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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access  
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access  
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 169)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225)
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 114)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 94)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Environment Conservation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access  
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intervención     Open Access  
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access  
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access  
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access  
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access  
Recycling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regional Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access  
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Tropical Ecology
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0564-3295 - ISSN (Online) 2661-8982
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Tree root imaging by electrical resistivity tomography: geophysical tools
           to improve understanding of deep root structure and rhizospheric processes
           

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      Abstract: Tree roots influences potential biosphere–atmosphere interactions and regulates diverse biogeochemical cycles. Trees among many complex functions help in extracting soil–water at low water potentials, ensure nutrient uptake to support tree health, and provide overall stability. Hence, it becomes important to understand the complex root structure and patterns to strengthen our predictions for various rhizosphere processes which play important role in ecological studies but due to lack of appropriate instrumentation support have been lacking. In the present study we have aimed at imaging the tree root biomass using 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and the field measurements were carried out in the campus of the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute in Nagpur, India that has lush green 43 ha. of urban forest in the heart of Nagpur city. High-resolution resistivity tomogram with Dipole–Dipole, Schlumberger and Wenner configurations having 24 electrodes spaced 2 m apart were used to detect the spatial variability of roots. Root biomass distribution for two important tree species in the avenue plantations (Peltophorum pterocarpum (06) and Delonix regia (01) having average stem radius of 640 cm as measured by Electrical Resistivity Tomography. Results showed that Wenner array was found to be effective however, the Schlumberger and Dipole–Dipole arrays was unable to provide clear signature for root patterns and delineate root boundaries.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Spiders as bio-indicators of habitat disturbance in the riparian zone of
           the Ganga river: a preliminary study

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      Abstract: Bio-indicators are extremely useful for quickly assessing the true condition of a rapidly deteriorating freshwater environment at a low cost. Global research has shown that the spider (Arachnida: Araneae) is a well-known taxon with bio-indicator potential. Present study was performed to find out if any spider species could be used as a bio-indicator of undisturbed habitat for Gangetic riparian zone. For the study, total 27 sites were selected along the Ganga River’s banks, with an average distance of 75 kms between each site. Based on disturbance ratings, the sampling sites were divided into five groups: very low disturbed sites, low disturbed sites, moderately disturbed sites, highly disturbed sites and very highly disturbed sites. The non-parametric analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) test and non-parametric permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) were used to understand similarities of species composition between these groups. The redundancy analysis (RDA) was performed to investigate the relationship between spider distribution and habitat disturbance. The indicator value (IndVal) method was used to find out significant bio-indicator spider species for habitat disturbance. The study found that the agriculture, human occupation, manmade embankment, and sand mining were the most effective combination of disturbance that affects spider assemblage and eight species can be used as indicator of very low disturbed sites and one species can be used as indicator of low disturbed sites.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Distribution mapping of Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn. in India using
           ecological niche modelling

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      Abstract: Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn. is an important multipurpose, woody climber used by the rural communities in India for various economic activities as well as for medicinal purposes. Indiscriminate extraction of the woody climber has led to population decline in its distribution range. Climate change has further led to the amplification leading to drastic decline of the natural populations. Therefore, the present study aimed to map the potential distribution of B. vahlii in India using ecological niche modelling (ENM) tools for the current and future climate change scenarios using RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5. The maximum entropy model was performed using presence-only data of a total of 38 non-overlapping occurrence points obtained from multiple authenticated online portals and through a detailed field investigation. A rise in very high probable zones was observed under both the future climate change scenarios by 0.2% (RCP 2.6) and 0.5% (RCP 8.5) area increase compared to the current climatic scenario. The areas of moderately probable zones pose an increase by 4.5% in RCP 2.6 and a slight decrease by 0.4% in RCP 8.5, while the least probable zones were found to be decreasing in both the cases by 7.3% and 3.6%, respectively. It is predicted that B. vahlii will respond variably under different climate change scenarios based on the species' response to the variations in bioclimatic variables. The predicted impacts of climate change need to be integrated for conservation and management of this economically important, multipurpose woody climber. There is an urgent need for immediate policy intervention and implementation to save this species from the increasing anthropogenic pressure for various economic purposes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Impacts of soil qualities and Prosopis juliflora on density, canopy volume
           and community position of Leptadenia pyrotechnica in Arid regions of India
           

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      Abstract: In the present study, we explored how the combination of site soil qualities and invasion by Prosopis juliflora affects the species specific (Leptadenia pyrotechnica) morphological (canopy volume) and population traits (density and Relative Importance Value) in an arid region of the India. For this, we surveyed 9 sites, categorized under two scenarios sites (n = 5) invaded by P. juliflora (Scenario 1), and sites (n = 4) un-invaded with P. juliflora (Scenario 2). With respect to sites, density of both these species exhibited reverse trends to each other. Similar trends were also recorded for canopy volume and cover of L. pyrotechnica and P. juliflora, respectively. We found log-normal distribution types at all the studied sites. In our empirical study, fifteen Relative Importance Value (RIV) of P. juliflora was identified as threshold level beyond which it can drastically reduced the community diversity and niche space of various associates. Further, Relative Severity of Competition (RSC for density, canopy volume and cover) suggested that density (RSC 0.24) and canopy volume (RSC 0.20) of L. pyrotechnica suffered most due to invasion of P. juliflora. Partial Least Square (PLS), regression suggested that density of L. pyrotechnica and P. juliflora are orthogonal to each other indicated significant negative relationships between both of them (r2 = − 0.95). Soil potassium and organic carbon are located close to density of L. pyrotechnica that is both these two variables have positive impacts with density (r2 = 0.95). Similar positive relationships also observed between canopy volume and clay content (r2 = 0.95), while, sand content was orthogonal to this parameter (r2 = − 0.95). Present study suggested how the invasive P. juliflora along with certain soil factors controls the population, morphological and community position attributes of L. pyrotechnica.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Vegetation–soil–microbial diversity influences ecosystem
           multifunctionality across different tropical coastal ecosystem types

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      Abstract: An improved understanding of the vegetation and microbial diversity across different coastal landscape and it’s interlink with ecosystem multifunctionality are vital for sustaining the ecosystem services. In view of this, the present study was carried out in Andaman Island, India creating three representatives transects covering four major ecosystem types by subplot sampling and ecosystem multifunctionality was computed from eleven related soil properties after Z-score transformation. We have estimated the vegetation and soil microbial diversity, examined individual effects of edaphic factors on vegetation and soil microbial diversity, extracellular enzyme activities and also investigated the combined effects on ecosystem multiple functions as matrices by Mantel tests. The results suggested that above ground vegetation diversity (2.4–4.9) exhibited significant effect on soil microbial diversity (1.07–1.47) due to difference in species richness and organic matter addition. In turn microbial diversity played a critical role in enzyme activities and nutrient recycling, both constituted the vital coastal ecosystem functions. Amongst the different ecosystems, highest species richness and microbial diversity was found in littoral forest and moist deciduous forest, respectively whilst agro-ecosystem recorded the lowest values. Soil organic carbon, excluding agriculture, increased downward the topography from moist deciduous forest in the hill top to the mangroves in the coastal lowlands while soil enzymes, total N  and microbial biomass C and N followed the trend as in soil organic C. The study also observed large endemism and constraints to diversity in mangrove ecosystem due to specific environmental conditions. Our findings provided empirical evidence that above ground and below ground diversity conditioned by edaphic factors constituted the primary drivers for ecosystem multifunctionality in different coastal ecosystem types.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Variation among individuals of Citrullus colocynthis from a desert
           population in morphological, genetic, and germination attributes

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      Abstract: Variations in fruit size, color, and stripe pattern on fruit rinds have been noticed among individuals within Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae) populations in the hyper-arid deserts of the UAE. The present study aimed at assessing variations in fruit and seed characters, germination behavior, and genetic diversity among 12 individuals (hereafter referred accessions) collected from one population. Results showed that the accessions differed in seed dormancy level and response to light and temperature of incubation. The overall germination ranged between 18.5% in accession number 9 and 56.6% for accession number 2. At lower temperatures (15/25 °C), little germination occurred in darkness but not in the light. Germination was significantly greater and faster (germination rate index was higher) at higher temperatures (25/35 °C) than moderate (20/30 °C) and lower temperatures. Germination was greater in light than darkness in almost all accessions at higher temperatures but not at moderate temperatures. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis showed polymorphism varied between 90 and 100%, with polymorphic information content values ranged from 0.28 to 0.37 with an average of 0.33. Few individuals showed high genetic similarities, while most of them had similarity coefficients less than 0.5. There were moderate to weak relationships between genetic similarities and germination behavior of the different accessions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Relationships between flood, tree isolation and size in a monodominant
           stand

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      Abstract: In the Pantanal floodplain, some tree species forms wide monodominant stands, which can be influenced by environmental filters like fire and annual flood cycles. Such environmental filters can regulate tree distribution and growth. In this research, we analyzed the influence of flooding on isolation and size of Tabebuia aurea Benth. & Hook.f. ex S. Moore (Bignoniaceae Juss.) individuals and how the influence of isolation on size varies along of the flood gradient. We used the distance between neighboring trees as isolation measurement, tree stem circumference (TSC) as the size of the trees, and the water mark on the trunks as flood level. We showed that T. aurea individuals are more isolated in areas with higher flood, possibly due to differential mortality. Furthermore, we found that in less flooded areas, isolation had positive influence on the size of the trees, probably due to asymmetric competition. Therefore, we conclude that flood cycles influence the isolation of T. aurea trees, but they do not directly affect the size.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Ecological niche modelling for predicting the habitat suitability of
           endangered tree species Taxus contorta Griff. in Himachal Pradesh (Western
           Himalayas, India)

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      Abstract: The West Himalayan Yew (Taxus contorta Griff.) is an extremely important tree species as its bark and leaves are the source of the anti-cancer medicine Taxol® used in chemotherapy for the treatment of a number of different cancers. Unfortunately, the species is endangered because of unsustainable harvesting and over grazing coupled with a very low natural regeneration potential. The Maxent modelling algorithm was used to model the ecological niche and predict the habitat suitability of this species in the Western Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh. The purpose of the modelling was basically to restore the species in its native habitat. The model output had a reasonable area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) value of 0.905. The jackknife test showed that the land cover and the annual mean temperature were the most important environmental predictors that individually affected the information gain. The results suggested that the Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area had the highest area (134.14 km2) under the very highly suitable category. Being an International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) category II protected area, it would be an ideal place to preserve and reintroduce the species. Among Wildlife Sanctuaries, the Kais Wildlife Sanctuary had the highest proportion of its area (92.46%) under very highly suitable category for T. contorta. Additionally, Churdhar and Tirthan Wildlife Sanctuaries are predicted to have more than 60% of their geographic areas as very highly suitable for the species. Overall, only 6% of the geographic area of Himachal Pradesh was predicted to be very highly suitable.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Debarking as a control method for invasive tree species management in
           tropical forests

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      Abstract: Our study assessed the effectiveness of species debarking in controlling species invasion and the change in seedling dynamics after application of the different treatments. A split plots design was used in two forest reserves to assess the effectiveness of three debarking treatments: complete ring debarking, partial ring debarking and a control (no debarking). The results reveal that ring debarking has the potential to be used to control invasive species such as Cecropia peltata L. and Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. The efficiency, however, was influenced by the extent of the wound created and the size of tree, especially if trees are partially debarked. The control method also stimulated natural regeneration of native species with higher regeneration of native species recorded compared to invasive species. Also, plots that had completely debarked trees had higher species diversity than the partially debarked and the control plots in one of the reserve. The fact that none of the trees in the control plots died is indication of the effectiveness of debarking in the control of invasive species considered here. The effectiveness of this method suggests it is a suitable option for killing small to medium size trees with little cost to the environment compared to the application of arboricides for instance and is therefore worth revisiting in silvicultural treatments where minimum environmental disturbance is required. We recommend more studies to compare the effectiveness of the control approaches on different invasive species and monitor how the native communities respond including in terms of species diversity and functional groups, since removal methods may impact differently on these plant community traits.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Bird diversity along a gradient of tropical forest loss due to agriculture
           in central Veracruz, Mexico

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      Abstract: Tropical ecosystems have undergone severe changes due to human activities such as land-use change for agriculture. However, in agricultural landscapes with remnants of native vegetation, high bird diversity may persist. Here we evaluated bird species richness, diversity, and composition in four landscape units with different matrices: cattle pastures, cornfields, mixed mosaics, and continuous forest. Using nets and direct observations, we recorded 138 bird species. We expected species richness to have a negative relationship with agricultural coverage, thus decreasing in the following sequence of landscape matrices: forest > mixed > corn > pasture. On the contrary, standardized species richness decreased from 122 to 93 species in the following sequence: pasture > mixed > forest > corn. Using a PERMANOVA, we detected significant changes in species composition among landscape units. These differences were represented in a NMDS plot and a Venn Diagram. Species diversity (Hill Numbers) also changed seasonally, and the forest unit had low richness but the highest evenness. This complex landscape allowed the presence of diverse species under risk categories. We conclude that despite recurrent human disturbances in this tropical region, the agricultural landscape, mixed with remnants of natural vegetation, allows the maintenance of highly diverse bird communities, probably due to spatial dynamics among landscape elements.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Migration ecology in the freshwater eels of the genus Anguilla Schrank,
           1798

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      Abstract: Science has long attempted to understanding the mysteries of migration in the freshwater eels of the genus Anguilla. Freshwater eels are of tropical marine ancestor and have spread worldwide. As diadromous fish species, freshwater eels are eminent for their incredible migrations between offshore spawning grounds and fresh water habitats from local to global scales. Freshwater eels can be distinguished into three migratory phases throughout their lives: oceanic migration to continental habitats, continental migration and oceanic migration to spawning grounds. Spawning grounds of the freshwater eels are all located in tropical waters (lower latitude), and the larvae drift from the tropical ocean to tropical growth habitats or are further colonized to temperate growth habitats through ocean currents. The spawning period and duration of the planktonic larval period stir global dispersal, biogeography and their subsequent speciation in freshwater eels. Year-round spawning, constant larval growth and shorter larval duration lead to short-scale oceanic migration to tropical growth habitats with annual colonization in tropical freshwater eels. In temperate freshwater eels, the limited spawning season, longer larval duration, and separate larval growth lead to large-scale migration to temperate growth habitats and seasonal recruitment to continental habitats. The year-round maturation in tropical freshwater eels and seasonal maturation in temperate freshwater eels lead to year-round spawning and seasonal spawning, respectively. During their continental lives just before the initiation of oceanic migration for spawning, diverse migration and habitat uses in fresh, brackish and marine waters are commonly found in tropical and temperate freshwater eels. Freshwater eels do not necessarily live in freshwater habitats and thus are believed to display opportunistic catadromous migration. The most enigmatic part of spawning migration in freshwater eels from the continental growth habitats to spawning grounds has gradually been uncovered by means of the empirical research. Research advances and endeavors for centuries have progressively unveiled the mystery of migration ecology in freshwater eels.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Comparison among allometric models for tree biomass estimation using
           non-destructive trees’ data

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      Abstract: The non-destructive method—using allometric models—of forest biomass estimation is one of the most effective and efficient approaches, however, there is an ambiguity to choose a particular type of model for predicting biomass. The study aimed to compare 11 different allometric models generally employing in Nepal using empirical data of 4,942 individual standing trees of 36 species from 134 sample plots considering 20 environmental variables from five community forests belonging in two ecological regions. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), coefficient of determination (R2), and root mean square error (RMSE) of each model was estimated and compared. The biomass density predicted by different models differed significantly (p < 0.05) despite employing the same data set. A variation on the estimated biomass density differed from 4% (M4 and M11) to 364% (M5 and M10) among the models considered for the study. Results show that no models have relatively higher R2 (less than 0.61), lower AIC (more than 813) and RMSE (more than 16). This indicates that hardly any existing general models in Nepal estimates actual biomass of the forest ecosystems. The results suggest that a universal model may not be applicable for the given condition, indicating an imminent need for the development of allometric models for biomass prediction based on species type, ecological regions, degree of disturbances, considering diversity variables, and ground and crown cover scenario of the forests. Such models require regular calibration for validity, reliability, credibility, and integrity of forest data management. The results would be a reference for policymaker and forest conservationists to select appropriate allometric equation and, thereby accurate prediction of biomass and timber volume, which in turn, will have good value for REDD + (carbon payment from forestry sector) and other economic conversions of the forests' biomass.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Host identity and neighborhood trees affect belowground microbial
           communities in a tropical rainforest

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      Abstract: The roots and rhizospheres of trees harbor diverse microbial communities that can modulate plant competition and facilitation, thereby influencing plant community dynamics. Understanding the factors structuring microbial communities is valuable for predicting how plant communities assemble. In temperate forests, host identity, biotic neighborhood, abiotic environment and geographic distance shape microbial communities, but the importance of these factors is less well studied in highly diverse tropical forests. In this study, we used high-throughput amplicon sequencing to characterize the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) and rhizosphere bacterial (RB) communities of five tree species in an 8-year-old common garden planted into the understory of a selectively logged old-growth forest in Malaysian Borneo. We assessed the influence of host tree species, host traits and neighboring tree identity on the composition and diversity of both communities. The AMF and RB communities differed amongst host tree species; the tree species with the most distinct AMF communities associated with the lowest diversity of AMF. Alpha diversity of AMF correlated negatively with leaf phosphorus and potassium content. Density and abundance of AMF neighbor trees growing near focal trees influenced AMF community composition and was positively correlated with RB alpha diversity. Our results highlight the importance of considering both host tree identity and biotic neighborhood of trees in studies of microbial communities in tropical forests. Important next steps will be to elucidate the functional significance of shifts in AMF and RB community compositions and their implications for community and ecosystem dynamics in tropical forests.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • The influence of tree population structure on regeneration potential in
           the sacred forests of Assam, India

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      Abstract: Sacred forests protected through nature beliefs have undergone successional stages to form the climax vegetation harbouring rich biodiversity. The study on the effect of population structure on the regeneration status of tree species is limited in the sacred forests. The present study was carried out in four sacred forests of Assam wherein 57 tree species belonging to 51 genera under 28 families were recorded. The correlation of girth class with species richness, density, and basal area of trees showed a significant negative relationship. One-way ANOVA on ranks proved a significant impact of girth class on the number of individuals of species, F(10) = 36.46, p < 0.05. A reverse J-shaped GBH-density distribution revealed that most species have higher individuals in lower girth classes (0–30 cm) with steady growth. The regeneration capacity of tree species in the sacred forests showed seedlings (741) > saplings (485) < adults (514). Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. and Bauhinia purpurea L. recorded as the dominant species having maximum density ha−1 in the seedling stage. Overall, the regeneration of tree species showed maximum status in ‘fair’ followed by ‘good’, ‘poor’ and ‘not regenerating’ category. Sacred forests are privileged to have rich diversity; however, considerable changes due to environmental stress or interference exerted by human activities may distress the structural and functional composition of the forests.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Geospatial modeling of forest cover dynamics and impact on climate
           variability in Awi Zone, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Globally, forest habitats are threatened by human-induced deforestation and degradation. This study was aimed to assessing changes in land-use patterns in Awi Zone, Ethiopia, during the last 34 years and its relationship with land surface temperature (LST) and rainfall using digital change detection approaches. Multi-temporal Landsat imagery (1985, 2000, 2009, and 2019), MODIS, and CHIRPS were used in combination with Google Earth and field data for this study. Support vector machine classification technique was used to produce LULC maps. Mann–Kendall test for LST (2000‒2019) and rainfall (1981‒2019) was used to compute non-parametric trend analysis. Results revealed that 47,255.5 ha of forest and 24,674.9 ha of other land-cover types had increased from 1985 to 2019. In contrast, agriculture and bare land had decreased by 16,819.9 ha and 55,110.5 ha, respectively. In Dega agro-climatic zone, mean and minimum LST trend analysis has revealed a significant decrease. Sen's slope shows mean, minimum, and maximum LST decreasing trend at 0.13 °C/yr., 0.12 °C/yr. and 0.10 °C/yr., respectively. In Woyna Dega and Kolla, LST trend analysis showed decreasing and increasing trends from 2000 to 2019. Coefficient of determination (r2) of forest cover and mean LST for Dega, WoynaDega, and Kolla zones revealed 0.98, 0.81, and 0.20, respectively. Kolla is highly influenced by anthropogenic factors and rapid urbanization that caused depletion of forest cover and conversion of farmlands into human settlements. In future, community-based land-use and land-cover planning and sustainable forest management system are recommended to protect, conserve and rehabilitate the remaining natural environment in the study area.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Distribution and structural characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.)
           Delile and Ricinodendron heudelotii (Bail.) Pierre among phytodistricts
           and land use types in Benin (West Africa)

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      Abstract: Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile and Ricinodendron heudelotii (Bail.) Pierre are multipurpose wild oil plants (WOP) with high socio-economic and ethnoecological importance. Both WOPs remained neglected and underutilized at the national or regional level. In this study, their geographic distribution and structural characteristics were assessed in Benin. Inventory surveys were carried out along 170 linear transects for both species and 488 and 64 circular plots for B. aegyptiaca and R. heudelotii, respectively. The dendrometric, density, and diversity parameters were collected to characterize the stand structure of the species using linear and generalized linear models, Pearson pairwise correlation, Weibull distribution and the Importance Value Index. Adults of B. aegyptiaca were exclusively found in the semi-arid zone of Benin. The tree-density increased northward with high value in East Mekrou-Pendjari phytodistrict. The highest value for recruitment was obtained in the Atacora chain and West Mekrou-Pendjari phytodistricts in gallery forest and wooded savannah. As for R. heudelotii, adults were found in sub-humid and humid zones with an aggregated spatial distribution. The tree-density of R. heudelotii was not significantly affected by phytodistricts and land use types. The recruitment rate was high in South Borgou and West Plateau phytodistricts in the forest. The dendrometric characteristics were high in North Borgou and East Mekrou-Pendjari phytodistricts in farm/parkland for B. aegyptiaca and South Borgou and Pobe phytodistricts in gallery forest and forest for R. heudelotii. The demographic pattern of these species revealed a low potential for regeneration and recruitment of individuals from low to high diameter classes as a result of anthropogenic pressures. These results demonstrate the need to intensify the domestication or assisted natural regeneration of these species in degraded areas to promote and ensure their sustainable exploitation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
       
  • Roads as conduits of functional and phylogenetic degradation in Caatinga

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      Abstract: Road networks cause degradation by mean of disturbances that can alter the biodiversity and the functioning of the Caatinga ecosystems. We tested the hypotheses that (i) Caatinga vegetation near roads is less taxonomically, functionally and phylogenetically diverse, (ii) phylogenetically and functionally more clustered than vegetation further from roads, (iii) plant traits associated with herbivory deterrence are conserved within the phylogenetic lineages, and (iv) Caatinga vegetation near roads selects for disturbance-related traits. We sampled herbaceous and woody component of vegetation in four plots near roads and four plots further from roads to test these hypotheses. Sampled species were classified according to their resprouting capacity, nitrogen fixation, succulence/spines, urticancy/toxicity, lifeform, endozoochory, maximum height and maximum diameter, before we calculated the taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of plant communities. Species richness, taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversities were lower in plots close to the roads, confirming roads as sources of disturbances. The phylogenetic structure of the Caatinga vegetation near roads was clustered, indicating environmental filtering by herbivory as the main pervasive disturbance in Caatinga ecosystems, since traits related to herbivory deterrence were conserved within phylogenetic lineages and were filtered in near roads. Thus, roads should be considered conduits of degradation causing taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional impoverishment of Caatinga vegetation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Soil microbial community is resilient to thinning disturbance

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      Abstract: To engage sustainable forest management, understanding the impact of disturbances on the stability of soil microorganisms is important. This study reported the immediate effects of two-level thinning intensities on the soil microbial population, community composition and functions of a plantation forest over two years. Results showed that the thinning of Cryptomeria japonica forest significantly increased viable counts of soil bacteria from 7.7 × 106 to 1.4 × 107 or 1.6 × 107 in the 3rd month and the effect subsided in the 6th month post-thinning. The counts of actinobacteria, cellulolytic, nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria groups maintained stable populations in the forest soils. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles indicated that soil bacterial communities significantly differed among 25% thinning, 50% thinning and control treatment from the 12th to 18th month post-thinning, with no significant differences after 22 months. The community level physiological profiles were significantly different between control and thinning treatments in the 12th month post-thinning, the impacts of thinning then subsided by the 22nd month post-thinning as well. Soil bacteria were sensitive to thinning disturbances, but with resilience, their community and function approached to the control status in 2 years. This study demonstrates that the soil microbes of Taiwanese C. japonica forests are very sensitive to thinning disturbances, but recover stability after a relatively short period of time.
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
       
  • Soil conservation measures improve vegetation development and ecological
           processes in the Himalayan slopes

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      Abstract: High soil erosion in the Himalayan region adversely affects the growth and development of vegetation, which ultimately increases the slope instability and makes the area prone to landslides. Restoration of native vegetation through adopting soil and water conservation measures (SWCM) is extremely important to prevent soil erosion and improve sustainability of Himalayan landscapes. SWCM are mainly practiced for controlling soil erosion, but their effectiveness in restoration of native vegetation is lesser known, particularly in the Himalayas. Therefore, we assessed the impact of coir geotextiles, wattling and trenching based soil conservation measures on richness, diversity, density, and biomass of plant species in a eroded steep slope of North-West Indian Himalaya. Our findings showed that both the number of species and Shannon diversity index was observed maximum in coir geotextiles (20 and 4.6, respectively), followed by wattling (11 and 3.0, respectively), trenching (10 and 2.4, respectively), and minimum in control (7 and 1.8, respectively) treatment. Likewise, density of plant species was observed higher in coir geotextiles (77.0 nos. m−2) followed by wattling (53.0 nos. m−2), trenching (36.0 nos. m−2), and lower in control (30.0 nos. m−2). Results further showed that the designing coir geotextiles, wattling and trenches enhanced the species total biomass (dry) productions by 117 g m−2, 65.0 g m−2 and 48 g m−2, respectively, over the control. The soil moisture was recorded greater in coir geotextiles (4.9%) treatment compared to wattling (4.3%), trenching (2.3%) and control (1.8%). The soil organic carbon was assessed higher in coir geotextiles (0.76%) followed by trenching (0.38%), wattling (0.27%) and minimum in control (0.18%). Overall, results indicated that coir geotextiles followed by wattling and trenching were highly effective in improving the vegetation recovery, species diversity and biomass in the Himalayan slopes. Therefore, the present study demonstrated some important aspects of vegetation recovery processes following soil conservation measures, and it can be useful in planning rehabilitation measures on the eroded and steep Himalayan slopes.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • Plant diversity and communities pattern with special emphasis on the
           indicator species of a dry temperate forest: A case study from Liakot area
           of the Hindu Kush mountains, Pakistan

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      Abstract: Abstract Plant species diversity patterns and vegetation structure are influenced by climatic and other environmental factors. We hypothesized that a combination of edaphic and topographic factors affect not only plant community patterns, vegetation structure and heterogeneity but also the indicator species in the dry temperate zone of the Liakot forests, Hindu Raj series of Hindu Kush Mountains, Pakistan. Quadrat along the elevation gradient were used for vegetation sampling. Soil samples were collected from each quadrat and analyzed by using standard protocols. All the collected data were analyzed using Cluster Analysis, Indicator Species Analyses and Data attribute plots via Canonical Correspondance Analyses. Cluster Analysis using Sorensen distance measurements grouped the plant species into three communities based on microclimatic indicators. These communities were: (1) Celtis caucasica-Lonicera hispida-Pennisetum orientale, (2) Juglans regia-Rubus idaeus-Tragopogon gracilis, and (3) Abies pindrow-Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana-Agrostis gigantea. Elevation, aspect, organic matter, electrical conductivity and potassium were the strong ecological factors responsible for different communities’ formation and their associated indicators in the region. Techniques and criteria used in the current study for communities formation and their respective indicator identification could be used further for management and conservation of the Liakot forest of the Hindu Raj series of Hindu Kush Mountains and other adjacent ecosystems of the northern Pakistan. Findings of the study can also be utilized in the reforestation drives.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
 
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