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Nusantara Bioscience
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2087-3948 - ISSN (Online) 2087-3956
Published by Society for Indonesian Biodiversity Homepage  [11 journals]
  • Physico-chemical, heavy metal analysis and physical composition of
           household solid waste, Shone Town, Ethiopia

    • Authors: GIZACHEW BALILO, ABEBE ASCHALEW, REJILA MANIKANDAN, ARBO FEYISA
      Abstract: Abstract. Balilo G, Aschalew A, Manikandan R, Feyisa A. 2023. Physico-chemical, heavy metal analysis and physical composition of household solid waste, Shone Town, Ethiopia. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 32-37. In Ethiopia, Shone is one of the country's fast-developing towns; inadequate solid waste management was observed. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the generation rate and selected physico-chemical characterization and heavy metal analysis of household solid waste. The study was conducted on randomly selected 120 households from two Kebele of the town. The physico-chemical analysis results revealed that moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity (dS/cm), nitrogen, organic carbon, (%), phosphorus and potassium content of household solid waste were 54.6, 8.25, 2.52 (dS/cm), 2.47, 10.25, 0.54, and 0.82%, respectively. In addition, in the decomposed household solid waste samples, heavy metals such as iron, manganese, copper, zinc, nickel, cobalt, chromium, lead, and cadmium were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed the concentration of these heavy metals in the decomposed solid waste samples was in the order of iron>manganese>zinc>copper>nickel>chromium>cobalt>lead>cadmium. Daily solid waste from those households was separated into its components, and each component was measured. That was conducted for 7 consecutive days to quantify and characterize household solid waste. The result revealed that the household solid waste generation rate in the study area was 0.206 kilogram/capita/day. The physical composition of the solid waste in Shone Town is mainly organic, constituting 92.8%. The organic waste of the town has a high content of biodegradable waste such as food waste (49.56%), ash and dust (29.74%), yard waste (4.95%), textile (4.006%), old shoes and bone (2.5%), paper and cardboard (2.04%) and recyclable material such as plastic (3.28%), glass and metal (3.88%) all account for 92.8% (biodegradable) and 7.17% (non-biodegradable), respectively.
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Molecular identification of yeasts from Turkish traditional cheeses:
           Extracellular enzyme activities and physiological properties important for
           dairy industry

    • Authors: MELİH GÜNAY, TÜLAY TURGUR GENÇ
      Abstract: Abstract. Gunay M, Genc TT. 2023. Molecular identification of yeasts from Turkish traditional cheeses: Extracellular enzyme activities and physiological properties important for dairy industry. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 1-11. The determination of yeast microbiota in cheeses and the physiological properties of yeasts are very important for the dairy industry. In addition, the physiological features, proteolytic and lipolytic activities, and stress tolerance of yeasts have a significant role in the selection of starter yeast species for cheese ripening. This study aimed to determine industrially important yeasts isolated from cheese samples. Molecular techniques identified the isolated yeast strains. The yeast strains’ extracellular enzyme activities, fermentation capacities, and thermotolerance and osmotolerance properties were also evaluated. A total of 81 yeast strains were isolated and characterized from three types of cheese samples. PCR-RFLP determined the isolated yeast strains and sequence analysis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 26S rDNA regions. A maximum parsimony tree was constructed by MEGA X software to evaluate the phylogenetic relationship of identified yeast strains. Candida intermedia, Candida parapsilosis, Clavispora lusitaniae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Wickerhamomyces anomalus yeast species were identified on cheese samples. The distribution of identified yeast species on cheese samples was determined as 48.1% for W. anomalus, 17.3% for K. marxianus, 14.8% for C. parapsilosis, 8.6% for D. hansenii, 4.9% for Cl. lusitaniae, 3.7% for C. intermedia and 2.5% for P. kudriavzevii. The W. anomalus yeast species was common in three cheese types. All strains of W. anomalus and P. kudriavzevii yeast species, three C. parapsilosis, and two Cl. lusitaniae yeast strains have important physiological properties for industrial applications. These yeast strains have the potential to be used in combination as starter cultures to improve cheese maturation in the future. This comprehensive study identifies yeast species by ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 26S rDNA regions and determines industrially important yeast species using multiple criteria (extracellular enzyme activity, stress tolerance, and fermentation capacity).
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • In silico comparative analysis of the complete chloroplast genome
           sequences in different jewel orchid species

    • Authors: MINH PHUONG NGUYEN, THI HUONG TRINH, THI KIM ANH NGO, SASANTI WIDIARSIH, VIET THE HO
      Abstract: Abstract. Nguyen MP, Trinh TH, Ngo TKA, Widiarsih S, Ho VT. 2023. In silico comparative analysis of the complete chloroplast genome sequences in different jewel orchid species. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 12-21. Jewel orchid is the common name of several orchid species which can be alike in morphological characteristics but variable in medicinal properties. As these plants are utilized to treat several diseases, their natural existence in the wild habitat is rapidly diminished. Therefore, a better understanding of the genetic information of this plant for better genetic conservation and development of these plants is necessary. In this study, a total of 18 published chloroplast genomes of 18 jewel orchid species determined by the next-generation sequencing method were retrieved from NCBI GenBank and targeted for genomic characterization and phylogenetic analyses. Different bioinformatics tools were utilized to characterize these genomes’ genomic structure, repetitive sequences, interspecific variation, divergence, and phylogenetic relationships. The obtained data revealed that the chloroplast genomes of different jewel orchid species varied in length between 151,414 (Anoectochilus formosanus MN880624.1) and 154,375 (Goodyera biflora OM314910.1). Each species contains 34-87 SSR loci which could be useful as molecular markers for further genetic diversity study of this plant. Structural variations in the expansion and contraction of inverted repeat regions were also considered. Phylogenetic analysis identified a close relationship among species belonging to the Goodyera genus, and this genus is distinctive from other genera such as Anoectochilus, Cystorchis, Dossinia, Ludisia, and Macodes. The obtained results show a high potential of deeper characterizing the chloroplast genome of jewel orchids for species classification, identification, molecular breeding, and evolutionary exploration of these important herbal plants.
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effect of dolomite and pig manure on growth and production of carrots
           (Daucus carota)

    • Authors: NOVITA DEWI SAMBI, YUSUF LIMBONGAN, ADEWIDAR M. PATA’DUNGAN
      Abstract: Abstract. Sambi ND, Limbongan Y, Pata’dungan AM. 2023. Effect of dolomite and pig manure on growth and production of carrots (Daucus carota). Nusantara Bioscience 14: 22-29. This study aims to see how dolomite and pig manure affect carrot (Daucus carota L.) plant development and taproot production. The research was conducted from May to August 2021 in the Padangiring Village, Rantetayo Sub-district, Tana Toraja District, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Three levels of dolomite in combination with four levels of pig manure were used: control (no treatment), and dolomite at 3 tons/ha, 6 tons/ha, and pig manure at control (no treatment), and 20 tons/ha, 30 tons/ha, and 40 tons/ha. The optimal dolomite level of 3 tons/ha significantly influenced plant height, the number of leaves, taproot length, and taproot diameter but had no significant effect on individual taproot weight, plot taproot weight, or taproot weight per hectare. The optimal pig manure dose of 4 kg/plot (40 tons/ha) showed a substantial influence on all investigated variables. The interaction between dolomite and pig manure substantially influenced taproot length but had no effect on the other observable variables. The optimum treatment combination was 3 tons/ha of dolomite with 40 tons/ha of pig manure, yielding 38.67 tons/ha of carrot taproots. Thus, commercial carrot growth and production may be boosted by a combination of dolomite and pig manure.
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
       
 
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