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Journal of Threatened Taxa
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.185
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0974-7893 - ISSN (Online) 0974-7907
Published by Wildlife Information Liaison Development Society Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Group densities of endangered small apes (Hylobatidae) in two adjacent
           forest reserves in Merapoh, Pahang, Malaysia

    • Authors: Adilah Suhailin Kamaruzaman, Nurul Iza Adrina Mohd Rameli, Susan Lappan, Thad Quincy Bartlett, Nik Rosely Nik Fadzly, Mohd Sah Shahrul Anuar, Nadine Ruppert
      Pages: 23631 - 23640
      Abstract: Small ape habitat is rapidly declining due to anthropogenic activities but the current population status of this endangered primate family in Malaysia remains unknown. Group densities of Hylobates lar and Symphalangus syndactylus in two adjacent forest reserves across the Sungai Yu Ecological Corridor (SYEC) in Merapoh, a critical connectivity area of the Central Forest Spine, were assessed. Vegetation assessment and satellite imagery were used to identify habitat characteristics and fixed-point active acoustic triangulation at six listening areas was conducted to estimate small ape group densities. Small ape habitat quality was high in the forested areas of the SYEC. The mean group density of H. lar across these six areas was 3.55 ± 0.9 groups km-² while the mean group density of S. syndactylus was 2.75 ± 1.0 groups km-². The mean group densities of small apes at SYEC were moderately high, compared with densities at other sites in the region, which suggests that the forests here constitute good habitat for both species, despite some observed anthropogenic disturbances. Both species occurred in all listening areas. A nationwide population census for small apes and regular monitoring to inform conservation planning are recommended. Further improvement to connectivity across the SYEC by installing artificial canopy bridges for arboreal animals is important to support the movement of small apes across habitat fragments in Merapoh.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8562.15.8.23631-23640
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Population demography of the Blackbuck Antilope cervicapra
           (Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae) at Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, India

    • Authors: Subhasish Arandhara, Selvaraj Sathishkumar, Sourav Gupta, Nagarajan Baskaran
      Pages: 23641 - 23652
      Abstract: Demographic research utilizing vital rates and life tables is a standard aspect of planning protection and management strategies for wildlife populations. The Blackbuck Antilope cervicapra population at Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, has undergone fluctuations in recent decades. The cause remains elusive, and conservation efforts may be hampered by a lack of population data. This study aimed to estimate demographic parameters using population count and age-sex classification data collected for the years 2017─2020. The overall mean population estimate derived from line-transect distance sampling was 719, with annual estimates of 716, 727, 711, and 722 for the years 2017–2020 respectively. In total, 64% of Blackbucks counted were adults, 19% subadults, and 17% fawns. Mortality was highest for adult and subadult classes for the composite female class, and fawn mortality was 20%. The net reproductive rate (R0) was as low as 3.28 offspring per generation contrasted with a rather longer mean generation time (G) as 4.75 years. Thus, the study observes a decrease in Blackbuck numbers postulated in earlier research to be driven principally by a conglomerate of factors, including reduction of usable space and interspecific resource competition. Our findings provide a baseline demography of the species and highlights the value of long-term demographic monitoring of age sex classes to understand the evolution of life histories.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8424.15.8.23641-23652
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Camera trap surveys reveal a wildlife haven: mammal communities in a
           tropical forest adjacent to a coal mining landscape in India

    • Authors: Nimain Charan Palei, Bhakta Padarbinda Rath, Himanshu Shekhar Palei, Arun Kumar Mishra
      Pages: 23653 - 23661
      Abstract: Having knowledge of the status and distribution of species in a specific geographic area is crucial for creating efficient conservation strategies. In this study, we evaluated the abundance and diversity of medium to large sized mammals in a tropical forest in India that has been greatly impacted by coal mining. Using camera traps between June 2018 and December 2018, we recorded 27 mammal species over 3432 trap-nights in 81 camera trap stations within the study area. The photo-captured species included both common and high conservation value threatened species, such as tiger Panthera tigris, leopard P. pardus, sloth bear Melursus ursinus, Asian elephant Elephas maximus, Gaur Bos gaurus, Indian pangolin Manis crassicaudata, and four-horned antelope Tetracerus quadricornis. Wild boar Sus scrofa was found to be the most frequently photo-captured and widespread species. Our study provides valuable data on the species inventory and the relative abundance of species in the area, highlighting its significance for mammal conservation. It also emphasizes the need for effective conservation management strategies to protect the remaining forest fragments containing high diversity of mammals, including several threatened species in India.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8481.15.8.23653-23661
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Observations of Gray Fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Schreber, 1775)
           (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae) denning behavior in New Hampshire, USA

    • Authors: Maximilian L. Allen, Jacob P. Kritzer
      Pages: 23662 - 23668
      Abstract: Dens are important for mammals because they provide protection for dependent young from weather and predators. Gray Foxes Urocyon cinereoargenteus are an understudied mesocarnivore that range across North and Central America, and have limited information available on demographics and denning behaviors. We monitored a Gray Fox den in New Hampshire over the course of three years (2017–2020) to quantify behaviors and document visitation and activity patterns of Gray Foxes and other mammal species. We observed Gray Fox pairs intensively using the den during parts of the first and second years of the study. Across the 949 trap nights over which we monitored the den, use by adult Gray Foxes peaked in spring – coinciding with the pup-rearing season. During this time, the adults were diurnal with peaks in the afternoon, opposed to being crepuscular at other times of the year. We did not observe any puppies during the first breeding season, but during the second year we documented a puppy emerging from the den on 24 May 2018. All excursions by the puppy outside the den for the first five days were restricted to the immediate area near the den entrance and the puppy was always with an adult when outside the den. During the puppy’s second solo excursion, however, we documented a Bobcat Lynx rufus pounce and kill the puppy, after which the adults abandoned the den. We also observed the common (squirrels and rabbits) and uncommon (a bat) prey items brought to the den, and the den being shared among multiple species. Our observations highlight the importance of dens for protecting young, and our observations of visitation and activity patterns, as well as common and uncommon prey, help inform our understanding of the denning behavior of Gray Foxes.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8435.15.8.23662-23668
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Historical and contemporary perpetuation of assumed occurrence reports of
           two species of bats in Rajasthan, India

    • Authors: Dharmendra Khandal, Ishan Dhar, Shyamkant S. Talmale
      Pages: 23669 - 23674
      Abstract: Hesperoptenus tickelli (Blyth, 1851) and Rhinopoma muscatellum Thomas, 1903 have been reported to occur in Rajasthan. Yet, there has been no empirical evidence of the occurrence of these bat species in the state. A comprehensive literature review reveals that the inclusion of these bats in accounts of chiropteran species in Rajasthan is due to the historical and contemporary perpetuation of assumed occurrence reports.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8623.15.8.23669-23674
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Preference of Helopsaltes pleskei (Taczanowski, 1890) (Aves:
           Passeriformes: Locustellidae) on uninhabited islets (Chengdo, Jikgudo, and
           Heukgeomdo) in South Korea as breeding sites

    • Authors: Young-Hoon Jeong, Sung-Hwan Choi, Seon-Mi Park, Jun-Won Lee, Hong-Shik Oh
      Pages: 23675 - 23680
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the habitat and breeding status of the Pleske's Grasshopper Warbler (Locustella pleskei) inhabiting unmanned coastal islets (Cheongdo, Jikgudo and Heukgeomdo) on the Jeju Chuja Marine Provincial Park in South Korea. A total of 13 nesting sites were observed between April 2019 and April 2021. Six Camellia japonica (4 ea), Pinus thunbergii (1 ea) and Eurya emarginata (1 ea) nesting sites were found in the Cheongdo islet. Four C. japonica (2 ea), P. thunbergii (1 ea) and Elaeagnus macrophylla (1 ea) tree sites in Jikgudo islet were found, whereas only three C. japonica sites on the Heukgeomdo islet were observed. During the study period, 36 individuals were observed: 14 in Cheongdo, 10 in Jikgudo and 12 in the Heukgeomdo Islets. Most nesting sites were located in the bushy areas of the inner islets. Thus, birds tended to select nesting locations in response to predation and microclimates to increase reproductive rates and maximize offspring survival. This study highlights the importance of unmanned islands (islets) and the presence of bushy shrubs as important nesting and hiding sites for the ecologically vulnerable Pleske's Grasshopper Warbler.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8263.15.8.23675-23680
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Avifaunal diversity of Tsirang District with a new country record for

    • Authors: Gyeltshen, Sangay Chhophel, Karma Wangda, Kinley, Tshering Penjor, Karma Dorji
      Pages: 23681 - 23695
      Abstract: Birds play a vital role in ecosystems. Studying avifaunal diversity therefore has a noteworthy role in indicating nature’s ecological balance in the environment. A total of 749 bird species have so far been recorded in Bhutan. We present a comprehensive checklist of birds of Tsirang, District which largely lies outside Bhutan’s protected area system. The data was collected through opportunistic encounters and with regular field visits to a range of locations in different seasons. One-fourth of the country’s total avifauna and a new species recorded for Bhutan, The Plum-headed Parakeet Psittacula cyanocephala was recorded as part of this study. In all, 285 avian species belonging to 18 orders and 65 families including one globally ‘Critically Endangered’, three ‘Vulnerable’, and a ‘Near Threatened’ species were recorded during the survey. The high species richness of birds in the study area reveals that it includes good habitats for birds in Bhutan. Similar studies are suggested in other areas contiguous to the protected areas in Bhutan including the current study area. This should aid in understanding of the factors driving the differences in bird diversity within and outside the protected areas so as to facilitate informed conservation actions in future.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.7494.15.8.23681-23695
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Importance of conserving a critical wintering ground for shorebirds in the
           Valinokkam Lagoon—a first study of the avifaunal distribution of the
           southeastern coast of India

    • Authors: H. Byju, N. Raveendran, S. Ravichandran, R. Kishore
      Pages: 23696 - 23709
      Abstract: Any new economic activity in a virgin area brings landscape changes, making it essential to document baseline biodiversity areas to understand the impacts on habitats. Avifaunal inventories are critical for previously undocumented areas, especially in a wintering site for shorebirds in the Central Asian Flyway, to formulate site- and species-specific conservation management tools. We present an annotated checklist of avifauna from the Valinokkam Lagoon in the Ramanathapuram district of Tamil Nadu. We recorded the first baseline avifaunal data for 154 species belonging to 16 orders and 46 families from August 2016 to February 2023. Order-wise, Charadriiformes dominated the study site with 47 species; followed by Passeriformes with 39 species and Pelecaniformes with 20 species. Winter visitors constituted 37.6 % (58 species) and one Passage Migrant Rosy Starling Pastor roseus. The relative abundance indicated that 94 species were C (common), 41 species were UC (uncommon), and 19 species were Ra (rare). Eleven Near Threatened (NT) species:  Oriental Darter Anhinga melanogaster, Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala, Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus, Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis, Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa, Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica, Great Stone-curlew Esacus recurvirostris, Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata, Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, Red-necked Stint Calidris ruficollis and Red Knot  Calidris canutus, one Endangered (EN) species Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris, and one unassessed Hanuman Plover Charadrius seebohmi according to the IUCN Red List category. This baseline data highlights the importance of Valinokkam Lagoon as an important wintering site in the Central Asian Flyway on the southeast coast of India for migratory shorebirds and the need for more conservation priorities for regional endemic birds like Hanuman Plover.    
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8494.15.8.23696-23709
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Diversity and conservation status of avifauna in the Surguja region,
           Chhattisgarh, India

    • Authors: A.M.K. Bharos, Anurag Vishwakarma, Akhilesh Bharos, Ravi Naidu
      Pages: 23710 - 23728
      Abstract: This study is aimed at updating the avifauna status and to assess major threats in six districts of the Surguja region of northern Chhattisgarh. The avifauna of this region is less studied as compared to the central and southern regions of the state. Chhattisgarh has unique and important habitats for bird species. The geographical region has two major forest types which provide a suitable habitat for many terrestrial and numerous wetlands that support aquatic bird species. The northern region is a basin of rivers Hasdeo and Rihand, prominently forested and a major coal belt. In this study, planned and opportunistic surveys were done in different seasons, and data was collected from 1995 to 2019. In the northern Chhattisgarh region,we have compiled all-district data and a total of 361 bird species were recorded. The maximum number of bird species were recorded from Koriya 318, followed by Raigarh 262, Surguja 162, Balrampur 260, Surajpur 208, and Jashpur 254. Species recorded include three Critically Endangered (CR), two Endangered (EN), five Vulnerable (VU), and 13 Near Threatened (NT). Nesting of Lesser Adjutant, Indian Vulture, White-rumped Vulture, Egyptian Vulture, and sighting of Sarus Crane in Surguja region is reported. The study also revealed the presence of nine Himalayan and sub-Himalayan species. Comparing with previous studies 117 new species were found. Chhattisgarh has ample potential and opportunities for new records as many regions have not yet been adequately explored, it can be a key birding hub for bird lovers as well as the scientific community. The large-scale mining-oriented activities, hunting, and poaching are posing serious threats, which will have a direct or indirect, impact on the future of the avifauna of the region.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.7314.15.8.23710-23728
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Seasonal variation and habitat role in distribution and activity patterns
           of Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus (Boddaert, 1783) (Aves:
           Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) in Udaipur, Rajasthan, India

    • Authors: Sahil Gupta, Kanan Saxena
      Pages: 23729 - 23741
      Abstract: Red-wattled Lapwings Vanellus indicus are resident waders in Asia. They usually inhabit areas close to water and are mainly insectivorous. Their principal habitats are grasslands, wetlands, arable lands, gardens and open forests. These highly active and vocal birds are known for their wide range of distraction displays. A field investigation of distribution across different seasons and diverse habitats in Udaipur, Rajasthan was conducted from 2019 to 2021. Populations of lapwings varied significantly among locations, with the largest documented at Fateh Sagar Lake and the lowest at Rang Sagar Lake. Both habitat types and seasons (summer, monsoon and winter) had significant effects on lapwing distribution. Wetlands were the most preferred habitat at ten major study locations, and the monsoon was found to be the most favored season. Bird activity patterns did not exhibit significant variation with seasons, with locomotion, vigilance, feeding and maintenance being the most performed activities.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8075.15.8.23729-23741
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Notes on nesting behavior of Yellow-footed Green Pigeon Treron
           phoenicopterus (Latham, 1790) in Aligarh Muslim University campus and its
           surroundings, Uttar Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Ayesha Mohammad Maslehuddin, Satish Kumar
      Pages: 23742 - 23749
      Abstract: The nesting behavior of the Yellow-footed Green Pigeon Treron phoenicopterus was observed during its breeding season in 2021 in an urban region encompassing the Aligarh Muslim University Campus and the surrounding areas. Data were collected by searching nests in the study area. The breeding season for the species in the study sites begins in March and re-nesting is attempted even in July. A total of 31 nests were found on 24 trees belonging to eight species. The analysis of nest site characteristics revealed that Millingtonia hortensis, Azadirachta indica, and Dalbergia sissoo were the most important nest tree species, accounting for 69% of the identified nests during the study period. These findings contribute to our understanding of the nesting behavior of the Yellow-footed Green Pigeon in an urban environment and have implications for its conservation and management.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8390.15.8.23742-23749
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Observations on cooperative fishing, use of bait for hunting, propensity
           for marigold flowers and sentient behaviour in Mugger Crocodiles
           Crocodylus palustris (Lesson, 1831) of river Savitri at Mahad,
           Maharashtra, India

    • Authors: Utkarsha M. Chavan , Manoj R. Borkar
      Pages: 23750 - 23762
      Abstract: As far as animal cognition is concerned, in comparison with mammals and birds, reptiles have been underestimated and research in reptilian cognition hasn’t progressed much due to this bias. Though crocodiles are generally stereotyped as lethargic and lacking social interactions except for territoriality, parental care and prey ambush, they demonstrate discrete behavioural repertoire in a variety of situations suggestive of refined cognition. The observations presented here were recorded during a long-term study on Muggers Crocodylus palustris of Savitri River in Maharashtra, and indicate social behaviour of remarkable acuity among Muggers to optimize foraging, which clearly hints at cooperative fishing. Also, on many occasions here, the Muggers were seen to have sticks on their snouts or lay still in the vicinity of floating twigs presumably to lure birds that desperately scouted for nesting material; though only on one occasion the unsuspecting bird was ambushed successfully. Flight initiation distances (FID) of birds that forage and nest in crocodilian habitat have been measured to assess their wariness towards crocodile’s presence. We report the attraction of free ranging Muggers here to the yellow Marigold Tagetes erecta flowers. We also remark on apparent sentience involving a dog that was chased into the river by a pack of feral dogs, the ‘aquatic refugee’ having been seemingly nudged and escorted to safety of the bank by crocodiles. All these behaviours are discussed in the light of previous reports involving other crocodilian species elsewhere, to assess the cognitive faculty of this species.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8551.15.8.23750-23762
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Communal egg-laying by the Frontier Bow-fingered Gecko Altiphylax
           stoliczkai (Steindachner, 1867) in Ladakh, India

    • Authors: Dimpi Patel, Chinnasamy Ramesh, Sunetro Ghosal, Pankaj Raina
      Pages: 23763 - 23770
      Abstract: Communal egg-laying behaviour in the Frontier Bow-fingered Gecko Altiphylax stoliczkai was investigated within Ladakh’s Indian trans Himalayan region during the summer of 2019. The findings present the first documented evidence of communal egg-laying in the species. Distinct egg-laying sites were identified with crevices containing between four and 10 eggs. Confirmation of species identity was achieved through post-hatching visual identification and genetic tests. Contrary to prevailing notions of one to two eggs per female gekkonid, the observation suggests that communal egg-laying involves multiple females. This behaviour attributes to the unique environmental challenges of high-altitude mountainous terrain, proposing significant reproductive benefits for the species.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8250.15.8.23763-23770
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Description of a new species of the genus Anthaxia (Haplanthaxia Reitter,
           1911) from India with molecular barcoding and phylogenetic analysis

    • Authors: S. Seena, P.P. Anand, Y. Shibu Vardhanan
      Pages: 23771 - 23777
      Abstract: This paper deals with the description of a new Anthaxia (subgenus Haplanthaxia Reitter, 1911) species from southern India, which belongs to the Anthaxia (H.) winkleri Obenberger, 1914 species-group: Anthaxia (H.) keralensis sp. nov. In addition to a morphological description, we also generated mt. COI DNA sequences and discuss the results of a phylogenetic analysis of the new species with previously deposited COI DNA sequences of Anthaxia spp. In a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis, the new species shared the same hypothetical ancestor node with A. melancholica Gory, 1841 and similar molecular characteristics (~48% similarity) with A. tenella Kiesenwetter, 1858 and A. corinthia Reiche & Saulcy, 1856. More systematic studies are required to understand the species diversity, distribution, biology, and evolutionary significance of the Anthaxia (H.) species groups.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8178.15.8.23771-23777
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Odonata diversity in the Egra and its adjoining blocks of Purba Medinipur
           District, West Bengal, India

    • Authors: Tarak Samanta, Asim Giri, Lina Chatterjee, Arjan Basu Roy
      Pages: 23778 - 23785
      Abstract: The research was carried out over a three-year period, spanning from March 2020 to March 2023, with the aim of examining the status and diversity of Odonata fauna across a range of natural and anthropogenic habitats situated in Egra, Purba Medinipur District, located in the state of West Bengal. In total, 42 odonata species from 31 genera and seven families were identified throughout the study period from the study region. There were 28 (67%) species in the suborder Anisoptera, belonging to four distinct families. On the other hand, 14 (33%) species in the Suborder Zygoptera, divided into three different families. The four families of suborder Anisoptera were Aeshnidae (10%), Gomphidae (2%), Libellulidae (53%), and Macromiidae (2%). In the suborder Zygoptera, three families were identified, namely Coenagrionidae (24%), Lestidae (2%), and Platycnemididae (7%). %). According to the relative estimate of abundance, 38% of the species were classified as not rare (NR), 31% very common (VC), 14% common (C), 14% rare (R), and 3% as very rare (R). In addition, the IUCN red data list indicates that 41 species have been classified as Least Concern (LC), while a solitary species has been categorised as Data Deficient (DD). The identification of Odonata is a critical factor in determining the ecological well-being of an ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8540.15.8.23778-23785
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Morpho-anatomy and habitat characteristics of Xanthostemon verdugonianus
           Náves ex Fern.-Vill. (Myrtaceae), a threatened and endemic species in the

    • Authors: Jess H. Jumawan, Arlyn Jane M. Sinogbuhan, Angie A. Abucayon , Princess Ansie T. Taperla
      Pages: 23786 - 23798
      Abstract: A study provided insights on morphoanatomy of Xanthostemon verdugonianus, an endemic and vulnerable species in the Philippines.  Sampling was conducted in its natural habitat with presence of dominant vegetation and rehabilitated sites of the species. In a purposive manner, quadrats were established to collect samples and describe the morpho-anatomy, associated species, and soil particle characteristics. The leaf is opposite with a distinct reddish color when young in shoot terminal. The leaf cuticle is distinctly thick, hypostomatic with presence of paracytic stomata, and the compact spongy layer could be an adaptation to xeric conditions. The stem and roots contain tissues manifesting secondary growth having secondary xylem and formation of outer bark. Inflorescence is corymb, complete flower is bright red, with prominent cup-shaped hypanthium, persistent lobe-shaped calyx, and inferior ovary. Fruit is globular capsule round-ovoid in shape with a woody texture. Placental seeds are visible upon splitting of matured fruits which are flattened and deltoid to semicircular shape. A total of 31 species under 18 flora families are associated with X. verdugonianus with the mean abundance of 8 species per plot.      Ultramafic substrate was dominantly composed of medium sand particles, and the reddish color indicating oxidation of metallic elements in the soil.  Analyzing the morpho-anatomical features can help to explain its endemicity, survival in the wild, and adaptation to climate change.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8394.15.8.23786-23798
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • The epiphytic pteridophyte flora of Cooch Behar District of West Bengal,
           India, and its ethnomedicinal value

    • Authors: Aninda Mandal
      Pages: 23799 - 23804
      Abstract: Cooch Behar, located in the northeastern part of West Bengal, has a rich pteridophytic flora. The present field study was undertaken during January 2021 to September 2022 to document the epiphytic pteridophyte flora of the district and record ethnomedicinal uses, which had not been studied previously. Nine epiphytic species of pteridophytes belonging to six genera and three families were recorded, with Polypodiaceae being the dominant family represented by seven species (4 from genus Pyrrosia). Seven epiphyte species were used by ethnic communities and traditional healers to treat 10 different types of diseases, including common cough and cold, and jaundice. This study adds five epiphytic species of pteridophytes to previous records from Cooch Behar District.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8224.15.8.23799-23804
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Seed germination and storage conditions of Ilex embelioides Hook.f.
           (Magnoliopsida: Aquifoliales: Aquifoliaceae), a threatened northeastern
           Indian species

    • Authors: Leoris Malngiang, Krishna Upadhaya, Hiranjit Choudhury
      Pages: 23805 - 23811
      Abstract: Ilex embelioides Hook.f. is a threatened tree species endemic to northeastern India. The species propagates naturally through seeds but shows a brief dormancy period. The present study was carried out to assess the germination behaviour, and identify the suitable storage conditions of I. embelioides seeds. Results revealed that warm stratification for 30 days could effectively break dormancy. Seeds pre-treated with gibberellic acid (GA3, 2,000 mg L-1) showed highest germination (63.89 ± 0.91%) as compared to other concentrations of GA3 as well as potassium nitrate (KNO3). Highest in vitro seed germination percentage (65.56 ± 2.92%) was recorded on (Murashige and Skoog) MS medium containing 10 mg L-1 GA3. The viability of the seeds declined with storage period irrespective of its storage condition. After 30 days, highest viability (54.72 %) was observed in seeds stored in moist sand at 25°C. Therefore, application of GA3 and warm stratification (25 ± 1°C) along with a substrate (moist sand) for 30 days may be considered as ideal conditions for effective germination and storage of I. embelioides seeds. This study can also be used for mass propagation of the species for reintroduction in the wild.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8493.15.8.23805-23811
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Mantispa indica Westwood, 1852 (Neuroptera: Mantispidae), a rare species
           with some morphological notes from Assam, India

    • Authors: Kushal Choudhury
      Pages: 23812 - 23816
      Abstract: Mantispa indica (Westwood) is an insufficiently explored species under the family Mantispidae (Neuroptera) with limited understanding. Its presence has been documented in various regions of India and Nepal over time. Nevertheless, a comprehensive examination of its morphometric characteristics has been lacking. This research presents a novel morphological comparison of male and female specimens, accompanied by appropriate illustrations, from two distinct protected areas in Assam, India.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8285.15.8.23812-23816
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Auto-fellatio behaviour observed in the Indian Palm Squirrel Funambulus
           palmarum (Linnaeus, 1766)

    • Authors: Anbazhagan Abinesh, C.S. Vishnu, Chinnasamy Ramesh
      Pages: 23817 - 23818
      Abstract: Masturbation is an auto-sexual behaviour, a widespread phylogenetic trait in many taxa. Masturbation in squirrels was rarely reported. We observed an Indian palm squirrel  (Funambulus palmarum) doing the auto-fellatio activity away from the scurry in Bhavanisagar, Tamil Nadu. However, the auto-fellatio behaviour in F. palmarum is novel.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8370.15.8.23817-23818
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • A novel anti-predatory mechanism in Indrella ampulla (Gastropoda:

    • Authors: Karunakar Majhi, Maitreya Sil, Aniruddha Datta-Roy
      Pages: 23819 - 23821
      Abstract: Gastropods depend on their shells and slime for defence but they also have certain other strategies which serve as effective measures to avoid predation. This is an opportunistic observational account of individuals of Indrella ampulla (Ariophantidae) smearing their slime on the surface of their shells when agitated. Such a behaviour is novel to our knowledge and has not been reported earlier. This note will further add to the natural history observations of such animals and decipher the lesser-known facts about the defence strategies.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.8309.15.8.23819-23821
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
  • Hedychium coccineum Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. (Zingiberaceae): an addition to the
           flora of Andhra Pradesh, India

    • Authors: P. Janaki Rao, J. Prakasa Rao, S.B. Padal
      Pages: 23822 - 23826
      Abstract: For the first time Hedychium coccineum (Zingiberaceae) is reported from the forest areas of the Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India. Detailed morphological description, ethnobotanical importance, ecology are discussed and photographs were provided for further identification.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.11609/jott.7882.15.8.23822-23826
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 8 (2023)
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