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One Ecosystem
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2367-8194
Published by Pensoft Homepage  [58 journals]
  • Marine and coastal accounts for Small Island Developing States: A case
           study and application in Grenada

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e84865
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e84865
      Authors : Elena Mengo, Gaetano Grilli, Tiziana Luisetti, Heather Conejo Watt, Cherry Harper Jones, Paulette Posen : In recent decades, a concerted effort has been made to define methodologies and frameworks to account for the contribution of the natural environment to national wealth and its role in fulfilling societal and economic needs. The linkages between natural capital and human well-being are even stronger in low-income and vulnerable countries, such as Small Island Developing States (SIDS). This is particularly true for coastal and marine ecosystems and for SIDS, considering that a large portion of their population live along the coast. Therefore, SIDS would greatly benefit from systematically assessing and recording the condition and services provided by marine and coastal habitats in ecosystem accounts. Applications of accounting frameworks to marine and coastal habitats, however, are still under development. Through a case study in the Caribbean Island of Grenada, we explore SIDS readiness to develop marine and coastal natural capital accounts, in particular framed within the guidelines of the United Nations System of Environmental-Economic Accounting Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA-EA). We find that, while data to compile accounts of ecosystems extent exist and may be suitable for accounting, data related to ecosystem condition are very limited. Data gaps significantly constrained the potential approaches to estimate the ecosystem services supply provided by the coastal and marine environment in our natural capital accounts for Grenada. Our case study investigation brings us to suggest initial steps for the development of ecosystem accounts in SIDS, including potential methodologies and approaches and discuss how developing a set of coherent accounts can play a key role in incorporating nature into decision-making. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 15:19:04 +020
       
  • A multi-tiered approach to map and assess the natural heritage potential
           to provide ecosystem services at a national level

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e91580
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e91580
      Authors : Stoyan Nedkov, Mariyana Nikolova, Hristina Prodanova, Vanya Stoycheva, Desislava Hristova, Eugenia Sarafova : Natural heritage (NH) possesses an outstanding universal value that can be described as “natural significance” at a national level. The ecosystems can be considered as the spatial units which represent the NH of the particular area in terms of their value to people. Recreation and tourism are amongst the important values which are strongly dependent on the NH and they have a certain impact on the ecosystems' condition and the quality of the services they provide. The efforts through the Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and thier Services (MAES) process led to the development of a multi-tiered approach that considers different methods at different levels of detail and complexity and can be applied according to specific needs, data and resource availability. In this paper, we propose the development of this methodology for the specific need for mapping and assessment of the NH as a source of ecosystem services (ES) for recreation and tourism. The conceptual scheme of the study demonstrates how the MAES framework can be adapted to the specific needs of the work and arrange the methods into three tiers according to the data availability and resources. The mapping and assessment procedure is based on an algorithm for spatial data analyses which enables the evaluation of the NH potential to provide 15 ecosystem services. The results show that the NH of Bulgaria is a valuable source of ES which are well presented in most parts of the country. The areas with very high potential form several clusters that correspond to the country's tourist regions. The proposed approach is applicable on the national scale and solves the problem of data availability limitations for various ES. The algorithm ensures the optimal quality of the results using the available data and resources. Instead of an expert-based assessment for all services which is easier, but less accurate, the proposed approach provides the means how to define more precise indicators, based on statistical data or models where possible. The study provides appropriate data for analyses of the methods’ performance at different tiers. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Nov 2022 10:05:33 +020
       
  • Chlorophyll fluorescence changes, as plant early state indicator under
           different water salinity regimes on the invasive macrophyte Elodea
           canadensis (Michx., 1803)

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e82389
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e82389
      Authors : Aleksandrs Petjukevics, Natalja Skute : Analysis of the photosynthetic apparatus provides information on the physiological state of plants. The changes of metabolites in plant cells analysed with the pulsed chlorophyll fluorometer make it possible to determine these changes in plant cells even in the presence of insignificant cell damage. The possible effects of different salinity levels, 0.584, 1.461, 2.922 and 5.844 PSU (denoting Practical Salinity Unit) on the fluorescence properties of the pigment complexes of the aquatic invasive E. canadensis photosynthetic apparatus were investigated. Information about E. canadensis macrophyte photosynthetic systems (PSI and PSII) was obtained. After a prolonged impact, the results indicate that high salinity levels in substrates 2.922 and 5.844 PSU seriously affect plant photosynthetic apparatus inhibition. The decrease in ∆Fv/Fm΄ values at 2.922 and 5.844 PSU indicates general deterioration in macrophytes' physiological state. In the post-stress period, photosynthesis intensified. An interesting feature was noted: a low water salinity level (0.584) stimulates chlorophyll formation and increases the FvFm parameter. The research revealed the influence of salinity levels in the substrate on the photosynthesis processes in plants. The PSII system of submerged macrophytes responds rapidly to high salinity levels, probably due to the inhibition of protein synthesis. These data provide information for further bio-diagnosis of overall plant health and prediction of exposure levels, as well as the ability to make predictions of invasive plant growth and spread. The invasion of this plant macrophyte causes the most serious concern in Europe nowadays. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Nov 2022 09:17:28 +020
       
  • Recognising institutional context in simulating and generalising exchange
           values for monetary ecosystem accounts

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e85283
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e85283
      Authors : David N. Barton : The paper argues that monetary valuation of ecosystem services for ecosystem accounting needs to be sensitive to institutional context, when simulating markets to generate exchange values where none was available previously and when conducting value generalisation that extrapolates exchange values from specific sites to the whole acounting area. The same ecosystem type can contain different governance regimes or, conversely, a single governance regime may be present in many ecosystem types. Governance regimes are, in part, determined by ecosystem type and condition, but also by ecosystem access characteristics which vary over urban-rural gradients. An ecosystem service will not have a single price if costs of supply and transaction vary in space. This is generally true for all accounting compatible valuation methods if they are extrapolated across different market contexts, but require particular attention if markets are simulated for specific locations and then assumed to be generally valid for the accounting area. The paper exemplifies this for different institutional settings for exchange values of recreation services exploring the general recommendation in SEEA EA for making valuation methods sensitive to institutional context. Stated preference methods simulate markets for ecosystem services. The paper then reviews non-market stated preference valuation studies that have been sensitive to institutional design. Findings on institutional design are, therefore, specifically relevant for simulation of market exchange values for the purpose of compiling monetary ecosystem accounts. The paper finds that disregard for the institutional context in valuation for ecosystem accounting can lead to: (i) errors of generalisation/aggregation and (ii) downward ‘bias’ in simulated accounting prices (relative to the status quo of the institutional context). HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 12:06:32 +020
       
  • Analysis of Drinking Water treatment costs – with an Application to
           Groundwater Purification Valuation

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e82125
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e82125
      Authors : Eva Horváthová : Understanding the factors affecting drinking water production costs is crucial for choosing a cost-effective solution for public drinking water supply systems. An important determinant of water treatment costs is the purification of raw water. Despite water purification being a well-acknowledged ecosystem service, its monetary value has not been assessed much yet. We present the first study analysing the determinants of drinking water production costs and valuating groundwater purification in the Czech Republic. We tested the impact of the type of raw water, the amount of drinking water produced, electric power consumption and treatment technologies and chemicals. The results suggested that drinking water production from groundwater was cheaper than from surface water. Even though drinking water production from groundwater was cheaper than from surface water, the application of some technologies, for example, chlorine or manganese removal, increased the production cost. Hence groundwater production costs can exceed surface water production costs. The outcome of the regression was applied for the valuation of groundwater purification. The valuation was further used for the development of monetary drinking water accounts within the System of Environmental- Economic Accounting – Ecosystem Accounting. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Nov 2022 09:09:34 +020
       
  • Accounting for the recreation benefits of the Flemish Natura 2000 network
           through landscape preferences and estimated spending

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e85187
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e85187
      Authors : Leo De Nocker, Inge Liekens, Els Verachtert, Jeremy De Valck, Jan Staes, Dirk Vrebos, Steven Broekx : This paper describes the methods used to produce accounts for the recreational value of Natura 2000 areas in Flanders, Belgium. First, a biophysical account of recreation supply and demand is compiled and mapped. Demand is based on data for green visits per year per inhabitant and covers both recreation and nature-based tourism. It distinguishes local walking trips, local cycling, recreation trips with pre-transport and visits by tourists. The number of green visits is based on a combination of yearly statistics (for tourism, day trips) and irregular surveys (for local visits). The supply account is based on modelling predicted visits. The annual visits per inhabitant are attributed to ecosystems using a green visit prediction model that uses the extent and condition accounts related to availability of green-blue areas, accessibility, the attractive potential of landscapes for informal recreation (extent and condition accounts), residence and distance decay functions for different recreation types.Potential destinations include a wide range of green infrastructure, such as parks, forests, natural and agricultural areas and blue spaces (waterside and coastal natural areas). The attractiveness of landscapes is mainly based on an empirical study (choice experiment) in Flanders on people’s preferences for landscape features complemented by evidence from literature.The monetary accounts are preliminary, as there are unsufficient data available for Flanders to estimate the total value for the wide range of recreation types (from local walking and biking to tourism). Especially, data are missing to model travel and time costs for local visits (walking and biking), that account for a large share of total visits in Flanders. It should be noted that, for most visits, apart from nature-based tourism, valuation cannot be based on income fees or parking costs because, in Flanders, visits and parking are free.As unsufficient data are avaible to estimate travel and time costs in detail, we used Flemish data on average expenditure per visit per recreational type as a proxy. We discuss the limits of this preliminary approach and suggest further steps.In the results session, we discuss the implementation of the model to estimate the predicted visits to parts of the Natura2000 areas in Flanders in 2016 and 2018. As different land-uses are strongly interwoven in Flanders, these areas include a wide range of different land-uses and also areas close to residence used for local walking and biking.The differences between 2016 and 2018 illustrate how the model of predicted visits allows us to cope with land-use changes and improved quality and attractiveness of the landscapes in Natura2000 areas. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Nov 2022 07:46:46 +020
       
  • How to account for nature-based tourism in Europe. An operational proposal

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e89312
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e89312
      Authors : Grazia Zulian, Alessandra La Notte : Europe is a leader in the tourism industry, with half of the world's international arrivals in 2018. Nowadays tourism activities related to the enjoyment of nature, Nature-based tourism (NBT), are amongst the main tourism markets worldwide. NBT represents both a challenge and an opportunity. In fact, on the one hand, it contributes to creating new markets and spurring job growth, especially for small businesses and, on the other hand, it might impact the environment and local communities. What's more, it is extremely difficult to quantify the role of nature in traditional economic accounting. In this context, the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) covers this gap by reporting information not included in the traditional system of economic accounts. The Central SEEA framework was adopted by the UN Statistical Commission in 2012 and the Ecosystem Accounting module (SEEA EA) has recently been adopted to quantify the role of ecosystems. In this study, we fine-tune a methodology applied to account for daily outdoor recreation to measure the contribution of nature to the tourism sector respecting the SEEA EA rules.The approach was tested in Italy, which in 2019, had more than 430 million nights per year spent in the country for tourism. In our exploratory study, 56.69% (246 million) of the overnight stays were allocated to NBT. Our analysis shows that 43% (more than 30 million) of the overnight stays in the Veneto Region were allocated to nature; 75% (more than 39 million) in Trentino Alto Adige and 61.6% (29 million) in Tuscany.The top ranked municipalities, with very high numbers of overnight stays and very low share of NBT are cities of art: namely: Venice (Veneto Region), Milan (Lombardy Region) and Florence (Tuscany Region) and sea locations on the Adriatic Sea, specifically San Michele al Tagliamento and Jesolo (Veneto Region). On the contrary, the top-ranked locations with very high numbers of overnight stays and very high share of NBT are mountain, lakes and sea locations that have natural protected areas or other key iconic landmarks in their proximity and endorsed specific types of travel accommodation, such as camp sites.Based on our exploratory study, we argue that this approach allows us to disentangle the contribution of ecosystems to tourism. Not only is it compliant with the requests of the SEEA EA framework, but, thanks to the spatially-explicit outputs, it allows us to further explore the environmental and social impacts of tourism in a multi-scale perspective. In this study, a biophysical map developed at the EU level was used for illustrative purposes. In order to become operational at the national or local level, we suggest creating biophysical maps starting from local detailed datasets and, successively, to implement the methodology described in this paper. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 7 Nov 2022 14:16:24 +0200
       
  • On the potential use of the Ecosystem Services Valuation Database for
           valuation in the System of Environmental Economic Accounting

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e85085
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e85085
      Authors : Luke Brander, Jan Philipp Schägner, Rudolf de Groot : The System of Environmental Economic Accounting - Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EA) provides a framework for quantifying and valuing ecosystem services that is consistent with the System of National Accounts (SNA). As such, monetary estimates for ecosystem services are required to be measured as exchange values. The environmental economics literature on the value of ecosystem services has expanded consideralby over the past two decades and the Ecosystem Services Valuation Database (ESVD) currently provides the most comprehensive collection and synthesis of this information. The primary valuation studies included in the ESVD, however, measure a variety of value concepts including welfare values, exchange values and others. This raises a challenge for using existing value data as input to SEEA EA applications. This paper explores potential approaches to using the ESVD for value transfers that are consistent with SEEA EA, specifically for the estimation of meta-analytic value functions that can be used to reflect spatial variation in supply and demand of ecosystem services and proxy exchange values. It identifies avenues for future research and development of the ESVD to operationalise and test this approach. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 3 Nov 2022 08:16:00 +0200
       
  • How regulating and cultural services of ecosystems have changed over time
           in Italy

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e83214
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e83214
      Authors : Alessio Capriolo, Riccardo Giuseppe Boschetto, Rosa Anna Mascolo, Alessio Bulckaen, Stefano Balbi, Ferdinando Villla : In this experimental study, different components are computed for three different ecosystem services (ES). Specifically, supply, demand and use are estimated for pollination service, flood risk regulation service and nature-based tourism. These are analysed and assessed in 2012 and 2018 for the Italian context, in order to estimate the evolution over this period and to allow a significant comparison of results. The same methodology and models are applied for the selected accounting years and accounting tables and tend to reflect as closely as possible the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting-Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EA), which is the international standard endorsed by the United Nations to compile Natural Capital Accounting in 2021. Both biophysical and monetary assessments are performed using the ARIES technology, an integrated modelling platform providing automatic and flexible integration of data and models, via its semantic modelling nature. Models have been run adjusting the components of the global modelling approach to the Italian context and, whenever available, prioritising the use of local data to carry out the study. This approach is particularly useful to analyse trends over time, as potentially biased components of models and data are substantially mitigated when the same biases is constant over time. This study finds an increase in benefits over the period analysed for the ES examined. The main contribution of this pioneering work is to support the idea that ES accounting or Natural Capital Accounting can provide a very useful tool to improve economic and environmental information at national and regional level. This can support processes to provide the necessary incentives to steer policy-making towards preventative rather than corrective actions, which are usually much less effective and more costly, both at environmental and economic levels. Nevertheless, particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the estimates and the drivers of these values to derive a direct or indirect relationship between the benefits observable and the actual Italian ecosystems condition. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Sep 2022 14:00:00 +030
       
  • Urban ecosystems and heavy rainfall – A Flood Regulating Ecosystem
           Service modelling approach for extreme events on the local scale

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e87458
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e87458
      Authors : Thea Wübbelmann, Laurens Bouwer, Kristian Förster, Steffen Bender, Benjamin Burkhard : Increasing urbanisation in combination with a rise in the frequency and intensity of heavy rain events increase the risk of urban flooding. Flood Regulating Ecosystem Services (FRES) address the capacity of ecosystems to reduce the flood hazard and lower damage. FRES can be estimated by quantification of supply (provision of a service by an ecosystem) and demand (need for specific ES by society). However, FRES for pluvial floods in cities have rarely been studied and there is a gap in research and methods on FRES supply and demand quantification.In this study, we assessed FRES of an urban district in the City of Rostock (Germany) for a one-hour heavy rainfall event using the hydrological model LEAFlood. The hydrological model delivered the FRES supply indicators of soil water retention and water retained by canopies (interception). An intersection of the potential demand (based on indicators of population density, land reference value, monuments and infrastructure) and the modelled surface water depth revealed the actual demand. Comparing the actual demand and supply indicated the budget of FRES to identify unmet demand and supply surplus.Results show highest mean FRES supply on greened areas of forests, woodlands and green areas, resulting in a supply surplus. Whereas, sealed areas (paved surface where water cannot infiltrate into the soil), such as settlements, urban dense areas, traffic areas and industry, have an unmet demand resulting from low supply and relatively high actual demand.With the hydrological model LEAFlood, single landscape elements on the urban scale can be evaluated regarding their FRES and interception can be considered. Both are important for FRES assessment in urban areas. In contrast to flood risk maps, the study of FRES gives the opportunity to take into account the contribution of nature to flood regulation benefits for the socio-economic system. The visualisation of FRES supply and demand balance helps urban planners to identify hotspots and reduce potential impacts of urban pluvial flooding with ecosystem-based adaptations. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Sep 2022 17:30:00 +030
       
  • Valuing ecosystem services and ecosystem assets for The Netherlands

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e84624
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e84624
      Authors : Sjoerd Schenau, Jocelyn van Berkel, Patrick Bogaart, Chantal Blom, Corine Driessen, Linda de Jongh, Rixt de Jong, Edwin Horlings, Redbad Mosterd, Lars Hein, Marjolein Lof : HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Sep 2022 16:00:00 +030
       
  • The Integrated system for Natural Capital Accounting (INCA) in Europe:
           twelve lessons learned from empirical ecosystem service accounting

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e84925
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e84925
      Authors : Alessandra La Notte, Sara Vallecillo, Ioanna Grammatikopoulou, Chiara Polce, Carlo Rega, Grazia Zulian, Georgia Kakoulaki, Bruna Grizzetti, Silvia Ferrini, Mayra Zurbaran-Nucci, Eduardo Garcia Bendito, Veronika Vysna, Maria Luisa Paracchini, Joachim Maes : The Integrated system for Natural Capital Accounting (INCA) was developed and supported by the European Commission to test and implement the System of integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting – Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EA). Through the compilation of nine Ecosystem Services (ES) accounts, INCA can make available to any interested ecosystem accountant a number of lessons learned. Amongst the conceptual lessons learned, we can mention: (i) for accounting purposes, ES should be clustered according to the existence (or not) of a sustainability threshold; (ii) the assessment of ES flow results from the interaction of an ES potential and an ES demand; (iii) the ES demand can be spatially identified, but for an overarching environmental target, this is not possible; ES potential and ES demand could mis-match; (iv) because the demand remains unsatisfied; (v) because the ES is used above its sustainability threshold or (vi) because part of the potential flow is missed; (vii) there can be a cause-and-effect relationship between ecosystem condition and ES flow; (viii) ES accounts can complement the SEEA Central Framework accounts without overlapping or double counting. Amongst the methodological lessons learned, we can mention: (ix) already exiting ES assessments do not directly provide ES accounts, but will likely need some additional processing; (x) ES cannot be defined by default as intermediate; (xi) the ES remaining within ecosystems cannot be reported as final; (xii) the assessment and accounting of ES can be undertaken throughout a fast track approach or more demanding modelling procedures. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Sep 2022 14:00:00 +030
       
  • Beyond valuation. Monetary aggregates for the SEEA-EA. The Italian
           proposal

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e84689
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e84689
      Authors : Aldo Femia, Alessio Capriolo : After years of experimentation, documents, meetings, consultations and negotiations, the SEEA EA re-ignited the debate on the monetary quantification of the value of nature. Now more than ever, there is a need for an original approach, able to align the SEEA EA to the principles of national accounting, to the relevant economic theory and to 'strong sustainability'. In this article, we outline a technically sound alternative to the currently dominant approach, namely "valuation" of ecosystem services (ESs). The basic idea is to recognise the specific meaning and usefulness of each of the numerous monetary estimates proposed for valuation, starting with those included in the SEEA EA, without forcing national accounting principles: we promote the transition from the narrow concept of "monetary value of ecosystem service" to the wider one of “monetary values connected to/dependent on ESs”. Nothing new in terms of evaluation techniques; only a simple, but rich in implications, innovation in terms of interpretation and conceptualisation of the values generated by existing monetary values estimation methods. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 9 Sep 2022 16:46:45 +0300
       
  • Ecosystem services’ capacity and flow in the Venice Lagoon and the
           relationship with ecological status

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e79715
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e79715
      Authors : Silvia Rova, Alice Stocco, Fabio Pranovi : Ecosystem services (ES) are theoretically linked to healthy ecological conditions, but this relationship seems to be rather challenging to demonstrate in the real world. Therefore, shedding light on these aspects can be crucial for implementing effective ecosystem management strategies, for instance within the context of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) implementation. This work aims to present a spatially-explicit assessment of the ecological potential (capacity) and actual use (flow) of 12 ES in the Venice lagoon and to explore the relationships with the ecological status. Quantitative indicators of capacity and flow for each ES have been assessed and mapped and the results summarised with a set of aggregated indicators. The outcomes reveal a positive relationship between the overall capacity and flow of ES, suggesting that where the first is degraded, an overall loss of ES delivery occurs. A complex picture emerges when exploring the links with the ecological conditions, as the relationship changes with the ES and ecological status indicators considered. Structural indicators of ecological status, such as the Biological Quality Elements adopted by the WFD (assessed by MAQI and M-AMBI metrics), seem to be weakly linked with ES, while functional indicators (Kempton Q-90 diversity and secondary production) showed stronger links, especially when aggregated ES indicators are considered. Concerning different ES, it appears that the flow of the ES that are mediated by human uses (provisioning and cultural ES) is negatively related with some of the ecological status indicators. Finally, our results suggest possible limitations of the zonation adopted under the WFD, when it comes to the analysis of ES. We argue that ES could play a role in the management of the Lagoon ecosystem, as their analysis could be used to preserve the ecological functioning by managing the ‘uses’ we make of the ecosystem. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 5 Sep 2022 08:46:24 +0300
       
  • Diversity and composition of riparian vegetation across forest and
           agro-ecosystem landscapes of Cabadbaran River, Agusan del Norte,
           Philippines

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e82877
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e82877
      Authors : Roger Sarmiento, Kevin Balagon, Fritz Floyd Merisco, Reonil Aniñon, Mhar Christian Medrano, Kyle Kitche : The Cabadbaran River Irrigation System (CabRIS) supports about 3,212 hectares of farmland for irrigation. Unfortunately, the local irrigation office reported an insufficient water supply for irrigation to serve the entire service area in the past cropping seasons. The water yield has been dwindling; hence, an irrigation system management plan will address the water resource crisis. As a component of the project "Cabadbaran River Irrigation System Management Plan for Irrigation Water Resources (2022-2026)", the biophysical team carried out a floristic assessment for the entire watershed. The study used the quadrat-transect sampling method to assess and characterise the structure and species composition of the riparian areas of the main Cabadbaran River, Cabadbaran City, Agusan del Norte, Philippines. Results recorded about 109 morpho-species belonging to 46 families and 88 genera from the sampling sites. Nineteen species were listed either on the Philippine Red List or the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The plant diversity assessment revealed that biodiversity in riparian forests in the watershed was low to very low due to the massive rampant disturbance in the area. The riparian ecosystem of the Cabadbaran River represents a fragile ecosystem that is threatened by increasing demands on the regional water supply and the conversion of lands into tree plantations and agriculture. Addressing these driving forces causing biodiversity loss will impart a significant challenge for irrigation and land managers in the region. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Aug 2022 13:34:16 +030
       
  • Establishing a reference tool for ecosystem accounting in Europe, based on
           the INCA methodology

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e85389
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e85389
      Authors : Marcel Buchhorn, Bruno Smets, Thomas Danckaert, Maarten van Loo, Steven Broekx, Wim Peelaerts : The European Commission developed an amendment to Regulation 691/2011 on European environmental economic accounts to include reporting on ecosystem accounts compliant to the United Nations Statistical Commission System of Environmental-Economic Accounts – Ecosystem Accounts (SEEA-EA) standard. To support Member States implementing this regulation, an open source tool, known as INCA-tool, to generate ecosystem service accounts has been developed, based on the Knowledge Innovation Project on Integrated Systems of Naural Capital and Ecosystem Services Accounting (KIP-INCA) methodologies. The INCA-tool was developed by taking into account the FAIR principle for software and data, as well as existing interoperability standards by the SEEA community. Three types of users were identified with their specific needs, interactions and skills. To meet their needs, the INCA-tool was split into two parts, a python package to perform the calculations and an acessible and easy-to-use user interface in QGIS to integrate national information. With a first version of the toolkit in place, improvements to the existing calculation methods and alignment with the upcoming EU regulation can be achieved. Further, feedback from Member States beta-tests and their experiences is currently collected and implemented and the full public roll-out is planned for the end of 2022. The software packages in the toolkit were already used to extend the existing nine INCA European wall-to-wall account series with the year 2018. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Aug 2022 09:16:17 +030
       
  • Characteristics of humic acids isolated from burned and unburned topsoils
           in sub-boreal Scotch pine forests by 13C-NMR spectroscopy

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e82720
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e82720
      Authors : Ekaterina Chebykina, Evgeny Abakumov : Postpyrogenic soil dynamics is an informative tool for studying soil elementary processes in extreme temperature conditions and for predicting short time environmental changes in conditions of catastrophic landscape changes. Soil organic matter (SOM) system evolution is the most rapid process of postpyrogenic soil development. In this relation, the focus on humus structure is important for understanding these important dynamics. Soil restoration after spontaneous forest fires near Togljatty City (Samara Region, Russia) was abandoned in 2010 and further monitoring over the next ten years was organised to evaluate the speed of humus accumulation dynamics. The aim of this study was to apply the 13C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy to analyse the effect of forest fires on SOM degradation in Scotch pine forests on Psamment Entisols of the fragmented steppe in the Samara Region. Three key soil plots were studied for estimating SOM quality changes under the forest fire effect: surface forest fire, crown forest fire and control, i.e. 18 soil samples of top soil horizons were analysed in three replicates. The data obtained indicate that the humus molecular composition was substantially affected by the wildfires. Investigation of the humic acids’ (HAs) molecular structure by 13C-NMR showed a relative increase in aromatic compounds and decrease in aliphatic ones. The aromaticity degree of HA molecules increases in 5.7 and 3.8 times in cases of surface and crown forest fires, correspondingly. In general, crown and surface fires plots are not very different in terms of 13C-NMR spectra of HAs (p = 0.34); however, HAs of control plot have essential differences from pyrogenic ones (p < 0.05). 13C NMR spectra have shown a change in the proportion of oxygen-containing functional groups as well. One of the most important effects observed in wildfire-affected SOM is that the proportion of lignin-like structures increases as a concomitant effect of depletion of C,H-alkyl groups, especially in the case of crown fires. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2022 10:01:56 +030
       
  • Mapping and assessing ecosystem services in Europe's Overseas: A
           comparative analysis of MOVE case studies

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e87179
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e87179
      Authors : Ina M. Sieber, Miriam Montero-Hidalgo, Jarumi Kato-Huerta, Paula Rendon, Fernando Santos-Martín, Davide Geneletti, Artur Gil, Ewan Trégarot, Erwann Lagabrielle, Carolina Parelho, Manuel Arbelo, Pieter van Beukering, Dan Bayley, Enrique Casas, Sem Duijndam, Esperance Cillaurren, Gilbert David, Aurelie Dourdain, Ricardo Haroun, Jean-Philippe Maréchal, Laura Martín García, Francisco Otero-Ferrer, Elena Palacios Nieto, Tara Pelembe, Marta Vergílio, Benjamin Burkhard : Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services (MAES) has been widely applied on the European Union (EU) mainland, whereas the EU Overseas entities still bear potential for implementation. This paper presents novel applications of the MAES procedure in the EU Outermost Regions and Overseas Countries and Territories (\"EU Overseas\"). Eight case studies from different geographical areas were analysed through a comparative assessment by applying an established framework following key steps in the MAES process, in order to stipulate lessons learned and recommendations for MAES in the EU Overseas. These key steps include the identification of policy questions, stakeholder networks and involvement, application of MAES methods, dissemination and communication and implementation. The case studies were conducted and analysed under the umbrella of the EU MOVE pilot project, including the Azores, the Canary Islands, Saint Martin, French Guiana, Martinique, Reunion Island and the Falkland Islands. Each case study represented different governance, policy and decision-making frameworks towards biodiversity and environmental protection. Case studies predominantly addressed the policy domains of Nature and Biodiversity Conservation and Marine and Maritime Policy. Ecosystem Services (ES) were assessed across a wide range of themes, biomes and scales, focusing on terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems. Results show that the implementation of the case studies was accompanied by extensive communication and dissemination activities. First success stories were visible, where the MAES exercise led to meaningful uptake of the ES concept to policies and decision-making. Yet, there is still work to be done - major bottlenecks were identified related to the MAES implementation centring around financial resources, training and technical expertise. Addressing these aspects can contribute to an enhanced implementation of MAES in the EU Overseas in the future. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Jul 2022 09:49:23 +030
       
  • Using Ocean Accounting towards an integrated assessment of ecosystem
           services and benefits within a coastal lake

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e81855
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e81855
      Authors : Jordan Gacutan, Kirti Lal, Shanaka Herath, Coulson Lantz, Matthew Taylor, Ben Milligan : Coasts lie at the interface between terrestrial and marine environments, where complex interrelationships and feedbacks between environmental, social and economic factors provide a challenge for decision-making. The knowledge and data needed to link and measure these multiple domains are often highly fragmented and incoherent. Ocean Accounting provides a means to organise relevant ocean data into a common framework, grounded in existing international statistical standards for national and environmental-economic accounting. Here, we test Ocean Accounting within Lake Illawarra, New South Wales (Australia), compiling accounts for the years between 2010 and 2020, inclusive, to measure the extent of coastal vegetation (mangrove, tidal marsh and seagrass) and associated ecosystem services flows (climate change mitigation, eutrophication mitigation) in physical and monetary terms and associated production and employment within sectors of the ocean economy. The accounts show an increase in mangroves by 2 ha and a decrease in seagrass of 80 ha. A net increase was observed in the amount of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sequestered across coastal vegetation, due to the expansion of mangroves. Alongside changes in ecosystem extent, a 2-fold increase in full-time ocean-related employment was observed. Fisheries catch also showed significant variation over the 10-year period, where dependencies were observed between commercial species with seagrass and tidal marsh. The relationships and measures derived from accounts provide a cohesive and integrated understanding to provide information for the management and standardised ecosystem service assessments. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Jul 2022 15:01:34 +030
       
  • Future urban growth scenarios and ecosystem services valuation in the
           Tepic-Xalisco Metropolitan area, Mexico

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e84518
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e84518
      Authors : Armando Avalos Jiménez, Fernando Flores Vilchez, Montserrat Gómez Delgado, Francisco Aguilera Benavente, Oyolsi Nájera González : Currently, there is a need to establish new territorial planning instruments focused on sustainable development. The simulation of spatial scenarios is an essential tool to evaluate different alternatives for urban planning. The objective of this work was to explore future urban growth through the analysis of landscape patterns and the economic quantification of ecosystem services of three prospective scenarios, simulated towards the horizon year 2045. Each scenario was formulated, based on the application of different socioeconomic, political and environmental development strategies whose actions have a direct impact on land-use changes. The starting point was an urban growth simulation model, based on Cellular Automata with Markov Chains (CA-Markov), developed from previous work for the study area. Three scenarios were constructed with the intention of showing the spatial characteristics of three different alternatives of the evolution of future urban growth and through them, quantify the economic value and the consequences that would occur in the territory due to the effect of the different decisions taken. Landscape metrics were applied to detect the spatial processes and patterns of urban growth for each of the simulated scenarios and, finally, the costs of ecosystem services associated with the loss or gain of territory (that each of the different land covers and land uses would contribute) were quantified. The three simulated scenarios revealed that the Tepic-Xalisco Metropolitan Zone (MZ) will be in a process of urban coalescence in the next 30 years; and that the path designed to move towards an Industrialisation Scenario (ES2-IN) estimates economic losses of more than $31 million dollars per year for the ecosystem services associated particularly with the reduction of forest cover. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Jul 2022 10:01:58 +030
       
  • Towards a web tool for assessing the impact of climate change adaptation
           measures on heat stress at urban site level

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e85559
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e85559
      Authors : Patrycia Brzoska, Till Fügener, Uta Moderow, Astrid Ziemann, Christoph Schünemann, Janneke Westermann, Karsten Grunewald, Lisa Maul : In view of the increased frequency of heat events and their negative effects, principally in cities, many scholars and practitioners are focusing on ways of adapting to climate change. The urban population and, especially, vulnerable groups, are now being affected to such a degree that adaptation measures are deemed necessary. Clearly, the planning and implementation of such measures are dependent on municipal resources. Tools can greatly assist in the planning of such measures at urban site level. This article provides a systematic review of the tools currently available for planning and implementing climate change adaptation measures in cities. The results offer a comprehensive overview of existing planning tools, which can also serve as a handy look-up document for urban planners searching for such tools. We find that many of these tools require considerable improvement and optimisation. For example, our findings demonstrate that outputs may be overly generalised, often there is no way of entering site-specific information while additional co-benefits (e.g. ecosystem services) are ignored. By analysing selected tools, we pinpoint and discuss requirements for future planning tools. In particular, we present a concept for a tool currently under development which is designed to assist in the planning and implementation of heat adaptation measures at diverse (small) spatial scales. The advantages of this tool are that it can assess the indoor thermal situation in addition to outdoor conditions, thereby providing comprehensive information on the suitability of adaptation measures. Furthermore, decision-making processes could benefit from some estimation of the likely co-benefits (here, ecosystem services) if proposed adaptation measures were implemented. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 6 Jul 2022 09:46:45 +0300
       
  • Microbiome composition of disturbed soils from sandy-gravel mining
           complexes with different reclamation approaches

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e83756
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e83756
      Authors : Anastasiia Kimeklis, Grigory Gladkov, Rustam Tembotov, Arina Kichko, Alexander Pinaev, Sergey Hosid, Evgeny Andronov, Evgeny Abakumov : Activities connected to mineral mining disrupt the soil layer and bring parent rock material to the surface. It leads to altering the environmental conditions and leaves behind vast areas of disturbed lands. Returning these lands to natural ecosystems is an important contemporary challenge, which can be acquired by reclamation practices. Soil microbiome composition reflects changes happening to disturbed lands; thus, its analysis is a powerful tool for evaluating the disturbance degree and estimating the effect of the implementation of reclamation techniques. Additionally, factors connected to the characteristics of a particular geographical region have a certain impact on the microbiome and should be taken into account. Thereby, studies of soil microbiomes of disturbed soils of different origins are essential in understanding the dynamics of soil restoration. Here, we focus on soil microbiomes from two sandy-gravel mining complexes in mountainous areas with a moderate continental climate of the Central Caucasus. These quarries share the same parent rock material, but differ in benchmark soil type and reclamation approach - one was left for passive recovery and the other was technically reclaimed with overburden material. Comparative analysis of microbiome composition, based on sequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries, showed that region and disturbance are the key factors explaining microbiome variation, which surpass the influence of local factors. However, the application of reclamation techniques greatly reduces the dissimilarity of soil microbiomes caused by disturbance. Linking of soil chemical parameters to microbiome composition showed that the disturbance factor correlates with a lack of organic carbon. Other chemical parameters, like pH, ammonium, nitrates and total carbon explain microbiome variability on a smaller scale between sampling sites. Thus, while regional and disturbance factors reflected differentiation of soil microbiomes, soil chemical parameters explained local variation of certain groups of microorganisms. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jun 2022 09:31:09 +030
       
  • Ecosystem condition underpins the generation of ecosystem services: an
           accounting perspective

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e81487
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e81487
      Authors : Alessandra La Notte, Bálint Czúcz, Sara Vallecillo, Chiara Polce, Joachim Maes : There is a linkage between the condition of ecosystems and the services they provide. In the accounting framework set by the United Nations System of integrated Environmental Economic Accounting – Ecosystem Accounts (SEEA EA), two different sets of accounts assess and monitor ecosystem condition and ecosystem services, respectively. The former are reported as indicators in an asset account format, while the latter are reported as supply and use tables. Without a concrete linkage, the two sets of accounts run in parallel: only an ex-post correlation analysis could confirm (or not) a common path. On the other hand, a clear linkage could create a sequence that justifies and supports the statement that any change in ecosystem condition will affect services and, in turn, the benefits provided to economy and society. Concrete applications undertaken under the project “Integrated system for Natural Capital Accounts” demonstrate at which stage a direct connection can occur between ecosystem condition and ecosystem services accounting. The paper starts with a theoretical background meant to set the basic concepts underlying the transition from condition to services. Next, the accounting framework for condition accounts is briefly presented: the specific ecosystem services case studies concern flood control and crop pollination. In the discussion, a simple proposal is drafted to facilitate a possible procedure for those practitioners interested in having condition and ES accounts operationally linked. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 8 Jun 2022 14:46:27 +0300
       
  • Approach to user group-specific assessment of urban green spaces for a
           more equitable supply exemplified by the elderly population

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e83325
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e83325
      Authors : Celina Stanley, Robert Hecht, Sercan Cakir, Patrycia Brzoska : The use of urban green spaces (UGS) depends on its quality, which is perceived very differently by diverse socio-demographic groups. In particular, elderly people have special demands on the UGS quality. It is essential to know these demands to create an equitable UGS supply. We present an approach to determining some qualitative aspects and the supply of cultural ecosystem services of diverse forms of UGS. This is realised by combining user demands with actual UGS features. In a concrete example, we assessed the UGS quality and supply for both the general population and the subset of elderly people. For the latter group, the activities of relaxing and observing nature, as well as the UGS feature of benches, were found to be significantly more important than for the general population. Nevertheless, this had only a minor impact on the assessed aspects of UGS quality and supply, with little differences detected between the two groups. In Dresden (Germany), we determined that almost half of the elderly population are not provided with high-quality UGS. In these areas, urban planning must increase the UGS quality while taking user demands into account to ensure just access to the positive benefits of UGS for the elderly. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 08:42:54 +030
       
  • Assessing ecosystem condition at the national level in Hungary -
           indicators, approaches, challenges

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e81543
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e81543
      Authors : Eszter Tanács, Ákos Bede-Fazekas, Anikó Csecserits, Lívia Kisné Fodor, László Pásztor, Imelda Somodi, Tibor Standovár, András Zlinszky, Zita Zsembery, Ágnes Vári : The availability of robust and reliable spatial information on ecosystem condition is of increasing importance in informing conservation policy. Recent policy requirements have sparked a renewed interest in conceptual questions related to ecosystem condition and practical aspects like indicator selection, resulting in the emergence of conceptual frameworks, such as the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting - Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA-EA) and its Ecosystem Condition Typology (ECT). However, while such frameworks are essential to ensure that condition assessments are comprehensive and comparable, large-scale practical implementation often poses challenges that need to be tackled within stringent time and cost frames.We present methods and experiences of the national-level mapping and assessment of ecosystem condition in Hungary. The assessments covered the whole country, including all major ecosystem types present. The methodology constitutes four approaches of quantifying and mapping condition, based on different interpretations of naturalness and hemeroby, complemented by two more using properties that ‘overarch’ ecosystem types, such as soil and landscape attributes. In order to highlight their strengths and drawbacks, as well as to help reconcile aspects of conceptual relevance with practical limitations, we retrospectively evaluated the six mapping approaches (and the resulting indicators) against the indicator selection criteria suggested in the SEEA-EA. The results show that the various approaches have different strengths and weaknesses and, thus, their joint application has a higher potential to address the specific challenges related to large-scale ecosystem condition mapping. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 5 May 2022 10:06:14 +0300
       
  • Guidelines and a supporting toolbox for parameterising key soil hydraulic
           properties in hydrological studies and broader integrated modelling

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e76410
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e76410
      Authors : Nguyet Dang, Bethanna Jackson, Stephanie Tomscha, Linda Lilburne, Kremena Burkhard, Dung Duc Tran, Long Phi, Rubianca Benavidez : Information on soil hydraulic properties (e.g. soil moisture pressure relationships and hydraulic conductivity) is valuable for a wide range of disciplines including hydrology, ecology, environmental management and agriculture. However, this information is often not readily available as direct measurements are costly and time-consuming. Furthermore, as more complex representations of soils are being built into environmental models, users and developers often require sound hydraulic property information, while having limited access to specialist knowledge. Although indirect methods have been developed to obtain soil hydraulic properties from easily measurable or readily available soil properties via pedo-transfer functions (PTFs), few articles provide guidance for obtaining soil hydraulic properties over a wide range of geoclimatic and regional data availability contexts. The aim of this study is, therefore, to develop guidelines and an associated spatially referenced toolbox, NB_PTFs, to speed the process of acquiring sensible soil hydraulic properties for different geoclimatic and data-rich/sparse regions. The guide compiles available information about soil hydraulic properties, as well as a large number (151) of PTFs, not collated in any other guidance to date. NB_PTFs is an open-source ArcGIS toolbox which allows users to quickly get values, graphs and spatial distributions of soil hydraulic properties. The soil hydraulic properties, obtained using the guide and the toolbox, can be used as inputs for various models amongst other purposes. To demonstrate the use of the guidelines and the toolbox in different geoclimatic and data-availability contexts, the paper presents two case studies: the Vietnamese Mekong Delta and New Zealand Hurunui catchment. The Vietnamese Mekong Delta shows the use of these guidelines in a tropical, flat location with limited information on soil physical, chemical and hydraulic properties. The Hurunui catchment represents a case study for a semi-arid and hilly area in an area with detailed soil information. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2022 10:46:52 +030
       
  • Green balance in urban areas as an indicator for policy support: a
           multi-level application

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e72685
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e72685
      Authors : Grazia Zulian, Federica Marando, Lorenzo Mentaschi, Claudia Alzetta, Bettina Wilk, Joachim Maes : Green spaces are increasingly recognised as key elements in enhancing urban resilience as they provide several ecosystem services. Therefore, their implementation and monitoring in cities are crucial to meet sustainability targets.In this paper, we provide a methodology to compute an indicator that assesses changes in vegetation cover within Urban Green Infrastructure (UGI). Such an indicator is adopted as one of the indicators for reporting on the key area “nature and biodiversity” in the Green City Accord (GCA).In the first section, the key steps to derive the indicator are described and a script, which computes the trends in vegetation cover using Google Earth Engine (GEE), is provided.The second section describes the application of the indicator in a multi-scale, policy-orientated perspective. The analysis has been carried out in 696 European Functional Urban Areas (FUAs), considering changes in vegetation cover inside UGI between 1996 and 2018. Results were analysed for the EU and the United Kingdom. The Municipality of Padua (Italy) is used as a case study to illustrate the results at the local level.Over the last 22 years, a slight upward trend characterised the vegetation growth within UGI in European FUAs. Within core cities and densily built-upcommuting zones, the trend was stable; in non-densely built-up areas, an upward trend was recorded. Vegetation cover in UGI has been relatively stable in European cities. However, a negative balance between abrupt changes in greening and browning has been recorded, affecting most parts of European cities (75% of core cities and 77% of commuting zones in densely built-up areas). This still indicates ongoing land take with no compensation of green spaces that are lost to artificial areas.Focusing on the FUA of Padua, a downward trend was observed in 33.3% and 12.9% of UGI in densely built-up and not-densely built-up areas, respectively. Within the FUA of Padua, most municipalities are characterised by a negative balance between abrupt greening and browning, both in non-densely built-up and densely built-up areas.This approach complements traditional metrics, such as the extent of UGI or tree canopy cover, by providing a valuable measure of condition of urban ecosystems and an instrument to monitor the impact of land take. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Mar 2022 15:47:02 +020
       
  • U-shaped deep-learning models for island ecosystem type classification, a
           case study in Con Dao Island of Vietnam

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e79160
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e79160
      Authors : Kinh Bac Dang, Thi Ha Thanh Nguyen, Huu Duy Nguyen, Quang Hai Truong, Thi Phuong Vu, Hanh Nguyen Pham, Thi Thuy Duong, Van Trong Giang, Duc Minh Nguyen, Thu Huong Bui, Benjamin Burkhard : The monitoring of ecosystem dynamics utilises time and resources from scientists and land-use managers, especially in wetland ecosystems in islands that have been affected significantly by both the current state of oceans and human-made activities. Deep-learning models for natural and anthropogenic ecosystem type classification, based on remote sensing data, have become a tool to potentially replace manual image interpretation. This study proposes a U-Net model to develop a deep learning model for classifying 10 island ecosystems with cloud- and shadow-based data using Sentinel-2, ALOS and NOAA remote sensing data. We tested and compared different optimiser methods with two benchmark methods, including support vector machines and random forests. In total, 48 U-Net models were trained and compared. The U-Net model with the Adadelta optimiser and 64 filters showed the best result, because it could classify all island ecosystems with 93 percent accuracy and a loss function value of 0.17. The model was used to classify and successfully manage ecosystems on a particular island in Vietnam. Compared to island ecosystems, it is not easy to detect coral reefs due to seasonal ocean currents. However, the trained deep-learning models proved to have high performances compared to the two traditional methods. The best U-Net model, which needs about two minutes to create a new classification, could become a suitable tool for island research and management in the future. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Feb 2022 08:29:17 +020
       
  • General guidance for custom-built structural equation models

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e72780
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e72780
      Authors : James Grace : Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) represents a quantitative methodology for specifying and evaluating causal network hypotheses. The application of SEM typically involves the use of specialised software packages that implement estimation procedures and automate model checking and the output of summary results. There are times when the specification details an investigator wishes to implement to represent their data relationships are not supported by available SEM packages. In such cases, it may be desirable to develop and evaluate SE models “by hand”, using specialised regression tools. In this paper, I demonstrate a general approach to custom-built applications of SEM. The approach illustrated can be used for a wide array of specialised applications of non-linear, multi-level and other custom specifications in SE models. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 1 Feb 2022 13:00:00 +0200
       
  • Assessing ecosystem services of abandoned agricultural lands: a case study
           in the forested zone of European Russia

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e77969
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e77969
      Authors : Daria Anpilogova, Alla Pakina : The massive abandonment of arable land in Russia in the 1990s had a heavy impact on the country’s land-use structure. The cessation of cultivation leads to a decrease of provisioning ecosystem services within the landscape, while creating an opportunity to enhance the supply of diverse regulation services. Consideration of this opportunity is increasingly important for environmental management and landscape planning. In this article, we present an approach for assessing the environmental benefits of ecosystems developing on abandoned arable lands in the forested zone of European Russia. The proposed methodology is established on a land-cover based framework – ecosystem services assessment matrix. For assessment purposes, abandoned arable lands at different stages of vegetation recovery succession (ruderal, grassland and small-leaved forest) are considered as different land-cover types. Four classes of regulating ecosystem services are subject to qualitative analysis: regulation of the chemical composition of the atmosphere, control of erosion rates, regulation of soil quality and pollination. An exemplary application of the proposed methodology for the case study area located in the Moscow Region of Russia is presented in the article. The results of the qualitative assessment revealed an association between the stage of vegetation recovery succession which corresponds with the time since land abandonment and the supply of regulating ecosystem services. The recovery of natural vegetation leads to higher levels of carbon sequestration, more effective erosion mitigation, soil recovery and increased pollinator abundance. Cropland was proven to be a recipient of the services provided by natural ecosystems. Thus, the return of all uncultivated fields to agricultural use will cause a substantial decrease in the ecological value of the study area. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 1 Feb 2022 10:00:00 +0200
       
  • Mapping and assessment of ecosystem services at Troodos National Forest
           Park in Cyprus

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e77584
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e77584
      Authors : Constantinos Kounnamas, Marios Andreou : Troodos National Forest Park is located in the centre of Troodos mountain range and it is one of the most important natural environments of Cyprus. It has been included to the Natura 2000 network of the Island due to its important natural ecosystems and its great biodiversity. Based on the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES 5.1), 36 ecosystem services have been identified in the area. The majority of ecosystem services are concentrated at the Troodos peak and the nearby areas. The same pattern applies for the Cultural Services. Provisioning and Regulation-Maintenance services are concentrated at the centre and western part of the site. The site’s habitat types were mapped and their distribution in the area is presented in respective maps. Carbon stored in plants was 622,705 tonnes in total (73.18 t C per ha), calculated as per habitat type (according to Directive 92/43/EEC - Habitats Directive) and as per TESSA habitat classification. Seven TESSA and 10 Annex I habitat types were identified. The largest part of the site is dominated by Evergreen Broadleaf Forests (7799 ha), followed by Mixed Forests (624 ha) and Deciduous Broadleaf Forests (60 ha). The carbon stock included in AGB (Above Ground Biomass), BGB (Below Ground Biomass), Dead Wood & Litter and SOM (Soil Organic Matter) was evaluated for each habitat type. The annual carbon biomass removal (roundwood and fuelwood) is 80.82 t C y-1 (0.009 t C y-1 per ha), while the carbon sequestered in Troodos National Forest Park is 11,880.33 t CO2 eq y-1 (0.38 t C y-1 per ha). The information produced serves as a useful tool to competent authorities for raising awareness on the importance of ecosystem services and increase the public’s support in the area’s conservation. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jan 2022 19:30:00 +020
       
  • Cryoconites as biogeochemical markers of anthropogenic impact in high
           

    • Abstract: One Ecosystem 7: e78028
      DOI : 10.3897/oneeco.7.e78028
      Authors : Evgeny Abakumov, Ivan Kushnov, Timur Nizamutdinov, Rustam Tembotov : The globalisation and omnidirectional character of anthropogenic processes has challenged scientists around the world to estimate the harmful effects of these processes on ecosystems and human health. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is one the most infamous group of contaminants, originated both from natural and anthropogenic processes. They could transport to high latitudes and altitudes through atmospheric long-distance transfer and further enter ecosystems of these vulnerable regions by deposition on terrestrial surfaces. An interesting object for tracking transboundary contamination processes in high mountain ecosystems is called cryoconite. Cryoconite, a dark-coloured supraglacial sediment which is abundant in polar and mountain environments, is considered as a storage of various pollutants, including PAHs. Thus, it may pose a risk for local human health and ecosystem through short-distance transfer. Studied cryoconite sediments were collected at the surface of Skhelda and Garabashi glaciers, Central Caucasus high-mountain region, as well as mudflow, moraine material and local soils at the Baksan Gorge in order to examine levels of their contamination. We analysed the content of 15 priority polyaromatic compounds from the US EPA list and used the method of calculation of PAHs isomer ratios with the purpose of identifying their source. To estimate their potential toxicity, Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) equivalents were calculated. Maximum concentration was defined for NAP (84 ng×g-1), PHE (40 ng×g-1) and PYR (47 ng×g-1), with the minimum concentration for ANT (about 1 ng×g-1). The most polluted material is a cryoconite from Garabashi glacier because of local anthropogenic activities and long-distance transfer. High-molecular weight PAHs are dominated in PAHs composition of almost all samples. The most common sources of PAHs in studied materials are combustion processes and mixed pyrolytic/petrogenic origin. Toxicity levels of separate PAHs did not exceed the maximum permissible threshold concentrations values in most cases. However, the sum of PAHs in BaP equivalents exceed the threshold values in all samples, in some of them more than twice. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jan 2022 16:00:00 +020
       
 
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