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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 142 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 246)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Environmental and Resource Economics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.186
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 26  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-1502 - ISSN (Online) 0924-6460
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2657 journals]
  • Cooperative Management of Ecosystem Services: Coalition Formation,
           Landscape Structure and Policies
    • Abstract: Abstract A growing body of literature shows that full-cooperation among farmers to manage productive ecosystem services would yield gains with respect to uncoordinated approaches. The public good feature of these ecosystem services may, however, hinder the emergence of a cooperative solution at the landscape scale. In this paper, we introduce in a coalition formation game a spatially-explicit bioeconomic model of fruit pollination, where pollinaton depends on the distance to the choosen location of natural habitats. We analyse: (i) which coalitions are stable; (ii) what benefits they provide; (iii) how cooperation depends on the initial landscape structure; and (iv) how policy instruments affect cooperation. The theoretical model presents the rationality of cooperation but, due to the detailed heterogeneity and complex spatial interactions among farms, we use a numerical example to determine the stable coalitions. We find that only small coalitions are stable and that the benefits of cooperation decrease when the spatial autocorrelation of fruit tree covers increase. Policy instruments can increase the interest for cooperation but per-hectare payments and minimum participation rules may reduce the habitat area at the margin (by decreasing the stability of coalitions). Price premium for the coalition members increase the habitat area but its budget-effectiveness decreases as the spatial autocorrelation of fruit tree covers increase.
      PubDate: 2021-05-13
  • Flood Insurance Market Penetration and Expectations of Disaster Assistance
    • Abstract: Abstract Concern over resilience to natural disasters often focuses on moral hazard; expectations of disaster assistance may lead households in hazard-prone communities to forego insurance. This has been dubbed “charity hazard” in the literature on natural disasters. We examine flood insurance uptake using household level survey data and employ instrumental variables (related to local history of aid distribution and political economy) to address endogeneity of individual expectations of eligibility for disaster assistance. To avoid potential problems with reverse causation, we drop any households that could have received payments in the past (triggering mandatory flood insurance purchase). We find coastal households that exhibit positive expectations of disaster aid eligibility are 25 to 42 percent less likely to hold flood insurance. We estimate that charity hazard could be responsible for 817,000 uninsured homes in the United States corresponding to a loss of $526 million in forgone annual revenue for the National Flood Insurance Program.
      PubDate: 2021-05-12
  • Correction to: Parametric and Semiparametric Efficiency Frontiers in
           Fishery Analysis: Overview and Case Study on the Falkland Islands
    • Abstract: A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10640-021-00566-w
      PubDate: 2021-05-06
  • Voluntary Participation in International Environmental Agreements and
           Authority Structures in a Federation: A Note
    • Abstract: Abstract We examine how a voluntary participation decision in international environmental negotiations affects the endogenous authority structure in a federation. In our model, the federal government of each country decides whether to delegate both the decision to participate in a negotiation that determines the abatement level of pollution (the level of the public good), and the negotiation itself, to a regional government of the polluter region. We show that there exists a subgame perfect equilibrium in which none of the federal governments chooses delegation, which is quite different from the authority structure in the absence of a voluntary participation decision. The main contribution is to explain why the federal government has an incentive not to delegate decisions to a regional government
      PubDate: 2021-05-01
  • Study on the Interactive Relationship Between Marine Economic Growth and
           Marine Environmental Pressure in China
    • Abstract: Abstract To have a clear understanding of the interactive relationship between the marine economy and marine environment in China and to further promote the sustainable development of China’s oceans, this study evaluates the level of coordinated development between China’s marine economy and marine environment by defining and calculating marine eco-efficiency. Next, it uses the Tapio decoupling model to analyze the decoupling relationships among the marine environment, its determinant factors, and the marine economy. This reveals the nature and development trend of the internal relationship between dynamic changes in the marine economy and the marine environment. The results show that, during the study period, there is improvement in the marine eco-efficiencies of 11 Chinese coastal provinces and cities, and there exists a spatial pattern comprising higher marine eco-efficiency in the central regions and lower in the southern and northern ones. Further, the decoupling relationship between the marine economy and marine environment in 11 coastal areas mainly showed a decline from 2006 to 2015. Massive investment of marine resources was not only the major contributor to marine economic growth but also the main factor exerting pressure on the marine environment.
      PubDate: 2021-05-01
  • Air Pollution, Health, and Avoidance Behavior: Evidence from South Korea
    • Abstract: Abstract Using detailed data on the beneficiaries of the Korean National Health Insurance Service (c.2006–2015), this paper estimates the health effects of air pollution in South Korea while controlling for avoidance behaviors. In particular, we investigate changes in respiratory hospitalization rates due to increases in PM \(_{10}\) and O \(_{3}\) concentrations. To address the endogeneity of air pollution, this paper applies the historical average concentration of air pollution, which includes rich information about the meteorological and geographical factors that affect regional air pollution levels, as an instrumental variable and compares the results with other count data models. We find that a 10  \(\upmu\) g/m \(^{3}\) increase in PM \(_{10}\) and a 10 ppb increase in O \(_{3}\) lead to an increase in daily respiratory hospital visits of up to 10.39% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.04–16.80] and 10.93% (95% CI 9.23–12.63), resulting in additional health care costs of US$67 million and US$70 million, respectively. This paper also shows that the effects of PM \(_{10}\) and O \(_{3}\) are elevated in highly populated cities, children, and patients without chronic respiratory diseases.
      PubDate: 2021-05-01
  • Reflections on the Dasgupta Review on the Economics of Biodiversity
    • Abstract: Abstract The Dasgupta Review provides a rich overview of the economics of biodiversity, paints a bleak picture of the current state of biodiversity, and is a call to arms for action in anticipation of the CBD COP 15. The Review takes a global perspective aimed at the high level of international and national policy on biodiversity, while elucidating the very local nature of biodiversity threats and values. The approach is orthodox in its diagnosis via the language of externalities, natural capital, shadow pricing, asset returns, and the suite of remedial policies that follow. Yet, at its centre is an ‘unorthodox’ perspective: the economy is embedded in the environment and growth is limited. We offer reflections on this framing in light of its objectives for biodiversity. The limits to growth message will be criticised and applauded in equal measure by different economists. The central place of valuation and the aggregated concept of biodiversity will draw criticism from outside the discipline. Yet the Review provides a foundation for biodiversity economics, and its largely orthodox framing may invoke the intended step change in the mainstream approach to economic growth.
      PubDate: 2021-05-01
  • Cultured Meat: Promises and Challenges
    • Abstract: Abstract Cultured meat involves producing meat from animal cells, not from slaughtered animals. This innovation has the potential to revolutionize the meat industry, with wide implications for the environment, health and animal welfare. The main purpose of this paper is to stimulate some economic research on cultured meat. In particular, this paper includes a prospective discussion on the demand and supply of cultured meat. It also discusses some early results on the environmental impacts of cultured meat, emphasizing the promises (e.g., regarding the reduction in land use) but also the uncertainties. It then argues that cultured meat is a moral improvement compared to conventional meat. Finally, it discusses some regulatory issues, and the need for more public support to the innovation.
      PubDate: 2021-05-01
  • Current Air Pollution and Willingness to Pay for Better Air Quality:
           Revisiting the Temporal Reliability of the Contingent Valuation Method
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study we examine whether and why preferences for environmental quality improvements depend on current quality. We conducted contingent valuation surveys over the course of a year in Nanjing, China, and find that the willingness to pay for future air quality improvements increases by 0.693% for every 1% increase in the current PM2.5 level. Therefore, the issue of "when" a valuation study is conducted has important implications for the estimation of benefits, and further deserves consideration when applying benefit transfer methods. One possible explanation for this result is projection bias, which arises when people exaggerate the extent to which future preferences will align with current tastes.
      PubDate: 2021-05-01
  • A Machine Learning Analysis of the Recent Environmental and Resource
           Economics Literature
    • Abstract: Abstract We use topic modeling to study research articles in environmental and resource economics journals in the period 2000–2019. Topic modeling based on machine learning allows us to identify and track latent topics in the literature over time and across journals, and further to study the role of different journals in different topics and the changing emphasis on topics in different journals. The most prevalent topics in environmental and resource economics research in this period are growth and sustainable development and theory and methodology. Topics on climate change and energy economics have emerged with the strongest upward trends. When we look at our results across journals, we see that journals have different topical profiles and that many topics mainly appear in one or a few selected journals. Further investigation reveal latent semantic structures across research themes that only the insider would be aware.
      PubDate: 2021-05-01
  • Firm Level Evidence of Disaster Impacts on Growth in Vietnam
    • Abstract: Abstract The theory about the impacts of natural disasters on firms is ambiguous and the empirical evidence on this topic is scarce, which hampers the design of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation policies. In this paper we identify the short-run impacts of storms and floods on firm growth in labor, capital, and sales, using Enterprise Census data (2000–2014) for Vietnam. We define storms and floods with three different disaster measures: physical intensities, number of deaths, and economic damage. The performance of these disaster measures is compared by estimating dynamic growth models using the Blundell–Bond system generalized method of moments. We find evidence that flooding increases labor growth and capital growth but reduces sales growth significantly up to 3 years after flooding. We also find some evidence of positive impacts on labor growth and capital growth but mostly negative impacts on sales growth for storms within 3 years after storms strike. The impacts of floods and storms on firm growth are more pronounced and persistent for small and medium sized firms. Finally, unlike at the macro level, the direction and scale of disaster impacts found at the firm level are fairly consistent across the three disaster measures.
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
  • Parametric and Semiparametric Efficiency Frontiers in Fishery Analysis:
           Overview and Case Study on the Falkland Islands
    • Abstract: Abstract Provision of adequately valued individual transferable quotas and effort quotas is essential for sustainability and profitability of a fishery. Despite possible misleading consequences for policy-making, the extent to which fishery inefficiency estimates and rankings may depend on the model used, has received less attention. This paper first reviews determinants of fishers’ behaviour under regulated harvesting, with the Falkland Islands as focus case. Next, a ‘best scenario’ long-term equilibrium framework is outlined, under a regime of transferable effort quotas and fishing seasons as implemented in the Islands, followed by an overview of panel data stochastic frontier models, with specific regard to fisheries. To test hypotheses and impact of a mainly ITEQ-based regime for Falkland fisheries, two parametric and one semiparametric model rely on different assumptions on frontiers and inefficiency scores. Relative to companies operating in Falkland seas, regression estimates highlight the relevance of economies of scale, vessel ownership, and climatic factors among others, with improved cost effectiveness, and revenue efficiency frontier-enhancing/inefficiency-reducing effects, following the implementation of the new regime. Within either modelling approach, inefficiency differs marginally across regression specifications, but mismatches in levels and rankings emerge between parametric and semiparametric models. Relative to southern hake catches by Falkland trawlers, the semiparametric approach suggests upward shifts in output frontiers under the new fishery regime, with inefficiency scores substantially unaltered between two functional specifications.
      PubDate: 2021-04-24
  • Optimal Carbon Storage in Mixed-Species Size-Structured Forests
    • Abstract: Abstract We extend the study of economically optimal carbon storage to a previously unexplored forest type, mixed-species size-structured stands. The ecological model applied in the study is a transition matrix model with growth functions for boreal Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), birch (Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh.), and other broadleaves. The other broadleaved trees are assumed to have no commercial value. We maximize the sum of timber revenues and the value of carbon storage by optimizing the timing and intensity of thinnings and the potentially infinite rotation age. The optimization problem is solved in its general dynamic form using gradient-based interior point methods and a genetic algorithm. We present results for a mixed stand of Norway spruce and birch, and a mixed stand of Norway spruce, birch, and other broadleaves, and compare these to a pure Norway spruce stand. We show that carbon pricing increases stand volume by postponing harvests and limiting them to larger trees, and changes the optimal species composition by increasing the share of Norway spruce relative to birch. Further, carbon pricing incentivizes maintaining other broadleaves in the stand despite their lack of commercial value, thus increasing tree species diversity. We find that sawlog and total yields increase with carbon price. We show that the higher the number of tree species in a stand, the lower the marginal cost of carbon storage.
      PubDate: 2021-04-22
  • The Design of Renewable Fuel Mandates and Cost Containment Mechanisms
    • Abstract: Abstract Policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transportation fuels often take the form of renewable fuel mandates rather than taxes or cap-and-trade programs. Delays in the development and deployment of new technologies when binding mandates exist for their use may lead to situations with high compliance costs. We study the effects and efficiency of two mandates, a renewable share mandate and a carbon intensity standard, with and without a cost containment mechanism. Using both a theoretical model of a regulated fuel industry and a numerical model of the U.S. fuel market, we show that cost containment mechanisms can have the benefit of both constraining compliance costs and limiting deadweight loss. According to our numerical results, an optimally set mandate alone leads to only modest gains over business as usual welfare levels. The efficiency of both policies, especially carbon intensity standards, can increase substantially when combined with a cost containment mechanism.
      PubDate: 2021-04-12
  • Structuring Communication Effectively—The Causal Effects of
           Communication Elements on Cooperation in Social Dilemmas
    • Abstract: Abstract Many environmental problems represent social dilemma situations where individually rational behaviour leads to collectively suboptimal outcomes. Communication has been found to alleviate the dilemma and stimulate cooperation in these situations. Yet, the knowledge of the basic elements, i.e. the types of information that need to be provided and exchanged to make communication effective, is still incomplete. Previous research relies on ex post methods, i.e. after conducting an experiment researchers analyse what information was shared during the communication phase. By nature, this ex post categorization is endogenous. In this study, we identify the basic elements of effective communication ex ante and evaluate their impact in a more controlled way. Based on the findings of previous studies, we identify four cooperation-enhancing elements of communication: (i) problem awareness, (ii) identification of strategies, (iii) agreement, and (iv) ratification. In a laboratory experiment with 560 participants, we implement interventions representing these components and contrast the resulting levels of cooperation with the outcomes under free (unstructured) or no communication. We find that the intervention facilitating agreement on a common strategy (combination of (ii) and (iii)) is particularly powerful in boosting cooperation. And if this is combined with interventions promoting problem awareness and ratification, similar cooperation levels as in settings with free-form communication can be reached. Our results are relevant not only from an analytical perspective, but also provide insights for social dilemma situations in which effective communication processes cannot be successfully self-organized, calling for some form of external, structured facilitation or moderation.
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
  • Trade in Carbon and Carbon Tariffs
    • Abstract: Abstract Carbon-based import tariffs are proposed as a policy measure to reduce carbon leakage and increase the global cost-effectiveness of unilateral CO2 emission pricing. We investigate the case for carbon tariffs. For our assessment, we combine multi-region input–output and computable general equilibrium analyses based on data from the World Input–Output Database for the period 2000–2014. The multi-region input–output analysis confirms that carbon embodied in trade has increased during this period, but trade flows from Non-OECD to OECD countries became less important in relative terms since the 2007–2008 financial crisis. The computable general equilibrium analysis suggests that carbon tariffs’ efficacy in combating leakage increases in periods when trade in carbon increases. However, its potential to improve the global-cost effectiveness of unilateral emission pricing remains modest. On the other hand, we find that the potential of carbon tariffs to shift the economic burden of CO2 emission reduction from abating developed regions to non-abating developing regions increases sharply between 2000 and 2007, but declines after the financial crisis.
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
  • Social Cost of Carbon Under Stochastic Tipping Points
    • Abstract: Abstract Is climate change concerning because of its expected damages, or because of the risk that damages could be very high' Climate damages are uncertain, in particular they depend on whether the accumulation of greenhouse gas emissions will trigger a tipping point. In this article, we investigate how much risk contributes to the Social Cost of Carbon in the presence of a tipping point inducing a higher-damage regime. To do so, we decompose the effect of a tipping point as an increase in expected damages plus a zero-mean risk on damages. First, using a simple analytical model, we show that the social cost of carbon (SCC) is primarily driven by expected damages, while the effect of pure risk is only of second order. Second, in a numerical experiment using a stochastic Integrated Assessment Model, we show that expected damages account for most of the SCC when the tipping point induces a productivity shock lower than 10%, the high end of the range commonly used in the literature. It takes both a large productivity shock and high risk aversion for pure risk to significantly contribute to the SCC. Our analysis suggests that the risk aversion puzzle, which is the usual finding that risk aversion has a surprisingly little effect on the SCC, occurs since the SCC is well estimated using expected damages only. However, we show that the risk aversion puzzle does not hold for large productivity shocks, as pure risk greatly contributes to the SCC in these cases.
      PubDate: 2021-03-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10640-021-00549-x
  • WTP or WTA: A Means of Determining the Appropriate Welfare Measure of
           Positive and Negative Changes When Preferences are Reference Dependent
    • Abstract: Abstract Many positive and negative changes are valued by people relative to a neutral reference state, which may, or often may not, be the status quo. Positive changes can then be either gains and the monetary value of the increase in welfare best assessed with the WTP measure, or reductions of losses, and like losses, the change in welfare more accurately assessed with the WTA measure. A means to discriminate between gains and reductions of losses is presented here, along with the results of tests of its efficacy, and a demonstration of its application to VSL estimates–with findings suggesting likely widespread biases of present practice of using WTP to assess the value of essentially all changes.
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10640-021-00546-0
  • Unraveling the Effects of Tropical Cyclones on Economic Sectors Worldwide:
           Direct and Indirect Impacts
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper examines the current, lagged, and indirect effects of tropical cyclones on annual sectoral growth worldwide. The main explanatory variable is a new damage measure for local tropical cyclone intensity based on meteorological data weighted for individual sectoral exposure, which is included in a panel analysis for a maximum of 205 countries over the 1970–2015 period. I find a significantly negative influence of tropical cyclones on two sector aggregates including agriculture, as well as trade and tourism. In subsequent years, tropical cyclones negatively affect the majority of all sectors. However, the Input–Output analysis shows that production processes are sticky and indirect economic effects are limited.
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10640-021-00541-5
  • Adapting to Rising Sea Levels: How Short-Term Responses Complement
           Long-Term Investment
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a parsimonious model of a coastal locality’s adaptation to rising sea levels and uses the model to examine cost-minimizing policies involving two complementary approaches. One involves irreversible investment in sea walls and similar infrastructure. The other involves activities, such as beach scraping, that only provide temporary protection. Costs are minimized by delaying investment until the present value of the benefits from avoided inundation costs exceeds upfront investment costs by a margin that is economically significant. The premium, which can exceed 50% of investment costs, is higher when the sea level is rising more quickly. The ability to temporarily boost defenses is used aggressively: spending on temporary improvements immediately before investment is several times larger than its value immediately afterwards. Temporary improvements are made even when the marginal cost of increasing the effectiveness of defenses this way is significantly greater than the equivalent annual cost of permanently increasing effectiveness by investment.
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10640-021-00547-z
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