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Nusantara Bioscience
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2087-3948 - ISSN (Online) 2087-3956
Published by Society for Indonesian Biodiversity Homepage  [11 journals]
  • Diversity and traditional ethnozoological uses of ichthyofauna by the Bodo
           Tribes of Kokrajhar, Assam, Northeast India

      Abstract: Abstract. Basumatary G, Narzary B, Khangembam BK. 2023. Diversity and traditional ethnozoological uses of ichthyofauna by the Bodo Tribes of Kokrajhar, Assam, Northeast India. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 49-57. Fish is an important component of ethnomedicine for treating many diseases in many tribal cultures worldwide. Traditional medicine remains the primary healthcare system in most rural populations worldwide, and ethnomedicine is the foundation of many modern-day disease management. The use of fish in traditional healthcare could be a potent source for finding new compounds with therapeutic prospects. Studies on ethnoichthyology have indicated fish as an important component for treating many diseases. However, such studies are yet to be fully documented in the northeastern states of India, especially in Kokrajhar, Assam. The Bodos are one of the largest tribal groups of Assam in Northeast India, with a rich traditional knowledge system. The study explores the traditional uses of fish for various ethnomedicinal properties and health benefits by the Bodos of Kokrajhar, Assam. The study was conducted in eight villages of Kokrajhar District from March 2019 to February 2020 through personal interviews and semi-structured questionnaires with 150 informants. Thirty-four different fish species from 20 different families were identified to be used for their health benefits and therapeutic properties. The highest number of fish species belonged to the family Cyprinidae (20.59%), followed by Channidae (11.76%) and Ambassidae (8.82%). The highest use value (0.58) and relative frequency of citation (0.37) was recorded for Heteropneustes fossilis. Anaemia, gastrointestinal and integumentary disorders, and body weakness were the most commonly mentioned ailments treated. The present study also reported some small indigenous fish species for their health benefits. The study also found some unique traditional methods for preparing and applying fish species (Xenentodon cancila, Chitala chitala, Glossogobius giuris, Leiodon cutcutia, etc.) not reported earlier. Identification and detailed study of the biochemical profile of these different species may be recommended to develop suitable alternatives to synthetic medicines. This study may be a valuable addition to the rich traditional knowledge of Northeast India.
      PubDate: 2023-03-21
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
  • Minerals and fatty acids profile of armored catfish Pterygoplichthys
           pardalis from Ciliwung River, Indonesia

      Abstract: Abstract. Wijayanti F, Lisdaniyah A, Hasanah M, Elfidasari D. 2023. Minerals and fatty acids profile of armored catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis from Ciliwung River, Indonesia. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 58-67. Fish is an important food source in human consumption due to its minerals and fatty acids needed for various body functions. One fish widely eaten by the people around the Ciliwung River, Indonesia is the armored catfish, Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Castelnau 1855). It has great economic value and is easily obtained by the residents along this river. Due to its high protein content, P. pardalis is a potential source of animal protein for humans. The unavailability of information detailing the minerals content and fatty acids in P. pardalis from the Ciliwung River makes it necessary to conduct this research to analyze the fish's minerals content and fatty acid profile. Analyses of minerals, fatty acid contents, and fatty acid profiles were conducted using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), socletation, and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) methods, respectively. The mineral content of P. pardalis from the highest order was calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium, iron, and zinc. Based on P. pardalis body size, large fish had the highest calcium concentration content, and the lowest calcium content was found in the medium fish. The fat content in this fish was very low (<1%), and the content of Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA) was greater than unsaturated ones. Furthermore, palmitate acid was the dominant fatty acid in the fish, while the biggest ratio of omega-6: omega-3 is fatty acids.
      PubDate: 2023-03-21
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
  • The use of non-medicinal plants by the community of Ayah Village in South
           Gombong Karst Area, Kebumen, Central Java, Indonesia

      Abstract: Abstract. Hanun Z, Athaya DN, Sholekha AM, Damayanti CE, Nazar IA, Cahyaningsih AP, Junaedi E, Buot JR IE Setyawan AD. 2023. The use of non-medicinal plants by the community of Ayah Village in South Gombong Karst Area, Kebumen, Central Java, Indonesia. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 68-78. In the homegardens of the people of Kebumen District, Central Java Province, Indonesia, especially in the karst area of Ayah Village, usually planted various plant species with many benefits. However, the knowledge of the people of Ayah Village, Kebumen, about the various benefits of plants is only known from generation to generation, passed on orally and in daily practice habits, so a study is needed to document this information. This study aimed to determine the knowledge of local communities and various types of non-medicinal plants used to fulfill people's daily lives. Data was collected through survey techniques and open interviews with a purposive sampling method with 40 respondents. An inventory of non-medicinal plants resulted in findings of 118 plant species from 59 families. The plants used consisted of 51 species of food plants, 40 species of ornamental plants, 19 species of spices, six species of animal feed, six species of firewood, five species of building materials, and two species of hedges. Some species have more than one use. Our study showed that most of the local community uses plants as food with more diverse plant species compared to other uses.
      PubDate: 2023-03-21
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
  • Diversity and role of woody non-timber forest products in Doba District,
           Eastern Ethiopia

      Abstract: Abstract. Abebaw AF, Damme PV. 2023. Diversity and role of woody non-timber forest products in Doba District, Eastern Ethiopia. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 38-47. Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP) play a pivotal role as local sources of medicine, household paraphernalia, and fodder and offer income opportunities that can mitigate poverty. This study was conducted in Doba District, West Hararghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia, to analyze the diversity and economic contribution of non-timber forest products. Both ethnobotanical and vegetation data were cross-sectionally collected from February 2020 up to June 2021. A total of 422 informants selected randomly from forest inhabitants were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires to explore NTFP utilization and their economic contributions. Vegetation data were collected from 56 sample plots of each 20m x 20m (400m2) along transects lines. Vegetation data collected were analyzed for the relative density of species, Shannon-Wiener index, species evenness, and relative frequency. From the household survey, 58 plant species categorized in 55 genera and 35 families were identified as NTFP-bearing species. Analysis of the socio-economic data shows that NTFP collection is a day-to-day activity of the local communities. These communities use NTFPs in different types of use categories, namely medicinal plants (32, 55.17%), melliferous species (20, 34.48%), wild food and condiment species (22, 37.93%), farm implements (7, 12.06%), wood and flavoring (6, 10.34%), source of energy (20, 35.71%), and household utensils and construction materials (30, 51.72%). The market survey analysis showed that NTFPs account for about 15.77% of the annual household income. The vegetation survey showed that Ades Forest has a good status with an average density of 1,450 plants ha-1, high Shannon-Wiener index (H =3.299), and species evenness (E = 0.81). Ades Forest harbors a diverse number of NTFP-bearing species used for several categories. The study reveals the real experiences of the local communities in utilizing NTFPs for their livelihood. Forest dependency rates tend to be higher among poor households. However, further study on production potential and market chain analysis should be done together with awareness creation activities to get a sustainable product for the community and conserve the forest resource.
      PubDate: 2023-02-18
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
  • Physico-chemical, heavy metal analysis and physical composition of
           household solid waste, Shone Town, Ethiopia

      Abstract: Abstract. Balilo G, Aschalew A, Manikandan R, Feyisa A. 2023. Physico-chemical, heavy metal analysis and physical composition of household solid waste, Shone Town, Ethiopia. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 32-37. In Ethiopia, Shone is one of the country's fast-developing towns; inadequate solid waste management was observed. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the generation rate and selected physico-chemical characterization and heavy metal analysis of household solid waste. The study was conducted on randomly selected 120 households from two Kebele of the town. The physico-chemical analysis results revealed that moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity (dS/cm), nitrogen, organic carbon, (%), phosphorus and potassium content of household solid waste were 54.6, 8.25, 2.52 (dS/cm), 2.47, 10.25, 0.54, and 0.82%, respectively. In addition, in the decomposed household solid waste samples, heavy metals such as iron, manganese, copper, zinc, nickel, cobalt, chromium, lead, and cadmium were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed the concentration of these heavy metals in the decomposed solid waste samples was in the order of iron>manganese>zinc>copper>nickel>chromium>cobalt>lead>cadmium. Daily solid waste from those households was separated into its components, and each component was measured. That was conducted for 7 consecutive days to quantify and characterize household solid waste. The result revealed that the household solid waste generation rate in the study area was 0.206 kilogram/capita/day. The physical composition of the solid waste in Shone Town is mainly organic, constituting 92.8%. The organic waste of the town has a high content of biodegradable waste such as food waste (49.56%), ash and dust (29.74%), yard waste (4.95%), textile (4.006%), old shoes and bone (2.5%), paper and cardboard (2.04%) and recyclable material such as plastic (3.28%), glass and metal (3.88%) all account for 92.8% (biodegradable) and 7.17% (non-biodegradable), respectively.
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
  • Molecular identification of yeasts from Turkish traditional cheeses:
           Extracellular enzyme activities and physiological properties important for
           dairy industry

      Abstract: Abstract. Gunay M, Genc TT. 2023. Molecular identification of yeasts from Turkish traditional cheeses: Extracellular enzyme activities and physiological properties important for dairy industry. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 1-11. The determination of yeast microbiota in cheeses and the physiological properties of yeasts are very important for the dairy industry. In addition, the physiological features, proteolytic and lipolytic activities, and stress tolerance of yeasts have a significant role in the selection of starter yeast species for cheese ripening. This study aimed to determine industrially important yeasts isolated from cheese samples. Molecular techniques identified the isolated yeast strains. The yeast strains’ extracellular enzyme activities, fermentation capacities, and thermotolerance and osmotolerance properties were also evaluated. A total of 81 yeast strains were isolated and characterized from three types of cheese samples. PCR-RFLP determined the isolated yeast strains and sequence analysis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 26S rDNA regions. A maximum parsimony tree was constructed by MEGA X software to evaluate the phylogenetic relationship of identified yeast strains. Candida intermedia, Candida parapsilosis, Clavispora lusitaniae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Wickerhamomyces anomalus yeast species were identified on cheese samples. The distribution of identified yeast species on cheese samples was determined as 48.1% for W. anomalus, 17.3% for K. marxianus, 14.8% for C. parapsilosis, 8.6% for D. hansenii, 4.9% for Cl. lusitaniae, 3.7% for C. intermedia and 2.5% for P. kudriavzevii. The W. anomalus yeast species was common in three cheese types. All strains of W. anomalus and P. kudriavzevii yeast species, three C. parapsilosis, and two Cl. lusitaniae yeast strains have important physiological properties for industrial applications. These yeast strains have the potential to be used in combination as starter cultures to improve cheese maturation in the future. This comprehensive study identifies yeast species by ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 26S rDNA regions and determines industrially important yeast species using multiple criteria (extracellular enzyme activity, stress tolerance, and fermentation capacity).
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
  • In silico comparative analysis of the complete chloroplast genome
           sequences in different jewel orchid species

      Abstract: Abstract. Nguyen MP, Trinh TH, Ngo TKA, Widiarsih S, Ho VT. 2023. In silico comparative analysis of the complete chloroplast genome sequences in different jewel orchid species. Nusantara Bioscience 15: 12-21. Jewel orchid is the common name of several orchid species which can be alike in morphological characteristics but variable in medicinal properties. As these plants are utilized to treat several diseases, their natural existence in the wild habitat is rapidly diminished. Therefore, a better understanding of the genetic information of this plant for better genetic conservation and development of these plants is necessary. In this study, a total of 18 published chloroplast genomes of 18 jewel orchid species determined by the next-generation sequencing method were retrieved from NCBI GenBank and targeted for genomic characterization and phylogenetic analyses. Different bioinformatics tools were utilized to characterize these genomes’ genomic structure, repetitive sequences, interspecific variation, divergence, and phylogenetic relationships. The obtained data revealed that the chloroplast genomes of different jewel orchid species varied in length between 151,414 (Anoectochilus formosanus MN880624.1) and 154,375 (Goodyera biflora OM314910.1). Each species contains 34-87 SSR loci which could be useful as molecular markers for further genetic diversity study of this plant. Structural variations in the expansion and contraction of inverted repeat regions were also considered. Phylogenetic analysis identified a close relationship among species belonging to the Goodyera genus, and this genus is distinctive from other genera such as Anoectochilus, Cystorchis, Dossinia, Ludisia, and Macodes. The obtained results show a high potential of deeper characterizing the chloroplast genome of jewel orchids for species classification, identification, molecular breeding, and evolutionary exploration of these important herbal plants.
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
  • Effect of dolomite and pig manure on growth and production of carrots
           (Daucus carota)

      Abstract: Abstract. Sambi ND, Limbongan Y, Pata’dungan AM. 2023. Effect of dolomite and pig manure on growth and production of carrots (Daucus carota). Nusantara Bioscience 14: 22-29. This study aims to see how dolomite and pig manure affect carrot (Daucus carota L.) plant development and taproot production. The research was conducted from May to August 2021 in the Padangiring Village, Rantetayo Sub-district, Tana Toraja District, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Three levels of dolomite in combination with four levels of pig manure were used: control (no treatment), and dolomite at 3 tons/ha, 6 tons/ha, and pig manure at control (no treatment), and 20 tons/ha, 30 tons/ha, and 40 tons/ha. The optimal dolomite level of 3 tons/ha significantly influenced plant height, the number of leaves, taproot length, and taproot diameter but had no significant effect on individual taproot weight, plot taproot weight, or taproot weight per hectare. The optimal pig manure dose of 4 kg/plot (40 tons/ha) showed a substantial influence on all investigated variables. The interaction between dolomite and pig manure substantially influenced taproot length but had no effect on the other observable variables. The optimum treatment combination was 3 tons/ha of dolomite with 40 tons/ha of pig manure, yielding 38.67 tons/ha of carrot taproots. Thus, commercial carrot growth and production may be boosted by a combination of dolomite and pig manure.
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
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