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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 142 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 245)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover
Water Conservation Science and Engineering
Number of Followers: 2  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2366-3340 - ISSN (Online) 2364-5687
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2656 journals]
  • Evaluation of Soil Nitrate Accumulation under Different Fertigation
           Regimes and Simulation by the Hydrus-1D Model
    • Abstract: Nitrate loss is a major reason for non-point source contamination on agricultural lands. The objective of this study was to assess the Hydrus-1D model for simulation of soil nitrate in different irrigation regimes, including 100 (I1), 85 (I2), and 70 (I3) % of the water requirement for sugarcane and different urea fertilization rates with 150 (N1), 250 (N2), and 350 (N3) kg/ha. Van Genuchten (VG) parameters were estimated by the RETC [Retention Curve Program for Unsaturated Soils] program. According to the results, by reducing the amount of irrigation water, the soil nitrate accumulation from the soil surface to the deep soil increased by 17 and 35% under I2 and I3 treatments compared with I1. Results showed that the Hydrus-1D model had fair potential for predicting the NO3-N accumulation in the soil profile over the sampling period (AE: −1.25 to 0.99, RMSE: 0.96 to 2.50, d: 0.78 to 0.98). The coefficient of determination between the field measured and simulated values in the soil layers at depths of 30, 60, 90 and 120 cm were 0.87, 0.88, 0.74, and 0.52, respectively. To reduce nitrogen losses, fertilizer application rates must be considered based on sugarcane needs and soil hydraulic properties.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-019-00072-7
  • Optimization of Fenton and Photo-Fenton-Based Advanced Oxidation Processes
           for COD Reduction of Petrochemical Wastewater: Application of Response
           Surface Methodology
    • Abstract: Two advance oxidation processes (AOPs), namely Fenton and photo-Fenton, was used to purify the Karun Petrochemical wastewater. In order to optimize the maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction, the effects of initial pH, H2O2, and FeSO4·7H2O doses and the exposure contact time of UV light were investigated during the purification process using response surface methodology (RSM) under the central composite design (CCD). The results revealed the fact that the optimum conditions for the photo-Fenton were obtained to be at initial pH of 4, H2O2 dose of 8 ml/l and FeSO4·7H2O dose of 2.33 g/l and time of 93.75 min. Under these circumstances, the highest COD removal of 83.51% was obtained. In the Fenton process, the optimum conditions at initial pH of 4, H2O2 dose of 8 ml/l, FeSO4·7H2O dose of 3.25 g/l, and UV exposure time of 92.39 min were achieved. Under these conditions, the COD removal was 73.09%.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-019-00070-9
  • Reliable, Resilient, and Sustainable Water Management in Different Water
           Use Sectors
    • Abstract: In order to balance between financial and social constraints of water and respond to competing for water requirements, it is important to sustain and manage essential water systems. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate sustainable water management in specific sectors: urban, agricultural, and environmental and addresses questions, such as (1) how is sustainable water management described and assessed' (2) what challenges occur in sustainable water development in different sectors' (3) which aspects/elements of sustainable water developments are important in agricultural and urban water management' and (4) how do different countries improve sustainable water management' Depending on the complexity of water systems, water users and sources of water, techniques for estimating performances of water management can be simple (such as indicator techniques) or complex (such as several models). The techniques are analyzed in this study. The findings from implementing sustainable water management suggest that all water users consider which source of water (e.g., usable and reusable) is more suitable to use. They also state that increasing agricultural water use efficiency can significantly reduce total water consumption, which can lead to global food security. In addition, results showed that the level of local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities are more important in sustainable water management than is the level of regional development.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-019-00073-6
  • The Impact of Future Climate Change and Human Activities on
           Hydro-climatological Drought, Analysis and Projections: Using CMIP5
           Climate Model Simulations
    • Abstract: Both climate change and human activity are the important drivers that can change hydrological cycle routs and affect the features of hydrological drought in river basins. The current study selects the Zayandeh Rud river Basin as a case study region in which to evaluate the influences of climate alteration and human activity on meteorological and hydrological drought based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Runoff Index (SRI) on different time scales. The generated local climatic data of future years (2006–2040), (2041–2075) and (2076–2100) under the severest scenario (RCP 8.5) from the CMIP5 climate model are selected and used for the hydrology model and water allocation model of WEAP to construct hydrological drought which also consider human activities. The results indicate that significant meteorological drought is expected to occur in the winter and spring months of January to June. However, the driest month for hydrological drought is in the summer and autumn (July to December) (e.g. no changes in seasonality of droughts compared to historic period). It is concluded that, in the results of this work, the human influences on projected hydrological drought have been outlined; they had been missed in many projections for future hydrological drought. However, this study confirms the previous study (Bierkens et al. 2012) which mentioned that human influences can account for future hydrological drought in areas of Asia, the Middle East and the Mediterranean. The results attained in this study are beneficial for examining how hydrological drought characterizations respond to climate alteration and human activity on several time scales, thereby providing scientific information for drought predicting and water resources management over various time scales under non-stationary circumstances.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-019-00069-2
  • Effects of Irrigation Management on Yield and Water Productivity of Barley
           Hordeum vulgare in the Upper Blue Nile Basin: Case Study in Northern
    • Abstract: Deficit irrigation practices could be a sustainable crop production strategy in water-scarce regions. This paper presents the relationship between barley yield and various irrigation treatments based on a field-level experiment. The aim of this study is to determine irrigation depth and its effect on the yield and water productivity of barley, Hordeum vulgare. The field experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications and five irrigation treatments (fully irrigated treatment (FIT), 90% FIT, 85% FIT, 80% FIT, and 75% FIT). The study showed yields of barley were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the irrigation amount. At 80% FIT, the largest yield was recorded at 1700 kg/ha. The decrease in yield with increasing irrigation levels could be attributed to the variety of the barley in the region that performs well under water stress. Therefore, the highest yield is obtained at lower irrigation volume than the full irrigation level. The provision of a certain level of water stress (80% FIT) throughout the growing season translates to a better yield relative to full irrigation. The FIT (2.01 kg/m3) and 80% FIT (2.95 kg/m3) treatments had the lowest and highest water productivity, respectively. The finding indicates that barley production using deficit irrigation offers great potential in improving water use. Therefore, a deficit irrigation strategy that increases barley production and uses water efficiently in water-scarce areas is recommended.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-019-00071-8
  • Water Use and Conservation Preferences Among Households in an Urbanizing
    • Abstract: The effectiveness of water policies depends upon the behavioral features of users and factors influencing these processes. Behavioral changes such as a reduction in watering the lawns, reducing water pressure, and taking shorter showers can be used to design policies that can be effective. However, the most impactful changes come from technological modifications, including faucet aerators, water-efficient showerheads and washing machines, dual-flush toilets, and outdoor technology such as automatic sprinkler systems. A survey of households in Amherst, Hadley, and Northampton, of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, USA, is used to measure such behavioral changes as well as technological adoptions along an urbanizing gradient. Objectives of this study are as follows: to assess developments under current and anticipated water conservation strategies in households along an urban gradient, to evaluate the preferences and motivating factors of individuals, and to determine how individuals value their water. Statistical modeling is used to analyze the household survey using several dependent variables, including conservation efforts and willingness to pay. Independent variables included location, economic, and demographic information. Results indicate that those with a higher income are likely to have more water-saving tools indoors and are willing to pay more than those with lower incomes. Age influenced total current conservation adoptions, while metering of water consumption is also significantly related to the indoor adoption of current technology and willingness to pay (WTP) for water infrastructure.
      PubDate: 2019-08-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-019-00074-5
  • Adsorptive Removal of Phenol by Activated Alumina and Activated Carbon
           from Coconut Coir and Rice Husk Ash
    • Abstract: Phenol (C6H5OH) is considered as a serious environmental pollutant, and therefore, the study for its removal from wastewater by adsorption has gained momentum by many researchers. The purpose of this research was to study the phenol removal efficiency using three adsorbents viz. activated alumina and activated carbon from coconut coir and rice husk ash. Initially, the characterizations of the adsorbents were performed. The phenol removal percentage was then investigated in batch experiments with the change of process variables, e.g., initial phenol concentration, contact time, pH, temperature, and adsorbent dose. The experimental results showed that at optimum conditions, the maximum phenol removals for activated alumina and activated carbon from coconut coir and rice husk ash were 21.8%, 95.2%, and 94.23% respectively. These results were tested using several isotherms and kinetic and thermodynamic models. The test of kinetic models showed that pseudo-second-order model was fitted better than the pseudo-first-order model for all three adsorbents. The test of isotherm models showed that the Freundlich isotherm was better for activated alumina and activated carbon from coconut coir, whereas the Langmuir isotherm was better for rice husk ash. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption process was non-spontaneous, non-random, and exothermic for activated alumina; spontaneous, non-random, and exothermic for activated carbon from coconut coir; and spontaneous, random, and endothermic for rice husk ash. The safe disposals of the spent adsorbents were also deliberated in this study. The research discovered that the preference of adsorbents for phenol removal was rice husk ash, activated carbon from coconut coir, and activated alumina. The novelty of this study was that the paper had included exhaustive analysis using testing of numerous models viz. pseudo-first-order model, pseudo-second-order model, Reichenberg model, Fick model, Furusawa and Smith model, Elovich model, Boyd model, Langmuir model, Freundlich model, Temkin model, and Dubinin–Radushkevich model.
      PubDate: 2019-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-019-00075-4
  • Trend Analyses of Seasonal Streamflows of the Tapi Basin
    • Abstract: Information about basin scale climate change is very crucial for utilization, development, and planning of water. The Tapi basin is climatically sensitive. For policymakers, it is important that changes in individual seasons are elucidated. Any earlier study on streamflows of the Tapi basin mentioned in the literature review had not performed trend detection analyses of streamflows of the Tapi basin for four seasons by considering individual month streamflow volume values of given season. Thus, in the present study, trend detection analyses of seasonal streamflow volume time series (1979–2004) of five gauging stations of Tapi basin are carried out for four seasons by considering individual month streamflow volume values of given season. The streamflow data of five gauging stations is selected out of 20 as these are less affected by human activities. Magnitude of trend is assessed by using Sen’s slope (SS) test while statistical significance of trend is assessed by using Mann-Kendall (MK) test and MK with block bootstrapping approach (MKBBS) test for independent and dependent data, respectively. Innovative trend analysis plot and smoothing curve are used for supporting results of trend analysis. The results of the analyses show presence of statistically significant negative trends in winter streamflow volume time series of Burhanpur, Gopalkheda, Lakhpuri, and Yerli gauging stations. Statistically significant negative trends are also detected in pre-monsoon streamflow volume time series of Lakhpuri and Yerli gauging stations. Similarly, statistically significant negative trends are detected in monsoon streamflow volume time series of Gopalkheda and Yerli gauging stations. Statistically significant negative trend is detected in post-monsoon streamflow volume time series of Yerli gauging station as well. The results have shown statistically significant decreasing trends in seasonal streamflows of the gauging station(s) of the Tapi basin.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-018-0062-6
  • Application of Multi-Index Decision Analysis to Management Scenarios
           Considering Climate Change Prediction in the Zayandeh Rud River Basin
    • Abstract: Considering the multidimensionality of water resources management policies and prioritization of water demands, engineering software have attracted researchers and planners. The Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) program (Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis Model) is one of the specialized software that uses the Water Algorithm Equation and is used for water resources planning and management at the watershed level. In order to forecast future water resources, runoff for the years to come by 2100 was first simulated using WEAP along a new climate prediction model (CMIP5) and a rainfall-runoff model. Then, the amount of drinking water and industry needs and net irrigation requirement were calculated by 2100. Results showed that by applying the climate prediction model and considering the effect of human factors on water resources and applying adaptive correction scenarios for the years to come, allocation of water resources in the Zayandeh Rud area was used to predict the status of water resources for planning. Considering the WEAP model for optimal water allocation, it can be admitted that agricultural demand can be met with 60% confidence and drinking water and the industry requirements can be met with 83% confidence.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-019-00068-3
  • Effects of Land Use Dynamics on Hydrological Response of Watershed: a Case
           Study of Chittar Watershed, Vamanapuram River Basin, Thiruvananthapuram
           District, Kerala, India
    • Abstract: Watersheds in the tropical regions of India are vulnerable to the effects of land use/land cover (LULC) change, transpiration and evaporation on groundwater resources. Understanding these changes is important to delineate the impacts on the hydrological cycle and thus helps to strengthen the efficiency of the water management system. A significant change in LULC and evapotranspiration has been observed in the Chittar watershed over the years. The present study involves the assessment of LULC changes during 1967–2001 and 2001–2015. The MODIS MOD 16 A3 data products were used to study evapotranspiration during the period. The groundwater level data of Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) have been used to study the water level changes from 2001 to 2015. The results of the LULC changes indicate that the natural vegetation is decreased significantly from 1967 to 2015. The aerial coverage of natural vegetation was 54% in 1967 which was reduced to 49% in 2001 and 30% in 2015. The most significant land use category is eucalyptus plantation which is decreased from 1967 (12 km2) to 2001 (9 km2). After the year 2011, eucalyptus plantations are converted into acacia plantations. The average annual evapotranspiration of the study area is 917 mm/year during the years 2001 to 2015. The overall evapotranspiration showed a decreasing trend with marked interannual fluctuations. Coming to the groundwater, the upstream of the study area exhibited shallow groundwater level (6.5 to < 6 m below ground level) while the other parts exhibited comparatively deeper groundwater level (> 7.5). From 2001 to 2009, the groundwater level was significantly fluctuated; however, the fluctuation was minimal after 2009. To conclude, the study revealed that the LULC changes in the Chittar watershed have a pivotal role in the observed changes in evapotranspiration. The results reiterated that the changes in evapotranspiration (ET) have a strong bearing on the groundwater potential of the area.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-019-00066-5
  • Application of Box–Behnken Design Approach for Removal of Acid Black 26
           from Aqueous Solution Using Zeolite: Modeling, Optimization, and Study of
           Interactive Variables
    • Abstract: This research is focused on the adsorption of Acid Black 26 dye from aqueous solutions using zeolite as an adsorbent. The experiments were designed by response surface methodology. Quadratic model was used to predict the variables. Analysis of variance was used for investigation of variables and interaction between them. The highest removal percent (87.98%) was attained, and the optimum parameters are achieved: zeolite amount (0.55 g), dye concentration (25.78 mg L−1), pH = 4, and time (59.99 min). F value (329.44), P value (< 0.0001), the adequate precision (66.04), non-significant lack of fit, and R2 = 0.9970 demonstrate a good correlation between experimental and predicted data.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-019-00064-7
  • Assessment of Effects of Zero and Conventional Tillage Practices on Soil
           Moisture and Wheat Grain Yield in Arid and Semi-Arid Land of Laikipia,
    • Abstract: Soil water conservation through tillage is one appropriate way of addressing soil moisture deficit in rain-fed agriculture. The influence of zero and conventional tillage on soil moisture and yield of wheat was investigated in arid and semi-arid lands (ASAL) of Laikipia County, during short rain season of 2015/2016 (September to February). Field trials were carried out with two tillage treatments, zero tillage (ZT) and conventional tillage (CT), with four varying sowing onset dates namely early (SD1), normal (SD2), late (SD3), and a control treatment with supplemental irrigation under normal sowing dates (WTSD2). The zero tillage fields used had been under the tillage practice for over 10 years while adjacent conventional tillage field was disturbed by plowing and harrowing. This was laid out in a randomized complete block design in split plot arrangement with three replicates. Undisturbed soil samples for gravimetric soil moisture determination were taken every 10 days from four depths (10 cm, 25 cm, 45 cm, and 60 cm) in the root zone during the entire growing season from each sub-plot. Irrespective of the sowing date, soil water content at the root zone between the two tillage practices and crop yields was significantly different at p < 0.05. The mean yield was 5.70 ± 1.08 ton/ha (CT) and 8.69 ± 0.54 ton/ha (ZT) in rain-fed trials. Supplemental irrigation trials for the two tillage practices had comparatively equal mean grain yield (12.91 ± 1.37 ton/ha (ZT) and 13.61 ± 0.46 ton/ha (CT)). It was concluded that zero tillage conserved moisture better leading to higher grain yield gap of up to 3 ton/ha.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-019-00067-4
  • Isotherm and Kinetic Evaluation of Dialium guineense Seed Husk and Its
           Modified Derivative as Efficient Sorbent for Crude Oil Polluted Water
    • Abstract: Raw Dialium guineense seed husk (DGSH), a native west African plant, and its phosphoric acid modified form (PA-DGSH) were utilized as cheap natural organic sorbent for petroleum sequestration from aqua media. Characterizations of sorbents prepared were carried out by FTIR, BET surface area analysis, and TGA. Significant changes in the surface properties were observed on the sorbent after acid treatment. Different experimental factors such as sorbent dosage, temperature, petroleum concentration, contact time, and pH were used to assess the effectiveness of petroleum removal by DGSH and PA-DGSH using batch sorption methodology. The experimental factors affected the uptake of crude oil on both sorbents. The Langmuir model gave the best fit to the sorption of crude oil on DGSH with R2 of 0.994 and χ2 of 0.17. The Freundlich was applicable to PA-DGSH with R2 of 0.991 and χ2 of 0.23. The constant parameters of Freundlich and Langmuir revealed good affinity between both sorbents and crude oil molecules. The pseudo-first-order kinetics gave better fit than the pseudo-second-order model in the kinetic analysis, and intraparticle diffusion model showed that the sorption of crude oil on both sorbents was mainly a surface mechanism. Both DGSH and PA-DGSH were found to be useful sorbents for the treatment of oil spill-polluted waters.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-019-00065-6
  • Hypsometric Analysis Using Microwave Satellite Data and GIS of
           Naina–Gorma River Basin (Rewa district, Madhya Pradesh, India)
    • Abstract: Understanding about the stages of geomorphic evolution and geological development of any river catchment and its proneness to erosional process is important for managing the water resources and loss of sediment. Hence, this work is focused on identification of the growth stage of Naina–Gorma river basin and its sub-basins. Hypsometric curve (HC) and hypsometric integral (HI) have been estimated using microwave satellite data in the geographical information system (GIS) environment. The result shows that the HI value ranges from 0.36 to 0.89, indicating youth to mature stage of geomorphic development for river basin and its 15 sub-basins. Therefore, the sub-basins which are at youth age stage of geomorphic development are of high susceptibility to medium to complex denudational processes, erosion, channel erosion, and mass movement activity. This mass movement is due to variation in tectonic activity, rejuvenation processes, and lithology of the area. It helps to measure watershed health, represent the form, its evolution, and morphology of river basin. The results of the statistical analysis suggest that positive statistical relationship exists between the area and the hypsometric integral groups of the 15 sub-basins. It also plays an important role in explaining the dynamics of surface and subsurface water runoff generation. The results of the study have been validated through field visits and surveys. The findings of the work would help in construction and adoption of appropriate soil and water conservation measures in the rain-fed river system to retard the soil erosion and conservation of water.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-018-0053-7
  • Performance of Intermeshed Spinning Basket Membrane Module in
           Ultrafiltration of Oil-Water Emulsion
    • Abstract: Membrane separation is a well-accepted modern downstream technique with low energy budget relative to conventional separation processes, such as distillation, absorption, and liquid-liquid extraction. However, the process of membrane separation suffers from the serious drawback of transient flux decline from the start-up to the steady state because of two well-known operational non-idealities, namely concentration polarization and membrane fouling. Dynamic shear-enhanced (DSE) modules, initially developed couple of decades earlier, are able to effectively counter the problem of transient flux decline upon generating feed flow rate-independent high shear stress at the membrane surface. Yet with all its advancement, even the most efficient DSE module cannot totally arrest the problem of permeate decline, and therefore, periodic membrane cleaning is necessary. The present article illustrates the design and performance characteristics of a self-cleaning enabled DSE module in treatment of pine oil-water emulsion. The module has been named as Intermeshed Spinning Basket Membrane (ISBM) module as it consists of two intermeshed spinning baskets fitted with rectangular membranes on their alternate sides. The maximum permeate flux as high as 5.76 × 10−4 L m−2 h−1 was recorded at a transmembrane pressure of 3.92 bar. Moreover, after each cleaning run of only 5-min duration, 75–89% flux regeneration was achieved in all the experimental runs.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-018-0056-4
  • Design, Development, and Assessment of Lake Water Purification System
           Through Solar Concentration Technique
    • Abstract: This water purification system is designed by contemplating the water shortage faced by the urban areas during summers and the use of polluted lake water by the local farmers for irrigation while paying close attention to the economic factors and feasibility associated with this process. The presence of heavy metals, phosphates, nitrates, and Escherichia coli in the lake waters of the urban areas render it unfit for domestic use and irrigation. The crops cultivated utilizing these waters are hazardous, when ingested by humans and cattle, this may lead to bioaccumulation. The system designed aims at purifying the lake water, solely using solar power, chemicals, and natural filtration techniques. The experiment was conducted at New Horizon College of Engineering, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India (latitude12° 93′ N, longitude 77° 69′ E). The system uses flocculation, adsorption, micro-filtration, and distillation to purify the water. Novel integration of a Fresnel lens and a thermoelectric cooler in the solar distillation unit has improved the rate of distillation and efficiency. The distillate obtained could later be exploited for domestic purposes. An efficiency of over 78% was achieved for mercury removal, while the other polluting parameters were on par with the lake water standards set by the lake development authorities in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. As for the solar distillation unit, the experimental results in comparison with other researches show that, the distillate output increases by coupling a Fresnel lens concentrator and a thermoelectric cooler to over 57%.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-018-0059-1
  • Preparation and Using Modified Nanohydroxyapatite Molecules for Wastewater
    • Abstract: Today, the use of municipal wastewater (WW) as the alternative source of water for irrigation purpose is a common practice. This study will address the effect of using synthetic nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) powders, which is prepared by microwave heating based wet chemical method and its modification with humic acid (HA) as a sorbent and stabilizing agents to remove contaminants from wastewater. The nHAp and nHAp-HA complex were characterized by different techniques. The wastewater treatment process was done by using a fixed bed column model by adsorption onto nHAp or nHAp-HA complex. The flow rate of the wastewater purification process was 80 ml/h for each 10 g of nHAp or nHAp-HA complex for treat 1 l. Some WW properties were determined before and after the treatment process, such as total organic carbon (TOC), heavy metals, major cations, major anions, electrical conductivity (EC), and pH. The results of this study indicated that TOC was completely removed from WW and removed by a 97.5% ratio by nHAp-HA complex and nHAp, respectively. In addition, cadmium, zinc, chromium, and lead were completely removed from the WW by a nHAp or nHAp-HA complex. Moreover, other heavy metals (copper, manganese, cobalt, iron, boron, and selenium), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), total dissolved solids (TDS), EC, and pH of the treated wastewater (TWW) by the nHAp and modified nHAp were within the acceptable range of irrigation. Thus, nHAp and modified nHAp may be easily applied to treat the wastewater and be using it for irrigation purposes.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-018-0061-7
  • Evaluating Cost-Effectiveness of Rainwater Harvesting for Irrigation in
           Arid Climate of Gujarat, India
    • Abstract: Small reservoirs have proved as successful rainwater harvesting systems in semi-arid regions; however, their dependability in arid regions is not tested. This study aimed at evaluating cost-effectiveness of small reservoir used for supplying irrigation water to wheat and mustard crops in an arid region of India by employing three performance indicators, i.e., benefit-cost (B-C) ratio, net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR). In addition, sensitivity analysis of the variables influencing the economics of the reservoirs is also carried out. The actual water requirements for wheat and mustard crops over their entire life span of 110 and 95 days, respectively, are computed as 319 and 227 mm, respectively, in comparison to existing practice of excessively irrigating the crops. Fixed cost, i.e., cost of construction of the reservoir is estimated as Rs. 1,033,349, for a total storage capacity of 29,184.5 m3, whereas, the running cost, i.e., cost of cultivation for wheat and mustard, is worked out to be Rs. 41,800 and 31,100 per ha, respectively. The net benefit of Rs. 28,901 and 38,835 per ha, respectively for wheat and mustard crops clearly indicated that mustard is 34% economical over the wheat. The optimistic, pessimistic, and average unit costs of harvested rainwater over a 30-year period is calculated as Rs. 1.51, 3.03, and 2.27 m−3, respectively, which suggests that a small reservoir is a viable option for rainwater management in the arid regions. This finding is further supported from the optimum values of B-C ratio (1.01), NPV (Rs. 10,093), and IRR (10.12%). This study considered a scenario of demand-based efficient irrigation supplies with improved values of the B-C ratio (2.18), NPV (Rs. 1,330,558), and IRR (24%). Furthermore, sensitivity analysis revealed that the grain yield is the most significant variable affecting the cost-effectiveness of the reservoir system, which needs to be carefully monitored and enhanced in order to further increase reservoir dependability in arid regions. Finally, the findings of this study are very useful for planners and decision-makers to formulate appropriate strategies for managing scarce rainwater in the study area as well as in other arid climate regions of the world.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-018-0058-2
  • Analyzing the Hydrologic Variability of Kallada River, India Using
           Continuous Wavelet Transform and Fractal Theory
    • Abstract: The presence of storage and water conservation structures significantly influences the characteristics of hydrologic time series. This paper first analyzes the daily streamflow and total suspended sediment (TSS) concentration of the Kallada River in southern Kerala, India using continuous wavelet transform (CWT). The wavelet power spectra of streamflow displayed a complete removal of annual periodicity since ~ 2002–2003 period, and the wavelet coherence analysis confirmed the effect of human interventions on hydrological variability of the Kallada River. The study further confirmed the direct influence of reduction in precipitation on the variability of streamflow and the impact of hydrologic regulations and human interventions on the variability of TSS concentration of the Kallada River. Further, both of the hydrologic series were analyzed using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) for its fractal characterizations, after splitting the series to pre and post 2002–2003 period. MFDFA analysis showed that both streamflow and TSS data possess long-term persistence with Hurst exponent varying between 0.74–0.99 for different series. It is further noticed that multifractal degree of the TSS concentration series is greater than that for streamflow in all cases. The MFDFA analysis displayed a reduction in the intercept of the fitted fluctuation function plots of streamflow and TSS concentration series of the Kallada River. The degree of multifractality of both streamflow and TSS concentration series of post 2002–2003 period is reduced by 26% and 82% respectively over the corresponding series of pre 2002–2003 period. The study implied the effect of hydrologic regulations by the water conservation reservoirs of the Kallada basin on the hydrologic variability of the river.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-018-0060-8
  • Performance and Kinetics Evaluation of Integrated Suspended Growth
           Bioreactor Treating Beverage Industry Wastewater
    • Abstract: In this research, feasibility of using a continuous flow integrated suspended growth bioreactor (i-SGBR) pilot plant was explored to treat beverage industry wastewater. The bioreactor treatment units comprise of three sequentially arranged suspended growth bioreactors with anoxic (ANX-C), aerobic (AER-C), and aerobic digester chambers (AD-C). Clarifier (CLR) was installed as last chamber to settle sludge. Parameters such as total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) were monitored and validated with biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5). Other parameters measured include soluble COD (sCOD), mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS), total suspended solids (TSS), and pH. Transformational behavior of aerobic metabolic performance for extended aeration process was investigated by operating regimes of variable aerobic hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR) between 20 and 30 h and 0.49–0.79 kg COD/m3 day, respectively. Solids retention time (SRT) between 20 and 40 days was operated. The aim was to generate data for bacterial growth and substrate utilization kinetics from modified Monod’s model. Removal of TCOD, BOD5, and TSS were achieved in the range of 95.2–97.9% (Influent 995 ± 21–1028 ± 25 mg/L and Effluent 21 ± 2–4.9 ± 3 mg/L), 98–98.7% (Influent 489 ± 19–507 ± 7 mg/L and Effluent 27 ± 2–41 ± 1.8 mg/L), and 91.2–94.6% (Influent 500 ± 23–653 ± 11 mg/L and Effluent 6.3 ± 7–41 ± 1.8 mg/L), respectively. The maximum substrate utilization rate (k), half velocity constant (Ks), growth yield co-efficient (Y), and decay coefficients (kd) were determined as 2.81 days−1, 979 mg sCOD/L, 0.72 mg VSS/mg sCOD, and − 0.0172 day−1, respectively. Maximum specific growth rate (μmax) was found as 2.03 days−1. Treatment efficiencies declined with reduction of HRT and with increased OLR applied to the bioreactor. The aerobic digester (AD) achieved between 9.8% (Influent 15,021 mg/L) and 18.6% (10,893 mg/L) MLVSS reduction, where performance decreased with additional solids concentration from influent aerobic digester (IAD). i-SGBR has accomplished effective removal of pollutants and simultaneous sludge degradation of beverage industry wastewater. Kinetic parameters obtained could be useful for design and modeling of aerobic treatment unit to improve effluent quality.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-018-0054-6
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