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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 140 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 241)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 381)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 99)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Environmental and Resource Economics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.186
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 25  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-1502 - ISSN (Online) 0924-6460
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2652 journals]
  • Social Cost of Carbon Under Stochastic Tipping Points
    • Abstract: Is climate change concerning because of its expected damages, or because of the risk that damages could be very high' Climate damages are uncertain, in particular they depend on whether the accumulation of greenhouse gas emissions will trigger a tipping point. In this article, we investigate how much risk contributes to the Social Cost of Carbon in the presence of a tipping point inducing a higher-damage regime. To do so, we decompose the effect of a tipping point as an increase in expected damages plus a zero-mean risk on damages. First, using a simple analytical model, we show that the social cost of carbon (SCC) is primarily driven by expected damages, while the effect of pure risk is only of second order. Second, in a numerical experiment using a stochastic Integrated Assessment Model, we show that expected damages account for most of the SCC when the tipping point induces a productivity shock lower than 10%, the high end of the range commonly used in the literature. It takes both a large productivity shock and high risk aversion for pure risk to significantly contribute to the SCC. Our analysis suggests that the risk aversion puzzle, which is the usual finding that risk aversion has a surprisingly little effect on the SCC, occurs since the SCC is well estimated using expected damages only. However, we show that the risk aversion puzzle does not hold for large productivity shocks, as pure risk greatly contributes to the SCC in these cases.
      PubDate: 2021-03-12
       
  • The Welfare Effects of Index-Based Livestock Insurance: Livestock Herding
           on Communal Lands
    • Abstract: Agricultural (index) insurance for smallholders in developing countries has gained traction in academic and policy circles. The expectation is that the uptake of insurance will protect smallholders from production shocks and incentivize them to modernize production. We develop a simple theoretical model to demonstrate that the welfare effects of insurance are fundamentally ambiguous—even in the absence of transaction costs or basis risk. The second-best nature of the institutional context within which smallholders operate implies that the uptake of insurance may accentuate pre-existing inefficiencies. This idea is worked out in detail for the case of livestock herding on common grazing lands. Our theoretical model predicts that insurance invites overstocking of communal lands, and lowers the profitability of herding when common pastures are degraded.
      PubDate: 2021-03-12
       
  • WTP or WTA: A Means of Determining the Appropriate Welfare Measure of
           Positive and Negative Changes When Preferences are Reference Dependent
    • Abstract: Many positive and negative changes are valued by people relative to a neutral reference state, which may, or often may not, be the status quo. Positive changes can then be either gains and the monetary value of the increase in welfare best assessed with the WTP measure, or reductions of losses, and like losses, the change in welfare more accurately assessed with the WTA measure. A means to discriminate between gains and reductions of losses is presented here, along with the results of tests of its efficacy, and a demonstration of its application to VSL estimates–with findings suggesting likely widespread biases of present practice of using WTP to assess the value of essentially all changes.
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
       
  • Unraveling the Effects of Tropical Cyclones on Economic Sectors Worldwide:
           Direct and Indirect Impacts
    • Abstract: This paper examines the current, lagged, and indirect effects of tropical cyclones on annual sectoral growth worldwide. The main explanatory variable is a new damage measure for local tropical cyclone intensity based on meteorological data weighted for individual sectoral exposure, which is included in a panel analysis for a maximum of 205 countries over the 1970–2015 period. I find a significantly negative influence of tropical cyclones on two sector aggregates including agriculture, as well as trade and tourism. In subsequent years, tropical cyclones negatively affect the majority of all sectors. However, the Input–Output analysis shows that production processes are sticky and indirect economic effects are limited.
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
       
  • Adapting to Rising Sea Levels: How Short-Term Responses Complement
           Long-Term Investment
    • Abstract: This paper presents a parsimonious model of a coastal locality’s adaptation to rising sea levels and uses the model to examine cost-minimizing policies involving two complementary approaches. One involves irreversible investment in sea walls and similar infrastructure. The other involves activities, such as beach scraping, that only provide temporary protection. Costs are minimized by delaying investment until the present value of the benefits from avoided inundation costs exceeds upfront investment costs by a margin that is economically significant. The premium, which can exceed 50% of investment costs, is higher when the sea level is rising more quickly. The ability to temporarily boost defenses is used aggressively: spending on temporary improvements immediately before investment is several times larger than its value immediately afterwards. Temporary improvements are made even when the marginal cost of increasing the effectiveness of defenses this way is significantly greater than the equivalent annual cost of permanently increasing effectiveness by investment.
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
       
  • Systematic Variation in Waste Site Effects on Residential Property Values:
           A Meta-Regression Analysis and Benefit Transfer
    • Abstract: This article presents a meta-analysis based on 727 estimates from 83 hedonic pricing studies to provide new insights on the effects of waste sites on residential property values. Relative to previous meta-analyses on this subject, estimates are corrected for publication bias and the ability of the meta-regression model to produce reliable benefit-transfer estimates is assessed. Proximity to severely contaminated waste sites has a supremely negative impact on residential property values, whereas on average the distance from non-hazardous waste sites has no effect. Correcting for publication bias has a sizeable impact, reducing the average effect size by up to 38%. Benefit-transfer errors based on the meta-regression model are fairly large and, in line with the broader literature, outperform simple value transfer when the underlying data sample is heterogeneous.
      PubDate: 2021-02-24
       
  • Open Access Versus Restricted Access in a General Equilibrium with Mobile
           Capital
    • Abstract: Open Access versus Restricted Access in a General Equilibrium with Mobile Capital We consider an economy with two sectors, resource and manufacturing, in a general-equilibrium setting. Two property regimes in the resource sector are compared, open access versus restricted access, with both labor and capital mobility. We first contribute by deriving the multi-factor demand conditions under open access. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a factor to gain from a property regime change. Redistributive effects depend crucially on relative factor intensities. Contrary to common wisdom, labor may gain from being “expelled” from the resource sector following privatization.
      PubDate: 2021-02-13
       
  • Environmental Tax Reform in a Federation with Rent-Induced Migration
    • Abstract: We study the welfare effects of a revenue-neutral environmental tax reform in a federation. The reform consists of increasing a tax on a polluting input and reducing that on labor income. Households are fully mobile within the federation. Regions are unequally endowed with a nonrenewable natural resource. Resource rents are owned by regions and are redistributed to citizens on a residence basis, which generates a motive for inefficiently relocating to the resource-rich jurisdiction. Since the resource-poor region has a higher marginal product of labor than does the resource-rich region in equilibrium, the tax reform mitigates the scope of inefficient migration if labor and the natural resource are complements, but exacerbates it if they are substitutes. This welfare effect may significantly affect fiscal costs of pollution pricing and calls for an adjusted environmental tax, higher when inputs are complements, lower when they are substitutes, as compared with a model where migration is assumed away.
      PubDate: 2021-02-13
       
  • The Short-Run Effect of a Local Fiscal Squeeze on Pollution Abatement
           Expenditures: Evidence from China’s VAT Pilot Program
    • Abstract: Introduced in 2012, China’s value-added tax (VAT) pilot program gradually replaced business tax (BT) with VAT. It has created a large fiscal squeeze for the local government since 75% of VAT revenue goes to the central government. Employing a difference-in-differences estimator with continuous treatment intensity, we find that this fiscal squeeze has a negative effect on pollution abatement expenditures. Moreover, private firms in eastern regions are less responsive to this shock than those in the rest of China due to having better regulated local governments. We also find that this effect is smaller in magnitude if the firm owner is younger, more educated or has industrial and political connections compared to her respective counterparts. This fiscal squeeze reduces pollution abatement expenditures more in regions with higher fiscal stress, looser environmental regulation, and lower pollution abatement costs. Further exploration shows that, in response to this fiscal squeeze, local governments have adopted several tools to compensate for revenue loss, including increasing tax enforcement and loosening environmental regulation.
      PubDate: 2021-02-09
       
  • Balancing Cost Effectiveness and Incentive Properties in Conservation
           Auctions: Experimental Evidence from Three Multi-award Reverse Auction
           Mechanisms
    • Abstract: Government agencies are increasingly using economic incentives to encourage landowners to adopt conservation practices. Auctions enable agencies to identify land conservation practices with low opportunity costs. At the same time, landowners’ opportunity costs contain useful information for government agencies to rank conservation priorities. This paper introduces a new reverse auction mechanism that performs well both from the cost effectiveness and cost-revelation perspectives and compares three multi-award reverse auction mechanisms. The first mechanism is called the Uniform Price Reverse (UPR) auction, where each winning bidder is paid the lowest rejected bid. The second mechanism is called the First Price Reverse (FPR) auction, where winning bidders are paid their submitted bids. The third, novel, mechanism is called the Generalized Second Price Reverse (GSPR) auction, where each winning bidder is paid the bid that is immediately higher. Theoretically, I derive the equilibrium bidding strategy for each auction mechanism and show that a symmetric equilibrium strategy may not exist under the GSPR auction. Empirically, lab experiment results show that UPR and GSPR auctions lead to a higher efficiency level compared to FPR, while UPR auction yields the lowest auctioneer surplus and is the least cost effective. As a result, GSPR maintains good incentive properties similar to UPR and presents potential large cost-saving opportunities to the auctioneer.
      PubDate: 2021-02-06
       
  • Correction to: Worshipping the Tiger: Modeling Non‑use Existence Values
           of Wildlife Spiritual Services
    • Abstract: The article was published with several textual and typographical errors introduced during proofing.
      PubDate: 2021-01-29
       
  • Heterogeneity in Farmers’ Social Preferences and the Design of Green
           Payment Schemes
    • Abstract: We examine how social preferences affect the workings of voluntary green payment schemes and show that a regulator could use facilitation services along with a social reward to generate better ecological outcome at less cost by exploiting a farmer’s social preferences to gain a green social-image/reputation. To motivate our model, we first present the results of an incentivized elicitation survey in Scotland which shows that there is a social norm of biodiversity protection on private land among farmers. Moreover, the results of a discrete choice experiment reveal that farmers are willing to give up economic rents for more publicity of their conservation activities; this confirms the relevance of reputational gain in the context of green payment schemes. Our model assumes two types of farmers, green and brown, with a green farmer taking more biodiversity protection actions than a brown farmer. We design a menu of contracts that offers both monetary incentives and non-monetary incentives (a facilitation service with social reward) to induce both type of farmers to join the scheme and to exert first-best levels (i.e., symmetric information levels) of action. Results show that under asymmetric information the regulator can implement the symmetric information equilibrium levels of biodiversity protection actions with only non-monetary incentives for the green farmer and only monetary incentives for the brown farmer. This implies that a regulator can ensure better environmental outcomes, at a lower cost, by exploiting farmers’ social preferences and by offering non-monetary incentives.
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
       
  • Pandemics, Mitigation Measures, and Environment
    • Abstract: The paper studies the effects of mitigation measures on environment during a pandemic. Various mitigation measures such as business closures have been imposed to reduce health risks. Such measures also limit economic activities and reduce emissions. Measures disproportionately affect the contact-intensive sectors such as the leisure and hospitality industry, as their economic activities involve more person-to-person interactions. Thus, the extent of emission reduction depends on the severity of a measure and the size of the contact-intensive sectors. Using data on business and restaurant closures, school closures and bans on gatherings across 50 U.S. states during the Covid-19 pandemic, an empirical analysis shows that emissions decrease more in states with a more stringent measure and a larger share of the contact-intensive sectors.
      PubDate: 2021-01-23
       
  • Environmental Taxation and Import Demand for Environmental Goods: Theory
           and Evidence from the European Union
    • Abstract: In this paper, we study the impact of environmental taxation on trade in environmental goods (EGs). Using a trade model in which demand for and supply of EGs are endogenous, we show that the relationship between environmental taxation and demand for EGs follows a bell-shaped curve. Above a cutoff tax rate, a higher tax rate can reduce bilateral trade in EGs because there are too many low-productivity EG suppliers. Based on trade data from 1995 to 2012 across the EU-27 countries, our empirical results are in accordance with the predictions of our model when we use the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) list of EGs. We find that environmental taxation (measured as the ratio of environmental tax revenoe to GDP) has a monotonically positive impact on the number of trading partners. Furthermore, we show that if countries were to apply an environmental tax rate equal to \(3.96\%\) (e.g., the tax rate maximizing international trade in EGs), then trade in EGs across the EU-27 members would experience an increase of 25.33 percentage points. The results are mixed when we analyse the EGs on the OECD list. While the results for the the number of trading partners are confirmed when we use this list, there is no effect of environmental taxation on import demand.
      PubDate: 2021-01-22
       
  • Farmers Follow the Herd: A Theoretical Model on Social Norms and Payments
           for Environmental Services
    • Abstract: The economic literature on Payments for Environmental Services (PES) has studied extensively the behavioural factors that prevent farmers from signing PES contracts, even when the payments exceed the expected opportunity costs. This article provides a theoretical model of the role played by the interplay of descriptive and injunctive social norms in farmers’ decisions. When they choose to contribute voluntarily to an environmental public good, farmers may be driven by descriptive norms akin to conformity (do as the majority of their peers) as well as by injunctive norms (in line with what society expects them to do), which are the equivalent of a social injunction to act in favour of the environment. The interactions between these two social norms can yield multiple equilibria, depending on the relative weight of the descriptive norm (sensitivity to conformism) and of the injunctive norm (sensitivity to moral pressure) in the utility functions of farmers. More generally, our model can explain why social groups are sometimes trapped in low public-good-contribution equilibria, even when public subsidies to contributors are high. We make policy recommendations to help reach higher contribution equilibria, with a specific focus on the farm policy context.
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
       
  • Rent Seeking over Tradable Emission Permits
    • Abstract: The allocation of emission permits at no cost during the establishment of a cap-and-trade program creates opportunities for rent-seeking. I examine the consequences of such rent-seeking by exploiting an unusual feature of the UK’s permit allocation procedure in Phase 1 of the EU’s CO \(_{2}\) Emissions Trading Scheme, whereby it is possible to observe both a firm’s actual permit allocation as well as an earlier, technocratically-based provisional allocation that was never implemented. Firms had the opportunity to appeal their provisional allocation. I find that a firm’s financial connections to members of the House of Commons strongly predict its post-appeal allocation. Even after controlling for the provisional allocation, along with industry and financial characteristics, a connection to an additional member is associated with a significant increase in a firm’s actual permit allocation. Using results from a contest-theoretic framework, I estimate the welfare loss from rent-seeking to be over 100 million euros—a significant amount relative to the abatement costs firms incurred to reduce emissions.
      PubDate: 2021-01-20
       
  • Enforcement Federalism: Comparing the Effectiveness of Federal Punishment
           versus State Punishment
    • Abstract: Responsibility for enforcing environmental protection laws often falls on both federal and state agencies. We investigate whether enforcement and monitoring taken by the federal agency—the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)—and enforcement and monitoring actions taken by U.S. state environmental agencies differentially affect the compliance behavior of pollution point sources regulated under the U.S. Clean Water Act. Our results demonstrate that federal inspections are more effective than state inspections, yet state fines are more effective than federal fines, at inducing compliance with Clean Water Act-imposed discharge limits.
      PubDate: 2021-01-20
       
  • Porter Hypothesis vs Pollution Haven Hypothesis: Can There Be
           Environmental Policies Getting Two Eggs in One Basket'
    • Abstract: The Porter hypothesis and the pollution haven hypothesis seem to predict opposite reactions by firms facing environmental regulation, as the first invokes the arising of a win–win solution while the second envisages the possibility for firms to flee abroad. We illustrate the possibility of designing policies (taking the form of either emission taxation or environmental standards) able to eliminate firms’ incentives to relocate their plants abroad and create a parallel incentive for them to deliver a win–win solution by investing either in replacement technologies under emission taxation, or in abatement technologies under an environmental standard. This is worked out in a Cournot supergame in which firms may activate the highest level of collusion compatible with their intertemporal preferences.
      PubDate: 2021-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10640-020-00533-x
       
  • The Welfare Impacts of Large Urban Noise Reductions: Implications from
           Household Sorting in Vienna
    • Abstract: We develop a pure characteristics equilibrium sorting model to recover estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) for both marginal and non-marginal changes in urban noise exposure. Using data from Vienna, Austria, we provide several new insights in the urban noise literature. First, we demonstrate the importance of considering general equilibrium feedback effects following large changes in noise levels. We document impacts to residents in policy targeted and non-targeted locations due to changes in both noise and equilibrium prices. Second, we confirm evidence of the importance of noise thresholds with significant and increasing negative impacts associated with increases in area covered by high levels of noise at 50 dB and 60 dB thresholds, respectively. Finally, we use an equilibrium sorting model to predict new price patterns and welfare implications following hypothetical policy changes that alter the distribution and intensity of nighttime noise in Vienna and are relevant to other urban settings seeking to reduce noise levels. Our work additionally provides a roadmap for conducting similar equilibrium sorting work in data limited settings outside the U.S.
      PubDate: 2021-01-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10640-020-00527-9
       
  • Social Versus Private Benefits of Energy Efficiency Under Time-of-Use and
           Increasing Block Pricing
    • Abstract: Many energy policies are implemented to subsidize the adoption of energy efficiency. However, when private benefits from energy efficiency exceed the social benefits, there is an incentive for the consumers to over-invest in energy efficiency; otherwise, there is an incentive to under-invest. This study adds to this discussion by providing an empirical estimation of the electricity savings and social benefits after energy efficiency retrofits for consumers on time-of-use (TOU) and increasing block pricing, respectively. We aim to examine how social versus private savings from a given energy efficiency measure may be different depending on different pricing plans. This study applies hourly electricity data for about 16,000 residential consumers during 2013–2017 in Arizona. We show that for the TOU consumers, the private savings from energy-efficient AC retrofits are greater than the social savings by 61%, while the increasing block rate consumers’ private savings exceed the social savings by 46%, when other market failures are not considered (e.g., principal-agent problem and imperfect information). Different rate plans impose different marginal electricity prices which influence the incentives to invest in energy efficiency as well as electricity consumption behaviors that can influence both the private and social savings from energy efficiency. The result indicates that there should be potentially different levels of policy interventions towards energy efficiency for consumers on different pricing. Additionally, we also find that energy efficiency makes the electricity demand more elastic to price changes.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01
       
 
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