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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 142 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 245)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover
Tropical Ecology
Number of Followers: 0  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0564-3295 - ISSN (Online) 2661-8982
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2656 journals]
  • Spatial variations in soil micronutrients as influenced by agro ecological
           conditions in a tropical humid region
    • Abstract: The continuous and indiscriminate use of NPK fertilizers for boosting productivity in the farming sector longer periods resulted in the imbalance of soil nutrients in the long run. This nutrient disparity in soil gradually throw back in crops, animals and human beings, leading to various degenerative and deficiency related diseases now more than ever. This constrained site specific nutrient management for crops, which essentially rely upon evaluation of variability spatially and temporarily. In this study we scrutinized the spatial variation of soil fertility in exhaustive plough lands of Thrissur district, Kerala, India. A total of 600 geo referred soil samples were collected from different agroecological units of the district and examined for selected micronutrients such as Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and B. Geo-statistical mapping tool (Arc GIS10.2.2) was used to quantify the degree of spatial variability in various soil fertility parameters. The spatial variation of nutrients in the study area was assessed by using semivariogram method in kriging interpolation and spatial dependence was calculated. The best fit model was applied to the kriging interpolation according to the determination coefficient, which is the correlation of measured and predicted values on space and spatial distribution maps of all the micronutrients. Among the variables analyzed, B revealed strong spatial dependence (24%), Zn with weak spatial dependence (78%) with model gaussian and others with moderate spatial dependence. The results from the present study call to develop a strategy for site-specific management for the parameters showing moderate spatial dependence and weak spatial dependence. But for B, showing strong spatial dependence, only uniform management is needed because it was greatly affected by the structural factors such as climate, topography and parent material. Spatial variability of soil properties is essential for precision agriculture because soil parameters with little or no spatial dependence will not be conducive to site-specific management, and will be managed on the average level only.
      PubDate: 2019-10-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00037-w
  • Impacts of core rotation, defaunation and nitrogen addition on arbuscular
           mycorrhizal fungi, microorganisms and microarthropods in a tropical
           montane rainforest
    • Abstract: In tropical ecosystems, interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and other organisms have been little studied, but may be of significant importance for understanding the role of AMF in decomposition processes and nutrient cycling. In this study, we used ingrowth cores to investigate the impacts of regular rotation of the cores, defaunation and nitrogen addition on AMF, microbial biomass and microarthropods in the fermentation/humus (F/H) and litter (L) layers of an Ecuadorian montane tropical rainforest. AMF were substantially reduced in the F/H layer (to 34% of initial), while in the L layer they remained constant during the experiment. Overall, microorganisms and microarthropods were largely independent of AMF hyphae and their exudates, however, defaunation strongly affected the recovery of their communities. Nitrogen addition increased the quality of litter material and beneficially affected microbial communities thereby increasing decomposition rates, but did not impact AMF abundance and microarthropod communities. These findings suggest that the cutoff of the carbon supply from the plant to the fungal mycelium was not compensated by switching resources in the F/H layer, underlining a strong association between AMF and living roots. While in the L layer, AMF likely competed with saprotrophic microorganisms for litter-derived resources at intermediate stages of decomposition pointing to indirect contributions of AMF to decomposition processes. Overall, the results support the view that root-derived resources are important in fueling soil food webs, but also indicate that in the studied montane rainforest these resources are only available close to roots and not channeled distant to roots via AMF.
      PubDate: 2019-09-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00038-9
  • Effect of disturbance on population structure, regeneration and
           conservation of Moghania chappar in sal forests of Gorakhpur, India
    • Abstract: Non-seed regeneration is essentially a vagrant strategy of woody plants causing assemblage of homozygous populations in disturbed forests. We tried to understand how such hardy species like Moghania chappar produce close groups of individuals at different level of disturbance. The hypothesis of trade-off between ramet proliferation and disturbance level, and between growth pattern and resource conservation was tested. The three 1-ha sample plots of sal forest, facing low, moderate or high level of disturbance were observed within Sohagibarwa Wildlife Sanctuary. A total of 40 quadrats per 1-ha plot were sampled to record the age structure of genet and ramet populations of M. chappar. The architecture and foraging of the root-stock was mapped, the biomass of root and shoot was measured and the soil conserved by the root-complex was estimated at each disturbance level. The growth characteristics suggest that M. chappar conforms to Stone’s model of tree architecture. At moderate disturbance, the root-shoot junction sent many more sprouts, garnered much biomass and became flat and curved. The insurrection of ramets caused fragmentation of the root-complex. This clonal growth strategy, however, was neither clearly ‘phalanx’ nor ‘guerrilla’ type. It resulted in intermittent shallow cavities within fragmented root-stock that got filled with soil rich in organic matter. The growth strategy of the species showed potential to restore the soil system and to conserve the diversity of minor biota. In moderately disturbed sal forest, the understorey paved way to prolific non-seed regeneration of this fugitive mid-successional species. At moderate heat stress, the number of individuals as well as the proportion of seedlings per population was highest. The species rapidly increased the understorey foliage by producing a metapopulation of usable sprouts/ramets that facilitated retention of soil and nutrients within their root traps. The total extractible shoot biomass per plant was quite large as a ~ 6 year old individual weighed 473.5 ± 27.4 g. This study of clonal plant ecology may provide new impetus to the conservation of degraded forest ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2019-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00035-y
  • Assessment of litter availability and its quality plasticity of four wild
           species of the Indian arid environment
    • Abstract: Wild plant species are crucial component for ecosystem stability and also affecting the nutrient dynamics of the system. However, there are relatively few experimental tests to assess their litter availability (biomass) and quality. In the present study, the litter potential and their quality plasticity of four wild arid plant species (Tephrosia purpurea, Aerva persica, Clerodendrum phlomidis and Calotropis procera) of the Indian hot arid desert have been assessed through correlated component regression and with various chemical parameters. The spatial impacts on litter availability and quality were tested with ANOVA, Levene’s and Tukey’s tests. Proximity or distances of species variables with site factors and interrelationships among morphological and chemical parameters were visualized through principal component analysis. Site factor significantly influences the estimated litter availability for T. purpurea and A. persica. Significant spatial effects were also observed for litter quality parameters like cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, carbon, nitrogen, lignin:N and lignin + polyphenol:N. Trait plasticity suggested that spatial factor influenced biochemical parameters more compared to their morphological parameters of the studied species. The results of the present study can be followed with future research pertaining to decomposition patterns of litter, impacts of litter on plant community dynamics and their role in plant production.
      PubDate: 2019-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00034-z
  • A stranger in the family' On the social behavior of a leucistic
           collared peccary ( Pecari tajacu ) with pigmented conspecifics
    • Abstract: Anomalous coloration is defined as the excess or deficit of pigmentation in some region(s) or throughout the entire body of an animal, and have been classified as piebalism, leucism, or albinism. The first record of anomalous coloration for the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) was a leucistic cub captured in dense ombrophilous Atlantic Forest in the municipality of São José dos Pinhais, state of Paraná, southern Brazil, which was subsequently raised by residents until it was an adult. Collared peccarys’s behaviors are well documented in literature, but there is no published scientific information about the behavior of leucistic individuals. Here we report the second case of anomalous coloration of the collared peccary (P. tajacu) in Brazil and the Neotropical region, and comment on its social interaction with pigmented conspecifics. For a period of 27 months of monitoring, cameras trap captured 109 records (47 videos and 62 photos) distributed among 21 days. We retrieved 22 independent events from the records, of which 54.5% were of the leucistic collared peccary alone and 45.5% with it interacting with pigmented conspecifics. During interactions it displayed both affiliative and agonistic behaviors. Collared peccaries live in stable herds of five to 25 individuals, with temporary sub-herds of one to three individuals that forage separately for several hours during the day. Considering that animals with an absence of body pigmentation are more susceptible to predation, the survival of the leucistic collared peccary may be associated with its social interaction with pigmented conspecifics.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00036-x
  • Agriculture, forest and environmental management trinity: towards
           environmental sustainability and climate change mitigation
    • PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00025-0
  • Validation of occurrence of a tropical shad Tenualosa toli (Teleostei:
           Clupeidae) in Brunei Darussalam
    • Abstract: The tropical shads found in Brunei Darussalam was identified using a morphological analysis, and the identification was further validated by an analysis of the shads’ 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Because of the difficulty of accurately identifying tropical shads solely on morphological analyses, previous studies had reported the occurrence of the tropical shads Tenualosa toli (Valenciennes, 1847) and T. macrura (Bleeker, 1852) in Malaysian waters of the Borneo Island. However, based on the morphological key characters and geographical distribution, all specimens were identified as T. reevesii (Richardson, 1846). Thereafter, all specimens were identified as T. toli, which was confirmed by the molecular genetic analysis. This study found the occurrence of T. toli in Brunei Darussalam. The present study also suggests that accurate tropical shad species identification is needed to validate by molecular genetic analysis after morphological observation.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00020-5
  • Challenges and opportunities for agricultural sustainability in changing
           climate scenarios: a perspective on Indian agriculture
    • Abstract: Increasing population and related food demand always remain the most imperative challenges for the developing world. It could only be attained by an increased agricultural production based on external inputs like mineral fertilizers and pesticides during the twentieth century. The green revolution-based modern agricultural practices have resulted in the substantial increase in grain yield at the cost of natural resource degradation. The externalisation of agriculture led to a considerable decline in soil fertility and environmental resilience. It calls for a different approach which should educate the farmers to utilise their traditional knowledge to produce more grains using less external inputs. This approach is known as sustainable agriculture which is the need of the hour, at present. The sustainable agriculture practices are derived from the amalgamation of traditionally adapted healthy practices with a modern development of agricultural systems. Thus, sustainable agricultural practices are supposed to be resource-conservative and resilient to the present climate change scenario. Moreover, a higher proportion of traditional inputs either in the form of resources or the knowledge may encompass the socio-economic balance among different societies. In this review, a brief insight has been given on the concept of sustainable agriculture, its need in the present scenario and a critical assessment in terms of challenges and opportunities for overall sustainability in developing nations by considering India as a model country. How the integration of traditional knowledge and modern agriculture practices will improve the agricultural productivity, soil quality and health as well as socio-economic balance, has also been discussed in terms of research opportunities.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00029-w
  • Contribution of root-associated microbial communities on soil quality of
           Oak and Pine forests in the Himalayan ecosystem
    • Abstract: Microorganisms, the fundamental components of all the ecosystems, play significant role in various biological processes such as biodegradation, mineralization and nutrient mobilization. The role of rhizosphere associated microbial interactions with reference to their contribution in enzymatic activities in two dominant forest tree species of Indian Himalaya, namely Oak (Quercus leucotrichophora) and Pine (Pinus roxburghii), is focused in the present study. Rhizosphere soil and root samples were collected in active and dormant seasons for two consecutive years from three selected sites. Root samples were studied for colonization by fungal associates as indicator of their ecological functions. Soil samples were analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics and enzymatic activities as a measure of soil health. Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE) and fungal colonization were observed in roots of both the tree species. Microscopic observations revealed high percentage of DSE and fungal hyphae (76–96 and 32–78%) in Oak while in Pine roots this percentage was 8–10 and 48–86%, respectively. Most of the soil physico-chemical parameters were found higher in Oak soil except total phosphorus content. Further, activity of acid phosphatase and dehydrogenase was recorded higher in Oak soil as compared to Pine soil. Pine soil samples showed high alkaline phosphatase and β-glucosidase activities. The study concludes that microbial associations and their activities in Oak and Pine soils appeared to define the specific properties of both forest types in terms of slow biodegradation in Pine and higher carbon sequestration in Oak.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00031-2
  • Study on land-use and land-cover change dynamics in Eastern Arunachal
           Pradesh, N.E. India using remote sensing and GIS
    • Abstract: The current study describes the land use and land cover dynamics in Eastern Arunachal Pradesh from 1985 to 2005 using remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS). Landsat-MSS, IRS-LISS-I and LISS-III data for the period 1985, 1995 and 2005 were used to prepare the land use/land cover (LULC) map at 1:250K for different periods. Post-classification change detection technique for quantifying the changes for twelve major land use and land cover types was analyzed. The study signifies that the region experiences expansion in crop land and built-up area and decline in forest area. Crop land and built-up area has increased by 665.41 km2 and 16.72 km2, respectively, from 1985 to 2005. On the other hand, forest area has declined by 699.37 km2 during the period. The study showed that topography and increasing population play an important role in shaping the LULC pattern. The study further revealed the importance of satellite remote sensing and GIS as an effective approach for analyzing the direction, rate and spatial pattern of land use dynamics. It is believed that this type of study will help to contribute towards sustainable land-use planning and management in this part of the North East India in the near future.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00022-3
  • Functional attributes of two Croton species in different successional
           stages of tropical dry forest: effects on herbivory and fluctuating
           asymmetry patterns
    • Abstract: Tropical dry forests are among the most threatened ecosystems in the world. After habitat perturbation occurs, the habitat recovers naturally through ecological succession. This succession can modify functional attributes of plants, which in turn, can affect herbivorous insects’ performance. We analyzed morphological, functional, and chemical traits associated with herbivory patterns in Croton roxanae and C. suberosus, that occur in mature and secondary forests in the tropical dry forest of Chamela, Jalisco. Leaf area and leaf thickness were higher in secondary forest, while leaf density and fresh leaf mass were higher in mature forest. Dry leaf mass, specific leaf area, chlorophyll content, and water content showed variation between species in both forest conditions. The concentration of secondary metabolites showed variation between species and forest conditions. Croton roxanae showed higher herbivory in mature forest, and C. suberosus did not show differences between the two conditions. Leaves in secondary forest were slightly longer and broader than leaves in mature forest. Croton species showed higher fluctuating asymmetry in secondary forest. Herbivory was not associated with levels of fluctuating asymmetry levels in both Croton species. Our results suggest that plant attributes are influenced by forest condition, which in turn, indirectly affect the attack of herbivores.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00027-y
  • Heightened nest loss in tropical forest fragments despite higher predator
           load in core forest
    • Abstract: Tropical understory birds have declined due largely to habitat loss and fragmentation. Here, we revisited a study conducted three decades ago and used artificial nests to examine depredation rates in a Costa Rican biological corridor. Using camera trap data, we compared potential nest predator detection rates at experimental tinamou ground nests in La Selva Biological Station and at sites in five local forest fragments. Nest predator detections were positively associated with landscape-scale core forest and distance away from forest edge, as well as with local-scale human trails, and negatively associated with primary forest compared to secondary growth. Twenty-two of 52 artificial nests were depredated, which was similar to previous research in the area. Mammalian and avian predators were common nest predators, but unknown predators (presumably snakes) were responsible for half of nests lost. Nests within La Selva core forest had lower probability of nest loss compared to fragments despite exhibiting higher predator detection rates. Yet other fragmentation covariates such as distance from forest edge, nest occurrence on human trails, or forest age were not associated with nest loss. We suggest that concentrated foraging is the underlying mechanism behind the community interactions that we observed. Community members exist in concentrated use areas within forest fragments, which results in heightened predator foraging rates and thus stronger interactions in fragments despite more predators encountering the nests in core forest. Fragmentation is a global phenomenon and we suspect that concentrated community use of limited resources is driving species to interact more strongly than in natural ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00032-1
  • Evaluation of spatial and temporal variations in zooplankton community
           structure with reference to water quality in Teluk Bahang Reservoir,
    • Abstract: The patterns of zooplankton community structural attributes were evaluated with reference to water quality in Teluk Bahang Reservoir, Penang, Malaysia over an annual cycle (March 2014–March 2015) and spatial gradients. Four sampling stations located at the lacustrine (Stations 1, 2 and 3) and riverine (Station 4) zones of the reservoir were designated to gather data. Samples were collected vertically at 5 m, 10 m and 15 m depth. Zooplankton samples were collected by filtering forty litres of lake water using plankton net with 30 µm mesh size. A total of 28 taxa from three major groups of zooplankton (Rotifera, Cladocera and Copepoda) were recorded. Pearson’s correlation showed that the abundance of zooplankton is directly correlated with most environmental variables including water transparency, temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, chlorophyll a, ammonium-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen and rainfall. In a similar vein, the Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) also revealed that zooplankton abundances were influenced by the combined effects of water quality variables. This was further proven by the fact that the zooplankton diversity, when measured by Shannon-Weiner index, was low probably due to short water retention time and fluctuations in water levels. The results of this study indicated that the occurrence of zooplankton was characterised by the reservoir water conditions based on the value of species-environment correlations (0.66–0.84) in CCA analysis.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00023-2
  • Interactive effects of soil moisture and temperature on soil respiration
           under native and non-native tree species in semi-arid forest of Delhi,
    • Abstract: We assessed the impacts of native and non-native tree species and seasonal variation on in situ soil respiration rates for four seasons. A portable infrared carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer (Q-Box SR1LP) was used for in situ measurements. Seven tree species were selected, out of which three are native to Delhi ridge, viz., Vachellia leucophloea, Ficus religiosa and Millettia pinnata and four are non-native, viz., Albizia lebbeck, Prosopis juliflora, Azadirachta indica and Cassia fistula. Our results showed a significant seasonal variation and effect of native and non-native tree species on soil respiration. Soil respiration was high during monsoon and low in winter. The highest annual soil respiration was observed under the canopy of F. religiosa (18.72 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1 year−1) and lowest under A. indica (4.58 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1 year−1). The tree species showed the pattern: F. religiosa > A. lebbeck > P. juliflora > V. leucophloea > M. pinnata > C. fistula > A. indica. Soil respiration showed a positive correlation with soil moisture and temperature (P < 0.05) showing an interplay of both in controlling soil respiration. Our findings also highlighted the effect of litter quality and quantity on soil respiration as low C/N ratio and positive correlation of litter quantity with soil respiration enhanced its rate under F. religiosa. The maximum soil respiration under the canopy of native species than non-native ones suggests their importance in the vital ecosystem functions, and thus, in managing the forest ecosystem of Delhi.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00028-x
  • Polycystine radiolarians within oligotrophic waters: higher abundance
           closer to tropical oceanic islands
    • Abstract: We hypothesize that the polycystine radiolarians suffer modifications in density, species richness/diversity, as well as in the assemblage structure with the proximity of the Saint Peter and Saint Paul archipelago at the tropical South Atlantic. To address this, we conducted two oceanographic campaigns throughout the maximum (April) and minimum (November) rainfall period of 2015. A total of 24 stations were delimited around the archipelago, in the proximities of the 50 and 500 m isobaths (closer and farther areas). Water samples were collected between 1 and 100 m with a 10 L Niskin bottle and fixed with lugol. A CTD (conductivity–temperature–depth profiler) was used to obtain temperature and salinity profiles. Surface temperature and salinity presented minor variation and the depth of the onset of thermocline varied between 16 and 63 m. An increase in polycystine radiolarians density was observed with the proximity to the archipelago, with higher values during the minimum rainfall period (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.001). This increase may be associated with a higher concentration of food items in closer areas. The structure of the assemblage was also influenced by distance and rainfall regime (PERMANOVA, P < 0.001), and shifts in the proportion of the relative abundance of rare species were the main cause. A total of 78 taxa were identified and a large portion of the assemblage was composed by juveniles, especially in closer areas, limiting proper identification. Thus, higher densities and a higher proportion of juveniles were observed closer to the archipelago in relation to farther areas.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00030-3
  • Faunal abundance along timberline ecotone in western Himalaya with
           reference to anthropogenic pressure and season: a case study
    • Abstract: High anthropogenic pressure not only affects individual species, but also has a negative impact on overall ecosystem health and its resilience capability, especially in the ecosystem transition zone, such as “timberline ecotone”. Timberline ecotone in western Himalaya is currently facing dual threat due to climate change and anthropogenic pressures. The present study aims to enhance our understanding about how various mammal and bird species use this ecotone across seasons and gradient of anthropogenic pressure, using standard animal abundance estimation method in the state of Uttarakhand, India. Ten mammalian species, five birds of prey, four pheasant, and fifty-three small bird species were found to use timberline ecotone during different seasons. The timberline ecotone experiences high anthropogenic pressure during summer and monsoon. The abundance of mammal such as Himalayan musk deer (β = − 1.62 ± 0.50, P < 0.01) and pheasant such as Himalayan monal (β = − 0.38 ± 0.15, P < 0.01) were found to be negatively influenced by wood cutting, livestock grazing. The density and species richness of small birds were comparatively higher in moderately disturbed sites than that of highest or least disturbed sites. In addition, the small bird species composition varied significantly across sites with different anthropogenic pressure. This study revealed the differential impact of anthropogenic pressure on various mammalian and bird species, which utilized timberline ecotone seasonally or year round. Furthermore, the result of the present study also indicated faunal species (e.g., Himalayan musk deer), which could be used as indicator species to understand impact and magnitude of anthropogenic pressure on timberline ecotone.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00033-0
  • Relationships between soil morpho-chemical parameters and earthworm
           community attributes in tropical agro-ecosystems in the Centre-West region
           of Côte d’Ivoire, Africa
    • Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between earthworm trophic groups and soil morphology and chemical attributes, and moreover, to determine which of these attributes would be most significant in explaining the distribution of earthworm communities in agro-ecosystems in the Centre-West region of Côte d’Ivoire. Earthworms' soil morphology and soil samples were studied in three agro-ecosystems: 20-year-old cocoa plantations, 5-year-old mixed cocoa plantations and mixed crop-fields. The semi-deciduous forests near the agro-ecosystems were also sampled and considered as control plots. Earthworm global densities varied on average between 53.9 ± 7.9 and 86.0 ± 19.0 individuals m−2 and biomass between 16.5 ± 3.1 and 20.6 ± 4.1 g m−2 under these ecosystems. Path analysis produced a significant model: soil morphology and chemical attributes under different agro-ecosystems affected the density and biomass of earthworm trophic groups, and these attributes are potential regulators of the fauna communities. The morphological components related to dead leaves (r2 = 0.73, P < 0.05) and fine woods quantities (r2 = 0.71, P < 0.05) are most decisive for detritivore abundances, whereas geophageous mesohumic abundances were positively affected by soil organic carbon (r2 = 0.79, P < 0.05) and N (r2 = 0.84, P < 0.05) and geophageous polyhumic abundances were positively affected only by soil N (r2 = 0.63, P < 0.05). In agro-ecosystems the relationship between soil conditions and earthworm communities varied between earthworm trophic groups, so detritivores were more affected by litter quantity, whereas shallow geophageous populations were guided by soil organic matter.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00021-4
  • Response of trade-offs and synergies between ecosystem services and land
           use change in the Karst area
    • Abstract: Taking the typical Karst area of Guizhou Province (southwest China) as an example, this paper analyzes the response of trade-offs and synergies between ecosystem services (ESs) and land use change (LUC). The results of this study showed synergistic relationships between water yield (WY) and soil retention (SR), between WY and carbon storage (CS), and between SR and CS. A trade-off relationship could be found between WY and crop production (CP), and between SR and CP, between CS and CP under the influence of LUC from 1995 to 2005. A trade-off relationship was found in the other ESs from 2005 to 2015 in addition to a synergistic relationship between WY and SR, and between CS and CP under the impact of LUC. Obviously, spatial differences in trade-offs and synergies have been found between ESs resulting from LUC from 1995 to 2005 and from 2005 to 2015.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00026-z
  • Modelling of co-occurrence patterns of grassland species: reciprocal
           shifting between competition and facilitation
    • Abstract: In plant community, competition and facilitation are widely studied themes across the globe however, their reciprocal shifting, if existed, requires more empirical efforts. In this study, temporal behaviour of co-occurrence patterns with relation to the nature and magnitude of deterministic control of soil, plant community and site quality factors were evaluated in grassland species of Indian arid zone. In this study, co-occurrence patterns during the three seasonal events were detected by using quantitative variable (relative importance value). Results revealed that competition among individuals was the major process during resource condition (rain) that shifted to facilitation during stress condition (summer). Soil organic carbon—soil phosphorus, diversity (Shannon index, evenness)—dominance (Simpson index), community maturity index—bare surface area were identified as major switch on and off points for such shifting, while soil moisture and grazing intensity were non-significant for such patterns. Results demonstrate that grassland species of the Indian arid region requires experimental quantification for the upper limits of significant exploratory variables.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00024-1
  • Towards the transformations of social-ecological systems for sustainable
    • PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42965-019-00018-z
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