A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Water Conservation Science and Engineering
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2366-3340 - ISSN (Online) 2364-5687
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Selection of Greywater Reuse Options Using Multi-criteria Decision-making
           Techniques

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: On-site reuse of treated greywater for non-potable purposes such as toilet flushing, garden irrigation and car washing is one of the alternatives to meet the increasing water demand and to reduce the load on sewage treatment plants. However, no studies have been reported on selecting the most appropriate reuse option among the different reuse options available. In the present study, multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods TOPSIS, VIKOR, ELECTRE and PROMETHEE were used to rank the greywater reuse alternatives. The main criteria considered included acceptability, adaptability and the risk involved with the reuse option along with technical and economic considerations. Alternative uses considered in the study were household reuse, public reuse, industrial reuse, groundwater recharge and agricultural reuse. Based on expert opinion, the weightage of criteria and relative importance of each alternative to criteria were determined using the defuzzification method. Kendall’s coefficients of concordance and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were used to compare the ranks, while sensitivity analysis was performed to find the least impacted results. Results show that domestic reuse is the best alternative for greywater reuse, followed by public reuse. Kendall’s concordance value suggests more than partial agreement between the ranks obtained by different MCDM techniques. Sensitivity analysis showed that technical consideration was the most sensitive criterion. Graphical
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
       
  • Identification and Prioritization of Sub-watersheds to Soil Erosion and
           Sediment Yield Susceptibility Using RUSLE, Remote Sensing, and GIS (Case
           Study: Abbay—Awash Basin in Wollo Area, Ethiopia)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The effects of soil erosion are most horrible in developing countries, where agriculturalists are very unable to recover soil fertility using purchased inputs. Evidence on soil loss is vital for encouraging farming productivity and natural resource management. Simulation models are the most active way to predict soil loss processes and their result by using geographic information system and remote sensing. Soil erosion modeling used mathematical equations that require many data measurements as well as physical description of the erosion phenomena. The main goal of this research was to delineate areas that require prior soil conservation measures and to predict the amount of soil loss at the Abbay-Awash basin. The soil loss was assessed by using the Revised Universal Soil Equation (RUSLE) model. The layers were then overlaid and multiplied pixel by pixel, using the RUSLE model and raster calculator-reprocessing tool in Arc GIS 10.1 environment. Annual soil losses range from 0 in the lowlands of the watershed to more than 500 tons ha−1 year−1 in much of the steeper slopes on tributaries. Based on the analysis, the amount of soil loss in the Abbay basin from Wollo area is about 3.52 million tons per year from 1.765 million hectares and also in the Awash basin from the Wollo area about 0.58 million tons per year from 0.787 million hectares area. A detailed examination showed that the most pronounced RUSLE factor that worsened soil erosion and caused a high soil loss rate was the slope length (L), steepness (S) factors, and low vegetation cover. Thus, planners should adapt their soil and water conservation measure implementation strategies by devoting in the very urgent part of the watershed first and then progressively to the needed part to prevent the influence of runoff at its start point.
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
       
  • Assessment of Water Storage Changes Using Satellite Gravimetry and GLDAS
           Observations over a Part of Indus Basin, India

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Water storage (including surface and groundwater) changes are difficult to assess due to their complexity and the lack of spatio-temporal observations. This study used Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and GRACE Follow-On (FO) Level-3 data from three products (JPL, GFZ, and CSR) to estimate monthly water storage changes (TWS, terrestrial water storage; and GWS, groundwater storage) both spatially and temporally over a part of Indus Basin, India, for the period from April 2002 to December 2021. GRACE satellite missions measure the time-dependent Earth’s gravity field which represents water storage variations. Punjab and Haryana states which lie in the Indus Basin situated in the northern part of India are two of the largest producers of agricultural products and are highly dependent on the water resource. Nowadays, Indus Basin is facing a severe water crisis due to the over-exploitation of water resources. The GRACE data have been analyzed in three phases—(i) monthly variations; (ii) seasonal variations (pre-monsoon and post-monsoon); and (iii) annual variations—to see the changes in the water storage changes over a part of the Indus Basin. This research found that the water storage from GRACE satellite missions exhibits decreasing pattern of average TWS from + 17.4 to − 28.8 cm and GWS from + 18.1 to − 30.2 cm over the study area, and found complete negative trends after 2008. The negative trends represent a deficit of both TWS and GWS. The highest peak deficit of TWS (− 28.8 cm) and GWS (− 30.2 cm) has been observed in June 2021 and May 2021. We correlated GRACE data with rainfall dataset derived from the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) and water level data obtained from the Water Resources Information System (India-WRIS) to see the trends of rainfall anomaly and water level changes over the study area. The downward trends of water storage may be occurring as a result of complex activities of natural and anthropogenic impacts. The fluctuations of groundwater table, change in soil moisture (SM) storage, and canopy water amount contribute a large portion of the changes over the region. This research specifies that water resource monitoring is essential for water resource managers, and policymakers for sustainable water management and to reduce high-risk impacts in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-12-12
       
  • Implications of Watershed Management Programs for Sustainable Development
           in Rural Scenario—A Case Study from Foothills of Punjab State, India

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Watershed management programs (WMP) are widely adopted across the globe for judicious use of natural resources. It can help us to achieve UN sustainable goals by 2030 also in a sytematic way. These programs help in preserving environmental and ecological balance by maintaining the natural and anthropogenic pressures in the watershed. WMPs have enabled sustainable management in typical rural scenarios where land degradation is predominant at an alarming rate due to intensive agricultural cum anthropogenic activities. A huge amount of central and state government funds have been utilized for construction of check dams, silt detention structures, gabion structures, afforestation schemes, capacity building programs for rural lively hoods, etc. to elevate the region from the poverty line. This necessitates for monitoring of these activities; and the present study demonstrates use of geospatial technology in monitoring effects of WMPs in the rural landscape of Punjab, India. High-resolution satellite images were used for monitoring the conservation measures at grass root level and analyzing the implications in the region. Field investigation and growth in net productivity of the region also clearly indicated that there is significant improvement in the selected watershed due to augmentation of the conservation measures, infrastructure facilities, and socio-economic conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-12-06
       
  • Performance Evaluation of Small-Scale Irrigation Scheme: Case Study of
           Selamko Irrigation Scheme, Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the Selamko small-scale irrigation scheme using internal and external performance indicators. The irrigation scheme command area was 63 ha and during the study season, the irrigated area was 42 ha. Overall activities in the primary data collected included: field observation, discharge measurements in the canals, soil moisture before irrigation and after irrigation, depth of water applied at the field, and interviewing beneficiary farmers. Secondary data was collected from secondary sources that were the South Gondar Small Scale Irrigation coordination office, SGBoWR, and WUA of the scheme. In order to evaluate the irrigation water and use efficiency of the scheme, nine farmer fields were selected from the scheme concerning their location: at the head, middle, and tail end water users. The internal process indicators which include conveyance efficiency and application efficiency were used to evaluate the performance of the scheme. From the analyses of internal performance indicators, the conveyance efficiencies were found to be 9% in the main canal, 57.09 at secondary canal 1, and 54.55% at secondary canal 2. The canals supply less water than the demand of the delivery points. And the application efficiencies were estimated to be 56.994%. The overall efficiency was 35.268%. The output per command area has to be calculated as 60,198.14 Birr/ha and 89,738.1 Birr/ha during the 2017 and 2016 irrigation seasons, respectively. The output per cropped area was estimated as 90,297.62 Birr/ha and 99,621.1 Birr/ha in the 2017 and 2016 irrigation seasons, respectively. The output per water consumed has to be determined as 17.66 Birr/m3 and 20.14 Birr/m3 in the 2017 and 2016 irrigation seasons, respectively. The water supply and irrigation supply were found as 1.71 and 1.47, respectively. From the analysis of the physical performance of the scheme, during the study period, the irrigation ratio of the scheme was 66.67%, and the sustainability of the scheme was 62.69% but in the 2016 irrigation season, the irrigation ratio was 84.7% and sustainability of the scheme was 90.08%. During the study period, the total effectiveness of the scheme infrastructure was 20.69%. It displayed that high system maintenance is required. Generally, the performance of the irrigation scheme is poor. Therefore, scheme monitoring, capacity building of the users and the water user associations, providing the flow control measurement structures, and adequate operation and maintenance of the system are required to improve the irrigation scheme performance.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • A Data Visualisation Tool for Treatment Process Monitoring in Web Browsers

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Traditional water quality–based processes of assessment using grab samples are simple to implement but far too retrospective and intermediate to adequately deal with water quality change situation. This case study demonstrated a customised software package using a web-based prototype portal with data integration, visualisation, prediction, and anomaly detection functions for complex real-time field monitoring data sets as a visualisation and decision support tool for treatment plant operators. The prototype was developed to analyse two-dimensional data obtained from a spectrophotometer (absorbance against wavelength) and data integrated from other sources (such as rainfall and temperature). It supports normal functions of time series data visualisation, such as, raw data plotting, zooming, smoothing, Boolean band etc. More importantly, it is specialised in supporting real-time monitoring of data quality, time series data comparison, anomaly detection, and future value prediction. The application of the prototype revealed that if this was placed in an operational environment, it has the potential to inform better operational decision by early detection of changes in water quality and impacts on the treatment process. This work demonstrated the potential usefulness of such real-time display and visualisation of online water quality data and the feasibility for prediction tools to provide an early warning system for process upsets.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Quantitative Assessment of Channel Planform Dynamics Across Satluj River
           in North India Over 45 Years: Analysis Using Geospatial Techniques

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Climate change along with anthropogenic modifications affects river channel dynamics to a large extent. Therefore monitoring channel planform dynamics becomes essential for efficient management of river and associated flood plain. Time series analysis was done for a period of 45 years between the time frame 1975 and 2020 along the middle course of Satluj an important river of North India to understand its dynamics. This study reports spatial and temporal shifting along the middle course of Satluj. The entire middle course was extensively studied by dividing the region into three reaches according to its geomorphological setup. It is interesting to find that the middle reach showed maximum shift in its course at a rate of 17.35 m/year whereas 7.15 m/year was witnessed in the lower reach and 3.64 m/year in the upper reach. Shift has been minimum in upper reach due to the sloping landform along both sides of the river, whereas it is higher in the middle reach as the river enters the plains. The shift is minimum in the lower reach as the water is diverted to the twin canals for irrigation due to construction of engineering structures (barrage).
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Toward Practical Analysis of Wastewater Contaminants Employing Dual
           Spectroscopic Techniques

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Water is the basic component for all living creatures, yet it is quantitatively and qualitatively wasted. Wastewater, however, is a part of the world’s storage of water which needs to be recycled in order to be reused. However, upon recycling, water needs a rapid and precise analysis in the field rather than in a laboratory. This study presents a quantitative analysis of organic contaminants in laboratory-simulated industrial wastewater for field operation. In the analysis, two techniques were contrasted: spectrophotometry and hyperspectral imaging (HSI). Ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectrophotometry is a principal analytical technique; however, it is rarely used outdoors and is less accurate in detecting low concentrations of organic dyes such as methylene blue (< 20 ppm) in water. Thus, growing demand is arising for an alternative technique to overcome the detriments of UV–Vis spectrophotometry. HSI is potentially suitable to meet this demand because it spectrally identifies and spatially images the object of interest. Moreover, HSI’s instrumentation enables itself to be employed in both indoor and outdoor applications. In this study, HSI proved to be an efficient technique for the analysis of organic dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) in wastewater. The results of the UV–Vis spectrophotometer and HSI methods were compared using Bland and Altman’s limit of agreement. The study shows a great promise for employing HSI in the on-site analysis of industrial wastewater.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • A Comparative Evaluation of Seepage and Stability of Embankment Dams Using
           GeoStudio and Plaxis Models: the Case of Gomit Dam in Amhara Region,
           Ethiopia

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents an evaluation and comparative study on the seepage and slope stability analysis of the Gomit earth dam found in the Amhara Region, South Gondar Zone, Estie woreda. The analysis was performed using limit equilibrium (LE) and finite element (FE) methods in GeoStudio 2012 and Plaxis 2D 8.2 models. Field data measurements and observatory investigations were also carried out. Seepage analysis such as seepage magnitude, pore water pressure distribution, and location of the phreatic line has been determined using SEEP/W and Plaxis models. From the simulated results of SEEP/W and Plaxis models, the average seepage rate for the entire length of the dam at full reservoir conditions was found to be 2.632 × 10−5 m3/s and 7.497 × 10−4 m3/s, respectively. Three different loading conditions (end-of-construction, steady-state seepage, and rapid drawdown) have been studied for stability analysis. The factor of safety results of SLOPE/W at the end of construction, steady-state, and rapid drawdown conditions were 1.045, 1.473, and 1.012 and the corresponding results of Plaxis model were 0.818, 1.402, and 0.945, respectively. The stability analysis results for the designed conditions show that the slopes are unstable under all loading conditions. The actual site investigations of the dam, in line with the model results, indicated that the downstream slope is facing a stability problem. From this model and actual site investigation studies, we understand that currently the dam safety and performance are not satisfactory (high leakage and slope instability). Hence, it is recommended to conduct critical monitoring and surveillance of the dam and the stability results of the Plaxis model are generally smaller than the results of the SLOPE/W model. For the slope stability analysis of embankment dams, where there is high uncertainty in the soil data of dam construction, the Plaxis model may be better since it gives conservative factor of safety results based on this study. However, still additional evaluation of the models is necessary and designers have to note the different considerations of the models in applying and selecting the models.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Performance Evaluation of Small-Scale Irrigation Scheme: a Case Study of
           Golina Small-Scale Irrigation Scheme, North Wollo, Ethiopia

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to assess the performance of the Golina small-scale irrigation scheme using performance indicators. The primary data collected were discharge measurements in the canals, measurement of water applied to the farmers’ fields, field observations, interviewing beneficiary farmers, determination of moisture content measurement before and after irrigation, and soil physical properties determination. The secondary data were also taken from the designed document and journals. This study was carried out for one irrigation season from February to May. The collected data were analyzed using empirical equations and statistical analysis on a percentage basis. The application efficiency result on three sample plots in farmers’ fields located at the head, middle, and tail reaches of the command area was found to be 46.30%, 65.87%, and 76.07%, respectively. The maintenance indicator investigation showed the main canal transports 82% of its design objective. The value of the effectiveness of infrastructure was 61.64%. Whereas the sustainability of the irrigated area was 86.5%. Therefore, the overall performance evaluation of the Golina small irrigation scheme was poor. Therefore, this study aims to strengthen water user association and create awareness for users to adapt and practice routine maintenance to achieve good performance of the scheme.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Controlled Drainage and Irrigation Regime for Improving Some Soil
           Properties and Wheat Production, Sahl El-Tina, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract  The integrated water management is essential for sustainable agriculture, especially in countries suffering from water shortages. A pilot experimental field was carried out in Sahl El-Tina, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt (latitude 31°1¯47= N and longitude 32°33¯57= E) to assess the effect of water table depth (WTD) at 60, 80, 100 and 120 cm integrally with irrigation regimes (IR) that practiced at 25, 50 and 75% from the total available water capacity (AWC) on soil properties, water relationships and wheat growth. The results revealed that there was significant effect on electrical conductivity (EC), bulk density (Bd), total porosity (TP), hydraulic conductivity (HC), field capacity (FC), available water (AWC), available nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and straw dry weight values. Wheat grains yield increased as the available water depletion (AWD) increased up to 50% and with WTD down to 100 cm. On average basis and regardless WTD, the crop water productivity (CWP) values were 1.00, 0.93 and 0.84 kg/ m3 at 25, 50 and 75% of AWD, respectively. The amount of saved irrigation water (SIW) significantly differed according to WTD and IR. The lowest value of SIW was 136 m3 at 25% AWD with WTD of 100 cm, while the highest value was 503.0 m3 at 75% AWD with WTD of 60 cm. It can be recognized that wheat crop irrigated at 50% AWD with WTD of 60 cm (CD60) realized the best management practice. It attained the highest CWP and high amount of SIW which reflected on a good wheat grain quality.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Phosphate Removal from Agricultural Drainage Using Biochar

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Industry development and population growth around the world produce toxic pollutants such as inorganic anions and metal ions. As the latter highly affect the water toxicity and human health and endanger animal and aquatic lives, it is quite necessary to remove phosphate from water. Adsorption is a simple, practical, economical, and nature-friendly process that removes phosphate from agricultural drainage and enables the recycling and reuse of water and phosphorus. Since nanoadsorbents have been quite popular in recent years because of their high specific surface area, simple performance, and high reactivity, this study has used the activated nanobiochar of sugarcane bagasse to examine the rate of phosphate removal from agricultural drainages. To this end, a total of 81 experiments were performed to examine the effects of the following: (1) biochar production time, (2) microwave power and (3) potassium hydroxide (KOH)-to-biochar (BC) weight ratio (KOH/BC), on activating the biochar to remove the phosphate from the polluted drainage. Results of the abovementioned tests, which were used to determine the optimal conditions to provide the sugarcane bagasse adsorbent, revealed that 0.2 g adsorbent in 150 ml of phosphate solution, a biochar production time of 7 h at 600° C, and a pH equal to 7 resulted in an average phosphate removal efficiency of higher than 47.8%. Results also showed that increasing the activation time up to 10 min and the microwave power up to 400 W, and assuming KOH/BC = 3, increased the average phosphate removability, and increasing them above the optimal value reduced it.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Assessment of Irrigation Scheme Failure Factors: a Case Study on Marza
           Irrigation Scheme Fogera, Amhara, Ethiopia

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The failure factors of Marza small-scale irrigation schemes were used to evaluate the Marza small-scale irrigation system. Primary and secondary data were used to identify important failure variables in this investigation. Primary data included field observations and measurements, GPS data, and focus group discussions, while secondary data included design documentation, Woreda annual reports, and rainfall data. The research area’s watershed discharge was estimated using ArcGIS 10.5 software and Soil Conservation System methodologies. In the laboratory, the physical features of the soil at the weir location were investigated. The project’s structural components have already deteriorated, including the gates, main canal, crossing structures, division boxes, upstream wing walls, and riverbank, rendering the system unusable. The main causes of this failure were improper weir site planning, weir component design, bad construction, floods from the catchment and canal section, sedimentation, structural instability, and foundation challenges, which were all investigated in the scheme. Lack of effective community participation, the absence of water users’ associations, and a lack of training and monitoring were all factors. Institutional, social, and operational factors all play a role in some of the issues. As a result, this research provides recommendations on how to maintain current irrigation schemes as well as how to evaluate the causes of scheme failure while developing a new one.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Viability of Pressure-Reducing Valves for Leak Reduction in Water
           Distribution Systems

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Since water distribution systems are so important to public health and many are leaking in unknown locations, a modeling study was performed to investigate the feasibility of installing pressure-reducing valves (PRVs) in various locations throughout several systems. A PRV was tried in each pipe, one by one, and the total cost (energy costs plus opportunity costs of losing water that could have been sold) was calculated. It was found that installing a PRV in the upstream pipes reduced costs the most and that putting a PRV in some pipes actually lost money due to the high cost of the PRV and associated fittings. Also, a PRV on the upstream portion of a large branch saved water leakage. Energy is saved when a PRV is placed near a pump for systems with high energy consumption.
      PubDate: 2022-11-19
       
  • Removal Process of a Metal-Dye Mixture Using Beauveria bassiana

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Metals and dyes are the general concomitant pollutants of wastewater. In the present study, the cadmium and reactive orange uptake capacity of Beauveria bassiana were evaluated. It was observed that at 30 mgL−1 of cadmium concentration, up to 63% removal of cadmium was attained. As the concentration of cadmium increases from 30 to 100 mg L−1, the removal percentage of cadmium decreases from 63 to 21%. Further, almost 100% removal was observed for reactive orange at 200 mgL−1. However, a decrease in dye removal from 92 to 82% was noticed at 400 and 500 mgL−1 concentration of dye, respectively. When both metal and dye were present simultaneously, the removal efficacy of B. bassiana was decreased. At 20 mgL−1 (metal to dye—1:1), maximum removal of reactive orange (100%) and cadmium (98%) was recorded. However, at 100 mgL−1, 62% and 37% removal were obtained for reactive orange and cadmium, respectively. The effect of pH and temperature was studied at 40 mg L−1 (metal to dye—1:1) with temperatures ranging from 30 to 40 °C and pH ranging from 4 to 7. Maximum removal was obtained at a temperature of 30 °C and pH-7. Further, TEM-HAADF B. bassiana showed a uniform accumulation of cadmium inside the cytoplasm. Under control conditions (without metal), B. bassiana cells showed a well-defined cell membrane with intact cells, highlighting a clear demarcation of cytoplasm and cell organelles. The EDX analysis confirms the presence of cadmium inside B. bassiana cells.
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00168-7
       
  • Georesistivity Modelling and Mapping of Aquifer Geometry and Hydraulic
           Characteristics in a Sedimentary Environment

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract This study presents a successful application of the surface resistivity method in mapping of aquifer geometries and hydraulic characteristics in five counties in southern Nigeria. Thirteen vertical electrical soundings (VES) were made in the area using the Schlumberger electrode array with maximum current electrode separation of 400 m. The results of the data interpretation show that the area comprises 3 to 4 layers with lithological sequence of fine-coarse to gravelly sands and minor clay intercalations at some locations as constrained by available borehole information. The third layer is the major aquifer and occurs at a depth of 3.2 and 79.8 m. The aquifer thickness varies between 14.9 and 81.7 m. The aquifer layer is adjudged to have high recharge ability based on the values of estimated transverse resistance and permeability. Based on the estimated aquifer transmissivity and overburden total longitudinal conductance, the study area is shown to have moderate to high groundwater potential ratings (GWPR) and poor/weak to moderate aquifer protectivity ratings (APR) respectively. The zones of these classes of ratings have been demarcated in the image maps generated. These findings are very essential in the planning of an effective groundwater management and exploitation strategies in the area.
      PubDate: 2022-10-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00166-9
       
  • Correction to: Performance Evaluation of Small-Scale Irrigation Scheme: a
           

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2022-09-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00165-w
       
  • Assessing Farm Water Management and Performance of Koga Irrigation Scheme:
           a Case Study of Inguti Unit, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: The principal objective of this study was to assess field water management and performance of Koga irrigation scheme specifically Inguti unit using performance indicators based on the selected performance indicators such as conveyance efficiency, application efficiency, distribution efficiency, storage efficiency, and deep percolation ratio. Primary data such as discharge, soil moisture content, field surveys, and group discussions among the farmers/beneficiaries and Water User Associations (WUA) and secondary data such as crop data, climate data, and design documents were collected. CROPWAT 8.0 models and GIS were used for data analysis in this research. Average conveyance efficiency values ranged from 81 to 86.5% for lined (secondary and tertiary canals) and about 64% for unlined tertiary canals. The maximum water losses observed were 0.19 and 0.2 l/s/m on lined (secondary and tertiary) canals, respectively. The maximum water loss observed in unlined tertiary canals was 0.26 l/s/m. The average distribution uniformity, field storage efficiency, and field water application efficiency were 79.6%, 78.9%, and 53.5%, respectively. Average values of the scheme, cropped area ratio, and infrastructural effectiveness were 94% and 96.2%, which was good sustainability based on the standards. The overall efficiency of scheme in the Inguti unit was found to be 46.3%. In general, the performance of the irrigation scheme was weak due to poor field water managements as indicated by the above indicators due to illegal water abstraction, unequal distribution of irrigation water, sedimentation of canals and lack of institutional support service, and inadequate operation and canal maintenance.
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00162-z
       
  • Fluoride Toxicity in Rajasthan, India: Water Filter Distribution,
           Monitoring and User Perception

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the dissemination of porous cement water filters (PCWFs) to 99 households and their on-field efficiency. The water filters used cement and sand as the primary material with sugarcane bagasse and activated carbon as filler. For the study, the district of Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India, was chosen. Water quality parameters like pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), hardness, and fluoride were monitored for the village water sources. While all the village samples had TDS exceeding 500 mg/l, only Dheendhwa Aguna had a pH exceeding 8.5. For all the water sampled, the recorded hardness was below 200 mg/l. Fluoride concentrations exceeded the lower margins of 1 mg/l but were within the permissible threshold of 1.5 mg/l. Of the 99 households, 42 relied primarily on a common village source, whereas 57 participants had access to discretely owned tube wells. Also, 26.3% (n = 26) of households had access to an advanced water treatment system constituting Jeeni (31.57%), Dheendhwa Aguna (22.22%), and Ramnath Pura (50%). In a similar vein, the PCWF’s performance was investigated after 3 and 6 months of distribution using pH, TDS, hardness, and fluoride as qualitative indicators. Designed for ease of operation, maintenance, and disposal, the filters can function even in the absence of electricity or continuous water flow. Constant communication with the study area participants before, during, and after the filter distribution successfully comprehended the participant’s demand for potable water and the adaptability of the filter. Comprehensively, the PCWF generated a favorable verdict from the participants, primarily women.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00163-y
       
  • Effective Adsorption of Pb2+ on Porous Carbon Derived from Functional
           Octadecahedron ZIF-8

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract An adsorbent ZO (oxidized ZIF-8-derived carbon) was prepared on the ZIF-8-derived carbon (ZC) by modified Hummer’s method. The removal rate and adsorption amount of Pb2+ were measured on the different molar ratios of 2-Hmim to 2, 2′-bipyridine in ZO, including 1:1 (1:1 ZO) and 1:2 (1:2 ZO). The adsorption experiments show that the best condition to adsorb Pb2+ in Pb2+ solution for 1:1 ZO is an adsorbent dosage of 20 mg, adsorption time of 16 h, initial Pb2+concentration of 15 mg/L, and pH = 3; that for 1:2 ZO is the adsorbent dosage of 15 mg, adsorption time of 18 h, initial Pb2+ concentration of 15 mg/L, and pH = 4. The adsorption data fits the quasi-second-order kinetics (R2 = 0.99998), indicating that chemical adsorption plays a leading role. The fitted isotherm adsorption curve is more consistent with the Langmuir adsorption model (1:1 ZO, R2 = 0.95058; 1:2 ZO, R2 = 0.97488). The competitive adsorption results show that the removal rate of Pb2+ by 1:1 ZO and 1:2 ZO is more than 98%, indicating that 1:1 ZO and 1:2 ZO have a superior selectivity for Pb2+ competing with Cu2+ and Fe2+. The maximum adsorption amount of Pb2+ is 15.52 mg/g by 1:1 ZO and 18.09 mg/g by 1:2 ZO. This study shows that 1:2 ZO is more helpful for the removal of Pb2+ than 1:1 ZO.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00164-x
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 34.225.194.102
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-