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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 142 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 246)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability
Number of Followers: 0  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2509-4238 - ISSN (Online) 2509-4246
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2657 journals]
  • Synthesis of Interplant Water Networks Using Principal Pipes—Part 2:
           Network Optimization and Application
    • Abstract: Part 2 of the paper applies interplant water network synthesis using the novel principal pipe representation introduced in part 1 of this paper Alnouri et al. (PIOS 2(4):413–434, 2018). The concept of a principal pipe is presented as a shared pipeline structure that can be assigned several different functions, such as water collection, distribution, or both. A number of principal pipe categories and design aspects have been explored in this study, including pipe routing options, pipe flow directions, pipe sharing scenarios, and pipe water quality. To demonstrate the design of interplant water networks via principal pipes, a non-linear problem (NLP) has been implemented using an economic objective function, so as to allow a cost-optimal selection process for different types of principal pipes within industrial clusters. The proposed approach is illustrated using several examples that involve water regeneration and reuse. The benefits of the proposed methodology are quantified and discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-018-0075-9
  • Eliminating Steam Requirement of Aqueous Ammonia Capture Process by Lean
           Solution Flash and Vapor Recompression
    • Abstract: Dilute aqueous ammonia (NH3) process is considered as one of the alternative post-combustion carbon dioxide capture (PCC) technologies. However, the energy consumption for solvent regeneration is quite high, about 0.15–0.25 MWh/ton CO2 captured as equivalent work consumption. Therefore, reducing this valuable energy duty is still the major technical challenge to extensive deployment of this PCC technology. In this work, the NH3-based carbon capture process was developed using the lean vapor recompression approach. A parametric study revealed that the optimum energy consumption occurs at the lean solvent characterized by NH3 concentration of 5.0 wt% and CO2 loading of 0.275 mol CO2/mol NH3, with the stripper and flash pressures operated at 10.50 bar and 4.17 bar, respectively. Operating under such conditions, the total work duty for a CO2 capture plant was substantially reduced to 0.087 MWh/ton CO2 captured. In this process, the need of reboiler is completely eliminated. Graphical ᅟ
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-018-0074-x
  • Simulation and Optimization of Chlorella vulgaris Gasification Using Aspen
    • Abstract: Microalgal gasification produces synthesis gas (syngas), liquid products (e.g., tar), and solid carbon (e.g., char). However, at the current state, the viability of the process is yet to be established. One of the ways to achieve that is by understanding the fundamental of microalgal gasification. This could be done by optimizing the process conditions via modeling. Therefore, this study models the microalgal gasification process and further optimizes its process conditions. The modeling work was carried out using Aspen Plus V8.8 software, where thermodynamics equilibrium and kinetics approaches were used in the calculations of Chlorella vulgaris gasification. The study was done by modeling the gasifier in three stages: drying, pyrolysis, and gasification. The model was developed using proximate and ultimate analysis data of Chlorella vulgaris. The parameters were temperature (600–1000 °C), equivalence ratio (ER) 0.1–0.4, and mass flow rate of biomass (10–100 kg/h). The syngas yields of H2, CO, CO2, and CH4 were determined and the findings were compared with the literature and some deviations of the predicted syngas compositions were presented. It was found that consistent results of syngas composition and yield were obtained between the model and the experiments. The root mean square error (RMSE) values for the effect of temperature were 0.242, 0.294, 0.228, and 0.062 for H2, CO, CO2, and CH4, respectively. Meanwhile, for the effect of loading, the values were 0.083, 0.064, 0.362, and 0.479 for H2, CO, CO2, and CH4, respectively. The optimization of the gasification from sensitivity analysis results showed that the increment of temperature favored the H2 and CO production, and the increased in biomass loading favored H2 and CH4 production. Meanwhile, the increment of ER value resulted in increasing the CO2 yield. Based on the findings, a slight deviation in the simulation results was observed compared with the experimental work. This might be resulted from the limitation of the Aspen Plus V8.8 software where some parameters need to be set as a constant value, which in this study was the heating rate.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-019-0080-7
  • Modelling and Performance Analysis of a New PVT System, with Two
           Semi-Transparent PV Panels
    • Abstract: The photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) collector system is a relatively mature technology to harvest energy from the sun and convert to electrical and thermal energy. Recent developments in this field have shown that the PVT system can yield electrical, thermal and combined PVT efficiencies of 13.8%, 54.6% and 68.4% respectively. This introduces the application of a semi-transparent PV to a photovoltaic thermal collector (PVT) system. A new design is proposed with two semi-transparent PVs (STPVs) to enhance the PVT performance. The semi-transparent PV (STPV) will replace the conventional glass cover, and hence will permit a certain percentage of solar radiation to pass through it. The performance of the new PVT configuration with double and single glazing was analysed, where in the double glazing, the STPV replaces the lower glazing. The thermal and electrical efficiencies of the new design configuration were investigated under different climatic conditions at Malaysia, Sudan and UK. The simulation results reveal that the new PVT system could achieve electrical, thermal and combined PVT efficiencies of 20.76%, 65.7% and 86.5% respectively, enhancing the electrical efficiency due to the use of two semi-transparent PV panels and thus improving the energy harvested per unit area, putting a positive step toward the application of a multilayer semi-transparent mono-crystalline silicon PV. However, the PVT glazing is more effective in locations with relatively low ambient temperature, while it is found not feasible in locations with considerably higher temperature. Moreover, the study indicates that the PVT system is not effective for sites with low solar radiation and ambient temperature.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-019-00084-9
  • Evaluation of Cogeneration Potential for a Sulphuric Acid Recovery (SAR)
    • Abstract: Utilisation of excess high-grade heat is useful in creating value-added opportunities in a process. In this technical note, cogeneration of steam and power through combined heat and power (CHP) scheme was evaluated for a sulphur acid recovery (SAR) plant based in the UK. The evaluation was performed using a recently established automated targeting model (ATM). Due to inconsistent feed stream condition, the establishment of relationship between the economic feature and the feed stream concentration is essential in assisting the plant authority in understanding the overall performance of the CHP scheme in the SAR plant.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-018-0072-z
  • Targeting Intermediate Fluid Flow in Batch Heat Exchanger Networks
    • Abstract: Batch processes have been extensively used in the process industries due to their appropriateness for small volume scale productions, high value-added products, as well as their adjustability to rapid market changes. Heat integration in a batch process can be carried out in two ways directly or indirectly. Direct heat integration is straight transfer of heat from hot to cold stream through heat exchanger, while for indirect heat integration, an intermediate fluid is involved which carries heat from hot to cold stream. In batch process, transfer of heat from one interval to another interval requires intermediate fluid. The usage of intermediate fluid needs pumping, piping, capital investment, and space. These are important aspects for any process while considering space limitation and capital investment. Minimizing intermediate fluid provides reduction in all these important fronts. In this paper, a graphical algorithm is developed to determine minimum requirement of intermediate fluid flow among time intervals while satisfying the minimum utility targets. The proposed algorithm is proved to be optimum rigorously and illustrated via examples.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-019-00087-6
  • Remanufacturing Models Under Technology Licensing with Consideration of
           Environmental Issues
    • Abstract: Recently, the environmental and economic benefits of remanufacturing result in increasing interest of this concept. Due to supreme importance of this issue, in this paper, a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) including a manufacturer, a distributor, and third-party logistics provider is considered. Three multi-level leader-follower Stackelberg game models are presented in order to investigate whether a manufacturer in addition to manufacturing new products should do remanufacturing or sets a fee for technology licensing of distributors and cooperate with them in remanufacturing. Furthermore, we conduct a sensitivity analysis to show how government can mitigate the bad economic, environmental, and social impacts of remanufacturing by setting an emissions tax price and evaluation of impacts of changing remanufacturing parameters on the profit of supply chain members on the three proposed models.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-019-00085-8
  • Phase Identification–Based Prediction of Product Formation for 2-Keto- l
           -Gulonic Acid Fermentation Processes
    • Abstract: Because of the time-varying characteristics of 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2-KGA) fermentation processes, phase identification–based prediction of product formation is presented in this paper. Firstly, based on the online measurement data of fermentation processes, fermentation stage is identified with the modified principal component analysis method. The state variable such as the product formation is predicted using the support vector machine (SVM) approach. The obtained stage information is fed back to the state variable prediction model. In different fermentation phases, the training databases and parameters of SVM for the prediction model are applied differently. With the data from industrial 2-KGA fermentation processes, pseudo-online prediction is practiced. The results indicate that the prediction approach has good performance.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-018-0077-7
  • Comparative Analysis on Semi-empirical Models of Jet Fire for Radiant Heat
    • Abstract: Sudden release of combustible/flammable materials at high pressure could result in the occurrence of a jet fire in the processing industry. Understanding the jet fire phenomenon and its mechanism could assist practitioners and researchers to predict the radiant energy transfer caused by the jet fire. Due to the dynamics of jet fire occurrence, the development of a semi-empirical model to predict thermal characteristics in different scenarios might provide huge advantages to the industry and safety practitioners as it is nonexpensive and a reliable prediction. There are four semi-empirical models for jet fire thermal radiation estimation that has been developed to date, namely, solid flame model (SFM), single-point source model (PSM), multipoint source model (MPSM), and line source model (LSM). It is the aim of this paper to explore each model applicability and approach to estimate the radiant heat flux based on the governing factors associated with the models, i.e., atmospheric transmissivity, flame length, lift-off length, flame shape, radiant heat fraction, total heat release, and receiver location. It is found that the applicability of each model and the derived parameters are largely contributed by the flame scale (small, medium, and large), flame orientation, flame length, and flame shape as well as the flame distance to the target receiver. From the discussion made, it can be suggested that for both near- and far-field measurement, the weighted MPSM is a reliable model that can be used for both vertical and horizontal orientations with some modification upon the consideration of buoyancy effect. On another note, LSM is able to provide a better prediction for linear trajectory of jet flame; however, the applicability is still limited for jet flame trajectory with buoyancy effects due to fewer data available and validation in various release conditions and scenarios.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-019-00081-y
  • A Study on Implementation of PV Tracking for Sites Proximate and Away from
           the Equator
    • Abstract: The performance of photovoltaic (PV) system depends upon the orientation and the site climatic conditions. Solar PV tracking systems align the modules perpendicular to the incoming solar radiation. In this paper, six locations with latitudes 0° through 55° were selected to investigate the PV system performance using single-axis (horizontal and vertical) and two-axis tracking systems compared to the fixed south-oriented PV system. It was found that single-axis (vertical axis) tracker optimally tilted is the most promising for sites near the equator and achieves around 19% more energy output over the fixed south-oriented solar panel system. Moreover, it is considered simpler compared to the two-axis tracking system. It is true that the two-axis tracking system could harvest around 4% more energy than the vertical axis tracker optimally tilted system for sites near and far from the equator. However, such increase in energy may not sound feasible as the two-axis system is consuming more power for tracking and considered more complicated compared to the vertical axis tracking system. The novelty of this work is that, it introduces a new concept for the optimum tilt for the single-axis (vertical axis) tracking system.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-019-00086-7
  • Multi-objective Sustainability Assessment of Levulinic Acid Production
           from Empty Fruit Bunch
    • Abstract: Malaysia is one of the largest producers of crude palm oil, which also produces abundant empty fruit bunch (EFB) as a lignocellulosic waste. Levulinic acid (LA) is a promising chemical building block that can be produced from acid-hydrolysed EFB, via dehydration-hydration reactions. This work has evaluated the sustainability aspects of LA production by simultaneously considering economic, environment, and safety aspects. These aspects were computed using net present value (NPV), global warming potential (GWP), and hazard identification and ranking (HIRA), respectively. Using HIRA, fire and explosion damage index (FEDI) and toxicity damage index (TDI) were also estimated. These conflicting objectives were solved using multi-objective optimization. Genetic algorithm (GA) was conducted in MATLAB to generate a Pareto-optimal front. The results show trade-offs among the objective functions and insights into how design/operating variables affect the sustainability aspects. The Pareto-optimal solutions reveal that at maximum EFB capacity of 100 ton/h, maximum NPV of 6.4 billion USD is achieved. However, at this point, the values of GWP and TDI are at a maximum of 174,041 kg CO2-eq and 402.9, respectively. At minimum EFB capacity of 50 ton/h, only minimum NPV of 2.7 billion USD is achieved. Nevertheless, at this point, the values of GWP and TDI are at a minimum of 86,691 kg CO2-eq and 283.3, respectively.
      PubDate: 2019-08-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-019-00097-4
  • Synthesis of Heat-Integrated Water Allocation Networks Through Pinch
    • Abstract: Thermal energy (or utility consumption) and water can be optimized through the synthesis of heat-integrated water allocation networks (HIWANs). Various numerical optimizations, pinch-based and hybrid tools, have been proposed for HIWAN synthesis. Numerical optimization techniques make it difficult to visualize the problem due to complex formulations involving non-linear equations and/or integer variables. Pinch-based methods provide physical insights but are restricted to graphical techniques. As a result of this, HIWAN synthesis through pinch-based techniques gets tedious for medium-scale to large-scale data. HIWAN synthesis can be solved using a hybrid technique that combines the physical understanding of pinch analysis with a series of linear programming (LP) formulations. The proposed methodology converts the LP into an algebraic solution strategy and thereby making the HIWAN synthesis procedure entirely based on pinch analysis. Unlike the other pinch-based methods that rely on temperature-based heuristics to guide the water re-use streams, this method synthesizes HIWAN as an outcome of a utility minimization algorithm. This algorithm is an extension of the compression work minimization algorithm in hydrogen networks. The nature of these two problems differs due to the requirement of two entities (heating and cooling) in the former instead of one entity (compression work) in the latter. Besides freshwater minimization, this methodology can be applied for the conservation of other resources as well. Illustrative examples of three water allocation networks (one with regeneration) and an ammonia allocation network demonstrate the proposed methodology. Graphical
      PubDate: 2019-06-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-019-00096-5
  • Prediction for Multi-Steady-State Solutions in the Thermal-Coupled
    • Abstract: Multiple steady-state solution (MSS) phenomena not only have a special effect on the design and optimization of distillation separation process, but also can provide some instructive information during the actual production. Thus, it is necessary to find out an easy and effective method to predict whether there exist multiple steady-state solutions or not. Based on previous researches and the Kremser group method, this research proposes a simple method, using a mathematical equation, to predict MSS occurring in the thermally coupled distillation separation column. Besides, Aspen plus simulator is employed to carry out rigorous simulation verification. By validation analysis, this method is relatively simple and effective for predicting the MSS occurring in the thermal-coupled distillation.
      PubDate: 2019-06-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-019-00095-6
  • A Methodology for Tracing the Rank Invariance Region in Multi-Criterion
           Selection Problems: Application to Negative Emission Technologies
    • Abstract: It has been previously established that, for multi-criterion selection problems, over a finite set of options, solved via simple additive weighting, there exists a set of weights for which the optimal alternative remains the best choice. This invariance region in the n-dimensional hyperspace defined by the problem criteria contains the set of all weights for which the optimal solution is robust to preference changes. When the set of options is a continuum, there are no known invariance regions reported in the literature. In this work, we develop a procedure to characterize and trace this invariance region when the number of options is finite. The methodology is demonstrated on a case study involving a selection of negative emission technologies based on carbon sequestration potential, water footprint, energy demand, and cost.
      PubDate: 2019-06-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-019-00089-4
  • A Multi-Objective Optimization Approach for Water–Energy–Food Grids in
           Isolated Communities
    • Abstract: This paper evaluates the applicability of different multi-objective optimization methods such as goal programming, weighted sum, and epsilon constraint in a polygeneration system. The problem under study aims to meet the water, energy, and food demands in an isolated community. The model includes three fundamental objectives, which are the maximization of the economic benefit, the minimization of the greenhouse gas emissions, and the minimization of freshwater consumption. Because the objectives are in conflict, it is necessary to implement strategies that allow to obtain trade-off solutions. To show the applicability of the proposed approach, a case study for the community of Mexico with the lowest human development index is presented. The results show feasible solutions for satisfying the needs of the community considering the trade-offs of the different objectives, with the goal programming method the one that provides the most attractive solution except for the economic objective, unlike the Epsilon Constraint method that provides the best solutions with respect to the economic objective.
      PubDate: 2019-06-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-019-00093-8
  • Equilibrium Modeling and Optimization for Gasification of High-Ash Indian
           Coals by the Gibbs Free Energy Minimization Method
    • Abstract: This article presents a non-stoichiometric equilibrium model based on the Gibbs free energy minimization method to analyze the effect of process parameters (temperature, pressure, equivalence ratio (ER), and steam/coal (S/C) ratio) on gasification of high-ash Indian coal and to find out optimum operating conditions for production of energy and chemicals. The model considers 16 elements distributed among 373 gas and 119 solid species. Effect of temperature is small when temperature is increased above ~ 1100 K. While increase in pressure brings operational benefits, effect of pressure on the gasification performance is very small. In general, with increase in ER, oxidative species start to dominate and, consequently, cold gas efficiency (CGE) decreases and carbon conversion (X) increases. CGE increases with increase in S/C ratio. The proposed methodology can be used for preliminary analysis and optimization of gasification system effectively in terms of cost and time.
      PubDate: 2019-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-019-00094-7
  • Advances in Process Synthesis and Control
    • PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-019-00090-x
  • A Mathematical Programming Method for Optimizing the Single-Contaminant
           Regeneration Heat-Integrated Water Networks
    • Abstract: A superstructure-based mathematical model is established for single-contaminant heat-integrated water networks (HIWN), and the water loss of both wastewater regeneration recycling and regeneration reuse is considered. Furthermore, a sequential optimization procedure is established to achieve multi-objective optimization. The loss rate of water is taken into the mathematical model as there must have water loss in regeneration process, so that the optimization would be more realistic. Two cases are optimized using proposed model with regeneration recycling and regeneration reuse considered, respectively; the results show the differences between these two modes. Compared with the optimization method in the literature, the proposed method is more realistic.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-018-0041-6
  • A Disjunctive Programming Approach for Optimizing Carbon, Hydrogen, and
           Oxygen Symbiosis Networks
    • Abstract: Recently, the synthesis of carbon–hydrogen–oxygen symbiosis networks (CHOSYNs) has been proposed for the multi-scale integration of process industries that deal mainly with hydrocarbons while enabling chemical reactions, separation, heating/cooling, pressurization/depressurization, and allocation of the participating streams and species. Because of the complexity of the design problem, there is a need for efficient optimization approaches to solve the problem. In this paper, two optimization approaches are presented based on disjunctive programming. Several objective functions are used to target resource conservation (e.g., minimum fresh usage and minimum waste discharge) and economics (e.g., minimum cost, maximum profit). The optimization formulations include the tracking of species and streams, the potential installation of industrial facilities to carry out chemical conversions and other tasks, and the allocation of streams from sources to sinks via newly added interceptors. The first approach is a two-stage mathematical programming method. In the first stage, an optimization model based on atomic balances is used to determine the targets for fresh resources and discharges of the system. In the second stage, a disjunctive optimization model with an economic objective is employed to determine the configuration and allocation of the network considering existing and new industrial plants involved in the eco-industrial plant. The second approach is a simultaneous method based on a disjunctive optimization model to determine the targets and network configuration. A case study is presented to show the applicability of the proposed approaches.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-018-0065-y
  • Risk Matrix and Event Tree Based Half Quantitative Alarm Priority Analysis
           for Alarm Systems
    • Abstract: For chemical process normal operation, alarm systems play a critical role in industry to meet the demands of safety, quality and efficiency. However, a serious problem exists in industry: too many alarms raising shortly need to be handled by the operator. In this situation, appropriate alarm priority is extremely important, that is, the more important alarms at any given time are obvious to the operator, and this helps the operator to decide which alarms to deal with when several occur at the same time. Typically, the method to prioritize alarms is based on the severity of the consequences and the time available for the alarm, which depend on the operator’s experiences highly. Herein, a half quantitative alarm priority analysis is proposed to make alarm priorities more reliable and effective. Event tree analysis (ETA) is used to assess the risk consequence when an alarm occurs. ETA is one of quantified risk assessment techniques and is used for identifying and evaluating the sequence of events in a potential accident scenario following the occurrence of an initialing event. Finally, a case study is given to prioritize alarms using the algorithm that we introduce above, and illustrates the advantages of this algorithm through an example of an industrial application.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41660-017-0026-x
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