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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
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Nusantara Bioscience
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2087-3948 - ISSN (Online) 2087-3956
Published by Society for Indonesian Biodiversity Homepage  [11 journals]
  • The link of socioeconomic importance to the conservation status of the
           Mediterranean endemic plants in Egypt

      Abstract: Abstract. Shaltout K, Bedair H, El-Khalafy MM, Keshta A, Halmy MWA. 2023. The link of socioeconomic importance to the conservation status of the Mediterranean endemic plants in Egypt. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 189-211. Mediterranean Basin is the second world's richest hotspot and one of the most critical spots on the planet for endemic species. Therefore, the present study aimed at screening the Mediterranean endemics and evaluating the uses of recorded taxa quantitively through developing new indices and updating the existing ones. Indeed, Semi-structured interviews were used with 43 informants. Relative Cultural Importance (RCI), Species Conservation Importance (SCI), and Relative Medicinal Importance (RMI) indices were applied to determine the most valuable taxa. A preliminary list of 65 Mediterranean endemic species belonging to 49 genera and 22 families in Egypt was compiled from the available literature. Fifty-seven (87.7%) species have at least one aspect of the potential or actual economic value. The most represented use category was the medicinal value (39 taxa: 69.6%). Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. was mentioned in the highest use categories (NU: 5). Veronica syriaca Roem. & Schult. attained the maximum ethnobotanical Relative Importance (RI) index value. It is crucial to shed light on the cultural value of Mediterranean endemics to guide future management planning to support the conservation and sustainable use of these critical species.
      PubDate: 2023-09-19
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Habitat characteristics, population structure, distribution, and
           regeneration status of Taxus wallichiana in South Vietnam

      Abstract: Abstract. Hop NV, Xiong CC, Quy NV, Luong NT. 2023. Habitat characteristics, population structure, distribution, and regeneration status of Taxus wallichiana in South Vietnam. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 179-188. Taxus wallichiana Zucc. is an endangered plant species with high economic value, making it threatened to extinction. Biological information about this species is therefore essential for its conservation. This study is aimed to assess the habitat characteristics, population structure, distribution, and regeneration status of T. wallichiana in South Vietnam. Vegetation surveys were conducted from 2016 to 2021 in three regions in Lam Dong Province. The study revealed that it was distributed in regions with monsoon climate with a total extent of ''379.57 ha, with habitats located on the hillside, narrow shelves, dissected terrain, high slope, on feralite soil with light brown to yellow, red, the soil layer thickness over 0.3 m and in clusters or streaks. The study recorded 634 trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH)'25 cm and 137 trees with 6 cm 'DBH<25 cm. The trees were found primarily at 1401-1500 m above sea level in a mixed broadleaved-coniferous forest. The growth indicators of DBH and overall height (Hvn) developed strongly, but the stand volume was low owing to low tree density. The exponential function was the most suitable for simulating the relationship between Hvn and DBH. Seven thousand six hundred and seventy-three regenerating young individuals were recorded with low density. The density of the regenerating trees decreased as the tree height increased. The finding of this study suggests that T. wallichiana faces the danger of extinction, so solutions are required to conserve and develop this threatened species.
      PubDate: 2023-09-16
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Classification of forest vegetation in Yaraligöz Education and
           Observation Forest, Kastamonu, Türkiye

      Abstract: Abstract. Karaköse M, Terzioglu S. 2023. Classification of forest vegetation in Yaraligöz Education and Observation Forest, Kastamonu, Türkiye. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 161-171. Forest ecosystems, which contain approximately half of the 12,975 plant taxa known to be distributed in Türkiye, are very important in terms of biological diversity. The fact that forests are seen as wood-producing ecosystems and have been planned for these purposes for many years has resulted in forests being kept away from being evaluated in terms of ecosystem and socio-economic aspects. Today, forest management plans have begun to be prepared in which all components of the forest are considered, and biological diversity is reflected. Based on this understanding, this investigation was performed during 2011-2012 to analyze the forest vegetation of Yaraligöz Education and Observation Forest. The study area is located in the north-western part of Türkiye within the Euro-Siberian phytogeographic region. Phytosociological studies were carried out using the classical Braun-Blanquet approach, and 51 relevés were collected from the research area. The database contains 184 vascular plant taxa, dominated by the Euro-Siberian elements and Hemicryptophytes. The relevés were classified using the Modified TWINSPAN, and the forest vegetation types' distribution was analyzed using non-metric multi-dimensional scaling. A comprehensive comparison among all described syntaxa within the study area and other closely related forests was provided. Topographic factors and mean Ellenberg indicator values were evaluated to interpret the ecological relationships among forest plant associations. Four associations, two (Daphno pontica-Pinetum hamatae and Galio rotundifolii-Abietum equi-trojani) of which are new syntaxa to science, were defined as belonging to the Euxine Province within Erico-Pinetea, Carpino-Fagetea sylvaticae, Quercetea pubescentis, and Vaccinio-Piceetea. The distribution of these four forest associations was mostly affected by light intensity, nutrients, moisture content, and altitude. The results of this vegetation study provided precious knowledge for monitoring vegetation change and nature conservation projects in the Yaraligöz.
      PubDate: 2023-07-28
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Chemical composition of Corymbia citriodora

      Abstract: Abstract. Dogara AM. 2023. Chemical composition of Corymbia citriodora. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 172-178. Aromatic plants, particularly those in the Myrtaceae family, are widely used both traditionally and commercially to lengthen food's shelf life and safety. The current investigation was prompted by a lack of information on the composition of the plant's oil, which has traditionally been used to treat and manage cancer, malaria, typhoid fever, and various other ailments. The study thoroughly examines the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K.D.Hill & L.A.S.Johnson. Hydro distillation was used to extract essential oil from the leaves, which were then analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to identify the functional group in the essential oil. According to the findings, monoterpene compounds make up (0.8137%), sesquiterpenoids (0.6568%) and other compounds (95.7207% of the total). The most abundant substance was 1-Octadecene (7.83%), followed by Oleic acid, 9-Octadecenoic acid, (E)-, (6.16%), Octadecanal, Disparlure, and 1-Octadecene (all of which were at or below 4%), and all other substances. The C. citriodora essential oil yielded 11 spectra. The extracts had sharp peaks at 900 cm-1 (phenyl), 1400 (mono-, oligo-, and carbohydrates), and 2900 (lipid methoxy compounds of CH3 and CH2, which have distinctive C-H stretching vibrations). OH groups from water, alcohols, phenols, polysaccharides, and peroxides are fingerprinted at 3400 cm-1. The study concludes that oleic acid-rich oil from C. citriodora leaves could be used as an economical source of oleic acid; the study lays the groundwork for future research on the plant in this issue.
      PubDate: 2023-07-28
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Antibacterial activities of Polyalthia longifolia leaf extracts on
           multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from hospital fomites in
           Akure, Nigeria

      Abstract: Abstract. Babatunde OJ, Ogundare AO, Adebolu TT. 2023. Antibacterial activities of Polyalthia longifolia leaf extracts on multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from hospital fomites in Akure, Nigeria. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 149-160. Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.), an ornamental plant, is said to be therapeutic while searching for new medications to treat infections caused by multiple Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (MAR). This plant's leaves were investigated for prospective antibacterial activity against MAR isolated from fomites in selected hospitals in Akure and their pharmacological properties. Standard microbiological methods were used to isolate and identify bacteria from fomites. Disc diffusion was performed to test their sensitivity to conventional antibiotics and P. longifolia leaf extracts made with ethanol and water. Ciprotab® was used as the control during the antibacterial assay. Therefore, GC-MS analysis was carried out using standard methods to identify the chemicals in the plant leaf extracts. Staphylococcus aureus (29.17%), Streptococcus pyogenes (20.83%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.28%), Escherichia coli (14.28%), Salmonella typhi (12.5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.33%) were the bacterial species isolated from the fomites sampled in this study. Crude ethanol leaf extract of P. longifolia (100mg/mL) inhibited the growth of these organisms with the greatest effect on P. aeruginosa with a value of 23.83±0.44 mm, which is superior to that medicated by the control antibiotic (ciprofloxacin). The GC-MS analysis of the purified leaf extracts of P. longifolia revealed the presence of bioactive compounds such as n-hexadecanoic acid and phytol, among others. The study revealed that the leaf extracts of P. longifolia can inhibit the growth of the isolated MAR from fomites with an added cidal effect, and the inhibition increase with the increase in concentration and exposure time.
      PubDate: 2023-06-19
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Secondary metabolites of rhizospheric fungal isolate Aspergillus carneus
           ABRF4 regulate the antibacterial and anti-proliferative activity against
           cancer cells

      Abstract: Abstract. Sahu MK, Yeeravalli R, Das A, Jha H. 2023. Secondary metabolites of rhizospheric fungal isolate Aspergillus carneus ABRF4 regulate the antibacterial and anti-proliferative activity against cancer cells. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 137-142. The medicinal capabilities of plants are influenced by soil chemistry, genotype, and climate. Many biotic and abiotic factors affect soil composition. Microorganisms constituting the soil microflora indicate a mutualistic relationship with plant rhizospheric region, and they play an important role in plant secondary metabolite production, yield, and efficacy. They are the major resources for structurally unique bioactive natural metabolites. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bioactivity of the secondary metabolite extracted from the rhizospheric fungal isolate Aspergillus carneus ABRF4) isolated from the Achanakmar Biosphere Reserve, Chhattisgarh, India. The fungal secondary metabolites were extracted using several solvents by soxhlet extraction techniques. The crude and partially purified column fractions of A. carneus ABRF4 were characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrum, and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Results showed that the acetonitrile fraction had an antimicrobial activity with the variable zone of inhibition against human pathogens such as Bacillus circulans (MTCC-7906), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 441), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96), and Ralstonia eutropha (MTCC-2487). The crude extracts and the identified secondary metabolite, trans- 1,3-dimethyl-Cyclohexane, possess different anti-proliferative activity against human tissue-specific cancer cell lines, including breast cancer (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and MCF-7), liver cancer (HepG2), lung cancer (A-549), and prostate cancer (DU-145) suggesting a potential therapeutic application of the isolated rhizospheric fungi.
      PubDate: 2023-06-19
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Effectiveness test of Diploknema oligomera extracts to the decrease in
           glucose levels in alloxan-induced BALB/c male mice

      Abstract: Abstract. Faizah S, Eriani K, Rosnizar. 2023. Effectiveness test of Diploknema oligomera extracts to the decrease in glucose levels in alloxan-induced BALB/c male mice. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 143-148. People with diabetes mellitus usually consume chemical drugs to lower their blood glucose levels which cause side effects and require a reasonably high cost. Therefore, alternative natural medicines (phytopharmaceuticals) that are safer and more affordable are needed. Punti fruit (Diploknema oligomera H.J Lam) has the potential as an antihyperglycemic agent that can lower glucose levels in the blood because the punti fruit contains flavonoid compounds, tannins, terpenoids, and saponins. These secondary metabolites can reduce blood glucose levels. This research used an experimental method with a completely randomized design, six treatments, and four replications. This study used 24 BALB/C (Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758) male mice grouped into six treatments, namely normal control treatment (P1), negative control by giving alloxan 150 mg/kg bw (P2), positive control by giving glibenclamide dose of 0.65 mg/kg body weight (bw) (P3), ethanol extract of punti fruit dose of 250 mg/kg bw (P4), ethanol extract of punti fruit dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (P5) and ethanol extract of punti fruit dose of 1,000 mg/kg bw (P6). The results proved that administering punti extract (P3, P4, P5) for 14 could reduce blood glucose levels in male diabetic mice with a percentage reduction of 33.6%, 37.4%, and 52.7%, and treatment-positive control decreased blood glucose by 32.6%. The conclusion showed that the ethanol extract of punti fruit at a dose of 1,000 mg/kg bw could effectively reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic mice compared to a dose of 250 mg/kg bw, 500 mg/kg bw and 0.65 mg/kg glibenclamide kg bw. Therefore, punti fruit can be used as a drug candidate to be developed as phytopharmaceuticals in treating diabetes mellitus.
      PubDate: 2023-06-19
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
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