A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Environmental and Resource Economics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.186
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 28  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-1502 - ISSN (Online) 0924-6460
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Empowerment of Social Norms on Water Consumption

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract This study develops a model of water extraction using endogenous social norms. Many users are connected by a unique shared resource that can become scarce in the case of over-exploitation. Preferences of individuals are guided by their extraction values and their taste for conformity to social norms which provide incentives to follow others. As the main result of this study, the uniqueness of the Nash equilibrium is established under a sufficient condition. Subsequently, some comparative statics analysis shows the effects of changes in individual heterogeneous parameters, conformism, and network density on the global quantity extracted. Welfare and social optimum properties are established to avoid the tragedy of the commons and suboptimal consumption of water. Finally, this theoretical framework is completed by extensions to discuss anticonformist behaviours, levers of water preservation, and awareness of consumers.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • The Effect of Information Provision on Stated and Revealed Preferences: A
           Field Experiment on the Choice of Power Tariffs Before and After Japanese
           Retail Electricity Liberalization

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract This paper examines differences in attitudes towards electricity fee plans when information is provided on electricity bills based on past electricity consumption. We conducted randomized controlled trial stated preference (SP) and revealed preference (RP) experiments on the choice of electricity rates before and after liberalization. In the SP experiment, we measured participants' valuations of their electricity pricing plans. We found that providing information about the participants' benefit from switching diminished the tendency towards overconfidence. The valuation decreases substantially when information shows that a loss will be incurred from switching. The results of the RP and SP experiments differ. We found that the selection was not changed in the RP experiment even when providing information that a loss would be incurred.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Fisheries Management in Congested Waters: A Game-Theoretic Assessment of
           the East China Sea

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Fisheries in the East China Sea (ECS) face multiple concerning trends. Aside from depleted stocks caused by overfishing, illegal encroachments by fishermen from one nation into another’s legal waters are a common occurrence. This behavior presumably could be stopped via strong monitoring, controls, and surveillance (MCS), but MCS is routinely rated as below standards for nations bordering the ECS. This paper generalizes the ECS to a model of a congested maritime environment, defined as an environment where multiple nations can fish in the same waters with equivalent operating costs, and uses game-theoretic analysis to explain why the observed behavior persists in the ECS. The paper finds that nations in congested environments are incentivized to issue excessive quotas, which in turn tacitly encourages illegal fishing and extracts illegal rent from another’s legal waters. This behavior couldn’t persist in the face of strong MCS measures, and states are thus likewise incentivized to use poor MCS. A bargaining problem is analyzed to complement the noncooperative game, and a key finding is the nation with lower nonoperating costs has great leverage during the bargain.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • The Environmental Tax: Effects on Inequality and Growth

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Within an R&D-driven growth model, this paper studies how an environmental tax and its cost both for firms and consumers affect individuals’ incentives for human capital accumulation, income inequality, and the per capita growth rate. The results show that when a low share of the environmental tax on consumption is levied, a tighter environmental tax results in an increase in individuals’ human capital accumulation and income inequality between both unskilled and skilled workers and among skilled workers and spurs the per capita growth rate. A numerical simulation for the U.S. economy illustrates the results and shows that the increase in income inequality is very modest compared to the large increase in the per capita output growth rate. Moreover, it can be seen that a no-carbon-pricing green policy with command and control instruments, for example, has a negative effect on both the incentive for human capital accumulation and the per capita growth rate.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Save a Tree and Save a Life: Estimating the Health Benefits of Urban
           Forests

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Do trees in urban areas benefit human health' More than 100 million Americans live in large cities, yet little is known about the health benefits of the trees they live with. I provide causal evidence on the elasticity of air pollution and mortality to urban forest loss from the exogenous introduction of the emerald ash borer insect to the continental United States. Trees benefit urban health by reducing pollution; dieback that affects up to 5.8% of city forests is associated with increases in mean PM2.5 levels that reach 4.4%. Damage to city forests ultimately leads to excess deaths of up to 1.8%; much of this increase is driven by increases in cardiovascular and respiratory disease mortality. If the estimated median elasticity of all-cause mortality to tree damage of − 0.42 is extrapolated to all forests in the urban continental United States, my results imply urban forests reduced all-cause mortality by 29.3%, or 299,000 deaths total, in 2014.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • International Environmental Agreements and Black Technology

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract This paper analyzes the stability of international environmental agreements in a dynamic game when the generation of both renewables and fossil fuel based energy requires specialized capital stocks or technologies, respectively. Two contract types are considered. At an incomplete (a complete) contract, the coalition coordinates only (both) CO \(_2\) emissions (and renewable energy investments) of its members. In contrast to the results of Battaglini and Harstad (J Polit Econ 124:160–204, 2016) who endorse incomplete contracts to increase the coalition size, only small coalitions are stable regardless of whether the contract is complete or incomplete. This result also holds if black technology is temporary not completely used or transfers are considered.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Lottery Incentives and Resource Management: Evidence from the Agricultural
           Data Reporting Incentive Program (AgDRIP)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract To manage resources effectively in an agri-environmental context, policymakers need information about on-farm management practices and ecological conditions. This information is often accessible to agricultural producers but not to policymakers. However, little is known about how best to structure incentives for voluntary reporting. In other contexts, lotteries are often used to provide an incentive for voluntary data reporting. This article provides evidence about the efficacy of lottery (stochastic) incentives relative to fixed (deterministic) incentives. Based on two field experiments embedded in a data reporting program for agricultural producers, we estimate that lottery incentives reduced program enrollment between 28% and 62% relative to fixed incentives. A novel feature of our study is a comparison between fixed incentives and actuarially equivalent lotteries with explicitly communicated probabilities, which allows us to rule out an effect size of actuarially equivalent lotteries larger than +15% relative to fixed incentives.
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
       
  • Substitution Preferences for Fish in Senegal

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract In a marine multi-species environment, consumers’ decisions may introduce interactions between species beyond biological ecosystem links. The theoretical literature shows that consumer preferences for variety can trigger a sequential (local) extinction of fish stocks. However, consumer preferences are not yet fully understood empirically, as it is uncertain how variety-loving consumers really are, in particular in specific settings such as in developing countries. In this article, we present an aggregation procedure to study consumer preferences in a highly diverse marine system. In a first step, we use co-integration analysis and aggregation theorems by Hicks and Lewbel to find groups of species that consumers find substitutable. In a second step, we use a direct quadratic almost ideal demand system (QUAIDS) to estimate price elasticities between these groups. We then quantify and compare welfare losses and spillovers from species-specific price shocks that may for example result from restoration efforts. Our case study from Senegal across 28 species reveals evidence that consumers do indeed have a preference for diversity of species on their plates.
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
       
  • Continuous Versus Discrete Time in Dynamic Common Pool Resource Game
           Experiments

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract We study the impact of discrete versus continuous time on the behavior of agents in the context of a dynamic common pool resource game. To this purpose, we consider a linear quadratic model and conduct a lab experiment in which agents exploit a renewable resource with an infinite horizon. We use a differential game for continuous time and derive its discrete time approximation. In the single agent setting, we fail to detect, on a battery of indicators, any difference between agents’ behavior in discrete and continuous time. Conversely, in the two-player setting, significantly more agents can be classified as myopic and end up with a low resource level in discrete time. Continuous time seems to allow for better cooperation and thus greater sustainability of the resource than does discrete time.
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
       
  • Catch More to Catch Less: Estimating Timing Choice as Dynamic Bycatch
           Avoidance Behavior

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract We model harvesters’ temporal participation behavior in a fishery with individual quotas for both a target and bycatch species. Harvesters make participation decisions given time-varying characteristics of the fishery (e.g., catch rates, price, and bycatch rates) and outside opportunities (e.g., other fisheries). A harvester’s problem is seasonally dynamic under the individual quota scheme because quota acts as an intertemporal budget constraint. We construct a theoretical model to describe how the shadow value of individual quota plays a role in a harvester’s decision and propose an empirical model that captures the dynamic effect of the seasonal quota usage. Our study finds support for the existence of dynamic bycatch avoidance: harvesters use the security provided by quota allocations to reduce harvesting around periods of high bycatch. Our policy simulation demonstrates that opening the season earlier could reduce bycatch while the main target catch is maintained due to temporal shift of quota usage.
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
       
  • On the Good and Bad of Natural Resource, Corruption, and Economic Growth
           Nexus

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The empirical finding that countries endowed with vast reserves of natural resources are expected to experience slower economic growth – the resource curse hypothesis – has sparked debate in the literature about whether natural resources are a curse or a boon. In this study, we re-investigate the natural resource, corruption and growth nexus by using a relatively longer dataset for a panel of countries. Unlike previous attempts, we take into account the potential endogeneity and asymmetric effect in our analysis by applying a recently developed panel quantile estimator. We also focus on the role of corruption in influencing the impact of natural resources on economic growth. Broadly the findings are indicative of an asymmetric effect of resources as the sign and magnitude of natural resources’ impact on economic growth varies over different income quantiles. Although the overall results are mixed, but the results based on fuel export and oil–gas rents as measures of resource endowment are consistent with the ‘resource curse’ hypothesis. Nonetheless, the findings suggest that corruption is critical in determining the marginal impact of natural resources on growth and in many cases, it has effectively transformed the negative effects of natural resources to positive effects in low-to-middle-income countries.
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
       
  • Can International Climate Cooperation Induce Knowledge Spillover to
           Developing Countries' Evidence from CDM

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Under the Kyoto Protocol, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) expects to facilitate the North-South knowledge spillovers for climate-friendly technologies. This paper examines the effect of this voluntary international climate cooperation on firm innovation and knowledge spillovers through the lens of CDM projects in China. Using a matched Difference-in-Differences (DID) approach, we find that CDM projects contribute to firms’ innovation quantity, quality, and direction in renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. These effects are more pronounced in inducing wind, hydro, and solar energy. We explore the role of foreign sponsors in knowledge spillovers. Sponsoring firms play the technology supplier role by raising the innovation quantity and quality, while sponsoring governments perform the information intermediary role by facilitating citation flows.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
       
  • Welfare Effects of Changing Technological Efficency in Regulated
           Open-Access Fisheries

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Small-scale fisheries often operate under conditions of regulated open access; that is, the fishery is subject to natural or regulatory constraints on fishing technology, including regulations of fishing gear and fishing practices, but typically there is no direct regulation of catches. We study how an increase in harvesting efficiency changes the different components of welfare—consumer surplus and producer surplus—in such a regulated open-access fishery, taking t the feedback of harvesting on stock dynamics, i.e. the dynamic common-pool resource externality into account. We find that both components of welfare change in the same direction. If, and only if, initial efficiency is low enough so that there is no maximum sustainable yield (MSY) overfishing, an improvement of harvesting efficiency increases welfare.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
       
  • The Effect of Rebate and Loan Incentives on Residential Heat Pump
           Adoption: Evidence from North Carolina

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Electrification can promote deep decarbonization to tackle climate change with a cleaner power grid. Electric heat pumps provide a feasible and energy-efficient way to replace fossil-fuel furnaces for space heating. Rebate and loan programs are the two most widely used incentives for residential heat pump installations in the U.S. This study compares the impacts of rebate and loan incentives on residential air-source heat pump adoption in North Carolina. First, our results show that the rebate program ($300–$450 per system) increases the adoption density by 13% in a year. Second, we find that the rebate program is more effective in promoting heat pump adoption for average consumers than two loan programs (annual loan interest rate: 9%, 3.9%). Third, we find the rebate program is less effective for low-income households than high-income households. Lastly, we compare the rebate with the loan programs in terms of cost-effectiveness and we find the rebate program is more cost-effective under certain circumstances.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
       
  • Regulation of Location-Specific Externalities from Small-Scale Polluters

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Emission damages caused by small-scale polluters such as farms, vehicles, homes and small businesses are often location-specific and such polluters are often regulated through a combination of location-differentiated cleaner technology standards and uniform, ʻdirtyʼ input regulation. We investigate how such regulations should be designed and combined under realistic assumptions. We find that if the available cleaner technologies are ‘emission capturing’ (e.g., end-of-pipe filters), they should be encouraged in both high and low damage areas, while if they are ‘input displacing’ (i.e., facilitating replacement of dirty input by cleaner input), they should be encouraged in high damage areas, but discouraged in low damage areas. Dirty input use should always be discouraged and the optimal regulation intensity may be substantial, particularly if the available cleaner technologies are input displacing.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
       
  • Payments from Households to Distant Polluting Firms

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract We investigate a novel way to encourage separation between firms, causing local pollution, and their victims (households): payments from households to distant polluting firms. These payments do not require monitoring of firms’ emissions or their abatement costs. In our model, households and firms can choose from two locations (A and B, with A larger than B). Households incur environmental damage from firms in the same location. Under laissez faire, payments from households in one location (say A) to firms in the other location (say B) will prompt firms to move from A to B and to stay there, thus reducing damage to households in A. The maximum that households are willing to pay temporarily is the amount that currently makes them indifferent between A and B. The payments make A less attractive to firms as well as to households. The unique positive-payment equilibrium implements the global welfare optimum where laissez faire does not. We examine from which starting points this payment equilibrium can be reached.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
       
  • On Simple Rules for the Social Cost of Carbon

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this paper is to assess the use of simple rules for the social cost of carbon. It is shown that several interrelated objections may apply. The main issues are the following. First, the underlying theoretical models typically assume that the economy finds itself on a balanced growth path, implying that addressing the issue of designing policies for the short run, which play a role in the actual policy debate, are neglected. Second, for some cases the assumptions made regarding the marginal damages of high temperature or of arge atmospheric \(CO_{2}\) stocks are shown to be incompatible with other assumptions made. Third, typically the rules follow from an optimal growth model and associate the social cost for a particular year with GDP for that year, but it is not always acknowledged that it should be optimal rather than actual GDP for that year. I also go into the performance of simple rules as compared to first-best.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Pollutant Trading with Transport Time Lags

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Nutrient pollution represents one of the costliest and most challenging threats to water quality in the United States and is a major problem elsewhere in the world. Water quality trading is drawing significant interest from policy makers as a mechanism to manage nutrient loads cost-effectively. Overlooked in nutrient markets developed to date and in standard guidance for market design are the fundamental dynamics of nutrient pollution delivery processes. This paper develops rules to efficiently manage pollution trading between sources that differ in terms of how fast their pollution arrives at degraded waters. We develop a system of optimal time-varying discharge permits and lag trade ratios, as well as a simpler, second-best system of time-invariant permits and trade ratios that achieve optimal pollution loads in the long run steady state. Our second-best system accounts for lags in a way that is both pragmatic and grounded in economic theory. Results from a numerical simulation indicate that the total costs of the second-best system are within 0.2% of the first-best optimum, suggesting that the efficiency loss associated with the second-best design may therefore be of little practical concern.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • Climate Change and the Cost-Effective Governance Mode for Biodiversity
           Conservation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Climate change poses a key challenge for biodiversity conservation. Conservation agencies, in particular, have to decide where to carry out conservation measures in a landscape to enable species to move with climate change. Moreover, they can choose two main governance modes: (1) buy land to implement conservation measures themselves on that land, or (2) compensate landowners for voluntarily carrying out conservation measures on their land. We develop a dynamic, conceptual ecological-economic model to investigate the influence of changes in climatic parameters on the cost-effectiveness of these governance modes and specific patch selection strategies (price prioritisation, species abundance prioritisation, climate suitability prioritisation, climate change direction prioritisation). We identify five effects that explain the cost-effectiveness performance of the combinations of governance mode and patch selection strategy and find that their cost-effectiveness depends on climate parameters and is thus case-specific.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • On the Cost-Effective Temporal Allocation of Credits in Conservation
           Offsets when Habitat Restoration Takes Time and is Uncertain

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Tradable permits, or offsetting schemes, are increasingly used as an instrument for the conservation of biodiversity on private lands. Since the restoration of degraded land often involves uncertainties and time lags, conservation biologists have strongly recommended that credits in conservation offset schemes should be awarded only with the completion of the restoration process. Otherwise, the instrument is claimed to fail on the objective of no net loss in species habitat and biodiversity. What is ignored in these arguments, however, is that such a scheme design may incur higher economic costs than a design in which credits are already awarded at the initiation of the restoration process. In the present paper a generic agent-based ecological-economic simulation model is developed to explore different pros and cons of the two scheme designs, in particular their cost-effectiveness. The model considers spatially heterogeneous and dynamic conservation costs, risk aversion and time preferences in the landowners, as well as uncertainty in the duration and the success of the restoration process. It turns out that, especially under fast change of the conservation costs, awarding credits at the initiation of restoration can be more cost-effective than awarding them with completion of restoration.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.236.107.249
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-