some residents’ sanitary needs are more important than others. We contest this logic of differentiation underpinning current interventions in Maputo, revealing how the assumption of different sanitary needs has become normalized and naturalized in the urban environment. We use a genealogy of sanitation in Maputo and the former colonial city of Lourenço Marques to trace how colonial power relations worked to normatively distinguish urban spaces and the people who live in them, making some residents and places more deserving of public protection and investments than others. Drawing on Foucauldian theorizations of governmentality, we analyse colonial authorities’ sanitary plans and interventions to show how differences and separations between spaces and bodies were and are produced. Projects of drainage and land reclamation created clean, dry and sanitary habitats for the privileged white few, the existence of which simultaneously created the wet, unhealthy and muddy spaces deemed good enough for the non-white majority. Such manufactured spatial distinctions, in turn, worked to strengthen the perception of differences in cleanliness between people. These differences were consequently mobilized by the Lourenço Marques health service to further mark and legitimize racial segregation. This is how social and spatial inequalities became naturalized in the urban environment over time, culminating in the stark sanitary divides that continue to mark the contemporary city.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-03-16T11:20:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848621996583
       
  • Against climate apartheid: Confronting the persistent legacies of
           expendability for climate justice
    • Authors: Jennifer L Rice, Joshua Long, Anthony Levenda
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      While the uneven causes and impacts of climate change are widely known, it is also becoming evident that many elements of the response to the climate crisis are also reinforcing discrimination, segregation, and displacement among marginalized peoples. This is entrenching a system of climate apartheid, one that is evidenced by uneven vulnerabilities to the climate crisis, as well as inequitable implementation of climate-oriented infrastructures, policies, and programs. These efforts often secure privileged populations while harming, excluding, and criminalizing populations whose lives have been made precarious by climate change. Like previous incarnations of state-sponsored “separateness,” climate apartheid is rooted in processes of colonization, racial capitalism, and hetero-patriarchy that render some populations expendable. In this paper, we show how these interlocking historical structures of oppression facilitate a response to climate change that is systematically promoting spatial, socio-economic, and ecological segregation in many mainstream attempts to safeguard economic and socio-political structures amidst global ecological catastrophe. We then offer frameworks and interventions intended to introduce meaningful pathways forward for climate justice that seek to render all life indispensable.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T07:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848621999286
       
  • Biocultural nation making: Biopolitics, cultural-territorial belonging,
           and national protected areas
    • Authors: James Stinson, Elizabeth Lunstrum
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      While the academic literature on biopolitics has investigated how the life of the population and its biological capacities have increasingly become the target of political concern and intervention largely at the scale of the nation, the literature on nations and nationalism has explored nations as cultural-territorial units including questions of their emergence, ongoing production, and impacts. What these share is a similar if not nearly identical object of analysis: the nation or national population. These, however, are realms of scholarly debate that have largely, and quite surprisingly, bypassed one another. This paper advances the concept of biocultural nation making to bridge these debates and illustrate that nation making is at once biological and cultural-territorial and that these are deeply intertwined. We ground this in the experience of Canadian national parks, highlighting how “natural” environments like national parks are key sites of biocultural, and increasingly neoliberal, national production. Here, state conservation organizations promote park visitation as a means of, first, enabling an active, healthy, and economically productive national population. Second, parks are promoted on the grounds that they enable the experience of distinctively Canadian landscapes and places of national inclusion especially as park visitorship is expanded to include nontraditional visitors including immigrants, urban communities, and the youth. Parks, in short, have become vehicles of biocultural, and increasingly neoliberal, nation making. While there are indeed affirmative aspects to this, we also highlight hidden exclusions tied to the embrace of neoliberal logic, the limits of multiculturalism, and the ongoing erasure of Indigenous communities.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T05:16:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848621995189
       
  • The infrastructures of White settler perception: A political phenomenology
           of colonialism, genocide, ecocide, and emergency
    • Authors: Paul J Guernsey
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Emergencies are an element of perception. Far from a private and personal affair, perception is social, structured by a process of “inculcation.” Perception has a material-political infrastructure in the sense that it is underlain by cultural and economic conditions that refract the colonial, White supremacist, and heteropatriarchal inscriptions of “dominant” society into the quotidian understanding of events, crystalizing intentional modes in subjects, bodies, and communities. These infrastructures are dynamic and multifaceted, but their alloyed effect regulates phenomena of emergency always to the advantage of the settler colonial state and capitalist interests. Infrastructures of settler perception obfuscate the ways in which Native communities experience environmental emergencies as cycles of settler colonial violence and ecocide. Emergencies such as global warming are described as “human-caused” rather than directly linked to settler colonialism, capitalism, and White supremacy. Many uncritical deployments of the term “Anthropocene” commit a similar fallacy, implicating people who have had little or nothing to do with the planetary ecological collapse. In a White logic of death, or “necropolitics,” the structures of colonialism, genocide, war, and slavery represent not the beginning of crisis, but rather the end of violence and disorder. This strategy of obfuscation is employed in a variety of contexts and seen explicitly in the context of Indian education systems that form a political project of spiritual and physical domination. In response, a politics of refusal has emerged in Native communities to form incommensurable collective experiences of emergencies, attending to the ways in which emergencies reveal the relationships between us and how these indicate differential and yet interconnected responsibilities and moral duties that implicate some of us more than others and call incommensurable communities forth to action each in their own way.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-02-26T08:13:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848621996577
       
  • Procurement, finance and the energy transition: Between global processes
           and territorial realities
    • Authors: Lucy Baker
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Utility-scale renewable electricity generation is essential to decarbonisation as well as to ensuring affordable and secure electricity supplies around the world. Yet thus far there has been limited critical thinking dedicated to the complexities behind the finance and ownership of this new infrastructure and how national and local stakeholders should participate in and benefit from its development, particularly in contexts of high inequality in low- and middle-income countries. As the global renewable energy industry becomes increasingly consolidated and financialised, evidence from a number of countries suggests that despite the pro-environmental outcomes of utility-scale renewable electricity generation, the processes and institutions that procure and finance it have often failed to include or benefit individuals and communities living in the national and local vicinity. This paper therefore sets two key competing objectives of renewable electricity generation in context: as a predictable, long-term revenue stream for investors, and as a mechanism for socio-economic development and community empowerment. Building on scholarship from human geography, development studies and sustainability transitions, my analysis takes forward understandings of the role of finance in utility-scale renewable electricity generation as a key aspect of the political economy of the energy transition. In exploring the evolution of renewable electricity as a new and rapidly emerging asset class I consider how its development is increasingly determined by the frameworks and logics of finance and investment. Drawing on examples from South Africa and Mexico, I address the following questions: What are the evolving configurations and processes of finance and investment in utility-scale renewable electricity generation' How have they been facilitated' And what tensions have arisen from their implementation at the national and local level'
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-02-10T02:08:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848621991121
       
  • Clean development or the development of dispossession' The political
           economy of wind parks in Southern Mexico
    • Authors: Chris Hesketh
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Through an investigation of the political economy of wind park development in Oaxaca, southern Mexico, I explore the contested meaning of environmental justice. I contend that, despite their seemingly benign image, wind parks in Oaxaca operate within a spatially abstracted, colonial epistemology of capital-centred development. This involves a remaking of space and an appropriation of nature on behalf of capital. Concomitantly, it also involves a process of dispossession for Indigenous communities, foreclosing alternative pathways of development. I contrast this project of place-making with a subaltern-centred conception of environmental justice informed by Indigenous resistance.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-02-04T08:30:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848621991764
       
  • What justice and for whom' A political ecology of voice study into
           ‘senses of justice’ in Peru's Loreto Region
    • Authors: Adrian Gonzalez
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores community-based organisation and non-governmental organisation ‘senses of justice’ and their interaction with community procedural environmental justice claims. The research was centred on a study of Peru’s Loreto Region and the pollution impacts from oil extraction. This was conducted through the political ecology of voice theoretical framework which can act as a bridge between the fields of environmental justice and political ecology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight relevant non-governmental organisations and four community-based organisations operating in Loreto, alongside testimony from other stakeholders. Results show that sense of justice synergies can occur between non-state actors and local communities, achieved through inclusive participatory mechanisms and equitable partnerships. This synergy enables local struggles to be made visible to the wider world as well as heard, evidenced through the grievances being addressed by the state and resource extraction industries. Nevertheless, how transformative these partnerships are is variable, with procedural legal justice offering the most beneficial way for community-based organisations and non-governmental organisations to support local justice struggles. Moreover, to be truly a transformative process, there is a need for these legal justice partnerships to challenge the deeper structural injustice of misrecognition so that human rights, alternative livelihoods and developmental futures are recognised and safeguarded.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-02-03T11:46:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848621989612
       
  • Driving development in the Amazon: Extending infrastructural citizenship
           with political ecology in Bolivia
    • Authors: Jessica Hope
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, I extend the analytical framework of infrastructural citizenship with political ecology and reorientate analysis to rural geographies, extractive infrastructure and indigenous territorial movements. Drawing from recent fieldwork in Bolivia, I argue that an extended conceptual framework of ‘infrastructural ecological citizenship’ better acknowledges the multiple, changing and contested ways that people and rural places co-exist and how these relationships are being reworked as infrastructure and citizenship are co-constituted. I use this framework to analyse a conflict over road building in an indigenous territory and national park in lowland Bolivia – the Isiboro Sécure Indigenous Territory and National Park (Territorio Indígena y Parque Nacional Isiboro Sécure; TIPNIS), revealing how the road building project weakened the pre-existing political and material infrastructures that underpinned modes of indigenous territorial citizenship within Bolivia’s Plurinational State, as well as foregrounding how transnational extractive capital has shaped negotiations of territorial place-based citizenship in the TIPNIS. In doing so, I contribute to debates on infrastructural citizenship, resource extraction and sustainable development, revealing the ongoing potency of place-based claims on land and related claims for territorial citizenship.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-02-03T09:09:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848621989611
       
  • Rethinking life-in-common in the Australian landscape
    • Authors: Wendy Harcourt
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      This commentary reflects on the shifts in my personal and political lifeworld across time and space by sharing a story of changing awareness about ‘life-in-common’ in the Australian landscape; a landscape that is marked by historical, ecological and resource struggle and injustice. My commentary takes up the rethinking of differential belonging and ‘life-in-common’ as part of the search for alternatives to capitalism and a way to overcome socioecological crises which pays attention to the deep connections of nature and culture. I reflect on life-in-common as an Australian white settler feminist political ecologist wishing to understand how to address the erasures and violence that mark the Australian landscape.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-02-02T05:13:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848621989602
       
  • ‘Le terroir, c’est la vie’: Re-animating a concept among
           Burgundy’s wine producers
    • Authors: Rory A D Hill
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Organic and biodynamic methods of cultivation present particular challenges for the production of wine in a terroir-based system. This remains underexplored in academic work, yet it represents the confluence of two important contemporary trends in the wine industry. In this article, I draw upon interviews and participant observation with wine producers in the French region of Burgundy to examine emergent tensions between terroir and environmentally sustainable modes of production. Following an introduction to the subject, in the first section of the article I show how claims made about vineyard soils operated within the context of a simultaneously agronomic, environmental and cultural notion of terroir. In the second, I show how organic and biodynamic wine producers drew my attention to ecological dimensions of terroir by reference to things that could be appreciated aesthetically in the landscape. Reflecting on producers’ opinions, media coverage and wider scholarship, I make some initial steps in examining how environmentally sustainable modes of production are rhetorically and practically mobilised in the service of the widely shared notion of terroir, and, by extension, how these modes of production shape the sense of terroir that is promulgated in the cultural, economic and political organisation of wine.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T08:57:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848621989610
       
  • Replacing cheap nature' Sustainability, capitalist future-making and
           political ecologies of robotic pollination
    • Authors: Richie Nimmo
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      This article undertakes a critical examination of emergent technologies involving the use of robots to carry out crop pollination in the context of declining populations of bees and other insect pollinators. It grasps robotic pollination research and development as a future-making practice, which imagines and partially materialises one possible future by inscribing a specific ontology in the present which is geared to enact that future. Unpacking this, the article traces how artificial pollination reframes pollination ecology around a productivist ontology and inscribes a web of meanings around nature, technology and economy which point to a future where insect pollinators are largely absent or extinct. It argues that this effectively backgrounds alternative futures in which structural transformations of agriculture and the world food system are able to mitigate and avert pollinator decline and biodiversity loss, and also reveals the deep rationale of artificial pollination. While invoking notions of sustainability and food security, robotic pollination defines these in highly anthropocentric, economistic and self-referential terms, as a matter of enabling the reproduction of agro-industrial capital accumulation. Drawing upon the political ecology of Jason W Moore, the article situates robotic pollination as a future-making project in relation to capitalist strategies of accumulation through the appropriation of ‘Cheap Nature’, to show how the automation of pollination would enact a shift in the composition of agro-industrial capital, with systemic consequences inimical to both ecological sustainability and sustained accumulation. In this respect, robotic pollination is a case study in the propensity of capital to invest in the making of sustainable futures only insofar as sustainability equates to the reproduction of capital within the web of life.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-01-19T08:37:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620987368
       
  • “I am Sapelo”: Racialized uneven development and land politics within
           the Gullah Geechee Corridor
    • Authors: Dean Hardy, Nik Heynen
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      The history of land struggles in the United States demonstrates how ongoing patterns of uneven development depend upon and codify the legacies of white supremacy. In this article, we show how the histories of white supremacy continue to be embedded and institutionalized into contemporary land and property politics through the processes of racialized uneven development using the case of Sapelo Island, Georgia. We trace the history of property relations on Sapelo over four periods (covering 1802–2020) to reveal how Black, Saltwater Geechee descendants’ presence on the island has persisted despite manifold attempts to manipulate, control, and dispossess families of their land. We re-interpret Sapelo’s history through the lens of abolition ecology to articulate how the struggle for life through land consistently runs up against state-sanctioned racial violence, which perpetuates and institutionalizes systemic racialized uneven development. We argue that the “racial state” is facilitating the dispossession of Geechee cultural heritage, which lies in having access to and ownership of the land and requires new political imaginaries to combat the persistence of these tactics.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-01-18T08:50:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620987366
       
  • The “laborless fuel”: Landscape, energy transitions and
           natural gas in the postwar U.S.
    • Authors: Carlo Sica
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      The dire need for an energy transition to mitigate and reverse global warming is inspiring scholars to reexamine political influences on technological systems. The multi-level perspective of the socio-technical transitions framework acknowledges how technological systems are affected by the social and political landscapes where they are built. Energy landscapes literatures elaborate on the socio-technical transitions framework by explaining how the boundaries of landscapes are negotiated in the context of energy transitions. Energy scholars have found that negotiations over the form and purpose of energy landscapes frequently skew in favor of capital accumulation instead of social reproduction. Studies of landscapes in human geography and labor history have shown how the power imbalance energy scholars observed can be corrected by workers and their communities struggling against business owners and the state. Using archival data, I show how U.S. natural gas legislation in the postwar period was intended to limit coalminers’ demands for landscapes of social reproduction. This point matters because the vulnerabilities of industrial capitalism to energy worker organization could be exploited to push for a just and sustainable energy transition like the Green New Deal.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-01-18T08:48:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620987129
       
  • Gender, households and sustainability: Disentangling and re-entangling
           with the help of ‘work’ and ‘care’
    • Authors: Joseph Murphy, Sarah Parry
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      In rich, developed countries, many stakeholders are focusing on households as settings where progress can be made on environmental and sustainability issues. Related research, policies and interventions, however, tend to ignore gender dynamics, thus treating them as irrelevant, or exploit them to achieve sustainability goals. We challenge this regressive treatment and show how household sustainability can be progressive in relation to gender and sustainability simultaneously – doubly progressive. Specifically, we ask: How do gender and sustainability intersect in households' What are the normative implications of these intersections' To answer these questions, we disentangle the perspectives of ‘work’ and ‘care’, drawing on feminist and gender scholarship, and explore both in the domestic setting by focusing on sustainable technologies and sustainable consumption. In this way, the twin normative agendas of equality of work and expansion of care emerge as ways of linking gender and sustainability in households. Our conclusion considers tensions and overlaps between work and care to identify how they can be re-entangled. We argue that re-entangling work and care requires holding them in dynamic tension with care being the context for work and in this way a doubly progressive approach to household sustainability emerges.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-01-15T08:10:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620948432
       
  • Displacing the Anthropocene: Colonisation, extinction and the unruliness
           of nature in Palestine
    • Authors: Ruba Salih, Olaf Corry
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Recent ‘Anthropocene’ commentaries have argued that as humans have become decisively entangled in natural systems, they collectively became a geological species-agent potentially becoming aware of its own place in the deep history of planetary time. Through this, the argument goes, a pre-political collective consciousness could emerge, paving the way for a progressive construction of a common world, beyond particularistic justice-claims. The reverse case is made in scholarship of settler colonialism: the Anthropocene is rooted in histories of settler colonial violence and is deeply tied up with the dispossession and ‘extinction’ of Indigenous life-worlds. In this article, we foreground nature–human entanglement as crucial for understanding the operations but also the instability of settler colonialism in Palestine. We suggest that fractures and openings become legible when paying attention to the ‘afterlife’ of nature that was erased due to its enmeshment with Indigenous people. We provide a historical and ethnographic account of past and emerging entanglements between Palestinians refugees and their nature, ultimately arguing that indigeneity is recalcitrant to obliteration. With that in mind, we return to the Anthropocene’s focus on universal human extinction and ethical consciousness by critically engaging with it from the standpoint of colonised and displaced Indigenous populations, like the Palestinian refugees. We conclude by arguing that only when the profoundly unequal access to Life entrenched in settler colonialism is foregrounded and addressed, does a real possibility of recognising any common, global vulnerability that the species faces emerge.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2021-01-05T09:01:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620982834
       
  • Failure to build: Sewage and the choppy temporality of infrastructure in
           Palestine
    • Authors: Sophia C Stamatopoulou-Robbins
      Pages: 28 - 42
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Volume 4, Issue 1, Page 28-42, March 2021.
      Drawing on fieldwork in the West Bank (2007–2016) with engineers building sewage infrastructures for the would-be Palestinian state, I make a three-pronged argument. First, I argue that “failure to build” is its own thick, disorienting, and molasses-like condition. It is also “choppy”: it has a disjointed, jerky, quality that is inconstant and unsettling as if one is at sea without a lifeboat. It is limited neither to short-term, tactical governance—a governmentality looking to survive in the short term—nor to strategically planning for the future. It combines the durability of the temporary with the fragility of the future. Second, I propose that the failure-to-build temporality is structured by and structures the intersection of two phenomena: nonsovereignty, for example but not only in settler colonialism or war, and particular environmentalist logics. Failure to build takes on its moral valence from the way those who rule Palestinian life—Israel, international donors, and the Palestinian Authority—determine the environmental standards for Palestinian infrastructures. For these actors, the environment is a singular entity “shared” across political borders. It requires expertise Palestinians are repeatedly suspected of lacking, partly because they lack a state and experience running their own infrastructures. Failure to build thus works circularly in relation to nonsovereignty. The more nonsovereign communities “fail to build,” the more those who govern them can claim the right to control what and how they build. Third, I argue that waste infrastructures such as landfills, incinerators, and sewage treatment plants are particularly susceptible to a failure-to-build temporality because of their association with environmental harm.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-03-16T09:48:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620908193
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Divergent visions: Intersectional water advocacy in Palestine
    • Authors: Emily McKee
      Pages: 43 - 64
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Volume 4, Issue 1, Page 43-64, March 2021.
      This article draws lessons about environmental justice from a case study in the Jordan River Valley of the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Building on notions of justice as recognition, the article argues that inclusive environmental justice agendas require the recognition of multiply marginalized groups and the fundamentally different understandings of environmental hazards and benefits they may have, and it proposes the use of intersectional analysis to do so. The village of al-Auja faces severe water-related challenges: a closed Israeli military zone blocking access to the Jordan River, which has also shrunk and grown polluted in recent decades; water wells with declining capacity and increasing salinity and a lack of permits to rehabilitate them; and the drying of a once-perennial spring. Residents, local government officials, and Palestinian staff members of a transborder nongovernmental organization agreed in identifying Israeli occupation as a key cause of water stress and articulated justice-based protests. However, while some emphasized the lack of Palestinian sovereignty over natural resources, others concentrated on the obstruction of villagers’ agricultural livelihoods and household hardships. The article demonstrates that different life experiences, particularly along lines of rural/urban residence, career, and gender, shaped divergent definitions among Palestinians of environmental benefits and harms, and thus different priorities for environmental justice work. It suggests that attending to complex, intersecting lines of social experience in the early stage of environmental campaigns, when defining problems and forming goals for improvement, can lead to more representative reparation plans, institution building, and activist agendas.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-03-06T11:17:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620909386
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • The multifaceted outcomes of community-engaged water quality management in
           a Palestinian refugee camp
    • Authors: Amahl Bishara, Nidal Al-Azraq, Shatha Alazzeh, John L Durant
      Pages: 65 - 84
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Volume 4, Issue 1, Page 65-84, March 2021.
      The Palestinian residents of Aida Refugee Camp have lived under Israeli military occupation for over 50 years. While they struggle against the more legible concerns of the separation wall, unemployment, military violence, and high rates of incarceration, these residents are also acutely aware of a lack of adequate drinking water supplies. This led one young filmmaker, working at a small Palestinian non-governmental organization (NGO) in Aida, to produce a documentary in 2011 called Everyday Nakba, which suggests that for Palestinians, water scarcity is a continuation of the historical crisis of dispossession that began in 1948. This documentary ignited an interdisciplinary and multimodal collaboration among an environmental engineer, an environmental lawyer, an anthropologist, a Boston-based NGO, and the small Palestinian NGO to investigate problems of water quality that are related to water scarcity. This article—co-authored by members of the group of interdisciplinary scholars and NGO workers—reflects on our practice together to chronicle how small NGOs and interdisciplinary groups of community-engaged scholars can creatively approach multifaceted environmental problems, while also examining the limits of such approaches. Our collaboration has catalyzed water quality testing, point-of-use water treatment, rooftop gardens, awareness about water problems, political advocacy, and environmental education, though it has not been able to address the structural problem of inadequate supply of water. It has led to research that contributed to the literature on water intermittency. This article considers how this collaboration has shifted how members of a refugee community think about justice and the environment. Water concerns often demand a multifaceted and interdisciplinary approach because water scarcity has health, economic, social, and political implications. Our research team saw how interdisciplinary collaboration and a network of activists in the West Bank and the USA can lead to multifaceted—albeit modest—outcomes, even though military occupation presents stubborn barriers to major change.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-05-26T11:07:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620921856
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • For “a no-state yet to come”: Palestinian urban place-making
           in Kufr Aqab, Jerusalem
    • Authors: Nayrouz Abu Hatoum
      Pages: 85 - 108
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Volume 4, Issue 1, Page 85-108, March 2021.
      This article explores Palestinians’ place-making in Jerusalem under the constant threat of displacement and dispossession. I center my focus on Kufr Aqab, a neighborhood that was cut off from Jerusalem by the construction of Wall in 2003 while remaining inside the borders of the city’s municipality. After 1967 Israeli occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the borders of Jerusalem’s municipality expanded and Kufr Aqab village was annexed as a neighborhood inside Jerusalem’s newly formed borders. Since its occupation, a matrix of displacement and dispossession consisting of policies and practices was put in place to oversee the domination of the Palestinians in the city. In my research, I explore the possibilities of reconceptualizing Palestinian urban spaces and place-making in Kufr Aqab between the gap in settler-colonial governance and the Palestinian future of no-state. I show how the urban space emulates a camp-like space that I describe as an “affective infrastructure” of a camp. Being on the Israeli settler-colonial frontier, I argue that Kufr Aqab dwellers are kept suspended in time in a liminal zone between the ghost of displaceability from the Israeli state and in a deep suspension of no-state. I conclude by suggesting that the case of Kufr Aqab speaks to the space-making, displacement, and statelessness of the present as well as futurity of the West Bank (and East Jerusalem), where the future of the Palestinian state is far from being seen in the horizon and debilitated sovereignty is exercised on a limited scale in fragmented territories of governance.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-07-29T11:20:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620943877
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Bodies that count: Administering multispecies in Palestine/Israel’s
           borderlands
    • Authors: Natalia Gutkowski
      Pages: 135 - 157
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Volume 4, Issue 1, Page 135-157, March 2021.
      Nonhuman bodies in many sizes and diverse social roles are central to Israel’s control mechanism in the Occupied West Bank. Delving into the agricultural record of the Israeli Civil Administration, I ask how the Israeli system of control operates through animal bodies. What does a bureaucratic record so invested in monitoring animals’ production, treatment, disease, and death tell about the potential disruption of power' Through a political ecology of human–animal entanglement, I argue that nonhuman bodies both reproduce human colonial relations and allow their constant interruption. Nonhumans challenge the power regime through their unpredictable mobility as well as in their role as both objects of a political economy and subjects of potential agricultural diseases, ecological risks, or public health threats. Breaking from contemporary multispecies scholarly literature’s focus on endangered species and relations of care, I place nonhuman bodies as actors of international-interspecies relations in colonial conditions and point to nonhumans, which are here to stay in the climate change era. By doing so, I reflect on the continuous significance of nonhuman bodies to the operation of power in the “borderlands” of Israel/Palestine and beyond.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:40:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620901445
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Hope in the ruins: Seeds, plants, and possibilities of regeneration
    • Authors: Anne Meneley
      Pages: 158 - 172
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Volume 4, Issue 1, Page 158-172, March 2021.
      As space in the West Bank is increasingly threatened, Palestinians are turning to agro-activism to reclaim it. Alongside the established olive activism, there has been a flourishing of generative projects by which my interlocutors attempt to reclaim their space from the environmental damages of the ongoing occupation. I situate these regenerative practices in anthropological discourses about imperial ruins and the blasted landscapes of capitalist ruins. In Palestine, the debris of Israeli military incursions and the ruination of the environment with “security” infrastructures like the Wall produce ongoing occupation ruins. However, as in Tsing’s work—where ruins are presented as productive of new possibilities—here, too, hope underpins my interlocutors’ projects of planting, saving, and regenerating seeds. Their projects involve reclaiming nature through heritage seeds, eco-farming initiatives, farming cooperatives, and food circulation initiatives, thereby encouraging Palestinian food reclamation. Through their activism, Palestinians regenerate a sense of value in themselves and their futures as they attempt to reclaim their landscapes in an embodied way, rather than giving in to ruination.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-04-16T12:33:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620917516
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • The temporal fragility of infrastructure: Theorizing decay, maintenance,
           and repair
    • Authors: Kavita Ramakrishnan, Kathleen O’Reilly, Jessica Budds
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Recent studies have reconceptualized infrastructure as comprising both material and social processes, thus offering insights into lived experiences, governance, and socio-spatial reordering. More specific attention to infrastructure’s temporality has challenged its supposed inertia and inevitable completeness, leading to an engagement with questions of the dynamics of infrastructure over different phases of its lifespan, and their generative effects. In this paper, we advance these debates through a focus on the processes of decay, maintenance, and repair that characterize such phases of infrastructural life, by exploring how specific infrastructures are materially shaped by, and shape, social, political, and socio-ecological arrangements. Our intervention has two related aims: first, to conceptualize decay, maintenance, and repair as both temporal phases of infrastructure’s dynamic materiality and its specific affective conditions; second, to trace how these phases of infrastructural life rework embodied labor, differentiated citizenship, and socio-ecological relations. We argue that attention to infrastructure’s “temporal fragility” elucidates the articulation between everyday capacities and desires to labor, the creation of and demands made by political constituents, and the uneven distribution of opportunities and resources.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-12-29T08:52:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620979712
       
  • Feral violence: The Pelorus experiment
    • Authors: Fiona Probyn-Rapsey, Rowena Lennox
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      In early July 2016, two male dingoes were brought by ferry to a small island called Pelorus in the Great Barrier Reef, off the coast of north Queensland, Australia, as part of an experimental ‘feral’ goat eradication project. What was remarkable about this project was that the two dingoes released on the island had been implanted with a slow-release capsule containing sodium fluoroacetate, commonly known as ‘1080’. These so-called ‘Tik Toks’, produced by a firm called Scientec, were designed to release their poison into the bodies of the dingoes in approximately 600 days, after they had served their purpose as goat exterminators. The public and political backlash that the Pelorus experiment aroused reveals a gap between the team’s ambitions to ‘set the platform’ for the conservation of ‘pristine’ islands and community sentiment concerning animal cruelty. Just how this ‘bizarre’ experiment (as it was described in State parliament) gained ethics approval is one part of this story. Another relates to implants themselves and what this ‘innovation’ (‘the stuff of horror films’ as one petitioner described it) reveals about attitudes to ‘killing for conservation’. The Pelorus experiment also shows us what is frequently concealed by eradication programmes, which is that they rely not on a single act of eradication, but a cycle of violence that we describe here as a form of ‘feral violence’. In the case of Pelorus, the ‘implants’ tipped Conservation’s motif from the romance of ‘rescuing nature’ to that of horror, imperilling the social licence that conservation projects assume.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T09:57:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620976959
       
  • Slippery ontologies of tidal flats
    • Authors: Young Rae Choi
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Tidal flats are a type of coastal space that flood at high tides and are exposed at low tides—not quite land or sea. Distinct from open waters or seabeds, tidal flats’ in-betweenness gives them particular materialities that constantly frustrate our efforts to know them. Inspired by the provocation of recent scholarship on “wet ontologies” while simultaneously recognizing the nuances within water worlds, I argue for the slippery ontologies of tidal flats and explore the implications of this approach. Specifically, this paper shows how tidal flats’ dynamic and ambiguous materialities resist attempts to place them into modern knowledge systems. Drawing upon the particular case of South Korea’s tidal flats, called getbol, I first interrogate the in-betweenness of tidal flats, a major source of their material and conceptual slipperiness. I then discuss the similarities and differences between tidal flats and other types of land–water spaces. Next, through several interviews with those who produce modern scientific knowledge of getbol, I examine how tidal flats’ unique compositions interfere with modernity’s efforts to measure their boundaries, matter, and verticality. I highlight how both non-humans and humans contribute to tidal flats’ slipperiness. Finally, I show how the slippery nature of tidal flats has threatened their survival. In South Korea alone, more than half the tidal flats were removed due to reclamation efforts in the past century. In this context, I contend that fully embracing tidal flats’ slippery ontologies may prevent them from further endangerment.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-12-22T09:19:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620979312
       
  • Between decay and repair: Embodied experiences of infrastructure's
           materiality
    • Authors: Kavita Ramakrishnan, Kathleen O'Reilly, Jessica Budds
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-12-18T08:41:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620980597
       
  • Biomass logistics: Mythistory and sociotechnical imaginary in
           trans-Atlantic wood pellet assemblage
    • Authors: Stephen J Ramos
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      The paper focuses on the role of mythistory and the sociotechnical imaginary in stabilizing the links of a particular biomass supply chain running from the forests of Georgia in the US Southeast to diffuse markets across the European Union. Trans-Atlantic wood pellet assemblage demonstrates how mythistories and sociotechnical imaginaries are deployed to opportunistically frame wood as nature, agriculture, and energy as part of governance strategies to coordinate and operationalize the “multiple, spontaneous spatial strategies” that the biomass industry requires. I use assemblage theory to explore how Georgia’s mythistory and the European sociotechnical imaginary form the abstract machine that conditions relationships for the functionality and maintenance of the wood pellet supply chain. I then chart the concrete assemblage of the trans-Atlantic biomass supply chain, which requires the collaboration of a broad network of state and non-state actors. The case helps to ground the current global energy transition period in material and political practices that are contingent, opportunistic, and likely also transitional, even though the sector involves deep capital and political investment throughout the supply chain.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-12-11T08:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620979311
       
  • Drawing on knowledge: Visual narrative analysis for critical environment
           and development research
    • Authors: Gregory L Simon, Bryan Wee, Deepti Chatti, Emily Anderson
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Counter-narratives to dominant development discourses are made possible using research methods designed to elicit marginalized voices. In this article, we propose a new analytical framework called the interpretive schema for drawings for analyzing visual narratives. The interpretive schema for drawings consists of five themes or interpretive lenses (scale, centrality, inclusion, connections, and relationality) that were generated from maps of fuelwood collection in rural India. We suggest that the interpretive schema reflects and animates a range of spatialities that are central to geographic studies of human–environment dynamics. Using the interpretive schema for drawings in this way enables us to emphasize emic socio-spatial perspectives, and offers a critical research avenue through which everyday realities can be represented, understood, and validated. While other image-based research approaches, critical cartographies and participatory mapping exercises may encourage the expression of alternative knowledges, our proposed interpretive schema for drawing presents a specific set of guidelines for interpreting and making sense of visual narratives through explicit socio-spatial analysis.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-12-03T08:57:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620975340
       
  • A manifesto for shadow places: Re-imagining and co-producing connections
           for justice in an era of climate change
    • Authors: Emily Potter, Fiona Miller, Eva Lövbrand, Donna Houston, Jessica McLean, Emily O'Gorman, Clifton Evers, Gina Ziervogel
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, on behalf of The Shadow Places Network, we outline a working manifesto of politics and practice. We mobilise the format of the manifesto to speak to an uncertain and damaged future, to begin to imagine other possible worlds. For feminist philosopher Val Plumwood, whose thinking inspires this network, shadow places are the underside of the capitalist fantasy, ‘the multiple disregarded places of economic and ecological support’. In turning towards shadow places, and the unjust and unsustainable processes that produce them, we call for an environmental humanities that reaches beyond abstraction, fosters new responsibilities, considers the uncomfortable, and generates reparative possibilities and alternative futures. We aim to continue to trace out a world of shadow places. We acknowledge that these shadow places cannot be known in full, but through a willingness to engage in careful conversation with the beings and places harmed by (or strategically shielded from) processes of the Anthropocene, we can learn how to relate to each other and these places in more just ways. Recognising that shadow places are impermanent and contingent, this working manifesto does not look to predetermine or prescribe but rather invites conversation, encounter and exchange. In so doing we choose to contribute to making different worlds possible by pursuing new collaborations, new methods and new politics.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-12-02T11:09:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620977022
       
  • Disappearing reeds on Chongming Island: An environmental microhistory of
           Chinese eco-development
    • Authors: Linjun Xie, Christof Mauch, May Tan-Mullins, Ali Cheshmehzangi
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      This paper critically examines current ecological development planning and practice in China through an environmental microhistory approach. By tracing the gradual disappearance of an indigenous plant – the common reed (Phragmites australis) – on Chongming Island in Shanghai, which is known for the grand Eco-Islands development plan, this paper reveals the paradox of ecological destruction through eco-development in China. Based on data collected from archives, through oral history and through on-site fieldwork, we have reconstructed and analysed the transformation of Chongming Island’s reed ecology over time. Our research documents the historical importance of reeds to Chongming culture and identity. The transformation of the reed landscape mirrors, we argue, broader environmental and social transformations on the island. The near extinction of the once abundant reed in the coastal wetlands due to massive land reclamation projects for the purpose of industrialisation and urbanisation is a reflection of the prevailing pursuit for economic growth. Land reclamation projects in the early 2000s were facilitated by the planting of an invasive grass that replaced reeds and other native wetland plants. Ironically, the invasive grass served to legitimise continuous land reclamation as part of Chongming’s eco-development. Moreover, reeds that grew by the rivers and constituted a central part of local livelihoods were gradually wiped out as a result of a series of river regulation projects under the eco-development. Our research reveals that the current ecological agenda has privileged modern engineering solutions and aesthetics while largely ignoring local traditional knowledge. The case of Chongming delivers a sobering message that well-intentioned ecological initiatives can in fact have disastrous effects if the local environment, its ecological features, cultural characteristics, and historical and social contexts are not fully considered. Overall, this paper pioneers an environmental microhistory approach in evaluating contemporary urban ecological initiatives and contributes methodological and empirical insights to advance Chinese eco-developments.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-12-02T11:06:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620974375
       
  • Conflicts, cooperation and experimentation: Analysing the politics of
           urban water through Accra’s heterogeneous water supply infrastructure
    • Authors: Rossella Alba, Michelle Kooy, Antje Bruns
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, we analyse the heterogeneity of water supply infrastructure in Accra, Ghana, to understand the politics of water in cities where infrastructural diversity has always been the norm. We do this by extending the use of heterogeneous infrastructure configurations as a heuristic device, shifting the focus and scale of urban political ecological analyses of infrastructural diversity from users and access to water distributions at city scale. To explain the impacts of three experiments in the distribution of water across the city, we analyse how changes in the technical and operational arrangements of Accra’s bulk water filling points reflect changes in the social relations of cooperation or conflict between the diversity of actors and infrastructure supplying water across the city. We find the uneven waterscape of the city is shaped by a plurality of actors whose practices are informed by a range of motives. These motives exceed profit-making, political legitimacy, patronage and petty corruption including also solidarity, religious beliefs and pragmatic choices. We show that distributions of water, risks and responsibilities among different actors involved in operating the water filling points are constantly contested with ambiguous and unforeseen outcomes foreclosing but also opening new possibilities for progressive experimentation. Documenting how relations between actors and technologies of water provisioning are dynamic, and open to incremental improvements towards progressive (re)distributions of water, our analysis at the city scale calls for further focus on how practices and policies of solidarity can be extended across heterogeneous provisioning systems.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-12-02T11:06:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620975342
       
  • Tlingit geographies of hope: Clan, corporation, and sustainable economies
           of place
    • Authors: Thomas F Thornton, Ishmael Hope
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      The essay argues that geographies of hope for Tlingit communities in Southeast Alaska begin with a strong sense of place, both social and geographic. In Tlingit, the matrilineal clan—the repository of heritage, identity, and property—constitutes the collective, animate source of resilience, hope, and renewal. We examine the ways in which clans continue to operate as institutions of hope and destiny, especially through the memorial ku.éex’ or “potlatch,” a ritual of restoration and replacement. This ritual is thriving in the 21st century despite no external funding or recognition from the state. It is a wholly Tlingit institution built on socio-geographic values of sustainment of the matrilineal clan as an immortal being. What remains to be re-animated, however, is clan territory. Most Tlingit territory has been appropriated by the Tongass National Forest and Federal and Alaska state waters. Native corporations hold about 2% of the Southeast Alaska land base, and clans hold nothing except, in some cases, recognition of their historical association with particular historic sites and territories. The reinvigoration of cartography with Tlingit place names is a step toward furthering recognition of clans’ historical and contemporary ties to places in a tangible and hopeful way. Yet, culture needs a material base, and mere recognition of traditional toponyms will not be enough. Many clans seek a more substantive livelihood relationships with and custodial role over their territories, not only as sacred properties but as sources of sustainment, strength, and well-being. This requires new thinking on the part of indigenous economic institutions, like Alaska Native business corporations, along the lines of a traditional (Tlingit clan) “house,” an economic unit in the spirit of the original Greek term for economy, oikos (“house”). The integrated restoration of sociocultural, economic, and geographic sources of collective well-being will further enliven Tlingit geographies of hope.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-11-27T12:44:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620974376
       
  • “Everyone wants this market to grow”: The affective post-politics of
           municipal green bonds
    • Authors: Melissa García-Lamarca, Sara Ullström
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      As more cities seek to address environmental and climate change woes, the issuance of municipal green bonds to finance such initiatives is growing. But how do issuers and investors conceptualise and enact green bonds in relation to building a more sustainable society' What socionatures are produced with these bonds, and for whom' Based on fieldwork in Gothenburg, the first municipality in the world to issue green bonds, we bring together the literature on green finance, post-politics and affect through an urban political ecology lens to unpack the processes, practices and discourses underlying green bonds. We argue that green bonds ultimately serve as a new path to attract and circulate capital within the consensual, non-antagonistic sustainable order, where claims of doing good and building a good conscience are affective mechanisms that play an important, yet underexplored, role. In the conclusion, we reflect on the broader role of green finance and the possibility of harnessing affect and the political towards building more transformative and emancipatory urban socio-environments.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-11-23T12:49:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620973708
       
  • Catholic clerical responses to climate change and Pope Francis’s
           Laudato Si’
    • Authors: Dominic Wilkins
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      The 2015 release of Pope Francis’s encyclical on the environment—Laudato Si’—was met with widespread praise by many who hoped this document would spur Catholics around the world to join movements struggling against climate change. Frequently, these hopes were accompanied by expectations that leaders in the Catholic Church would begin greening their churches and help integrate their parishioners into broader environmental movements. However, while there are strong theoretical rationales supporting Catholic environmental action, few studies have examined what—if anything—is actually happening. This paper responds to this gap by assessing how Catholic clergy in one U.S. diocese are engaging environmental concerns. Drawing upon 31 interviews with priests and deacons across the Diocese of Syracuse, N.Y., this study finds that few clergy are substantively engaging environmental issues. In addition, this paper identifies and discusses several personal and systemic barriers hampering Catholic clerical efforts to further green their churches.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-11-19T08:59:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620974029
       
  • Environmental justice and the politics of pollution: The case of the
           Formosa Ha Tinh Steel pollution incident in Vietnam
    • Authors: Mei-Fang Fan, Chih-Ming Chiu, Leslie Mabon
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Research on environmental justice in authoritarian regimes, and in particular on how transnational networks support problem framing and claims-making in the absence of state-led democratic participation instances, is limited. This article uses the case of untreated wastewater from a steel mill owned by Taiwanese conglomerate Formosa Plastics Group, which caused mass fish deaths along coastal provinces in Vietnam in 2016, to explore how civic groups and local communities problematize official accounts of events and engage with transnational networks to make claims to environmental injustice. The paper highlights local narratives about the adverse impacts of the disaster on residents’ livelihoods and wellbeing, controversies over the causes of and responsibility for the disaster, and the role of transnational alliances with Taiwan in sustaining and magnifying claims to injustice. We argue that viewing issues such as the Formosa steel incident through a transnational environmental justice lens illuminates the effect of global and national processes of economic reform in shaping uneven environmental and social impacts from new infrastructure developments. We also argue that thinking in terms of transnational networks can make sense of the spaces which can emerge for claims-making in authoritarian contexts, where democratic participation instances and access to knowledge may be restricted.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-11-19T08:59:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620973164
       
  • Slow Food as one in many a semiotic network approach to the geographical
           development of a social movement
    • Authors: Bas Hendrikx, Arnoud Lagendijk
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Slow Food is a global, grassroots movement aimed at enhancing and sustaining local food cultures and traditions worldwide. Since its establishment in the 1980s as a local protest movement in Italy, Slow Food evolved into a global movement composed through countless local ‘grassroots’ activities intersecting with more ‘top-down’ umbrella orchestration and framing. This paper explores the many faces of this one-in-many movement by focusing on the circulation and variation of Slow Food ideas and practices across the world. The core argument is that these ideas and practices effectively capture and steer the manifold affective moments emerging from local and network activities. The affective–effective conversions are traced here by applying a semiotic-network approach to a large corpus of Slow Food websites. Thus adopting a novel approach and methodology of tracing the geographical development of a social movement, the paper reveals both grassroots and global patterns of change and diffusion, and zooms in on specific nodes, connections and practices that play a key role in the movement’s development. In doing so, we develop a research strategy that is better able to make sense of complex and non-linear processes of geographical diffusion-innovation.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-11-19T08:57:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620970923
       
  • Theorizing socio-environmental reproduction in China’s countryside
           and beyond
    • Authors: Elizabeth Lord
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Over the past four decades, pollution and other forms of environmental degradation have radically transformed China’s landscape. So have the ambitious greening policies implemented to tackle these problems. During the same period, an enormous gap in wealth and amenities has arisen between the modernizing cities and rural areas, the latter playing an important, and often ignored, role in China’s environmental project. This paper identifies two paradoxical processes transforming rural environments: the mobilization of rural efforts to green the nation and the ruralization of pollution. While seemingly contradictory, both processes illustrate how the rural is expendable and malleable to state interests. This article proposes the concept of socio-environmental reproduction to theorize the environmental paradox in which many rural communities find themselves in contemporary China, as their environmental work and sacrifices sustain economic and political systems. This concept builds on the work on social reproduction by feminist scholars, particularly those who have sought to integrate the environment into their analyses. This paper proposes to expand the concept to include all the environmental work and sacrifices that certain people are asked to make to fuel the economic system, preserve political stability, and protect privileged spaces from pollution. As a whole, this article shows how China’s rural–urban divide is constitutive of the country’s environmental project and how national greening initiatives enable uneven development. Furthermore, this case foreshadows what will likely occur elsewhere as countries seek to green themselves. As the ecological era unfolds in China and elsewhere, it exposes how deep social divides are mobilized to fulfill environmental objectives. This paper theorizes the environmental work and sacrifices that risk falling on the shoulders of the most vulnerable.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-11-06T10:23:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620970125
       
  • New extractive frontiers in Ireland and the moebius strip of wind/data
    • Authors: Patrick Bresnihan, Patrick Brodie
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      This article maps the interconnections between two emergent resource frontiers in Ireland: wind and data. Adding to literature about extraction and extractivism, we account for how these expanded extractive frontiers are mobilised within self-sustaining and automated formations. In Ireland, digital infrastructures such as data centres are developed by multinational tech companies to avail of a naturally cool climate and business environment friendly to their investment, part of a wider extractive system by which data are made valuable for their expansive operations. Wind farms similarly make use of Ireland’s climate to generate energy, often used to power digital infrastructures, and are increasingly embedded within ‘smart’ energy and data systems. Wind and data are seen discretely as ‘abundant’ resources, their infrastructures built on terra or (offshore) mare nullius, and their operations ‘green’. However, their infrastructures are entangled with non-renewable energy systems and tax evasive capital, and built across existing communities and environments through policy, planning logics and increasingly automated methods of maintenance and optimisation. Through what we call ‘the moebius strip of wind/data’, wind and data infrastructures are increasingly formidable in dictating our energy futures. In this article, we articulate how they are connected and how we can disentangle them, especially in their operation across urban and rural geographies.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-11-06T10:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620970121
       
  • Hocus pocus' Spirituality and soil care in biodynamic agriculture
    • Authors: Anna Pigott
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, I participate in efforts to re-imagine soils as lively, complex, more-than-human ecologies, by turning to the largely sidestepped subject of spirituality in agriculture. Spiritual knowledge practices rarely sit comfortably alongside technoscientific, productivist accounts of soil health, and yet they can re-configure how soils are conceptualised and managed, with implications for relationships of care. Drawing on an extended period of learning with a Community Supported Agriculture project in south Wales, the article explores how care is cultivated through a non-conventional method of farming known as biodynamics, which incorporates astrological and spiritual principles. I suggest that biodynamic narratives and rituals encourage attentiveness to more-than-human agency and energy, to depth (not only underground but also above-ground influences of the air and celestial bodies), and to reciprocity between soil biota and humans. Biodynamic practices also make space for mystery, thereby resisting drives to measure and map, and offering possibilities for disrupting anthropocentric approaches to soil care. However, the example presented here also highlights how, despite biodynamic’s growing popularity, its spiritual elements have a tendency to be kept quiet, their presence sidelined by more familiar, secular, narratives. Nonetheless, I contend that if effective soil care demands more diverse knowledge practices than those that are currently obliterating critical soil communities at an alarming rate, then there can be much to learn from a touch of magic.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-11-05T10:19:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620970924
       
  • Overflow: The oppositional life of an environmental impact study in a
           Senegalese mining negotiation
    • Authors: Ashley Fent
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Since the 1980s, environmental impact assessment has been adopted by numerous countries in the Global North and Global South to evaluate the effects of industrial and mining development. However, as scholars of mining capitalism have suggested, this has become a technology of environmental government that often serves to bolster and legitimize extractive projects rather than improving environmental outcomes or opening space for public participation. Focusing on oppositional uses of an environmental impact study in a mining controversy in Casamance, Senegal, this article examines the work that environmental assessment does, and argues that it can be used as a tool of resistance, extended delay, and debate. Activists and local residents opposed to the proposed mining project highlighted “overflows”—ways in which the document and its strategies exceeded the intention of legitimizing the mine within Senegalese legal frameworks. As both a representational and material object, the study was used by activists to highlight conflicts of interest inherent in the evaluation process, to emphasize errors and flaws in the text, and to fuel alternative predictions about the mine’s effects. This article suggests greater attention to the oppositional lives of bureaucratic processes, and the ways in which community groups draw upon governmentalized technologies to undermine extractive development.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-11-04T09:21:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620969341
       
  • Negawatt resource frontiers: Extracting energy efficiency from private
           spaces
    • Authors: Autumn Thoyre
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Energy saved through efficiency and conservation efforts is often framed as a “resource” in climate change mitigation policies because of the ways such “negawatts” can cost-effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This research uses a case study of a US state alternative energy portfolio standard under which negawatts have been turned into new sources of profits for investor-owned electricity companies. Using archival policymaking data and analytical tools commonly used in the study of more traditional subsurface resources like fossil fuels, this paper analyzes how such companies have come to profit from negawatts. I show that, under this portfolio standard, negawatts are largely embedded in electricity customers’ private spaces, presenting a private property problem for capital accumulation similar to the challenge faced by capital seeking to extract more traditional subsurface resources. I argue that electricity companies resolve the negawatt private property problem in two ways. First, they discursively move negawatts out of private spaces through comparisons with resources like oil and gas. Second, the portfolio standard itself can be seen as granting electricity companies an enhanced spatial monopoly on negawatt extraction that functions like a mining concession. These discourses and regulations create a new and growing resource frontier which is likely to be a key accumulation space in the low-carbon economy. I conclude with recommendations for a more socially just and “deeper” politics of energy efficiency extraction.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-11-02T12:21:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620970128
       
  • Industrial dynamics on the commodity frontier: Managing time, space and
           form in mining, tree plantations and intensive aquaculture
    • Authors: Daniel Banoub, Gavin Bridge, Beatriz Bustos, Irmak Ertör, Marien González-Hidalgo, Julie Ann de los Reyes
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Research in political ecology and agrarian political economy has shown how commodity frontiers are constituted through the appropriation and transformation of nature. This work identifies two broad processes of socio-metabolism associated with commodity frontiers: the spatial extension of nature appropriation, via expanding territorial claims to the control and use of natural resources and associated acts of dispossession (commodity-widening); and the intensification of appropriation at existing sites, through socio-technical innovation and the growing capitalisation of production (commodity-deepening). While sympathetic, we have reservations about reducing frontier metabolism to either one or the other of these processes. We argue for more grounded examinations of how non-human nature is actively reconstituted at commodity frontiers, attuned to the diverse and specific ways in which socio-ecological processes are harnessed to dynamics of accumulation. To achieve this, we compare strategies of appropriation in three sectors often associated with the commodity frontier: gold mining, tree plantations and intensive aquaculture. In doing so, we bring research on capitalism as an ecological regime into conversation with work on the industrial dynamics of ‘nature-facing’ sectors. By harnessing the analytical categories of time, space and form adopted by research on industrial dynamics, we (i) show how strategies of commodity-widening and commodity-deepening are shaped in significant ways by the biophysical characteristics of these sectors; and (ii) identify a third strategy, beyond commodity-widening and commodity-deepening, that involves the active reconstitution of socio-ecological systems – we term this ‘commodity-transformation’.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-10-22T06:30:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620963362
       
  • Gorilla habituation and the role of animal agency in conservation and
           tourism development at Bwindi, South Western Uganda
    • Authors: Christine Ampumuza, Clemens Driessen
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Discussions of gorilla habituation often emphasise human control of gorillas, whereby gorillas are usually singularly defined by their species membership. This perspective leaves little room for imagining the role of gorillas in habituation, conservation and tourism development processes. In this paper, we use insights from Actor Network Theory and more-than-human geography to explore and reconstruct the practice of gorilla habituation in order to understand gorillas as actors in habituation, conservation and tourism development at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (hereafter Bwindi), Uganda. To do so, we use the concept of relational animal agency to trace the various ways in which gorillas interact with each other, various groups of people, and their environment. Ethnographic observations, unstructured interviews and document study indicate that gorillas are ‘multiple’ and thus need to be understood beyond their species membership alone. They are involved in intricate relations with each other, with other non-human and human subjects, and their shared environment. Furthermore, gorillas are not completely and passively controlled by humans through habituation: we argue that habituation as a relational process is more complex. Gorillas also habituate other gorillas and arguably can be seen to habituate humans as well. As a result, gorillas co-produce multiple versions of the Bwindi landscape, of conservation, tourism and development practices, as well as multiple ways of being gorillas. Based on these insights, we argue that instead of focusing on control, the dynamics between gorillas and their landscapes could be harnessed to explore a dynamic range of possibilities for living together with gorillas, while continuously adapting to issues that will arise in places such as Bwindi.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-10-22T06:29:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620966502
       
  • Magical disruption' Alternative protein and the promise of
           de-materialization
    • Authors: Julie Guthman, Charlotte Biltekoff
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Along with seeking to eliminate the inhumane conditions and slaughter involved in animal protein production, alternative protein companies aspire to ameliorate its environmental impacts. They claim to do so by making edible protein from (nearly) nothing, drawing on abundant or mundane resources that will presumably not be missed or have no negative externalities, or “upcycling” byproducts that would otherwise be wasted—to de-materialize in other words. At the same time, these entrepreneurs promise their substitutes will be nutritionally analogous to or better than animal-based proteins and have only salubrious effects on human bodies. Drawing on data collected on alternative protein companies that are based in or have come through Silicon Valley, this article catalogs and examines company representations of their various de-materialization promises. We find that attempting to meet the tripartite, yet competing imperatives of Silicon Valley innovation, namely disruption, transparency, and secrecy, results in representations of processes that obfuscate more than they reveal. The resulting obfuscation is not simply the intentional veiling of pernicious processes; more than selling specific food products, Silicon Valley food tech entrepreneurs aspire to bring a new food system into being and convince their audiences that this food future is both better and achievable. Nevertheless, their representational practices make it difficult, if not impossible, for the public—or anyone really—to meaningfully assess the promises and their potential consequences, much less hold their proponents accountable to anything but pecuniary concerns.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-10-07T06:33:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620963125
       
  • Resisting workers’ disalienation: The making and survival of capitalist
           conservation in Niombato, Senegal
    • Authors: Rocío Hiraldo
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      The making and survival of capitalist conservation depends upon the creation and maintenance of contradictory class relations based on alienated labour. The literature has, however, often ignored this aspect. Looking at capital as a contradictory class relation and through the study of a tourism-oriented protected area and three reforestation payment for ecosystem service projects in Senegal, this article shows how capital’s instrumentalisation of conservation requires a constant adaption to workers’ struggles against alienation. In the case here analysed, this adaptation manifests in the avoidance, silencing and appropriation of workers’ mobilisations against forest privatisation and labour exploitation. This resistance to workers’ disalienation reinforces not only capitalist class relations but also state, neo-colonial and white people’s power.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-10-05T11:10:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620960405
       
  • The ambivalent political work of emotions in the defence of territory,
           life and the commons
    • Authors: Marien González-Hidalgo
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      The increasing focus that political ecologists are putting in the role of emotions and affect in environmental conflict, commoning and mobilisation is enriching mainstream analyses that tended to mask the everyday emotional engagements of environmental movements, collectives and communities associated to being exposed to conflict as well as being active in it. By directing attention to two different ways in which grassroots movements and communities in Chile and Mexico facilitate emotional expression in the context of the conflicts in which they are embedded in, I discuss what different roles emotion plays in the defence of the commons, and what political opportunities these different roles imply for movements and collectives. I found a persistent and unresolved tension between the role of emotions as channels for the subversion of hegemonic power, and their role in reproducing hegemonic power dynamics. I suggest that this reveals ‘the emotional’ as a space of power and conflict, and that acknowledging the ambivalent political work of emotions offers opportunities for both researchers and movements to better understand and transform the power inequalities associated to the defence and practice of being-in-common while being exposed to conflict and dispossession.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-09-30T09:09:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620961737
       
  • Go to the forest! Exploring the orderings of Swedish Nature-Based
           Integration
    • Authors: Benedict E. Singleton
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      ‘Nature-Based Integration’ (NBI) has been proposed as a solution to two prominent issues in contemporary Nordic societies: increasing separation from nature among ‘modern’ societies; and the need to ‘integrate’ groups of diverse newcomers. This article examines NBI activities in Örebro County, central Sweden, exploring how these practices seek to bring immigrants into a shared Swedish experiential landscape that forms part of the work of ordering Sweden as a community. These activities form part of an ordering project, within which ‘Swedes’ and ‘newcomers’ are situated, drawing on extant nationalist orderings. Likewise, it represents part of an effort to enact a sustainable Sweden in an international world. Drawing on research on environmental racism and (in)justice, this article homes in on the norms implicit and explicit to this ordering. It then discusses the implications of this, highlighting (arguably unavoidable) coercive elements. Furthermore, the long history of outdoor lifestyle as a pillar of Swedish nationalism and the embracing of such activities by the Swedish far right highlight that nature may also become a site of conflict as much as conciliation. Finally, the article considers the types of environmental action arising from the NBI orderings and the likelihood of meaningful environmental change.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-09-30T09:09:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620962420
       
  • Learning to be human again: Being and becoming in the home garden commons
    • Authors: Gabriel R Valle
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      This study uses ethnographic narratives of a Santa Clara Valley community of urban gardeners gathered from 2012 to 2016 to investigate the lived realities and struggles of creating an actually existing home garden commons. Many of these gardeners are recent immigrants for rural Mexico, Central American, and South East Asia, and many descend from rural traditions of commoning. Nevertheless, the current conditions in the urban centers of developed countries are far different from their dislocations. I argue that this multi-ethnic, multi-lingual group of home gardeners makes use of their marginality as an inventive force to create an actually existing commons. A home garden commons is a place of contradiction that is both neoliberal and radical. The findings suggest that marginalized, oppressed, and displaced peoples use resistance to reconstruct the basis of their social interactions. The growing, sharing, and consuming of food together produces forms of social life that enable people to envision new ways of being and becoming in post-capitalist futures.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-09-30T09:08:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620961943
       
  • Solid waste management practices and their meanings in ecologically
           conscious households
    • Authors: Kirstin Munro
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      This paper describes the household waste management practices of self-described sustainable households, focusing on the intentional actions the members of these households take to reduce environmental harm. Data from qualitative interviews about household waste management practices related to the disposal of trash, “packaging”, and recycling are analyzed using a Marxist-feminist model of household production. For the households in this study, packaging is a powerful reminder of their collusion with capital, eliciting powerful and unexpected negative reactions in interviews. At the same time, practices that involve allowing organic matter to decompose in the backyard, leaving urine unflushed, or placing human feces in the clothes washing machine or bathtub elicited few negative reactions, and recycling made people feel happy. Packaging and waste are necessary in capitalism because of the spatial division of labor and production, part of the constitutive contradiction between social needs and private production. I show how a division of labor and production that is necessary for accumulation manifests itself in an inherent antagonism toward human well-being in a discussion of the exhaustion, frustration, and conflict generated for highly ecologically oriented parents who are just trying to do their best to live a sustainable life in capitalist society despite the limits to the efficacy of these efforts.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-09-30T09:07:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620960410
       
  • Broaching the brook: Daylighting, community and the
           ‘stickiness’ of water
    • Authors: Mark Usher, Jonathan Huck, Gareth Clay, Emma Shuttleworth, Janice Astbury
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Over the last century, under the modern hydraulic model, waterways across the world have been heavily canalized and culverted, driven into underground pipes, drains and sewers. This hydraulic approach has hardwired an isolated water network into the urban fabric, fragmenting erstwhile patterns and dynamics of life, both human and nonhuman. Ecologically, it has been hugely damaging, reducing water quality and biotic diversity, but also socially, disconnecting citizens from the waterways that service and characterize the city. Consequently, since the 1990s, waterway restoration has become widespread as a design solution to degraded rivers and streams, reinstating compromised hydrological, geomorphological and ecological processes. Deculverting or ‘daylighting’, the focus of this paper, is a radical form of restoration, opening up subterranean, culverted waterways often forgotten by communities above ground. Yet, as this paper emphasizes, waterway restoration has tended to privilege ecological over social objectives, while public engagement in project conceptualization has been limited, conducted ‘downstream’ subsequent to planning and design stages. Restoration schemes have therefore tended to reflect the concerns of professionals rather than communities, overlooking their potential for social renewal and change. Drawing on workshop data collected through participatory mapping exercises, this paper explores the case for daylighting a culverted brook in Urmston, Greater Manchester, focusing in particular on the preferences, concerns and knowledge of local residents. The paper compares professional and community perspectives on the preferred scheme design and potential benefits of daylighting, drawing out differences and tensions between them, temporarily ‘unblackboxing’ the brook. It is ventured that daylighting can unleash the social ‘stickiness’ of water, its proclivity to draw and bind together, to revitalize the park, enhancing connection to wildness, attachment to place and sense of community. This is particularly crucial in the face of decreased local authority funding and related crises in park management.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-09-25T10:17:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620959589
       
  • Explaining public risk acceptance of a petrochemical complex: A delicate
           balance of costs, benefits, and trust
    • Authors: Thomas Verbeek
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Communities adjacent to polluting industrial facilities understand and evaluate risk in often ambivalent and contextualized ways, not only balancing economic and environmental concerns but also reflecting cultural practices, social worldviews, and trust relationships. In this case study of the Antwerp petrochemical complex, the largest in Europe, a residents’ survey and interviews are used to examine how two middle-class communities coexist with the nearby petrochemical plants. The findings show that citizens in both communities are generally aware of the environmental impact and public health risk but are predominantly accepting of the industry. For both communities, the most important factor explaining acceptance is the perceived socio-economic benefit for the community, while a direct individual benefit in terms of employment does not play a significant role. In one community, risk acceptance is further strengthened by trust in companies’ risk management, while in the other community, trust in regulators is more critical. The different results for both communities stress the importance of a socio-cultural perspective on risk and underline the criticality of relationships of trust. The article further discusses the implications of these findings for environmental decision-making, considering the delicate balance and the significant minority of the population who is less accepting. The present study adds to the risk perception literature by providing one of the first quantitative analyses explaining industrial risk acceptance, instead of perception, using the increasingly contested petrochemical industry as an exemplary case.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-09-21T01:17:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620957124
       
  • The environments of environmental impact assessment: Transforming
           neoliberal environmental governance from within
    • Authors: Andrew Snow
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      The transformation of neoliberal environmental governance is beset by conceptual and empirical complexity. Utilising a governmentality conceptual and analytical framework, this piece seeks to illustrate how, on their own terms, environmental governance interventions create the potential for change via a modality I have labelled the temporalised environment. Through a discourse analysis of select guidance and regulatory documents, a programmer’s view of environmental impact assessment in England and Wales is generated. As both an object and a technology of governmental power, I show how the environment can reinforce extant neoliberal logics (as ‘artefact’) or be productive of a new re-socialised, globalising form of biopower (as ‘aspiration’). I explore the risks posed to the transformative potential of the latter ‘aspirational’ environment in terms of difficulties distinguishing between its neoliberal and non-neoliberal effects, its capture by neoliberal institutions, and the scalability of its transformation from local to global. I argue that these can only be adequately mitigated if a continued critical disposition is adopted towards the defining features, purpose and functionality of an environment. I propose a series of straightforward questions to aid this process. Overall, this distinction between artefactual and aspirational environments is intended to be heuristic, orienting those strategising against neoliberal environmental governance towards the instabilities internal to the logic of specific interventions.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-09-21T01:16:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620958370
       
  • Beyond remediation: Containing, confronting and caring for the Giant Mine
           Monster
    • Authors: Caitlynn Beckett
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Mine remediation entails long-term risks associated with the containment and monitoring of dangerous materials. To date, research on mine remediation in Canada has focused primarily on technical fixes; little is known about the socio-political and colonial aspects of remediation. Using the Giant Mine in Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada) as a case study, this research investigates the story of the Giant Mine ‘Monster’, how it was defined, how it has changed and how nearby communities will care for the mine in the future. Using a mixed-methods approach, this research combines literature reviews, archival analysis, key informant interviews and participant observation in analyzing the multiple experiences, practices and stories of the Giant Mine Remediation Project. Directed by the frameworks of ecological restoration, Indigenous environmental justice and science and technology studies theories of care, this research reveals that, by focusing on the technical containment of arsenic trioxide pollution, the Giant Mine Remediation Project sidelined community objectives for compensation, independent oversight and a perpetual care plan. However, through the ongoing activism of the Yellowknives Dene First Nations and community allies, the Giant Mine Monster is being creatively reframed as something to care for and live with for generations to come – a responsibility for mining wastes that settlers across Canada have yet to meaningfully reckon with. I argue that the Giant Mine case points to a critical reconceptualization of environmental remediation as an anti-colonial mechanism to (re)structure, or (re)mediate, relationships with both land and people. Without a community objectives based approach to remediation, such projects risk continuing systems of colonization, marginalization and environmental injustice.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T08:26:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620954361
       
  • Contesting the greening of the urban growth machine: Ecological
           modernization and the promethean counter-discourse
    • Authors: Emiliano Scanu, Geneviève Cloutier, Catherine Trudelle
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Urban environmental governance and planning are increasingly characterized by the adoption of “sustainability fixes,” namely political compromises which try to conciliate economic and ecological goals in order to safeguard long-term growth. If sustainability fixes have been harshly criticized for being sociospatially selective, resistance to them does not always come from radical groups who demand stronger and fairer measures, but from actors who oppose the idea of sustainability because it goes against their interests, habits, or values. This paper focuses on this “contestation of the greening of the urban growth machine,” by presenting an empirical study of a sustainable mobility policy in Quebec City, Canada, which has given rise to a controversy opposing two divergent perspectives. The first is an ecological modernization discourse advocating for a green and attractive public transit system. The second is a promethean counter-discourse which supports the unconditional growth of automobility and urban sprawl. Results show that even if urban environmental policies are increasingly attuned to the “growth first” logic, they could still face strong opposition, especially from suburban and conservative interests. More generally, this paper shows that, in some contexts, sustainability fixes could be a “better than nothing” solution, namely a step toward fairer and greener cities.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T08:23:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620952326
       
  • Environmental imaginaries and the environmental sciences of antimicrobial
           resistance
    • Authors: Richard Helliwell, Sujatha Raman, Carol Morris
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      The environmental dimension of antimicrobial resistance has expanded the scope and scale of policy concern and research interest in antimicrobial resistance to include not just clinical and agricultural settings but a wide variety of environmental spaces and places. This article examines the ways in which environmental scientists researching the environmental dimension of antimicrobial resistance produce culturally specific forms of environmental imaginaries as a means of stabilising complex, uneven and open-ended environmental, human and microbial relations. These imaginaries work to structure the gaze of scientific enquiry towards particular places, objects and scales, and justify particular decisions and practices over others. Drawing on the imaginaries literature from Science and Technology Studies and Cultural Geography, our analysis examines the spatial and temporal dimensions of environmental imaginaries. In doing so, we identify four imaginaries, the environmental hotspot, the pristine environment, the fluid environment and the environmental reservoir. These distinct but interconnected imaginaries produce a constellation of ideas and assumptions that shape scientific practices, the ways and places in which the environmental dimension of antimicrobial resistance becomes known, and the types of interventions and actions that are made apprehensible as a result. In opening these imaginaries to interrogation at this relatively formative stage, we aim to identify ways in which social science contributions can complement and enhance the ways in which the figure of ‘the environment’ is brought to bear on responses to antimicrobial resistance.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-08-27T10:29:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620950752
       
  • Electricity capital and accumulation strategies in the U.S. electricity
           system
    • Authors: Conor Harrison
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      The U.S. electricity sector has undergone a series of technological and political economic transformations between 1995 and 2020. Some, but not all, states have moved toward the provision of electricity through wholesale electricity markets, while others have remained traditionally regulated. In addition, electricity is increasingly generated from natural gas and renewable energy, and while total electricity consumption is stagnant in the United States, electric utility revenues have continued to grow. In combination with a growing emphasis on increasing shareholder value, the result of these changes has been the entry of a range of new electricity industry, finance, and regulatory actors, as well as a shift in the ways in which existing actors are seeking to realize surplus value. In light of these changes, in this paper, I outline the contemporary contours and contradictions of the U.S. electricity industry and detail five accumulation strategies being used in the industry. Building on scholarship in energy geography and geographies of finance, and based on the analysis of industry documents and financial analyst reports, I detail how the U.S. electricity has been reshaped by the introduction of new types of technologies, financial risk and investment opportunities, and changing modes of regulation. The resulting accumulation strategies are contested, partial, and incomplete, and are therefore a messy set of overlapping and at times contradictory strategies being deployed in an industry in flux.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-08-27T10:28:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620949098
       
  • Tracing institutional surprises in the water–energy nexus: Stalled
           projects of Chile’s small hydropower boom
    • Authors: Sarah H. Kelly, José Miguel Valdés Negroni
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, we examine small hydropower trends in Chile through institutional and ethnographic research and we reflect on what lessons this case provides for scholarship on the water–energy nexus. Contrary to the tendency in water–energy nexus scholarship to advocate for further integration of water and energy management, this paper explains an approach to investigation that answers recent calls to politicize the nexus by examining inequity and inefficiency. Methodologically, we trace institutional surprises in water–energy nexus interactions. Internationally, small hydropower growth is part of a boom in renewable energy, yet in Chile the reality is more complicated. We examine the paradoxical trend of hundreds of stalled small hydropower projects that remain incomplete throughout central to southern Chile. These stalled projects indicate unexpected behavior in how water, energy, and environmental institutions interact, in Mapuche Indigenous territory specifically where projects are highly conflictive. A fantastical materialism is also visible. Government and private sector ambitions of organized, massive, and lucrative small hydropower development are resulting in unruly material realities, yet over time capital finds an unforeseen way to produce value. In this case, water rights are being sold with approved environmental impact studies on the water market. Overall, our findings challenge the assumptions that commodifying water can be done equitably and efficiently for all parties involved, in particular for the Mapuche people. Findings also question hydropower’s future viability as a sustainable renewable energy endeavor in a market-driven system.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-08-26T08:08:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620945936
       
  • Superimposition: How Indian city bureaucracies are responding to climate
           change
    • Authors: Ankit Bhardwaj, Radhika Khosla
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      City governments are facing complex challenges due to climate change, but those in the global South often have limited capacities and governance arrangements to develop and execute a response. Cities must also manage other existing priorities such as housing, water and waste management, which have established bureaucratic practices and incentives. How are such cities with limited climate governance capacity and with existing non-climate priorities developing a climate response' From interviews and participant observation in two Indian cities that are pioneering climate action, we find that actors are ‘superimposing’ climate objectives onto existing bureaucratic practices. Building on analysis of ongoing projects in the two cities, we theorize superimposition as an approach taken by bureaucracies that have the intention of responding to climate change but have limited control over their planning practices and mandates, high levels of institutional inertia to change existing practices, and multiple other objectives related to development that dominate agendas. As superimposition does not involve the modification of existing bureaucratic practices or incentives, the types of climate actions which emerge from this approach reflect the features, scope and limitations of existing political arrangements. We highlight five such features of how Indian city bureaucracies respond to climate change: (1) the primacy of central and state ‘schemes’, (2) the prioritization of ‘development’ as an objective, and the imperative to implement (3) ‘quick win’, (4) ‘visible’ and (5) ‘bankable’ projects. Superimposition has led to creative and politically tenable climate projects that meet both climate objectives and those of existing schemes on housing, water and waste. But these projects are also limited by existing governance arrangements with tradeoffs for long-term planning, urban justice and public ownership of infrastructure.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-08-25T09:02:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620949096
       
  • The rehabilitation zone: Living with lemons and elephants in Assam
    • Authors: Dolly Kikon, Sanjay Barbora
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Lemon farming promoted as rehabilitation programs in western Assam has generated income for villages that were deeply affected by ethnic conflict in the 1990s. Rehabilitation is tied to an economic logic linked with the market and a profit-driven measure of development. In the absence of an official reconciliation process on the ground, these economic initiatives have become an ambitious and attractive model for the Indian state to rebuild societies that have witnessed violent ethnic conflicts in Northeast India. Drawing from fieldwork carried out between 2016 and 2019 around Manas National Park, an area within the Bodoland Territorial Autonomous Districts in western Assam, this article examines the experiences and impacts of lemon farming and focuses on practices of rehabilitation on the ground. The process of restoration includes communities living in the villages and the animals inside the park simultaneously. We show how communities are seeking to create connections with the land and their surroundings to overcome trauma and rebuild their lives. Specifically, we focus on lemon farming and the experiences of human–elephants relationships in Manas to highlight how these accounts produce an integrative account of rehabilitation in post-conflict societies. In the backdrop of militarization and structural violence, rehabilitating communities and animals is not a straightforward story. It entails proposing new theoretical frameworks to understand how reconstructing lives and the land is also about transforming relationships between humans and animals under circumstances that are often challenging. Ongoing lemon farming practices and living with elephants in Assam requires envisioning ways of belonging and living on the land and at the same time recognizing the boundaries.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-08-17T04:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620946973
       
  • How “wild” are hatchery salmon' Conservation policy and the
           contested framing of nature in Canada and the United States
    • Authors: Valerie Berseth, Ralph Matthews
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      The idea of the Anthropocene presents a paradox for conservation: to restore and protect wild species and ecosystems, greater human intervention is required through efforts such as artificial propagation. This paradox is evident in efforts to conserve Pacific salmon. Salmon hatcheries produce millions of salmon to augment wild populations and sustain fishing industries, but emerging knowledge about salmon genomics has called into question the “wildness” of hatchery salmon. This article examines how the scientific uncertainties regarding wild species are contested by a range of stakeholders and how particular frames become concretized in policy frameworks. Despite the significance of laws and policies to the governance of such hybrid species, they have received limited attention. Drawing on archival documents, legislation, policies, government reports, and media sources, we conduct a cross-national comparative analysis of how wildness is framed in policy debates in Canada and the United States. We find that hatchery-born salmon occupy a position at the threshold of scientific and cultural definitions of wildness and this ambiguity facilitates political contests among groups with divergent interests in conservation and views of the human–nature relationship. As a result, hatchery salmon have been regulated differently across time and geographic and jurisdictional space. These findings contribute to an expanding literature on conservation in the Anthropocene and managing wild species.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:44:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620945315
       
  • ‘As dead as a dodo’: Extinction narratives and multispecies
           justice in the museum
    • Authors: Anna Guasco
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      This article unites recent writing in extinction studies with work in political ecology, justice theory and museum studies to explore qualitative, cultural approaches to extinction. I examine the role of storytelling and the power of narratives in addressing nonhuman extinction. Analysing the case study of a permanent gallery on extinction, evolution and biodiversity loss – the Survival Gallery of the National Museum of Scotland – I utilise a more-than-textual approach to narrative analysis. This paper explores the diverse ways in which the gallery relates stories of ‘natural’ extinction to the contemporary anthropogenic ‘Sixth Mass Extinction’. The Survival Gallery narrates a remarkably complex compilation of extinction stories, but the gallery’s narrative avoids areas of conflict or controversy, obscures justice concerns and ultimately presents a problematic depiction of a universalised humanity. Using this analysis of museum extinction storytelling, the paper contributes to emerging conceptualisations of multispecies justice frameworks. The article explores the possibilities and challenges of museum storytelling in grappling with complicated pasts and envisioning potential futures of survival, coexistence and flourishing. The paper concludes by considering how a multispecies justice approach to narrating extinction (and other entangled ecological-social phenomena) might flourish within and beyond museums.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:44:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620945310
       
  • Making insects tick: Responsibility, attentiveness and care in edible
           insect farming
    • Authors: Christopher Bear
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Insects are increasingly promoted as a sustainable and nutritious source of protein, with ‘edible insect’ sectors emerging in many countries not traditionally associated with their consumption. A number of studies have examined the attitudes of potential consumers to eating insects but the understandings and practices of farmers have largely been ignored. This article expands nature-society scholarship’s engagement with the edible insect sector by investigating how farmers make sense of their responsibilities to insects through their everyday practices. Drawing on a qualitative study of the UK’s edible insect farmers, the article contributes to wider ongoing debates within science and technology studies and animal studies around multispecies companionship involving apparently ‘awkward’ creatures, and around the relationship between ‘care’ and ‘ethical regard’ in more-than-human relations. Such debates are especially pertinent here, as insects have often been understood as lacking sentience and beyond moral considerability, resulting in their exclusion from animal welfare codes and regulation. Insect farmers are therefore faced with questions not only about how to care for their ‘minilivestock’ but also whether to care. Following an outline of the UK’s edible insect production sector, and framed by a discussion of literature on awkward creatures, attentiveness and practices of care, the article reports on: (1) the relationship between sentience and farmers’ constructions of insects’ moral significance; (2) farmers’ motives for, and approaches to, becoming attentive to their insects; and (3) how farmers respond to the actions of insects. It concludes by reflecting on the nature of attentiveness encountered in edible insect farming, arguing that it offers a promising yet unstable basis for the development of harmonious more-than-human relations.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-07-29T11:20:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620945321
       
  • Soil drugs of the future: The sustainability of BioAg and the repair of
           arable land
    • Authors: Peter Oviatt
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      BioAg, short for biological agriculture, is an umbrella term used by agricultural conglomerates to market biologically active products used for pest control and fertilization. Within this framing, I investigate the commodification of a type of fungus that forms a beneficial relationship with plant roots. Mycorrhizal fungi connect with root tips to exchange photosynthesized sugars for an array of what biologists call “ecosystem services,” which include the translocation of soil minerals, water, and pathogen antagonism. I discuss three conditions that now give rise to the commodification of mycorrhizal fungi in industrial agriculture: the creation of an inoculant form produced under sterile (in vitro) conditions; the declaration of industrial arable soils as lacking functioning communities of mycorrhizal fungi, a deficit most easily remedied through the application of industrially produced inoculants; the build-up of a broader mycorrhizal subjectivity, which has made the loss of mycorrhizal fungi in agricultural lands a concern for those beyond agricultural and scientific communities. To analyze these three stages of the commodification of mycorrhizal fungi, I engage the framework of accumulation by restoration as part of the economy of repair. Following the work of Christopher Henke, I discuss how mycorrhizal inoculants are poised to bring about two forms of repair to soil ecologies and industrial agriculture: maintenance and transformation. I examine the challenges and controversies surrounding the efficacy of mycorrhizal inoculants, testing claims about ecological restoration and how an emergent and heavily promoted agricultural commodity might impact regional agricultural infrastructures, rural ecologies, and agrarian livelihoods. I use the case of mycorrhizal inoculants within BioAg to sort out promissory claims of sustainability, and look at how agricultural conglomerates are now building their envisioned future of industrial agriculture.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-07-29T11:20:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620943894
       
  • Watershed or bank-to-bank' Scales of governance and the geographic
           definition of Great Lakes Areas of Concern
    • Authors: Ryan Holifield, Kathleen C Williams
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Much recent scholarship has addressed the rise of the watershed as the preferred scale for the governance of water quality. Although the watershed remains widely perceived as an ideal, “natural” scale of freshwater governance, arguments for the merits of alternative scales and multi-scalar approaches are gaining prominence. The Great Lakes Areas of Concern program, managed jointly by the United States and Canada, represents an important case in which the watershed has not prevailed as the default local scale of governance, at least in the 31 Areas of Concern located in the United States or straddling the international border. Based on a review of documents and analysis of a survey and interviews with key actors from local Areas of Concern, we find considerable variation among U.S. states in the designation of Areas of Concern as watersheds and partial watersheds, bank-to-bank watercourse segments, or hybrids of both. This variation depends not only on the differing biophysical conditions at Areas of Concern but also on differences in the latitude that state agencies gave to local stakeholder groups when the geographical extent of each Areas of Concern was designated and negotiated. In several cases, questions about the appropriate scale of the Areas of Concern led to controversy, with implications for subsequent remediation. We contend that understanding the uneven embrace of the watershed as a scale of water governance requires attending not only to specific governance objectives but also to variations in the relationships between local and subnational scales in governance programs.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-07-29T11:20:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620943890
       
  • Entangled agencies: Rethinking causality and health in political-ecology
    • Authors: Abigail H Neely
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      The question of non-human agency has been particularly important and generative in political-ecology. Drawing from science studies, scholars have used actor-network theory and assemblage theory to decenter humans from analyses. Building on this scholarship, this article offers a decolonial approach for rethinking of agency in health for political-ecologies of health drawing from work in feminist science studies that stresses non-proscriptive relationships over individuals. By unpacking the example of isibhobho, a witchcraft illness, through the work of Karen Barad, I argue for an understanding of agency as the reconfiguration of entanglements. This approach offers new possibilities for understanding what causes illness, which moved beyond humans and non-humans to focus on entanglements. This approach challenges models of causality, taken up in both biomedicine and in political-ecology, offering a vision of causality that is relational and opening up new possibilities for healing and for politics more broadly.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-07-27T07:35:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620943889
       
  • Making India’s cleanest city: Sanitation, intersectionality, and
           infrastructural violence
    • Authors: Yaffa Truelove, Kathleen O’Reilly
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Inaugurated in 2014, India’s Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) intends to eradicate open defecation in urban and rural areas by 2019. In cities, the scheme ranks municipalities for achieving open defecation-free status and other measures of cleanliness. In 2017, Indore was first nationally recognized with the national Cleanest City award. In the weeks before the city was evaluated, it sponsored a number of activities that demolished housing and sanitation infrastructures, singled out the female body for humiliation, and forced residents to revert back to the very sanitation practices the city was allegedly trying to eradicate.This paper traces the differing articulations of power at work between the extension and demolition of the city’s infrastructure. It focuses particularly on latrines, the metrics, and the urban vision to make Indore the Cleanest City, but also gives attention to the additional infrastructures connected to latrine-making and unmaking, including housing. We specifically explore two dimensions of what we call the “infrastructural intersectionality” of the Clean City Mission, which discloses differing forms of compounding infrastructural violence that include the dissolution of both material and social infrastructures. Firstly, the intersectionality of gender/caste/class/race social identities and power relations that are embedded and reified through infrastructures and, secondly, the intersectionality of multiple infrastructures that are inter-connected and co-constituted through each other. We argue that bringing the lens of intersectionality is critical for recognizing the socially differentiated and gendered dimensions of sanitation infrastructure, the SBM, and its situated infrastructural violence. By exploring two themes related to infrastructure and intersectionality, we show the criticality of embodied and gendered approaches to analyzing the power of infrastructure in the everyday.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-07-24T12:00:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620941521
       
  • New data infrastructures for environmental monitoring in Myanmar: Is
           digital transparency good for governance'
    • Authors: Jenny E Goldstein, Hilary Oliva Faxon
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      The design and use of environmental data infrastructures, including software platforms, sensors, satellite data, mobile phone apps, and digitally generated visual representations, is increasingly inseparable from contemporary environmental governance. Such technologies are often intended to enable data transparency, which in turn is assumed to promote expanded participation in democratic governance. In this article, we investigate how environmental monitoring, as performed through domestic and globalized infrastructures that seek to make digital environmental data open and transparent, is playing out in Myanmar’s forest sector. New data infrastructures are inseparable from the proliferation of non-state actors involved in environmental governance amid the country’s transition from military surveillance state toward more liberal and democratic rule, yet participation is not universal. We argue that actors engage new platforms and tools based on different understandings of the role of increased data transparency in environmental governance, which in turn are structured by historical relations with and within the legacy of the surveillance state.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-07-24T11:59:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620943892
       
  • Policy framing and crisis narratives around food safety in Vietnam
    • Authors: Christophe Béné, Nozomi Kawarazuka, Huong Pham, Stef de Haan, Huynh Tuyen, Duong Thanh Thi, Chien Dang
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      While progress has been made recently in understanding food systems per se, much less is known about policies around those food systems. In this paper, we aim at understanding the food system policy context with the specific objective to look at policy dynamics—defined as the way policy agendas are identified, justified, and framed by decision-makers, and how they interact. Vietnam is used as a case study. Primary data were generated through face-to-face interviews complemented by an online survey. A policy framing approach was used to structure the research. The analysis reveals how the policy agenda is considered by many actors to be only partially evidence-based and highlights the extent to which the state government remains the most powerful actor in the setting of that agenda. The research also reveals the diffusion of the food safety crisis narrative beyond its original technical domain into a larger number of policy framings related to other issues of food systems, thus making it de facto the “center of gravity” of the current agenda on food systems in Vietnam. Yet, a comparison with data from other countries challenges this narrative, and reveals instead how the (legitimate) public concern about food safety is being instrumentalized by certain groups of actors to advance their own agenda. The implication of this “distorted” framing is the risk for the decision-makers to “overfocus” their attention on this short-term issue and lose sight of some other longer-term structural trends such as the emergence of obesity in Vietnamese urban population.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-07-20T12:54:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620941515
       
  • The Creatures Collective: Manifestings
    • Authors: KJ Hernández, June M Rubis, Noah Theriault, Zoe Todd, Audra Mitchell, Bawaka Country, Laklak Burarrwanga, Ritjilili Ganambarr, Merrkiyawuy Ganambarr-Stubbs, Banbapuy Ganambarr, Djawundil Maymuru, Sandie Suchet-Pearson, Kate Lloyd, Sarah Wright
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      This piece explores the work and entanglements of our research collective, formed in 2016. First, we collectively articulate the ethos and the motivations that inform the ways in which we labor to engage with complex, plural, multi-vocal experiences of extinction, “the Anthropocene,” and earth violence as they are felt and known across the diverse communities we represent. Then, drawing on more than three years of work across relations that tie us to Australia, Canada, Malaysian Borneo, the Philippines, and the United States of America, we share reflections on some of the vital relationships, methods, and “creatures” that animate our collaboration. This collection of “manifestings” aims to show how we work, very consciously, to foster more-than-human capacities for confronting the multi-scalar, cross-cosmological forms of violence that drive extinction and other forms of ecological harm in the world today.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-07-14T07:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620938316
       
  • Where species don’t meet: Invisibilized animals, urban nature and
           city limits
    • Authors: Paula Arcari, Fiona Probyn-Rapsey, Haley Singer
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      A growing body of literature is concerned with ‘healing’ our cities, fostering an ethic of care for urban nature and creating more socially and environmentally just cities. At the same time, urban biodiversity is the focus of an increasing number of projects at multiple scales. However, in contrast to the ethos of multispecies ‘entanglement’ and ‘becoming with’ that typically animates this research, large numbers of animals ‘entangled’ in the machinations of our cities constitute a ‘nature’ that remains mostly unseen. And yet, it is the local and global practices these animals are part of – associated with food, entertainment, education, companionship and research – and the persistent relations of use and exploitation that underpin them, that are most directly implicated in the ongoing environmental degradation, destruction of habitats and extinction of species that create the ‘problem’ of urban biodiversity. We therefore argue that a persistent anthropocentrism is hampering efforts to respond effectively to the findings and recommendations of the IPCC, IPBES, FAO and others. Based on a thorough literature search and review of 65 articles concerned with urban ‘nature’ and multispecies relations, we demonstrate a prevailing hierarchy in how, and more importantly which, nonhuman species are being represented. Parallels are noted from recent social movements and the work of scholars from complementary fields. We highlight the dangers posed by this selective remit of care and concern and suggest critical animal studies as a way to adjust the frame and extend the boundaries of dominant thinking about what constitutes ‘nature’. In conclusion, we call for researchers concerned with urban nature and biodiversity to adopt more critical and repoliticized understandings of ‘nature’ and multispecies relations – ones that are better poised to challenge practices involving commodified animals and slow the pace of environmental destructions and losses they are associated with.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-07-07T11:23:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620939870
       
  • The body as infrastructure
    • Authors: Luis Andueza, Archie Davies, Alex Loftus, Hannah Schling
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, we conceptualise the human body as infrastructure, asking what kind of infrastructure it currently is and what kind of infrastructure it could be. We therefore tease out the historically and geographically specific ways in which human bodies have been (re)produced as infrastructure, emphasising the violence of abstraction in capitalist modernity that transforms the productive body into a technology of calorific inputs and outputs. Nevertheless, through demystifying abstract labour we point to the relations of (re)production (needed for the body’s ongoing repair) and the metabolic processes (responsible for both decay and repair) that are subsumed within a broader capitalist system of accumulation. In so doing, we turn to the immanent contradictions and struggles that resist the body’s production as a one-sided technology of circulation and through which it is, and can become, an infrastructure for life and sociality.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-07-06T12:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620937231
       
  • Revisiting power and powerlessness: Speculating on West Virginia’s
           energy future and the externalities of the socioecological fix
    • Authors: Dylan M Harris, James McCarthy
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      China is positioning itself as a global leader in both renewable energy research, development, and deployment, and fossil fuel investment, exploration, and consumption. The newly merged mega-company, China Energy Investment Corp., has agreed to invest an unprecedented $83.7 billion into shale gas, power, and chemical projects in West Virginia. This decision comes after a visit to China by the United States’ President Trump, during which he secured professed commitments for over $250 billion in energy investments across the United States. While investment and dispossession in Appalachia have long been international in scope, the scale of this investment, as well as its particular political-historical context, makes this case unique. This paper analyzes two key processes central to this conjuncture in West Virginia’s recent history. First, building on recent scholarship, it argues that the ways in which the social and environmental costs of meeting China’s energy needs are increasingly being externalized into global “sacrifice zones” at global scales, even as China is making massive domestic investments in renewable energy, may constitute a sort of regional “socioecological fix” to the environmental effects of capitalist development. Second, via a consideration of Gaventa’s classic and more recent analyses of power and powerlessness in an Appalachian coal community, it explores why and how political assent to such development—which seems to reprise so many historical patterns that local critics decry—is secured in West Virginia. In doing so, it pays particular attention to the ways in which these familiar processes are playing out in a distinctive contemporary context, one characterized by a combination of populist and authoritarian politics that, in the United States, have touted false promises to “bring back coal” and rejuvenate a struggling local economy, and in China have led an authoritarian state to maintain economic growth for the nation at all costs.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-07-02T12:43:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620935751
       
  • Green transformation is a boundary object: An analysis of
           conceptualisation of transformation in Norwegian primary industries
    • Authors: Helene Amundsen, Erlend AT Hermansen
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      The concept of green transformation is burgeoning in the academic literature and policy discourses, yet few empirical studies investigate what the concept actually means to diverse actors, and how it manifests in practices. This paper contributes to filling that gap. Through an analysis of policy documents and interviews, we investigate how central policy actors and interest organisations in Norwegian farming, fisheries and aquaculture conceptualise and enact transformation. The analysis of the policy documents shows that the concept ‘transformation’ is mentioned more frequently, and a rhetoric with close connotations to green growth is increasingly applied, which may leave the impression that there is consensus concerning what the concept means and entails. The interviews however leave a more nuanced picture. Among most of the actors, transformation is interpreted in terms of green growth, while a minority of the actors argue for a deeper sustainability, pointing to planetary limits. Clearly, what transformation is and what it entails is embedded in interpretive flexibility. The concept ‘transformation’ is plastic enough to be applied in several different, and partly conflicting, policy discourses and arenas. We argue that transformation can be understood as a boundary object, and different actors perform different sorts of boundary work to adapt the boundary object of ‘transformation’ to fit their agendas. Thus, it makes more sense to think of transformation in plural – transformations – instead of a single, consensual discourse. We find that the very practices of most of the actors are not transformative in the theoretical understanding of the concept and that inadequate attention is given to potential negative sides of transformation. Consequently, both scholarly and practical discussions on how to achieve transformation should take into account that different and (partly) conflicting interpretations will continue to exist and contribute to distinguish between different degrees of sustainability and related pathways.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-06-23T11:48:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620934337
       
  • Inclusive participation, self-governance, and sustainability: Current
           challenges and opportunities for women in leadership of communal
           irrigation systems
    • Authors: Laura Imburgia, Henny Osbahr, Sarah Cardey, Janet Momsen
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Genuine inclusive participation in the self-governance of communal irrigation systems remains a challenge. This article analyses the mechanisms of participation in irrigation water users’ associations (WUAs) with focus on women as leaders of those organizations by drawing on cases from a comparative, multicase mixed-method study in Ethiopia and Argentina. After having being a topic for decades in gender and development debates, in many irrigated areas of the world, WUAs continue to be male dominated at all levels, especially in influential positions. Findings in this article suggest that despite large socio-economic and cultural differences, the current water management systems in both research locations reinforce problems of unequal gender participation; women have more obstacles and constraints in establishing equal access in membership, participation, and decision making in irrigation management. The lack of inclusive participation and the low representation of women in leadership roles lead to WUAs being poorly rooted in their community of users. Incomplete social rootedness of WUAs jeopardizes their effectiveness and equality in water management and, as a result, affects long-term sustainability. Through analysis of empirical data of communal small-scale irrigation systems in both countries, the article discusses who participates, how and why they participate, and the reasons for low numbers of women in leadership roles within the WUAs. Finally, the article reflects on possible enabling conditions that could foster inclusive participation, increase the quantity and capacity of women in management and leadership roles, and the benefits this may bring to sustainable irrigation systems.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-06-22T11:53:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620934717
       
  • Agency in human–shark encounter
    • Authors: Leah Gibbs
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Shark bite is exceptionally rare. And yet, representations of human–shark interactions are most often framed as inherently dangerous. The ‘shark attack’ trope has been widely critiqued as sensationalist and misleading. This image creates two further limitations: it offers a one-dimensional representation of sharks and overlooks crucial factors shaping human–shark relations. Human–wildlife conflict is focus of extensive research, in conservation biology and, increasingly, the social sciences. Calls have been made for deeper investigation of social and cultural factors in conflict. This paper seeks to present a more nuanced account of human–shark relations, through analysis of events in Western Australia in 2011–12: five fatal shark bites and implementation of a lethal shark management policy. Specifically, the paper reports on empirical research with the people most likely to encounter sharks, that is those who undertake recreational, professional, and/or volunteer activities in or on the sea. The paper deploys the concept of agency as a framework for recognising diverse capacities of sharks and distributed agency in production of events. It finds: (i) ocean-users know sharks to have diverse behaviours and agency to elicit caution, ambivalence, fear, and attraction, and to influence attitudes, actions, and engagement with the sea; (ii) embodied oceanic relations shape people’s everyday lives, attitudes towards the ocean, sharks and the risks they pose, and sense of self; and (iii) representation combines with numerous other factors – including potential danger posed by some sharks, reports of incidents, frenzied response, and personal context – to shape events. These findings offer alternate interpretation of human–shark relations, social-cultural drivers of human–wildlife conflict, and evidence of co-existence.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-06-08T01:15:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620929942
       
  • Securing accumulation by restoration – Exploring spectacular corporate
           conservation, coal mining and biodiversity compensation in the German
           Rhineland
    • Authors: Andrea Brock
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      German energy giant and coal mine operator RWE makes two products: cheap electricity and ‘pretty new landscapes’. These ‘pretty new landscapes’ are biodiversity offsets to compensate for the destruction of the ancient Hambacher Forest for the world’s largest opencast lignite coal mine in the German Rhineland. Drawing on in-depth fieldwork including participant observation and interviews in and around the mine and its offset sites, this paper explores the relationship between coal mining, spectacularisation of conservation, the ecotourism–extraction nexus and accumulation by restoration. I illustrate the historic and contemporary importance of restoration activities to the accumulation process and explore the recent engagement of mine operator RWE in the provision of restored nature (in the form of ‘eco-points’), which constitute new business opportunities. The significance of RWE’s biodiversity work for accumulation by restoration lies not only in its profit opportunities but its productive power: the legitimation of coal mining and the making of new, ordered ‘ecologies of repair’. This productive power operates through the mobilising function of RWE’s offsetting work, which forms the foundation for corporate partnerships and alliances with conservation groups and volunteers. These lend legitimacy to RWE’s ‘repair work’ and form the basis for the ecotourism–extraction nexus by turning the mine and its offsets into ‘extractive attractions’ for visitors and ‘nature lovers’. Its power further manifests in the way it captures imaginations through novel imaginaries and narratives of sustainable coal mining, supposedly creating not only a ‘better nature’ but a ‘better future’. Positioning offsetting as social technology of governance, I explore RWE’s spectacular performance of sustainability and the ontological flattening to facilitate claims of commensurability and ‘offsettability’ of nature. These are integral to the ecotourism–extraction nexus and grounded in the belief in the human/corporate ability to recreate nature, a fascination with huge earth-shifting machinery and a commitment to high-modernist ideologies of control.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-05-22T10:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620924597
       
  • Blurring the shoreline: De- and re-infrastructuring and the changing
           colors of European flood policy
    • Authors: Jesper Petersson
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      This paper provides a genealogy of the emergence of a common EU flood policy, including the scope and direction of this policy. Noticing how EU policy proposes green infrastructure (associated with using nature as a buffer zone in managing floods) as an alternative to grey infrastructure (implying fixed installations of concrete and cement), this paper adopts the theoretical lens of the so-called infrastructural turn, which advocates a relational investigation of infrastructure. By engaging this approach, the paper shows how flood infrastructure can contain very different compositions of (unruly) water and (settled) land. A narrative of a historically strong focus on guarding society from the powerful forces of nature through a fixed line of defense is increasingly giving way to more muddy states—quite literally—where society is expected to learn to live with flooding and show ecological consideration. To capture the EU’s, and especially the European Commission’s efforts to establish a pan-European flood infrastructure that accommodates this turn, the concepts of de- and re-infrastructuring are developed. These concepts act as heuristic devices to capture how policy performs some combinations between water and land as constituting an attractive and functional flood infrastructure, but constitutes other infrastructural relations of the aquatic and the terrestrial as undesirable and, hence, as malfunctioning. This performative act of distinguishing between what constitutes “good and proper” versus “bad and undesirable” infrastructure is referred to as a politics of infrastructure.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T10:37:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620921858
       
  • The diversity of divestment in Singapore: Junk commodities, charity gifts,
           and recycling bins
    • Authors: Corinne Ong, Lyle Fearnley, Siow Boon Chia
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      National and municipal recycling programmes are typically premised on their ability to reduce waste disposed in the landfill. However, a much wider variety of waste divestment conduits – such as trading with informal junk traders, making donations to charity, passing on items to family and friends – co-exist in many urban waste management landscapes. In this paper, we explore the cultures and economies of informal waste divestment practices in Singapore, in relation to the National Recycling Programme implemented by the government. We argue that one reason for the limited performance of the National Recycling Programme is because it reduces a relationship of (commodity) exchange or gift among persons, to an act of disposal in an impersonal recycling bin. Drawing on quantitatively and qualitatively obtained empirical data, we identify three frequently used conduits of divestment – junk traders, charity donations, and transfers to family and friends – that render radically different social meanings to divestment. While junk traders transform unwanted things into commodities, donations to charity, family, and friends transform unwanted things into gifts – creating rich ‘regimes of value’ that perpetuate a thing’s career. Hence, the complexity of people’s relationships to material objects helps keep things out of the general waste stream. We challenge if this complexity should be reduced by ordering and governing household practices to fit into complicated long-distance infrastructures, such as the recycling system.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-05-18T11:17:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620924564
       
  • Making companions: Companionability and encounter value in the
           marketization of the American Mustang
    • Authors: Robert Pütz
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, attempts have been made to establish a market for American Mustang horses both within and outside of the USA. An essential feature of markets for such lively commodities is developing “companionability,” that is, shaping the body, disposition, and environmental needs of a wild horse in accordance with the demands of commodification, thereby transforming it into a domestic horse to serve as a human companion. Companionability is a prerequisite for mustangs’ marketability and a central aspect for the emergence of encounter value. This article applies the phenomenological concept of corporeal communication to elucidate the implications of these processes, using the example of a multi-day auction event, Mustang Makeover Germany.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-05-14T08:54:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620924931
       
  • Enacting and resisting biosecurity citizenship: More-than-human
           geographies of enrolment in a disease eradication scheme in Scotland
    • Authors: Orla Shortall, Katrina Brown
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      This paper explores farmers’ responses to a cattle disease eradication scheme in Scotland by examining geographies of biopower and biosecurity citizenship. Biosecurity citizenship is a project to enact disease control for the good of a particular community. The paper uses the concept of biosecurity citizenship to explore how successful the scheme was at enrolling farmers as ‘Scottish’ biosecurity citizens with a sense of responsibility to the national territory. It explores the kinds of relationships the scheme created between farmers and animals and the kinds of animal ‘citizens’ created. The scheme was found to be partially successful in fostering a sense of biosecurity citizenship among farmers. Points of tension were the replacement of farmers’ own ways of assessing the value of their animals with an epidemiological lens that framed value in terms of the presence or absence of the bovine viral diarrhoea pathogen. These animals were constituted by the scheme as anonymous non-human citizens who became known through their administrative record of geographical relationship to Scottish national territory. The logic of the scheme differentiating Scotland as a distinct epidemiological space was variously accepted and resisted by farmers based on distance from the English border, and how ‘Scottish’ associated economic supply chains were. The paper thus highlights a new type of interaction between biosecurity and trade, showing how epidemiological initiatives can entangle with ‘quality’ supply chains that differentiate produce based on cultural links with a national territory. This in turn underlines the importance of understanding the dynamics of biosecurity citizenship in creating particular geographies of human–animal relationships and supply chains.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-05-12T12:50:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620923590
       
  • Individualized environments, individual cures: An examination of Lyme
           disease activism in Virginia
    • Authors: Brent Z Kaup, Matthew Abel, Amanda Sikirica
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Doctors, patients, and public health professionals widely recognize that certain physical environments are more conducive to the emergence and spread of Lyme disease. However, ecological solutions to the spread of the disease are rarely pursued. Drawing on interviews with Lyme activists, politicians, and state and local administrators dealing with Lyme disease related issues as well as an analysis of Lyme disease legislation in the state of Virginia, we examine why solutions to Lyme disease most often focus on expanding individual choices for diagnosis and treatment over changing the environments that enhance the risk of Lyme disease. We argue that the emergence of Lyme disease in a neoliberal society pushed debates on how to best deal with the disease away from its underpinning environmental causes and into individual human bodies.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-05-08T09:47:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620923593
       
  • Firescapes of disruption: An absence of insurance in landscapes of fire
    • Authors: Kate Booth
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, I critically interrogate the expectation that insurance is becoming more present through the processes of financialisation and marketisation – as up-to-date policies and/or in the hearts and minds of consumers. I draw upon interviews about house and contents insurance, with householders in the flammable landscapes of south-eastern Tasmania, Australia. The participants identify these landscapes as resilient and permanent and thus ultimately unaffected by fire. In understanding bush-living as co-constituted with fire and not purely threatened by fire, they experience a strong sense of continuance in these places. In this context, the promise of insurance emerges as contingent, and even if an up-to-date policy is present, insurance moves in and out of focus, is present and becomes absent as various human and non-human actants exert agency. Drawing on critical landscape studies in exploring these spatial contingencies, I observe insuring as landscaping practice. As well as contributing to critical insurance studies and financialisation of everyday life research, I provide a signpost for rethinking the role of insurance in disaster management and climate adaptation.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-04-28T07:59:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620921859
       
  • Political ecologies of infrastructural and intestinal decay
    • Authors: Patrick Bresnihan, Arielle Hesse
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      In March 2007, when Cryptosporidium contaminated water supplies in Galway City, Ireland, political authorities responded quickly to upgrade water treatments plants. This response framed the crisis as a solely technical problem of infrastructural decay, obscuring legacies of urban and agricultural (over)development. In this paper, we examine dominant responses to infrastructural contamination that depoliticize and re-inscribe divisions among bodies, nature, infrastructure, rural and urban. The temporality of the Galway outbreak and the speedy response by the state is not replicated throughout Ireland. In parts of rural Roscommon, the neighbouring county to Galway, microbiological risks to the drinking water supply have been left unattended for more than eight years. The interplay of social, political, economic, and ecological factors produces uneven exposures to health risks that are situated within and mediated through water infrastructure. Drawing on postcolonial insights, the unevenness of infrastructural provision across Ireland does not just tell a story of exclusion and othering, but also provides space for different infrastructural projects to unfold. While the response to contamination within the public water supply replayed well-known technical fixes, the work of the National Federation of Group Water Schemes, the representative body of community managed water systems in rural Ireland, illustrates a different form of infrastructural practice that negotiates legacies of institutional abandonment and acknowledges the wider hydro-social cycle as part of, rather than ancillary to, water infrastructure. By blending political ecologies of health and postcolonial approaches to infrastructure, we analyse the unevenness of responses to infrastructural contamination and trace its relationship to legacies of uneven development and imaginaries of urban and rural Ireland.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-03-25T09:50:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620902382
       
  • Housewives and maids: The labor of household recycling in urban India
    • Authors: Aman Luthra
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Sorting waste at-source (or household recycling) helps optimize the efficiency of waste management systems and safeguard the health of waste handlers. Recently, segregation of waste has become an urgent policy imperative that has been written into national waste management policies in India. While urban Indian households have had a long-standing tradition of segregating and selling high-value recyclables to actors in the informal sector, in contemporary policy discourse, women are constructed as recalcitrant urban subjects who need to be disciplined in accordance with the new mandates of waste segregation. This paper locates these processes of subject formation within the changing political economy of waste. Waste sorting is a labor-intensive process, and certain waste management technologies require presorted materials. In addition, presorted recyclables also offer up a source of revenue for waste management service providers. Beyond seeing the need for source segregation simply in abstract environmental and public health interests, this paper argues for contextualizing this imperative within the ongoing processes of privatization and mechanization of waste management systems. These processes dispossess informal waste collectors from their means of subsistence while relying on the unpaid labor of certain women, thus reproducing gender, class, and caste relations.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-03-23T09:02:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620914219
       
  • Infrastructuring “data-driven” environmental governance in
           Louisiana’s coastal restoration plan
    • Authors: Eric Nost
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Conservationists around the world advocate for “data-driven” environmental governance, expecting data infrastructures to make all relevant and actionable information readily available. But how exactly is data to be infrastructured and to what political effect' I show how putting together and maintaining environmental data for decision-making is not a straightforward technical task, but a practice shaped by and shaping politico-economic context. Drawing from the US state of Louisiana’s coastal restoration planning process, I detail two ways ecosystem modelers manage fiscal and institutional “frictions” to “infrastructuring” data as a resource for decision-making. First, these experts work with the data they have. They leverage, tweak, and maintain existing datasets and tools, spending time and money to gather additional data only to the extent it fits existing goals. The assumption is that these goals will continue to be important, but building coastal data infrastructure around current research needs, plans, and austerity arguably limits what can be said in and done with the future. Second, modelers acquire the data they made to need. Coastal communities have protested the state’s primary restoration tool: diversions of sediment from the Mississippi River. Planners reacted by relaxing institutional constraints and modelers brought together new data to highlight possible winners and losers from ecological restoration. Fishers and other coastal residents leveraged greater dissent in the planning process. Political ecologists show that technocentric environmental governance tends to foreclose dissent from hegemonic socioecological futures. I argue we can clarify the conditions in which this tends to happen by following how experts manage data frictions. As some conservationists and planners double down on driving with data in a “post-truth” world, I find that data’s politicizing effects stem from what is asked of it, not whether it is “big” or “drives.”
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-03-18T09:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620909727
       
  • The invisible commodity: Local experiences with forest carbon offsetting
           in Indonesia
    • Authors: Wendy B. Miles
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      A core component of the Paris Agreement is reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). Originally envisioned as a form of payments for ecosystem services, REDD+ has played out in a myriad of ways on the ground. Examining the transition of REDD+ from theory to practice, this article provides an ethnographic account of local experiences with the Kalimantan Forests and Climate Partnership in Indonesia. Challenges with the invisibility of “carbon” as a resource—both literally and figuratively—was a common theme as community members questioned the feasibility of carbon as a commodity and expressed concerns that if REDD+ did succeed, their land rights might be usurped by more powerful interests. Concurrent to REDD+, communities were navigating imminent threats from forest fires and oil palm expansion. Village government leaders saw REDD+ as a potential buffer against these threats, but due to a history of failed development interventions they proceeded carefully in REDD+. Because the Kalimantan Forests and Climate Partnership was funded by bi-lateral aid, it was less susceptible to fluctuations in the carbon market but more vulnerable to changes in Australia’s administration and aid priorities, which ultimately led to the project’s closure in 2014. Since the project’s closure, villages have experienced the expansion of oil palm plantations onto community lands, and local forests and croplands have been engulfed in massive peatland fires—both threats that REDD+ was designed to confront. A key lesson from the Kalimantan Forests and Climate Partnership is that if the international community wants to work with local communities to make a lasting impact, it is essential that their engagement be built upon commitment, transparency, and trust.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-03-13T04:33:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620905235
       
  • Environmental injustices in immigrant detention: How absences are embedded
           in the National Environmental Policy Act process
    • Authors: Michelle L. Edwards, Briana Luna, Hannah Edwards
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      The United States’ National Environmental Policy Act is a knowledge production process required by federal government agencies to assist in their evaluation of the environmental (and social) impacts of proposed federal agency actions prior to their implementation. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security, which manages immigrant detention in the United States, is included among these federal agencies. Using Texas as a case study, we explore how the National Environmental Policy Act process, as it relates to immigrant detention, systematically produces ignorance while also producing knowledge. We identify four forms of absence: absence of process in Department of Homeland Security’s use of Categorical Exclusions and programmatic Environmental Assessments, absence of actors in the exclusion of people who are detained as an “affected” social group, absence of alternatives in how “meaningful alternatives” are identified in Environmental Assessments, and absence of discourse with the public in the Environmental Assessment process. In addition, we consider how these absences reflect and perpetuate existing social and environmental inequalities.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-03-11T11:03:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620909734
       
  • Hydrosocial hinterlands: An urban political ecology of Southern
           California’s hydrosocial territory
    • Authors: Alida Cantor
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Urban political ecology has conceptualized the city as a process of urbanization rather than a bounded site. Yet, in practice, the majority of urban political ecology literature has focused on sites within city limits. This tension in urban political ecology evokes broader conversations in urban geography around city-as-place versus urbanization-as-process. In this paper, I bring an urban political ecology analysis to examine co-constitutive urbanization and ruralization processes, focusing on sites beyond city boundaries in three empirical case studies located within the broader hydrosocial territory of urban Southern California. By focusing on the rural components of hydrosocial territories, I show that each of the three case studies has been shaped in very different ways based on its enrollment within urban Southern California’s hydrosocial territory; in turn, the rural has also shaped the cities through flows of politics and resources. The paper demonstrates how urban political ecology can be usefully applied to understand rural places, illustrating how processes of urbanization can be involved in the production of distinctly rural—and distinctly different—landscapes. The cases demonstrate the utility of urban political ecology as an analytical framework that can examine co-constitutive urbanization/ruralization processes and impacts while maintaining enough groundedness to highlight place-based differences.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-03-11T11:02:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620909384
       
  • Extraction, entanglements, and (im)materialities: Reflections on the
           methods and methodologies of natural resource industries fieldwork
    • Authors: Organizing Editors Adrienne Johnson, Anna Zalik, Contributors Sharlene Mollett, Farhana Sultana, Elizabeth Havice, Tracey Osborne, Gabriela Valdivia, Flora Lu, Emily Billo
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      This multi-authored collection of papers examines the complex realities of research on natural resource industries, including the messy entanglements of extraction, materiality, and everyday social life this research entails. Of central importance to the contributors is how scholars confront fieldwork challenges ethically, methodologically, and corporeally. The collection has two key objectives. First, it expands our understanding of extractive industry by bringing together work on resources conventionally understood as extractive (e.g. oil and minerals) alongside resource-intensive industries not typically examined through an extractive lens, for instance fisheries, agricultural monocultures, water, and tourism. As such, it considers the historical and current conditions that facilitate the extraction of resources in parallel, cyclical, and reproducing forms. Second, the collection examines scholarly positionalities, methodologies, and dilemmas that arise when studying nature-intensive industries, including the extractive dimensions associated with social research itself. Together, the pieces argue that research concerning extractive industries entails multiple scholarly positions—positions problematically inflected with colonialism and always shaped by power relations. Contributors to the section draw largely from feminist, postcolonial, anti-racist, and historical materialist insights to frame and problematize the corporeal and representational concerns arising from their scholarship on nature-intensive industries, including personal dilemmas that they have encountered in their work. Overall, the collection is driven by the realization that research, and the analyses it entails, may serve as a tool for emancipatory intervention yet also reproduce inequality. The futures of the people and ecosystems at the center of our studies impel constant reflection so that our work, and that of the next generation of scholars, may offer critical analysis that contributes to transforming—rather than reinforcing—oppressive relations associated with extractive sectors and industries.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-03-11T11:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620907470
       
  • Deus ex mitigata: Denaturalizing the discursive power of Solar India
    • Authors: Ryan Stock
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Post-Paris Agreement, India is swiftly transitioning to low-carbon electricity generation through solar park development. Despite exceeding emissions reduction targets, many social development claims remain unrealized. This paper addresses the following questions: (1) What discourses do state institutions utilize to justify solar park development in rural spaces' (2) What sociopolitical effects do these discourses have at the local scale' I conducted a critical discourse analysis of technical and policy documents focusing on knowledge production to influence social power and the political economy. I also draw on eight months of fieldwork, including semi-structured interviews of residents, bureaucrats, and solar employees in Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, and New Delhi. This paper argues that solar parks are rationalized via discursive formations of the climate crisis, economic development, and ecological modernization. These discursive formations are stitched together into story-lines and circulated by public and private institutions (Solar India), comprising a “deus ex mitigata,” a deus ex machina set of discursive formations that rationalize greener capital accumulation in neoliberal India that does not address asymmetric power relations. The modalities by which this is accomplished dispossess peasants of land and livelihoods. As such, low-carbon electricity generation does not positively “transform the lives” of residents, a raison d’être for solar park development.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-03-04T05:22:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620908166
       
  • ‘The chemists’ war’ in Sydney’s seas: Water, time,
           and everyday militarisms
    • Authors: Astrida Neimanis
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Approximately 28 kilometres off the coast of Sydney in Australia, at a depth of 275 metres, some 5000 tons of unused chemical weapons were dumped in the sea. These dumps join similar sea burial grounds all around Australia’s coasts and are part of the hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical ordnance dumped in the planet’s oceans after the Second World War. While this may seem like spectacular assault of old militarisms on fragile ocean ecologies, scientific research suggests that these dumps probably pose a negligible environmental risk. What then are we to make of these souvenirs of the First World War, also known as ‘the chemists’ war’, in Sydney’s seas' In this paper, I consider how sea dumped chemical weapons should concern us, but in ways that complicate the seemingly spectacular story they tell. Specifically, I extend Rob Nixon’s () important theoretical contribution on slow and spectacular violence as a means for understanding the environmental afterlives of war. Sydney’s chemical weapons dumps underscore that Nixon’s framework cannot be interpreted dualistically; rather these undersea chemical dumps help us fathom how the slow and the spectacular are always queerly tangled, and how any unidirectionality of damage is more uncertain that a seemingly straight temporality of slowness would suggest. By productively leveraging the spectacular, I argue that Nixon’s concept helps us explore the more entangled, complex, and even contradictory ways in which militarisms pervade and shape everyday life. In tracing the queer temporal lineaments that suture the slow to the spectacular in tentacular ways, the everyday persistence of chemical militarisms, hidden in plain view, and the ways that they come to matter, are offered up for closer scrutiny.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-02-28T11:14:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620904276
       
  • The story of Wānanalua: Stranded whales and contested marine
           sovereignties in Hawai‘i
    • Authors: Max Ritts, Sarah M Wiebe
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      This paper considers how systems of interspecies knowing and care in Hawai'i push against state-supported frameworks of liberal biopolitical governance. In 2015, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued a citation suing two Kanaka Maoli (Native Hawaiian) women under the Marine Mammal Protection Act, for unlawfully “tak[ing] and/or or transporting” a stranded melon-headed whale (“Wānanalua”). In the lawsuit, prosecutors deliberated on the legality of the traditional sea burial situating it within a broader context of cultural accommodations granted by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. From our examination of the lawsuit, we develop the argument that marine mammal care operates in Hawaiʻi as a regulatory device for ordering interspecies relations and for pacifying Indigenous demands for greater marine political authority. To combine these claims, we consider the relation between two governance logics: liberal “recognition,” wherein accommodations regarding culture are extended to previously disenfranchised social groups, and biopolitics, pertaining in the present case to care practices governing more-than-human actors and environments. Our arguments are supported by detailed case files and interviews with local informants, including the Kanaka women accused of mishandling Wānanalua. The “ruptures” marking the Wānanalua case suggest a liberal recognition framework whose failures are connected to the biopolitics it embraces, but with an added detail: The present story reflects on how an interspecies biopolitics—an attempted management of Kānaka-whale care practices—structures strategies of liberal recognition.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-02-13T04:24:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620901438
       
  • Make love, not war': Radical environmental activism’s
           reconfigurative potential and pitfalls
    • Authors: Tema Milstein, Lynette McGaurr, Libby Lester
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      New radical environmental action movements are attracting large numbers of diverse actors who inevitably will take inspiration and learn from mistakes of those radical environmental organizations that precede them and continue today into middle age. The representational strategies of these established organizations are of specific interest as they enter a maturity phase that coincides with the planet experiencing an unprecedented anthropogenic moment of reckoning – a time when more broadly engaging and transformative activism is paramount to reconfiguring ecological, societal, and spatial orientations. We focus on Sea Shepherd, a global ocean protection organization founded in the same decade as many other formatively radical organizations, to examine its historic and current representations of its direct action stance; its multiple and at times conflicting positioning of cetaceans; its emphasis on celebrity and timely campaigns; and its longstanding military, war, and piracy framing – much of which has garnered attention based on appealing to news values of conventional media outlets. We illustrate ways direct action may be framed as in opposition to current extractive practices (against framing) or as a collaborative means to thriving futures (with framing) and consider ways activism frames might eschew violent clashes and celebrity long valued by conventional media outlets and speak more to today’s broader internet-savvy populations and to the reconfigurative potential of guardianship, interconnectedness, and nurturance.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-02-13T04:22:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620901443
       
  • Varieties of green: On aesthetic contestations over urban sustainability
           pathways in a Copenhagen community garden
    • Authors: Jakob Laage-Thomsen, Anders Blok
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Alongside kindred civic-driven and place-based urban greening initiatives, studies document an upsurge over the last decade in urban gardening and alternative food initiatives across a range of Euro-American settings. Meanwhile, historical and cultural inquiries into urban design, planning and politics suggest that the place and role of ‘nature’ in the city is now undergoing significant shifts. In this article, we deploy a case study of a civic-driven permaculture garden in Copenhagen in order to suggest a novel analytical grid of the imaginative and material domain of public aesthetic norms shaping current-day tensions over interventions in and valuations of the fabric of multiform green-spaces in the city. Reading across existing literatures, we model this domain along two structuring axes – of ‘orderliness’ versus ‘wildness’ and ‘pastoral nature’ versus city-nature ‘imbrication’ – and illustrate the usefulness of the resulting grid for making sense of internal debates and external criticisms in the Copenhagen permaculture gardening case. By assisting us in explaining how and why this garden struggled to carve out a legitimate space in a city otherwise committed to urban nature, we argue that attention to variable urban-green aesthetic commitments helps recast questions of urban sustainability politics in important ways.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-02-03T05:27:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620902806
       
  • Containing climate change: The new governmental strategies of catastrophic
           environments
    • Authors: Nicholas Beuret
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      The only existing plans to arrest dangerous climate change depend on either yet to be invented technologies to keep us below 2°C or on crashing the world economy for decades to come. The political choice appears to be between doing what is scientifically necessary or what is politically realistic; between shifting to an entirely different kind of global socio-economic system or suffering catastrophe. We are thus in a moment of governmental impasse, caught between old and still-emerging political rationalities. Working through the liminal governmental role of environmental non-governmental organisations, this paper explores the shift from governmental regimes centred on biopower to ones that work through the register of geopower, from governing life to governing the conditions of life. Confronted with climate change as an irresolvable problem, what we find emerging are techniques that aim to contain the worst effects of climate change without fundamentally transforming the global economy.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T09:09:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620902384
       
  • Nature-based solutions as discursive tools and contested practices in
           urban nature’s neoliberalisation processes
    • Authors: Panagiota Kotsila, Isabelle Anguelovski, Francesc Baró, Johannes Langemeyer, Filka Sekulova, James J.T. Connolly
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      ‘Nature-based solutions’ is the new jargon used to promote ideas of urban sustainability, which is gaining traction in both academic and policy circles, especially in the European Union. Through an analysis of the definitions and discourse around nature-based solutions, we discern a number of assumptions stemming from positivist science that are embedded in the term, and which we find create an inviting space for nature’s neoliberalisation processes. We provide empirical analysis of how these assumptions realise in two city-initiated projects in Barcelona, Spain, that have been identified as nature-based solutions: the green corridor of Passeig de Sant Joan and the community garden of Espai Germanetes supported under the municipal Pla Buits scheme. Both projects were born in a neoliberal political climate, but their outcomes in terms of neoliberalism and its contestation were very distinct – not least because of the different forms of governance and socio-natural interaction that these two projects foster. Urban nature can serve elite economic players at the expense of widespread socio-ecological benefits. But it can also serve as a ground for the articulation of demands for open and participatory green spaces that go beyond precarious and controlled stewardship for, or market-mediated interactions with, urban nature. We urge for future research and practice on nature-based solutions to be more critical of the term itself, and to guide its instrumentalisation in urban planning away from neoliberal agendas and towards more emancipatory and just socio-ecological futures.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-01-29T06:47:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620901437
       
  • The end of the cooperative model (as we knew it): Commoning and
           co-becoming in two Nicaraguan cooperatives
    • Authors: Joshua B Fisher, Alex M Nading
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      Cooperatives produce commons, but how they do so—and what kinds of commons they produce—cannot be known in advance. Two cooperatives in Ciudad Sandino, Nicaragua illustrate how distinct cooperative assemblages actually take shape through particular patterns of commoning. First, members of a women’s sewing cooperative called the Fair Trade Zone refuse open-membership. Claiming kinship as the logic of their membership, they describe the cooperative as “like their child”. Second, members of Ciudad Sandino’s Recycling Cooperative defy cooperative principles for rules-in-use, maintain a flexible and fluid membership, and refer to their collective organization as their “ant-hill” (hormiguero), reflecting its adaptability to changing conditions. These two case studies highlight the diverse subjects, practices, socioecological relations, political-ethical reasonings, and other resources from which cooperatives and commons are assembled. They also illustrate the multiplicity of organizational forms that communing can produce. Ultimately, the two case studies show that cooperative models are not recipes but historically generated and immanent projects that shape particular cooperativisms. Institutional approaches to commons and cooperatives fail when they impose a single form. We do not know what commoning and cooperating will become. In order to develop a language for expressing diverse modes of cooperating, then, we must start not with the recipe but with the concerns that particular cooperators find relevant.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-01-27T11:41:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848620901439
       
  • Envisioning Amazonia: Geospatial technology, legality and the
           (dis)enchantments of infrastructure
    • Authors: Theodore Vurdubakis, Raoni Rajão
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      The article discusses the sociotechnical infrastructures of deforestation detection in the Brazilian Amazon and the forms of visibility and legality these enact. It draws upon a long-term ethnographic study of how digital infrastructures impinge upon, and are enacted as, social relations. We focus upon the role of satellite images in these processes and on how the arrangements for their production and circulation become sites where knowledge and ‘un-knowledge’ are engendered and environmental politics waged.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T11:58:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848619899788
       
  • Environmental colonialism, digital indigeneity, and the politicization of
           resilience
    • Authors: Jason C Young
      Abstract: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, Ahead of Print.
      While there is wide scholarly agreement that anthropogenic climate change has serious global implications, more debate exists around whether discourses of adaptation and resilience are effective at inspiring the necessary politics for addressing those implications. Resilience-based policies have been criticized for being overly techno-bureaucratic in nature, while leaving intact the deeper colonial and neoliberal logics that produce ecological destruction in the first place. This paper examines the Internet as a tool that Indigenous peoples are using to intervene in discourses of resilience, to mitigate the colonial impact that resilience and adaptation policies have on their communities. It does this through an exploration of how Inuit in Canada are leveraging digital technologies to engage in discussions about hunting and climate change in the Arctic. The paper argues that Inuit are engaging in digital forms of politics to re-scale their vulnerability beyond the local, to highlight dimensions of Arctic resilience beyond the “traditional,” and to intervene in the colonial relationships that produce environmental vulnerability in the first place.
      Citation: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space
      PubDate: 2020-01-02T10:06:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2514848619898098
       
 
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