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Nusantara Bioscience
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2087-3948 - ISSN (Online) 2087-3956
Published by Society for Indonesian Biodiversity Homepage  [11 journals]
  • Optimization of L-asparaginase production from endophytic bacteria
           isolated from the mangrove Rhizophora mucronata

      Abstract: Abstract. Nafisaturrahmah A, Susilowati A, Pangastuti A. 2023. Optimization of L-asparaginase production from endophytic bacteria isolated from the mangrove Rhizophora mucronata. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 279-287. L-asparaginase is an enzyme that hydrolyes L-asparaginase to L-aspartate and ammonia. L-asparaginase has the potential to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and other malignant cancers. So far, purified L-asparaginase from Escherichia coli and Erwinea chrysanthemi has been available and applied clinically in humans. However, this treatment has side effects such as allergy, cross-interaction, immune system stimulation, drug resistance, and nonspecific L-glutaminase activity. These side effects can be overcome by discovering new sources of L-asparaginase, which are serologically different but have similar therapeutic effects. This study aims to determine the optimal conditions of endophytic bacterial culture in producing L-asparaginase. Endophytic bacteria were screened using an M9 medium with asparagine as a substrate; the L-asparaginase-producing isolates showed pink zones around the colonies. Optimization of L-aparaginase production by endophytic bacteria is carried out by One Factor at A Time (OFAT). Optimization of enzyme production includes incubation time, temperature, pH, ammonium sulfate levels, and glucose concentration in the bacterial growth medium; determination of enzyme production by Nesslerization method. The results showed that 8 isolates could produce high L-asparaginase, 14 isolates had medium ability, 30 isolates had low ability, and 2 bacterial isolates did not produce L-asparaginase. Endophytic isolates were able to produce the highest L-Aparaginase under different optimal conditions. The optimal incubation time for endophytic isolates in this study was 60-84 hours, the optimal temperature was 37ºC, the optimal pH was 7, the nitrogen content was 0.25 mg/L, and the optimal glucose level was 3%.
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Morphometric variations of Kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis Cantor, 1849) in
           Malaysian and Yemeni waters

      Abstract: Abstract. Binashikhbubkr K, Setyawan AD, Naim DM. 2023. Morphometric variations of Kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis Cantor, 1849) in Malaysian and Yemeni waters. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 269-278. Euthynnus affinis Cantor, 1849 (Kawakawa), a small epipelagic tuna that migrates, is one of the most commercially significant tunas in Indo-Pacific subtropical and tropical waters. Unfortunately, there is a lack of knowledge on the region's stock structure and management of the particular migratory species. The present investigation aimed to distinguish body shape differences among 20 populations of E. affinis across Malaysian and Yemen coastal waters. A total of 416 specimens of E. affinis were sampled from five central geographic regions: the South China Sea, Straits of Malacca, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and the Arabian Sea. Multivariate analyses, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), and Cluster Analysis (CA) of 12 morphometric variables, were conducted to differentiate 20 populations of E. affinis. The findings revealed significant differences in the body form among 20 populations. Morphological homogeneity was observed among populations from Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo (Sabah and Sarawak). As expected, Yemen's (Mukalla City) populations were clearly segregated and formed a separate cluster. The highest percentage of correctly classified specimens (100%) came from populations in Pulau Tenggol (Terengganu) and Kukup (Johor). In contrast, the highest percentage of misclassified specimens (100%) came from populations in Kota Kinabalu (Sabah), Bintawa (Sarawak), Lumut (Perak), and Endau (Johor). Based on the Mahalanobis distances, hierarchical cluster analyses revealed that 20 populations of E. affinis could be clustered into three distinct groups. This is the first report on E. affinis from Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysian Borneo (Sabah and Sarawak), and the waters of Yemen using morphometric techniques.
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • The potency of Berastagi sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract for
           obesity treatment: An experimental study in male rats

      Abstract: Abstract. Batubara WRP, Susilawati TN, Indarto D. 2023. The potency of Berastagi sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract for obesity treatment: A study in the rats. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 251-257. Obesity is an abnormal accumulation of body fat and is a trigger factor for various degenerative diseases. Obese continues to grow every year in the world. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Orange Peel Extract (OPE) on Body Weight (BW), obesity index (Lee Index), Body Fat Percentage (BFP) and visceral fat in obese-model rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: controls (negative/NC given aquadest and positive/PC given orlistat 12.3 mg/kgBW/day) and interventions (OPE 1-3) given OPE 250, 500 and 750 mg/kgBW/day, respectively. All rats were fed a high-fat, high-fructose (HFHFr) diet for 28 days. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Friedman test with p<0.05. The average BW in all groups increased significantly after 14 and 28 days of the intervention (p=0.005). A significant decrease in the obesity index average was found in the OPE 2 and 3 groups (p=0.028 and p=0.034) compared to the NC group. The OPE 1-3 and PC group significantly decreased in average BFP compared with the NC group on the 28th day of intervention (p<0.05). In conclusion, OPE can reduce obesity induced by HFHFr. Future research could be directed to evaluate the OPE side effects for obesity treatment.
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Population genetic structure of Kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis Cantor, 1849)
           in Malaysian waters based on COI gene

      Abstract: Abstract. Binashikhbubkr K, Setyawan AD, Naim DM. 2023. Population genetic structure of Kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis (Cantor, 1849)) in Malaysian waters based on COI gene. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 258-268. Kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis Cantor, 1849) is widely distributed in the subtropical and tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific region. Still, insufficient data about its stock, management, and protection in Malaysia and nearby waters raises concerns about overfishing and depletion. Therefore, to ensure effective and successful management of a species, it is imperative to conduct a molecular-based assessment of the stock structure. The present study investigated the population genetic structure of E. affinis in Malaysian waters using the mtDNA COI gene. Furthermore, the 632 bp segment of the COI region was sequenced in 372 individuals from 19 distinct populations in Malaysian waters. The results revealed that the genetic divergence varied from low to high. The average Haplotype diversity (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (') were calculated to be 0.5401 and 0.0045, respectively. Examining haplotype distribution unveiled the presence of 22 unique haplotypes within the COI gene of E. affinis. The analysis of the Neighbor Joining (NJ) tree and the Minimum Spanning Network (MSN) revealed the formation of three distinct clades among E. affinis samples. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) showed a significant genetic structure among the 19 populations of E. affinis [(FST = 0.5354 (P < 0.05)]. The neutrality test and mismatch distribution analysis indicated that the specimens underwent a period of population expansion. This study is a significant milestone, providing the first comprehensive documentation of the genetic structure of E. affinis in Malaysia.
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Effect of phosphate solubilizing and nitrogen-fixing bacteria on Pontianak
           siam citrus (Citrus ×nobilis var. microcarpa) seed germination

      Abstract: Abstract. Adhyaningtyas RFI, Rahmawati, Mukarlina. 2023. Effect of phosphate solubilizing and nitrogen-fixing bacteria on Pontianak siam citrus (Citrus ×nobilis var. microcarpa) seed germination. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 245-250. West Kalimantan is one of Indonesia's largest producing areas for Siam citrus (Citrus ×nobilis var. microcarpa Hassk.). It is necessary to carry out the proper treatments within the early stages of planting, which increases the speed of germination of citrus seeds to quickly increase the number of seedlings. The biological agents that play a role in promoting plant growth are a group of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), consisting of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) and Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria (NFB). This study aims to determine the effect of a combination treatment or a single treatment of phosphate-solubilizing and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which is known to obtain the best results in the germination and growth of Siam citrus seeds. The study was conducted in a nonfactorial, Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The given treatments were control (without bacterial inoculum), nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB P1), phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB P2), a combination of NFB and PSB bacteria with a ratio of 1:1 (P3), a combination of NFB and PSB bacteria with a ratio of 2:1 (P4), and the combination of NFB and PSB bacteria with a ratio of 1:2 (P5). Observations were made for 4 weeks after planting. A single treatment with phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (P2) gave the best result on almost all parameters, such as germination percentage, emergence time of germination, root length, number of leaves and fresh weight of Siam citrus seedlings.
      PubDate: 2023-10-16
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Screening for endophytic bacteria from Ambon Banana (Musa paradisiaca) as
           biocontrol agent of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) on
           bananas fruit

      Abstract: Abstract. Pangastuti A, Pratiwi H, Setyaningsih R. 2023. Screening for endophytic bacteria from Ambon Banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) as biocontrol agent of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) on bananas fruit. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 238-244. Post-harvest Ambon Bananas (Musa paradisiaca L.) are sensitive to anthracnose disease, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and causes the fruit to rot quickly. Thus, chemical fungicides are employed, damaging living organisms and the environment. One solution is biocontrol using endophytic microorganisms as antagonistic agents against the anthracnose fungus that causes anthracnose disease. This study aimed to obtain potential endophytic bacteria from the Ambon Banana plant that had inhibitory activity against the growth of the pathogenic fungus C. gloeosporioides that causes anthracnose in bananas. Endophytic bacteria were recovered from Ambon Banana roots by crushing plant components. Therefore, bacterial isolates were tested for antagonistic interactions with pathogenic fungi using the dual culture approach. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was used to identify bacterial isolates with the most significant inhibitory potential. According to the findings of this study, seven isolates of endophytic bacteria, A2-1, A2-2, A5-2, A6-2, A6-3, A8-1, and A9-1, can limit the growth of the pathogenic fungus C. gloeosporioides. The strain A6-3, identified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, exhibited the greatest potential as a biocontrol agent against the pathogenic fungus C. gloeosporioides. It achieved the highest inhibition rate of 43.59%, resulting in an extended fruit shelf life and reduced harm susceptibility.
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Avifaunal diversity of Northwestern Himalayas (Jammu and Kashmir) and
           Trans Himalayas (Ladakh) of India

      Abstract: Abstract. Yousuf P, Parvaiz S, Zehbi N, Altaf S, Zargar BN, Rather R, Tantray J, Lateef M. 2023. Avifaunal diversity of Northwestern Himalayas (Jammu and Kashmir) and Trans Himalayas (Ladakh) of India. Biodiversitas 24: 212-231. The Himalayas are home to various plants and animals, making it one of the world's most biodiverse regions. The northwestern Himalayan region of the trans-Himalayan Region of Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir, India are home to various bird species due to varied topography and temperature. In this study, we collected the checklists and field data for 3 years based on compiling data from published and unpublished scientific literature, print and electronic, currently accessible in research articles, papers, books, websites, web pages, and field notes. The trans-Himalayas (Ladakh) and Northwestern Himalayas (Jammu and Kashmir) are home to 677 bird species, which belong to 89 families; there are approximately 107 families in the Indian sub-continent, equals to 6.77% of total bird species (>10,000) found globally and 49.2% of total bird species (1,376) in the Indian subcontinent. The family Muscicapidae (53 or 7.8%) has the most species, followed by Accipitridae (41 or 6%), and so on. Furthermore, the threatened species number is 54 (8%), which includes 23 (3.40%), 22 (3.25%), 6 (0.8%), and 3 (0.44%) under Vulnerable, Near Threatened, Endangered, and critically Endangered categories. Moreover, among 677 species, 228 species (33.77%) are found in all the 3 regions, 77 (11.4%) in only Jammu & Kashmir but not Ladakh, 24 (3.55%) in Jammu & Ladakh but not in Kashmir, 152 (22.5%) only in Jammu but not in Kashmir & Ladakh, 80 (11.85%) in Kashmir & Ladakh but not in Jammu, 26 (3.84%) only in Kashmir but not in Jammu & Ladakh, 71 (10.51%) only in Ladakh but not in Jammu & Kashmir. This information could provide these regions first-of-its-kind comprehensive data on bird diversity.
      PubDate: 2023-10-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • The initial complete chloroplast genome of Ludisia discolor in Vietnam

    • Authors: Viet The Ho
      Abstract: The medicinal plant Ludisia discolor has been highly valued for its effectiveness in treating various diseases. To better understand its genetic makeup, the complete chloroplast genome (cp) of this plant from Vietnam was sequenced, annotated, and compared with published cp genomes. The results of this study revealed that the complete cp genome of L. discolor is 151,876 bp in size consisting of 96 protein coding genes, 12 rRNA and 33 tRNA genes. Total 53 simple sequence repeats were detected in this genome, most of them are polyA and polyT. Genomic comparisons revealed significant differences between the cp genomes of L. discolor from Vietnam with other accessions from China. These findings could provide valuable insights for the taxonomy, plant identification, breeding, and conservation programs of L. discolor in Vietnam.
      PubDate: 2023-10-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • The link of socioeconomic importance to the conservation status of the
           Mediterranean endemic plants in Egypt

      Abstract: Abstract. Shaltout K, Bedair H, El-Khalafy MM, Keshta A, Halmy MWA. 2023. The link of socioeconomic importance to the conservation status of the Mediterranean endemic plants in Egypt. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 189-211. Mediterranean Basin is the second world's richest hotspot and one of the most critical spots on the planet for endemic species. Therefore, the present study aimed at screening the Mediterranean endemics and evaluating the uses of recorded taxa quantitively through developing new indices and updating the existing ones. Indeed, Semi-structured interviews were used with 43 informants. Relative Cultural Importance (RCI), Species Conservation Importance (SCI), and Relative Medicinal Importance (RMI) indices were applied to determine the most valuable taxa. A preliminary list of 65 Mediterranean endemic species belonging to 49 genera and 22 families in Egypt was compiled from the available literature. Fifty-seven (87.7%) species have at least one aspect of the potential or actual economic value. The most represented use category was the medicinal value (39 taxa: 69.6%). Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. was mentioned in the highest use categories (NU: 5). Veronica syriaca Roem. & Schult. attained the maximum ethnobotanical Relative Importance (RI) index value. It is crucial to shed light on the cultural value of Mediterranean endemics to guide future management planning to support the conservation and sustainable use of these critical species.
      PubDate: 2023-09-19
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Habitat characteristics, population structure, distribution, and
           regeneration status of Taxus wallichiana in South Vietnam

      Abstract: Abstract. Hop NV, Xiong CC, Quy NV, Luong NT. 2023. Habitat characteristics, population structure, distribution, and regeneration status of Taxus wallichiana in South Vietnam. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 179-188. Taxus wallichiana Zucc. is an endangered plant species with high economic value, making it threatened to extinction. Biological information about this species is therefore essential for its conservation. This study is aimed to assess the habitat characteristics, population structure, distribution, and regeneration status of T. wallichiana in South Vietnam. Vegetation surveys were conducted from 2016 to 2021 in three regions in Lam Dong Province. The study revealed that it was distributed in regions with monsoon climate with a total extent of ''379.57 ha, with habitats located on the hillside, narrow shelves, dissected terrain, high slope, on feralite soil with light brown to yellow, red, the soil layer thickness over 0.3 m and in clusters or streaks. The study recorded 634 trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH)'25 cm and 137 trees with 6 cm 'DBH<25 cm. The trees were found primarily at 1401-1500 m above sea level in a mixed broadleaved-coniferous forest. The growth indicators of DBH and overall height (Hvn) developed strongly, but the stand volume was low owing to low tree density. The exponential function was the most suitable for simulating the relationship between Hvn and DBH. Seven thousand six hundred and seventy-three regenerating young individuals were recorded with low density. The density of the regenerating trees decreased as the tree height increased. The finding of this study suggests that T. wallichiana faces the danger of extinction, so solutions are required to conserve and develop this threatened species.
      PubDate: 2023-09-16
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Classification of forest vegetation in Yaraligöz Education and
           Observation Forest, Kastamonu, Türkiye

      Abstract: Abstract. Karaköse M, Terzioglu S. 2023. Classification of forest vegetation in Yaraligöz Education and Observation Forest, Kastamonu, Türkiye. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 161-171. Forest ecosystems, which contain approximately half of the 12,975 plant taxa known to be distributed in Türkiye, are very important in terms of biological diversity. The fact that forests are seen as wood-producing ecosystems and have been planned for these purposes for many years has resulted in forests being kept away from being evaluated in terms of ecosystem and socio-economic aspects. Today, forest management plans have begun to be prepared in which all components of the forest are considered, and biological diversity is reflected. Based on this understanding, this investigation was performed during 2011-2012 to analyze the forest vegetation of Yaraligöz Education and Observation Forest. The study area is located in the north-western part of Türkiye within the Euro-Siberian phytogeographic region. Phytosociological studies were carried out using the classical Braun-Blanquet approach, and 51 relevés were collected from the research area. The database contains 184 vascular plant taxa, dominated by the Euro-Siberian elements and Hemicryptophytes. The relevés were classified using the Modified TWINSPAN, and the forest vegetation types' distribution was analyzed using non-metric multi-dimensional scaling. A comprehensive comparison among all described syntaxa within the study area and other closely related forests was provided. Topographic factors and mean Ellenberg indicator values were evaluated to interpret the ecological relationships among forest plant associations. Four associations, two (Daphno pontica-Pinetum hamatae and Galio rotundifolii-Abietum equi-trojani) of which are new syntaxa to science, were defined as belonging to the Euxine Province within Erico-Pinetea, Carpino-Fagetea sylvaticae, Quercetea pubescentis, and Vaccinio-Piceetea. The distribution of these four forest associations was mostly affected by light intensity, nutrients, moisture content, and altitude. The results of this vegetation study provided precious knowledge for monitoring vegetation change and nature conservation projects in the Yaraligöz.
      PubDate: 2023-07-28
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Chemical composition of Corymbia citriodora

      Abstract: Abstract. Dogara AM. 2023. Chemical composition of Corymbia citriodora. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 172-178. Aromatic plants, particularly those in the Myrtaceae family, are widely used both traditionally and commercially to lengthen food's shelf life and safety. The current investigation was prompted by a lack of information on the composition of the plant's oil, which has traditionally been used to treat and manage cancer, malaria, typhoid fever, and various other ailments. The study thoroughly examines the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K.D.Hill & L.A.S.Johnson. Hydro distillation was used to extract essential oil from the leaves, which were then analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to identify the functional group in the essential oil. According to the findings, monoterpene compounds make up (0.8137%), sesquiterpenoids (0.6568%) and other compounds (95.7207% of the total). The most abundant substance was 1-Octadecene (7.83%), followed by Oleic acid, 9-Octadecenoic acid, (E)-, (6.16%), Octadecanal, Disparlure, and 1-Octadecene (all of which were at or below 4%), and all other substances. The C. citriodora essential oil yielded 11 spectra. The extracts had sharp peaks at 900 cm-1 (phenyl), 1400 (mono-, oligo-, and carbohydrates), and 2900 (lipid methoxy compounds of CH3 and CH2, which have distinctive C-H stretching vibrations). OH groups from water, alcohols, phenols, polysaccharides, and peroxides are fingerprinted at 3400 cm-1. The study concludes that oleic acid-rich oil from C. citriodora leaves could be used as an economical source of oleic acid; the study lays the groundwork for future research on the plant in this issue.
      PubDate: 2023-07-28
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Antibacterial activities of Polyalthia longifolia leaf extracts on
           multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from hospital fomites in
           Akure, Nigeria

      Abstract: Abstract. Babatunde OJ, Ogundare AO, Adebolu TT. 2023. Antibacterial activities of Polyalthia longifolia leaf extracts on multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from hospital fomites in Akure, Nigeria. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 149-160. Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.), an ornamental plant, is said to be therapeutic while searching for new medications to treat infections caused by multiple Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (MAR). This plant's leaves were investigated for prospective antibacterial activity against MAR isolated from fomites in selected hospitals in Akure and their pharmacological properties. Standard microbiological methods were used to isolate and identify bacteria from fomites. Disc diffusion was performed to test their sensitivity to conventional antibiotics and P. longifolia leaf extracts made with ethanol and water. Ciprotab® was used as the control during the antibacterial assay. Therefore, GC-MS analysis was carried out using standard methods to identify the chemicals in the plant leaf extracts. Staphylococcus aureus (29.17%), Streptococcus pyogenes (20.83%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.28%), Escherichia coli (14.28%), Salmonella typhi (12.5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.33%) were the bacterial species isolated from the fomites sampled in this study. Crude ethanol leaf extract of P. longifolia (100mg/mL) inhibited the growth of these organisms with the greatest effect on P. aeruginosa with a value of 23.83±0.44 mm, which is superior to that medicated by the control antibiotic (ciprofloxacin). The GC-MS analysis of the purified leaf extracts of P. longifolia revealed the presence of bioactive compounds such as n-hexadecanoic acid and phytol, among others. The study revealed that the leaf extracts of P. longifolia can inhibit the growth of the isolated MAR from fomites with an added cidal effect, and the inhibition increase with the increase in concentration and exposure time.
      PubDate: 2023-06-19
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Secondary metabolites of rhizospheric fungal isolate Aspergillus carneus
           ABRF4 regulate the antibacterial and anti-proliferative activity against
           cancer cells

      Abstract: Abstract. Sahu MK, Yeeravalli R, Das A, Jha H. 2023. Secondary metabolites of rhizospheric fungal isolate Aspergillus carneus ABRF4 regulate the antibacterial and anti-proliferative activity against cancer cells. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 137-142. The medicinal capabilities of plants are influenced by soil chemistry, genotype, and climate. Many biotic and abiotic factors affect soil composition. Microorganisms constituting the soil microflora indicate a mutualistic relationship with plant rhizospheric region, and they play an important role in plant secondary metabolite production, yield, and efficacy. They are the major resources for structurally unique bioactive natural metabolites. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bioactivity of the secondary metabolite extracted from the rhizospheric fungal isolate Aspergillus carneus ABRF4) isolated from the Achanakmar Biosphere Reserve, Chhattisgarh, India. The fungal secondary metabolites were extracted using several solvents by soxhlet extraction techniques. The crude and partially purified column fractions of A. carneus ABRF4 were characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrum, and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Results showed that the acetonitrile fraction had an antimicrobial activity with the variable zone of inhibition against human pathogens such as Bacillus circulans (MTCC-7906), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 441), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96), and Ralstonia eutropha (MTCC-2487). The crude extracts and the identified secondary metabolite, trans- 1,3-dimethyl-Cyclohexane, possess different anti-proliferative activity against human tissue-specific cancer cell lines, including breast cancer (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and MCF-7), liver cancer (HepG2), lung cancer (A-549), and prostate cancer (DU-145) suggesting a potential therapeutic application of the isolated rhizospheric fungi.
      PubDate: 2023-06-19
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Effectiveness test of Diploknema oligomera extracts to the decrease in
           glucose levels in alloxan-induced BALB/c male mice

      Abstract: Abstract. Faizah S, Eriani K, Rosnizar. 2023. Effectiveness test of Diploknema oligomera extracts to the decrease in glucose levels in alloxan-induced BALB/c male mice. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 143-148. People with diabetes mellitus usually consume chemical drugs to lower their blood glucose levels which cause side effects and require a reasonably high cost. Therefore, alternative natural medicines (phytopharmaceuticals) that are safer and more affordable are needed. Punti fruit (Diploknema oligomera H.J Lam) has the potential as an antihyperglycemic agent that can lower glucose levels in the blood because the punti fruit contains flavonoid compounds, tannins, terpenoids, and saponins. These secondary metabolites can reduce blood glucose levels. This research used an experimental method with a completely randomized design, six treatments, and four replications. This study used 24 BALB/C (Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758) male mice grouped into six treatments, namely normal control treatment (P1), negative control by giving alloxan 150 mg/kg bw (P2), positive control by giving glibenclamide dose of 0.65 mg/kg body weight (bw) (P3), ethanol extract of punti fruit dose of 250 mg/kg bw (P4), ethanol extract of punti fruit dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (P5) and ethanol extract of punti fruit dose of 1,000 mg/kg bw (P6). The results proved that administering punti extract (P3, P4, P5) for 14 could reduce blood glucose levels in male diabetic mice with a percentage reduction of 33.6%, 37.4%, and 52.7%, and treatment-positive control decreased blood glucose by 32.6%. The conclusion showed that the ethanol extract of punti fruit at a dose of 1,000 mg/kg bw could effectively reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic mice compared to a dose of 250 mg/kg bw, 500 mg/kg bw and 0.65 mg/kg glibenclamide kg bw. Therefore, punti fruit can be used as a drug candidate to be developed as phytopharmaceuticals in treating diabetes mellitus.
      PubDate: 2023-06-19
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
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