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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 142 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 246)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover
Soil Ecology Letters
Number of Followers: 0  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2662-2289 - ISSN (Online) 2662-2297
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2657 journals]
  • Redox-driven shifts in soil microbial community structure in the drawdown
           zone after construction of the Three Gorges Dam
    • Abstract: Abstract Soil redox is a critical environmental factor shaping the microbial community structure and ultimately alters the nutrient cycling. However, the response of soil microbial community structure to prolonged or repeated redox fluctuations is not yet clear. To study the dynamic effects of prolonged redox disturbances to the soil microbial community structure, soil samples experiencing 8, 5 and 0 alternating oxic-anoxic cycles within approximately 6 months each year were collected and the microbial community structure were evaluated using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) profiles. Prolonged redox disturbances had significant effects on soil physiochemical properties and soil microbial community structure. The relative abundance of straight chain saturated PLFAs, cyclopropyl, and terminal- and mid-branched chain saturated PLFAs increased due to prolonged redox disturbances, but there was a consistent decrease in linear monounsaturated PLFAs and polyunsaturated PLFAs in the fluctuating zone. Prolonged redox disturbances had a negative impact on the total PLFA content (a proxy for biomass). Both the fluctuating zone (8-cycle and 5-cycle plots) and the never flooded zone (0-cycle plots) were dominated by Gram-positive bacteria and a low content of fungi, actinomycetes and protozoa. The fungi and protozoa abundance decreased significantly with an increase in the occurrence of alternating flooding-dry events, suggesting that the prolonged redox disturbance leads to high stress on the fungi and protozoa populations. Moreover, total organic matter (TOC) and C:N ratio, environmental factors that can be influenced by recurring redox fluctuations, also influenced the microbial community structure.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42832-019-0005-y
  • Dynamic changes in soil chemical properties and microbial community
           structure in response to different nitrogen fertilizers in an acidified
           celery soil
    • Abstract: Abstract To determine the effects of different kinds of nitrogen fertilizer, especially high-efficiency slow-release fertilizers, on soil pH, nitrogen (N) and microbial community structures in an acidic celery soil, four treatments (CK, no N fertilizer; NR, urea; PE, calcium cyanamide fertilizer; and SK, controlled-release N fertilizer) were applied, and soil pH, total soil N, inorganic N, and soil microbial biomass C were analyzed. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were extracted and detected using the MIDI Sherlock microbial identification system. The PE treatment significantly improved soil pH, from 4.80 to >6.00, during the whole growth period of the celery, and resulted in the highest celery yield among the four treatments. After 14 d application of calcium cyanamide, the soil nitrate content significantly decreased, but the ammonium content significantly increased. The PE treatment also significantly increased soil microbial biomass C during the whole celery growth period. Canonical variate analysis of the PLFA data indicated that the soil microbial community structure in the CK treatment was significantly different from those in the N applied treatments after 49 d fertilization. However, there was a significant difference (P<0.05) in soil microbial community structure between the PE treatment and the other three treatments at the end of the experiment. Calcium cyanamide is a good choice for farmers to use on acidic celery land because it supplies sufficient N, and increases soil pH, microbial biomass and the yield of celery.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42832-019-0012-z
  • Organic amendment effects on nematode distribution within aggregate
           fractions in agricultural soils
    • Abstract: Abstract To evaluate the effect of organic amendments on soil nematode community composition and diversity within aggregate fractions, a study was initiated in agricultural soils with four-year organic amendments. Soil samples were collected from the plow layer (0–20 cm) under three cornfield management scenarios: 1) conventional cropping (CK, corn straw removal and no organic manure application); 2) straw retention (SR, incorporation of chopped corn stalk); and 3) manure application (MA, chicken manure input). The soil samples were fractionated into four aggregate sizes, i.e., >2 mm (large macroaggregates), 1–2 mm (macroaggregates), 0.25–1 mm (small macroaggregates), and <0.25 mm (microaggregates, silt and clay fractions). The composition and diversity of soil nematode communities were determined within each aggregate fraction. The results showed that both SR and MA treatments significantly increased the percentage of macroaggregates (>1 mm) and only MA treatment strongly increased the mean weight diameter compared to the CK (P<0.05). The abundance of total nematodes and four trophic groups were affected significantly by the aggregate fractions and their higher abundance occurred in the larger aggregates. The effects of aggregate size on most nematode genera were significant. Bacterivores in the small macroaggregates and microaggregates, and fungivores in the large macroaggregates were significantly different among treatments. The percentage of bacterivores increased after the application of organic materials, while that of fungivores decreased. It can be concluded that organic management significantly affects soil aggregation and soil characteristics within aggregates, and the aggregate size subsequently influences the distribution of nematode communities.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42832-019-0010-1
  • AOA and AOB communities respond differently to changes of soil pH under
           long-term fertilization
    • Abstract: Abstract Archaeal and bacterial ammonia-oxidizers drive the first step of nitrification, ammonia oxidation. Despite their importance, the relative contribution of soil factors influencing the abundance, diversity and community composition of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) are seldom compared. In this study, the AOA and AOB communities in soils from a long-term fertilization experiment (which formed gradients of pH and nutrients) were measured using 454 pyrosequencing of the amoA gene. Results showed that both AOA and AOB communities were influenced by fertilization practice. Changes of AOA abundance, diversity and community structure were closely correlated with a single factor, soil pH, and the abundance and diversity of AOA were lower under the acidified treatments. By contrast, AOB abundance was higher in the acidified soil than in the control soil while AOB diversity was little impacted by soil acidification, and both the abundance and diversity of AOB were most highly correlated with soil carbon and available phosphorus. These results indicated that AOB diversity seemed more resistant to soil acidification than that of AOA, and also suggested that AOB have greater ecophysiological diversity and broader range of habitats than AOA in this lime concretion black soil, and the potential contribution of AOB to ammonia oxidation in acid environments should not be overlooked.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42832-019-0016-8
  • Improved rhizoremediation for decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in E-waste
           contaminated soils
    • Abstract: Abstract An experiment was conducted to improve rhizoremediation for decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) contaminated soil from typical E-waste dismantling areas. Plants of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) were cultivated in aged-contaminated (initial concentration of 346.3 μg BDE-209$kg−1) and freshly-spiked (initial concentration of 3127 μg BDE-209$kg−1) soils, coupling with the agricultural modification strategies of compost addition and/or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) infection, respectively. 60 days’ growth of ryegrass significantly facilitated the dissipation of BDE-209, with the most effective in its rhizosphere in treatment inoculated with AMF; the BDE-209 dissipation rates achieved 51.9% and 22.8% in rhizosphere, and 43.5% and 19.8% in non-rhizosphere, for aged-contaminated and freshly-spiked soils, respectively. 120 days’ growth of rice with simultaneous inoculation of AMF and addition of compost was the most effective in facilitating BDE-209 dissipation in aged-contaminated soil, with the removal rates of 53.3% and 48.1% in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils respectively; while for freshly-spiked soils, the most effective removal was achieved by compost addition only, with the BDE-209 dissipation rates of 27.9% and 26.6% in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, respectively. High throughput sequencing analysis of rhizosphere soil DNA showed that responses in microbial communities and their structure differed with plant species, soil pollution dose, AMF inoculation and/or compost addition. Actinomycetales, Xanthomonadales, Burkholderiales, Sphingomonadales, Clostridiales, Cytophagales, Gemmatimonadales and Saprospirales were the sensitive responders and even possibly potential functional microbial groups during the facilitated removal of BDE-209 in soils. This study illustrates an effective rhizoremediation pattern for removal of BDE-209 in pollution soils, through successive cultivation of rice and followed by ryegrass, with rice growth coupled with AMF inoculation and compost addition, while ryegrass growth coupled with AMF inoculation only.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42832-019-0007-9
  • Community assemblage of free-living diazotrophs along the elevational
           gradient of Mount Gongga
    • Abstract: Abstract Mountain systems are unique for studying the responses of species distribution and diversity to environmental changes along elevational gradients. It is well known that free-living diazotrophic microorganisms are important to nitrogen cycling in mountain systems. However, the elevational patterns of free-living diazotrophs and the underlying ecological processes in controlling their turnover along broader gradients are less well documented. Here, we investigated the pattern of diazotrophic diversity along the elevational gradient (1800 m-4100 m) in Mount Gongga of China. The results showed that the α-diversity of diazotrophs did not change with the elevation from 1800 m to 2800 m, but decreased at elevations above 3000 m. Such diversity pattern was driven mainly by soil total carbon, nitrogen, and plant richness. Various diazotrophic taxa showed differential abundance-elevation relationships. Ecological processes determining diazotrophic community assemblage shift along the elevations. Deterministic processes were relatively stronger at both low and high elevations, whereas stochastic processes were stronger at the middle elevation. This study also suggested a strong relationship among aboveground plants and diazotrophs, highlighting their potential interactions, even for free-living diazotrophs.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42832-019-0013-y
  • Soil biofilms: microbial interactions, challenges, and advanced techniques
           for ex-situ characterization
    • Abstract: Abstract Soil is inhabited by a myriad of microorganisms, many of which can form supracellular structures, called biofilms, comprised of surface-associated microbial cells embedded in hydrated extracellular polymeric substance that facilitates adhesion and survival. Biofilms enable intensive inter- and intra-species interactions that can increase the degradation efficiency of soil organic matter and materials commonly regarded as toxins. Here, we first discuss organization, dynamics and properties of soil biofilms in the context of traditional approaches to probe the soil microbiome. Social interactions among bacteria, such as cooperation and competition, are discussed. We also summarize different biofilm cultivation devices in combination with optics and fluorescence microscopes as well as sequencing techniques for the study of soil biofilms. Microfluidic platforms, which can be applied to mimic the complex soil environment and study microbial behaviors at the microscale with high-throughput screening and novel measurements, are also highlighted. This review aims to highlight soil biofilm research in order to expand the current limited knowledge about soil microbiomes which until now has mostly ignored biofilms as a dominant growth form.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42832-019-0017-7
  • Arbuscular mycorrhiza and plant chromium tolerance
    • Abstract: Abstract Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are ubiquitous soil fungi that form symbiotic associations with most terrestrial plants. The growth and functions of AM fungi depend on carbohydrates supplied by the plants, in return, the fungi assist the plants to acquire mineral nutrients (e.g., phosphorus) from soil. The AM symbiosis also improves plant survival in various unfavorable environments, such as metal (loid) contaminated soil. It has been well demonstrated that AM symbiosis improved plant adaptation to Cr contamination, which would have a great potential in phytoremediation and ecological restoration of Cr contaminated soils. In this paper, we have reviewed the role of AM fungi in alleviation of Cr phytotoxicity and associated factors influencing plant Cr tolerance. AM symbiosis improves plant Cr tolerance through its direct roles in Cr stabilization and transformation and indirect roles via AM symbiosis mediated nutrient acquisition and physiological regulation. Future research on physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying Cr behavior and detoxification in AM symbiosis, as well as potential use of AM fungi in ecological restoration and agriculture production in Cr contaminated soils were also proposed.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42832-019-0015-9
  • Factors that affect the assembly of ground-dwelling beetles at small
           scales in primary mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forests in north-east
    • Abstract: Abstract Disentangling the relative roles of environmental and spatial processes in community assembly is a major task of community ecology. It is necessary to uncover this question at multiple spatial scales; however, the relative importance of spatial and environmental processes on ground-dwelling beetle assembly at a small scale is still unclear. Based on two permanent plots (each 300 m) located in primary mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forests, the topographic, soil, and plant factors were collected, and the spatial variables (MEMs, distance-based Moran’s eigenvector maps) were calculated. A redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to evaluate the influence of topographic, soil, and plant variables on ground-dwelling beetle compositions. A variation partitioning analysis was used to quantify the relative contributions of environmental and spatial processes on the assembly of ground-dwelling beetles. The results of the RDA reported that the soil, plant, and topographic variables affected Staphylinidae and Silphidae beetle compositions in both plots. According to the results of variation partitioning, pure soil and plant variables were important for the assembly of Silphidae beetles in the LS plot. The contributions of pure topographic, soil, and plant variables were significantly lower than those of pure spatial variables. The contributions of pure spatial variables were significant for the assembly of Staphylinidae and Silphidae beetles in both plots. In addition, the relative importance of environmental and spatial processes was not significantly changed after including more environmental variables and the unexplained variations. Finally, this study suggests that both spatial and environmental variables are important for the assembly of ground-dwelling beetle communities, while pure spatial variables are more important than pure environmental variables at a small scale (300 m).
      PubDate: 2019-09-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s42832-019-0018-6
  • Exploring soil microbial communities: Opportunities for soil ecology
    • PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42832-019-0001-2
  • A biogeographic map of soil bacterial communities in wheats field of the
           North China Plain
    • Abstract: Abstract The vast diversity of soil bacteria provides essential ecosystem services that support agricultural production. Variation in the diversity and composition of soil biota may have predictive values for soil nutrient cycling and resilience of ecosystem services, thus providing valuable insights to improve food production. The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the world’s key agricultural regions, supplying more than 50% of the cereal consumed in Asia. However, it is unknown whether soil microbial diversity is predictable across the NCP. Using the MiSeq Illumina platform, we examined bacterial community variation in relation to spatial and environmental factors from 243 soils in wheat-maize double cropping rotation fields across the NCP, which cover nearly 0.3 million km2. Based on observed bacterial communities and their relationships with environmental factors, we generated a map of bacterial communities across the NCP. The highest bacterial diversity was found in the middle part of the NCP, with most of the variation in diversity attributable to differences in the community similarity of Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. These findings provide important baseline information for analyzing the relationships between microbial community, soil functionality and crop yields.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42832-019-0014-x
  • Linking microbial community analysis and ecosystem studies: A rapid lipid
           analysis protocol for high throughput
    • Abstract: Abstract During the past two decades interest in linking soil microbial community composition and activity with ecosystem scale field studies of nutrient cycling or plant community response to disturbances has grown. Despite its importance there are challenges in making this linkage. Foremost is the question of analytical feasibility. In general, microbiological community-level methodologies have not been readily adaptable to the large sample sizes necessary for ecosystem-scale research. As a result, it has been difficult to generate compatible microbial and ecosystem data sets. Soil lipid analysis shows potential as a middle ground between simple biomass measures and molecular profiling. However, the two protocols that have most often been followed are either rapid but indiscriminate (total lipid analysis or fatty acid methyl ester analysis; FAME), or precise but time consuming (phospholipid fatty acid analysis; PLFA). In this paper we report results from a standardized soil used test a modified extraction method (the ‘hybrid’ method) developed to balance the speed of FAME and the precision of PLFA in order to increase sample throughput. In comparing the three methods, we find that FAME and PLFA are qualitatively and quantitatively distinct. The FAME method yielded the highest fatty acid abundance, but also had high variance resulting in low precision. The PLFA method had precision, but low yield. The ‘hybrid’ method fell midway between FAME and PLFA for quantitative fatty acid yield. In addition, the hybrid extraction can be completed in a fraction of the time it takes for PLFA. The hybrid protocol appears to provide an optimal balance between effort and accuracy and therefore is a good choice for large-scale ecosystem studies.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42832-019-0003-0
  • Soil microbiome mediated nutrients decline during forest degradation
    • Abstract: Abstract Degradation succession in forests is an important and serious land use/cover change problem in ecology, and during these processes soil microbial communities mediate the recycling of most important nutrients. To reveal the effect of degradation succession processes on soil microbial community diversity, structure, and species interrelationships, we collected abundant samples (21 per vegetation type) in broad-leaved forest, coniferous forest, and meadow to observe the microbial community dynamics. The results showed that diversity and structure of soil prokaryotic and fungal communities responded differently to different forest degradation processes, diversity of soil microbial communities increased during degradation processes. Soil microbial communities abundance changes may indicate that prokaryotic communities showed a living strategies change as an ecological adaption to harsh conditions during forest degradation process. While for fungal communities, their abundance changes may indicate that environmental selection pressure and plant selectivity during forest degradation process. Changes in soil prokaryotic communities and fungal communities were both correlated with soil carbon and nitrogen loss. The soil microbial interaction network analysis indicated more complex species interrelationships formed due to the loss of soil nutrients during degradation succession processes, suggesting soil microbial communities might form more complex and stable networks to resist the external disturbance of soil nutrient loss. All results suggested soil microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea and fungi, all involved in the soil nutrient decline during the forest degradation process.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42832-019-0009-7
  • Soil microbial community assemblage and its seasonal variability in alpine
           treeline ecotone on the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    • Abstract: Abstract The alpine treeline ecotone is characterized as the upper limit of the forest in the high-mountain ecosystem. Due to the freeze-thaw cycles, the soil organism community, such as microbial communities are expected to change between seasons. However, there are limited microbial-community studies focused on the high altitude alpine ecosystem. We conducted a study in the alpine treeline ecotone on the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, and investigated the seasonal variability of the soil microbial community. We collected all soil samples within the alpine treeline ecotone, between the treeline and timberline in the high-mountain region. The 16S rRNA genes of the microbial communities (bacterial and archaeal) were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing to the genus level. The results showed that soil microbial community in the alpine treeline ecotone was consistently dominated by eight phyla which consisted of 95% of the total microbial community, including Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia. The overall diversity and evenness of the community were relatively stable, with an average of 0.5% difference between seasons. The highest seasonal variability occurred at the upper boundary of the alpine treeline ecotone, and few or almost no seasonal change was observed at lower elevations, indicating dense forest cover and litter deposition might have created a local microclimate that reduced seasonal variation among the surrounding environmental conditions. Our study was one of the first group that documented the microbial community assemblage in the treeline ecotone on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42832-019-0006-x
  • Loss of soil microbial diversity exacerbates spread of antibiotic
    • Abstract: Abstract Loss of biodiversity is a major threat to the ecosystem processes upon which society depends. Natural ecosystems differ in their resistance to invasion by alien species, and this resistance can depend on the diversity in the system. Little is known, however, about the barriers that microbial diversity provides against microbial invasion. The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a serious threat to public health in the 21st century. We explored the consequences of the reduction in soil microbial diversity for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. The relationship between this diversity and the invasion of antibiotic resistance was investigated using a dilution-to-extinction approach coupled with high-capacity quantitative PCR. Microbial diversity was negatively correlated with the abundance of antibiotic-resistance genes, and this correlation was maintained after accounting for other potential drivers such as incubation time and microbial abundance. Our results demonstrate that high microbial diversity can act as a biological barrier resist the spread of antibiotic resistance. These results fill a critical gap in our understanding of the role of soil microbial diversity in the health of ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42832-019-0011-0
  • Nitrogen deposition suppresses fungal biomass and oxidase activity in
           faeces of the millipede Spirobolus formosae in a temperate forest
    • Abstract: Abstract Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has increased dramatically since the industrial revolution due to humanactivities. Interrestrial ecosystems, excess nitrogeninputs cangreatly affectsoil chemical properties, plant growth, and activities of soil microbes and fauna. Millipedes can fragment and consume large quantities of litter, and they regulate nutrient cycling and affect soil fertility through excretion of faeces. Many soil fauna graze on the faeces of millipedes as a part of the soil food web. The decomposition and stabilization of these millipede faeces are especially important in soil carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling, and these processes rely heavily upon microbial activity. However, very few studies have investigated how microbial community structure and oxidase activity of millipede faeces respond to climate change, especially N deposition. Therefore, we designed a microcosm study to investigate this question, which included two treatments, N addition treatment and control (without N addition). We found that: (i) microbial community structure in millipede faeces was altered and the biomass of fungi and actinomycetes in faecal pellets were significantly reduced after N addition, but bacteria still dominated in millipede faeces after N addition, (ii) oxidase activity was suppressed in response to N addition, and (iii) microbial community structure and oxidase activities were significantly correlated to organic carbon and dissolved total nitrogen of faeces. All these changes suggest that millipede excretion activities under nitrogen deposition contribute to carbon stabilization and reduction in greenhouse gas emission owing to the significant role of fungi and associated oxidase in carbon mineralization. It is noteworthy to pay more attention to the function of saprotrophic invertebrates in future N deposition studies.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42832-019-0004-z
  • Collembolans accelerate the dispersal of antibiotic resistance genes in
           the soil ecosystem
    • Abstract: Abstract Soils have become an important sink for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). To better understand the impacts of ARGs on the soil ecosystem, the transport of ARGs is a basic question. So far, however, the role of soil animals in the dispersal of ARGs is not understood. Here, two treatments (without collembolans and with collembolans) were established, each treatment included unamended and manure-amended soil, and soil samples were collected at 14, 28 and 56 days after incubation. The effects of the collembolan Folsomia Candida on dispersal of ARGs in the soil ecosystem were explored using high-throughput qPCR combined with Illumina sequencing. As the culture time increased, more shared ARGs and OTUs were detected between the unamended and manured soil, especially in the treatment with collembolans. Vancomycin, aminoglycoside and MLSB genes may have been more readily transported by the collembolan. On the 28th day after incubation, a high abundance of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) was found in the treatment with collembolans. These results clearly reveal that collembolans can accelerate the dispersal of ARGs in the soil ecosystem. Procrustes analysis and the Mantel test both indicate that soil bacterial communities were significantly correlated with ARG profiles. Furthermore, partial redundancy analysis indicates that soil bacterial communities can explain 41.28% of the variation in ARGs. These results suggest that the change of soil microbial community have an important contribution to the dispersal of ARGs by the collembolan.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42832-019-0002-1
  • Straw biochar strengthens the life strategies and network of rhizosphere
           fungi in manure fertilized soils
    • Abstract: Abstract Soil fungi have many important ecological functions, however, their life strategies and interactions in manure fertilized soils are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar amendment on the fungal life strategies and species interactions in ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) rhizosphere soil by high-throughput sequencing. Three soil treatments were evaluated: soil and pig manure mixture without planting ryegrass and biochar application (bulk soil), mixture with ryegrass planting (rhizosphere soil (RS)), and addition of 2% (w/w) biochar with ryegrass (RS + biochar). Our results indicated that temporal turnover, defined as the slope of linear regression between community similarity and time, was significantly higher in the biochar amendment (slope = −0.2689, p < 0.0001) relative to the rhizosphere soil. Following biochar addition, the percentage of species employing slow acclimation ecological strategies decreased (from 27% to 17%) and the percentage of sensitive species increased (from 40% to 50%) in comparison to the rhizosphere soil. Network analysis indicated that fungal communities in the biochar amendment enhanced positive correlations compared to the rhizosphere soil and bulk soil. Structural equation model indicated that soil pH was the most important factor in altering fungal life strategies and interactions in manure fertilized soils.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42832-019-0008-8
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