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Journal of Urban Ecology
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2058-5543
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [425 journals]
  • Plant growth and microbial responses from urban agriculture soils amended
           with excavated local sediments and municipal composts

    • First page: juad016
      Abstract: AbstractWith increasing urbanization and critical issues of food insecurity emerging globally, urban agriculture is expanding as an agroecosystem with a distinct soil type. Growing food in cities is challenged by legacy contaminants in soils, which necessitates the use of imported, safe soils and composts. To promote the long-term sustainability of urban agriculture, we examined the agronomic potential of constructing safe, locally sourced soils to support food production. We collected composts from four municipal composting facilities in New York City: Big Reuse, Long Island City, Queens (BRL), New York Department of Sanitation, Fresh Kills, Staten Island (DNY), Lower Eastside Ecology Center (LES) and Queens Botanic Garden (QBG). We then created two types of constructed soils using each compost: 100% pure compost and a 50:50 blend of compost and clean excavated sediments from the New York City Clean Soil Bank. We then assessed the growth of tomato, pepper and kale in the constructed soils within a plant growth chamber facility. We found Clean Soil Bank sediments enhanced tomato aboveground biomass production by 98%, kale aboveground biomass production by 50% and pepper plant height by 52% when mixed with compost from BRL. At the same time, Clean Soil Bank Sediments decreased tomato plant height by 16% and aboveground biomass production by 29% in LES compost and tomato plant height by 18% in QBG compost, likely due to compost properties. The addition of Clean Soil Bank sediments showed no decline in the symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi across all composts, which is an important beneficial plant–microbe interaction in agroecosystems. A positive ecosystem service was found when Clean Soil Bank sediments were added to municipal composts, with up to a 74% decrease in greenhouse gas emissions of soil CO2 in BRL compost. The results indicate that urban agricultural soils can be constructed using clean, locally sourced materials, such as composted organic waste and excavated sediments from city development sites to support sustainable urban agriculture while enhancing ecosystem services.
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juad016
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Garbage in may not equal garbage out: sex mediates effects of ‘junk
           food’ in a synanthropic species

    • First page: juad014
      Abstract: AbstractHuman influence on ecosystems is rapidly expanding, and one consequence is the increased availability of human food subsidies to wildlife. Human food subsidies like refuse and food scraps are widely hypothesized to be ‘junk food’ that is nutritionally incomplete; however, the impacts of ‘junk foods’ on the health and fitness of individual organisms remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to understand how human food consumption affects the body condition and fecundity of a generalist predator, the Steller’s jay (Cyanocitta stelleri). We used stable isotope analysis to quantify individual human food consumption (using δ13C as a proxy), estimated individual body condition based on body mass and feather growth bar width and assessed jay fecundity. Adults consumed more human food than juveniles on average, and we observed sex-specific responses to human food use where male body condition tended to increase, whereas female body condition tended to decline with human food consumption. However, fecundity was not strongly related. Thus, we found some evidence for the ‘junk food’ hypothesis in this system, which suggests that human foods may not be an equal replacement for natural foods from a nutritional perspective, especially for females. Human foods tend to be carbohydrate rich, but protein poor, which may benefit males because they are larger and limited overall by calorie intake. Females, particularly reproducing females, are more nutritionally limited and thus may experience fewer benefits from ‘junk food’. Our study advances knowledge of human–wildlife interactions by increasing the resolution of our understanding of the fitness benefits, or detriments, experienced by individuals that consume human foods.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juad014
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Range-wide site-occupancy modeling of Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius

    • First page: juad015
      Abstract: AbstractGlobally, habitat loss and land conversion are major drivers of bird population decline. To halt the decline, it is essential that habitat conservation and restoration efforts are based on an understanding of how individual species use their habitat. Here, we examine habitat use by Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) by quantifying their probability of occurrence in different land cover types and in association with varying degrees of habitat modification across most of the species’ range. To do so, we used the citizen-science eBird dataset, in combination with MODIS land cover data to model site occupancy for two breeding seasons and related presence/absence to the Global Human Modification Index. We found that Red-winged Blackbirds occupy rural and suburban habitats at higher probabilities than they do habitats with high levels of urbanization, and at similar or higher probabilities than they do their historic, natural habitats. Furthermore, we found that occurrence probability peaks at intermediate values of the Global Human Modification Index. The results were consistent across most ecoregions and the geographic range of the species, confirming that the Red-winged Blackbird is a suburban-adaptable species, persisting in moderately disturbed environments. Although more research is needed to understand the ecological and evolutionary consequences of this pattern of habitat use, our results provide novel data on Red-winged Blackbird habitat use in the midst of increasing urbanization. More broadly, they provide insight into how common, widespread avian species may be affected by anthropogenic disturbance and highlight the importance of rural and suburban environments in urban ecology and evolution.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juad015
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Monitoring SDG localisation: an evidence-based approach to standardised
           monitoring frameworks

    • First page: juad013
      Abstract: AbstractThis article studies closeness between indicators that local governments use to monitor Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) implementation in their Voluntary Local Reviews (VLRs) and those included in the standardised set of indicators of the European Handbook for SDG Voluntary Local Reviews. To do so, it develops an index of ‘indicator proximity’ through a qualitative semantic comparison between 2354 indicators used in a sample of 29 VLRs and the 72 indicators included in the Handbook’s standardised set. The index includes absolute and relative scores, taking into consideration size, comprehensiveness and diversity of the indicator sets included in the sample, as well as the methodological features of the Handbook’s set. The index allows to identify the VLRs with higher or lower proximity to the indicators in the standardised set and the SDGs that elicit a higher or lower degree of closeness between standard metrics and indicators selected or defined by local governments. The output shows that VLRs and the Handbook have an overall significant degree of proximity; that variables such as local government type or size or the size of VLR indicator sets do not provide additional explanation for proximity; and that SDGs that can be monitored with locally accessible and affordable data elicit higher indicator proximity.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juad013
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Soil microarthropod distribution on the urban–rural gradient of Riga
           city: a study with robust sampling method application

    • First page: juad012
      Abstract: AbstractTo address the new challenge of bringing more nature into the urban environment and developing adequate green infrastructure management methods, it is necessary to clarify the regularities of the distribution of the main ecosystem components—soil organism communities on the urban gradient. Microarthropods—collembolans and mites—are the most diverse soil animals and bioindicators of soil conditions. However, no suitable approaches exist so far to help reduce the high workload of soil zoological studies and make the data acquisition for soil assessment faster. To get closer to a solution to this problem, we propose a robust sampling approach using one pooled sample per site with surface area 58 cm2. This was tested in a microarthropod distribution study on the urban gradient of Riga city (Latvia) in six urban habitat types at 21 sites. The use of classical statistical methods for the processing of soil microarthropod data is limited because these data do not meet model requirements on which classical methods are based, first of all, conformity to the normal distribution. These problems are circumvented by bootstrapping methodology, which thanks to increasing computer performance now is implemented in the most modern program packages. We tested a set of such methods: one-way bootstrap-based analysis of variance, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS), nonparametric multiplicative regression (NPMR), multi-response permutation procedure and Chao bootstrap-based rarefaction curves. NMS in combination with NPMR gave the best results providing statistically significant species distribution curves along the urban gradient which were broadly in line with species traits found by other studies.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juad012
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • In memoriam: Jari Niemelä 1957–2022: from insect ecologist, through
           urban ecology to sustainability science—this carabidologist did it all

    • First page: juad008
      Abstract: Professor Jari Niemelä was one of the early leaders in the emerging science of urban ecology. He was the inaugural Professor of Urban Ecology at the University of Helsinki and one of the first such professors in the field globally. He passed away in July 2022 at the age of 64.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juad008
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Wooded streets, but not streetlight dimming, favour bat activity in a
           temperate urban setting

    • First page: juad011
      Abstract: AbstractUrbanization damages biodiversity, reducing people’s connection to nature and negatively impacting the survivability of local species. However, with small adjustments, the damage could be mitigated. In temperate regions, several bat species inhabit urban areas, and with urbanization set to increase, adapting urban areas to improve their suitability for bats is imperative. Therefore, we investigated if wooded streets and streetlight dimming in an urban setting influenced bat activity. Static bat detectors were used to compare wooded versus non-wooded, and bright versus dim streets in Leicester, UK, on predominantly residential streets. The collected calls were quantified into bat activity (passes per night). Six species were identified, but the common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) was dominant, making up 94.1% of all calls, so it was the sole species included in the statistical model. Wooded streets had significantly higher bat activity than non-wooded streets, but bright and dim streets were not significantly different. The results suggest that wooded streets were being used as green corridors, with common pipistrelles possibly following them to conceal themselves from predators, such as the tawny owl, and the proliferation of wooded streets in urban areas could allow the formation of better-connected populations. Streetlight dimming did not affect bat activity, but no light-averse bats were detected, likely because even the most dimmed streets deterred them despite street lighting increasing food availability by attracting insects. Therefore, an alternate solution, such as part-night lighting, may be required to increase the suitability of urban areas to light-averse species.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juad011
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Species-specific responses of mammal activity to exurbanization in New
           Hampshire, USA

    • First page: juad010
      Abstract: AbstractUrbanization and habitat fragmentation can disrupt wildlife behavior and cause declines in biodiversity and ecosystem function. Most urban wildlife research has compared highly urbanized regions with rural areas. However, human development is also rapidly occurring in exurban areas, which consist of a matrix of lower-density housing and natural patches. Thus, although such “exurbanization” is intensifying, little research has examined how mammals respond to exurban development. To address this knowledge gap, we evaluated the activity of 12 species using 104 camera traps in exurban and rural areas across southeastern New Hampshire, USA, during summer 2021 and winter 2021–2. We quantified species’ activity levels (overall portion of daily activity) and patterns (variation of diel activity period) to test hypotheses regarding how species’ space requirements and nocturnality modulated their responses to exurban development. We found mixed support for our hypotheses. Two species with large space requirements (bobcats Lynx rufus and white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus) reduced activity levels in exurban areas, following hypothesized predictions, while other species (e.g., coyote Canis latrans) did not. As predicted, nocturnal species were less likely to shift activity patterns, but this varied across species and seasons. We also found evidence for a coupled predator–prey response among bobcats and lagomorphs in summer, with similarly altered activity in exurban areas. These results suggest that wildlife modify activity in response to exurban development with substantial species and season-specific variation within the mammal community, highlighting the complex ways wildlife adapt to urbanization and the potential consequences thereof for mammal communities.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juad010
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • From sodium-vapour to LEDs: how an outdoor lighting retrofit affects
           insects in Singapore

    • First page: juad009
      Abstract: AbstractIn the Anthropocene, the planet is warming and global biodiversity, including of insects, is being lost at an unprecedented rate. One largely urban sustainability solution, shifting to energy-efficient, light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs on outdoor lighting, has impacts on insects that are inadequately understood, especially in the tropics and brightly lit cities. Working in Singapore—a highly urbanised and light-polluted tropical city-state—we performed a field experiment to test the hypothesis that newly retrofitted LED lights are more attractive (i.e., detrimental) to insects compared to the high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps they replace. Instead, our sticky traps, which we mounted on both light types, caught statistically equal numbers of arthropods (individuals and families). Traps on LED lamps also attracted proportionally fewer dipterans and more hemipterans and hymenopterans, but these effects were site-specific. Overall, we found no support for our hypothesis—our findings may reflect differential emissions of ultraviolet wavelengths by both light types and/or the possibility that urban insect assemblages with historic exposure to light pollution may not respond as expected to the retrofit. We caution against extrapolating findings from impact studies to untested contexts and highlight the need for (1) more studies in the rapidly urbanising tropics and (2) field tests of the effectiveness of measures to limit any negative ecological impacts of LED lighting, including other lethal and sublethal effects that we did not assess. We also discuss possible implications for ecosystem services and insect conservation.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juad009
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Bee–plant interaction and community response along an urbanization

    • First page: juad006
      Abstract: AbstractElucidating bee response to urbanization is essential to promoting pollinator diversity in cities especially considering such landscapes are projected to expand to support future global populations. To determine how bee community composition and plant–pollinator interactions respond to urbanization, 29 sites representing three urban categories (high, medium and low urbanization) were monitored biweekly from May through early October in Toronto, Canada. Bees were collected passively using pan and blue vane traps as well as actively using aerial nets and vacuums to compare community structure and plant–pollinator networks among urban categories. Functional traits such as dietary breadth, behaviour, nesting substrate and native or non-native status were also examined to determine how landscape influences bee community assemblages. In total, 5477 bees, comprising 26 genera and 164 species, were represented in this study. The urban landscape was largely supportive of species within the family Apidae and Halictidae as well as ground nesting, native and generalist species. Overall, community composition was affected by urban landscape characteristics such as percent tree cover and impervious (i.e. paved and built) surface surrounding sites; however, bee richness and abundance were significantly influenced by plant richness and not by landscape variables. A total of 3267 interactions were observed throughout the study region with characteristics of plant–pollinator networks remaining consistent along the urban gradient with a few floral host plants such as Solidago dominating interactions in certain urban contexts. These results provide important land use and floral host information for targeting pollinator conservation and habitat restoration.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juad006
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Perceived and desired outcomes of urban coyote management methods

    • First page: juad007
      Abstract: AbstractCoyote (Canis latrans) management becomes increasingly necessary as the species' range expands, but some methods may be controversial in urban landscapes. Understanding why the public considers certain methods acceptable may help decrease conflict between residents and wildlife managers. We surveyed 4000 registered voters in New Hanover County, North Carolina, to evaluate attitudes toward three coyote management methods: no management, public education and trap/euthanasia. We used the expectancy-value model and multinomial logistic regression models to determine which public beliefs and desires regarding outcomes of each coyote management method predicted acceptance of each method. Attitudes of respondents who accepted a method differed from those who rejected the method. Positive attitudes toward no management were influenced by outcomes involving a natural death for coyotes and family, pet and personal safety. Positive attitudes toward public education were influenced by outcomes involving family safety, public participation, fewer coyotes and for coyotes to avoid an inhumane death. Positive attitudes toward trap/euthanasia were influenced by outcomes for coyotes avoiding an unnatural and inhumane death, pet safety and public participation. Understanding the public's beliefs and desires regarding coyote management methods will help wildlife managers tailor public education programs, resolve controversies regarding alternative management methods and improve future wildlife management decisions.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juad007
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Network analysis of a northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis)
           maternity colony in a suburban forest patch

    • First page: juad005
      Abstract: AbstractMany bat species are highly social, forming groups of conspecifics, particularly during the maternity season. In temperate North America, these social groups are typically comprised of closely related individuals or individuals that share some common trait (i.e. reproductive state or shared hibernacula from the previous winter). In the summer, when bats use forests for day-roosts, these social groups often demonstrate nonrandom patterns of periodically associating in common roosts and disassociating using different roosts as a ‘fission–fusion society’. As cave hibernating bat species in North America continue to decline due to the impacts of White-nose Syndrome, opportunities to describe these dynamics are becoming rare. Unfortunately, these patterns often are still poorly documented, yet understanding these behaviors is critical for species-specific habitat conservation and management. In our study, we tracked female northern long-eared bats (Myotis septentrionalis) to their day-roosts in a small, suburban forest fragment in coastal New York, USA, in the summers of 2018 and 2019. We confirmed that the bats shared roost sites and, using network analyses, analyzed social dynamics and space use. In contrast to previous research on this imperiled species in large, unfragmented core forests, we found a more dense, connected roost network that concentrated around forest patch edges. Unusual for this species, primary roosts were anthropogenic structures. Our findings suggest that northern long-eared bats can utilize small forest patches and that incorporation of specific types of anthropogenic roosts might be an effective strategy for long-term conservation in more urbanized landscapes where forest management actions to enhance day-roosting conditions are impractical and the risk of stochastic loss of roosts is high.
      PubDate: Sat, 13 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juad005
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Effects of landscape cover and yard features on feral and free-roaming cat
           (Felis catus) distribution, abundance and activity patterns in a suburban

    • First page: juad003
      Abstract: AbstractFeral and free-roaming domestic cats (Felis catus) are invasive predators throughout the world. In some areas, cats occur in higher densities than native mammalian predators and can have severe effects upon prey populations. We set 48 wildlife game cameras in residential yards in Arkansas, USA, to evaluate which landscape and yard features influenced cat abundance occurring in yards. In addition, we quantified the daily activity patterns of free-roaming cats and explored how habitat features or predator activity influenced the timing of cat activity. We found that cats were present in 70.8% of yards with an average of three recognizable individuals per yard. Abundance of cats was higher than all native mesopredators except for raccoon (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Cat abundance and minimum population decreased when forest cover was high within 400 m of the camera. Cats were active at all times of the day but tended to be more diurnal in areas closer to city centers or in agricultural settings. Conversely, cats were more nocturnal later in the summer and in areas that had high levels of predator activity. Our results indicate that cats are widespread in this region and their relative abundance is driven more by landscape features than by yard features, possibly due to their large home ranges. Cats may alter their activity to better coexist with predators. Alteration in yard features is unlikely to be an effective deterrent for cats and more direct control measures may be necessary.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juad003
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Promotion of tree in the compounds of Central-Benin cities (West Africa):
           an assessment of its assets and constraints

    • First page: juad004
      Abstract: AbstractNature-based solutions hold promise for cities, given their development challenges and vulnerability to climate change. This research is based on the fact that knowledge of public perceptions of trees is necessary for planning tree conservation and planting initiatives in rapidly changing landscapes. This article aims to identify the assets and constraints related to the promotion of trees in the compounds of the cities of Central Benin (cities of Parakou, Dassa-Zoumè and Savalou) based on the perceptions of urban residents. Samples of 370, 365 and 360 inhabitants respectively in Parakou, Dassa-Zoumè and Savalou are used to collect information. A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis was performed on the responses obtained to identify assets (strengths and opportunities) and constraints (weaknesses and threats). The decision of the landowner, the lack of place, the lack of technicality, the socio-economic problems constitute the main constraints of the promotion of the tree in the cities of Centre-Benin. To meet the challenge, these cities have assets such as the majority proportion of landowners, the high level of education, the presence of several socio-cultural groups, the climate and favorable soils, the presence of nurserymen and the availability of seedlings, the national tree day.
      PubDate: Sat, 29 Apr 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juad004
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Urban wildlife and arborists: environmental governance and the protection
           of wildlife during tree care operations

    • First page: juad002
      Abstract: AbstractWhen working with urban trees, arborists can negatively impact urban wildlife. There have been recent efforts to strengthen wildlife protection and conservation during arboricultural practices, both legislatively and voluntarily through arboriculture organizations. To examine arborists’ perceptions of these environmental policies and understand their experiences with urban wildlife, we conducted an international online survey of 805 arborists. Many respondents (n = 481, 59.8%) reported being involved in tree work that resulted in wildlife injury or death, despite most respondents reportedly modifying work plans or objectives after encountering wildlife (n = 598, 74.3%). Decisions to modify or cease work were most heavily influenced by the legal protection of species, wildlife having young, and the overall management objectives. Support for new wildlife best management practices (BMPs) was high (n = 718, 90.3%), as was awareness of wildlife and arboriculture-related legislation (n = 611, 77.2%). The findings demonstrate support amongst arborists for the implementation of wildlife policies to protect wildlife in urban forestry; however, implementation of such policies would require a non-prescriptive approach that is relevant to a diversity of wildlife concerns globally, causing concern amongst arborists about the applicability of such a document. Concerns also included the economic impacts of voluntary wildlife protection policies in arboriculture, where competitors may not adhere to industry standards or best practices. Given the support of arborists for increased wildlife protection policies, we recommend the development of international wildlife-focused BMPs for arboriculture, especially as an intermediary until legislation can be implemented or more rigorously enforced.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Apr 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juad002
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Time alters urban singing strategies in a North American songbird

    • First page: juad001
      Abstract: AbstractLocal habitats shape animal vocalizations through selection to improve transmission of signals to receivers. This process can be variable, however, when landscapes are changing continuously due to urbanization or other factors. Studies have shown that some birds alter the frequency, amplitude and structure of their songs in urban habitats. Because songbirds learn their songs from other individuals, this cultural transmission can result in substantial change over time. Urban bird populations may therefore show rapid shifts in song form and variation may result from the combined or interacting effects of time and anthropogenic habitat change. In this study, we used historic and recent song recordings to investigate changes in spotted towhee (Pipilo maculatus) songs over 45 years across an urban-to-rural gradient in northern California. We found that pre-trill and trilled song parts covaried differently with urban development at the two time-points, with more change occurring in trill phrases than pre-trills. Additionally, we found that birds in 1970 adjusted trills in urban areas by raising maximum frequencies and broadening bandwidths, while birds in 2015 narrowed song bandwidths by decreasing maximum frequencies in more urban areas. These results did not fit our prediction that urbanization would have a consistent effect on song at two time-points. We suggest that habitat, cultural evolution and cultural drift can act on song elements in complicated ways that vary over time.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juad001
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
  • Impact of land use and land cover on urban ecosystem service value in
           Chandigarh, India: a GIS-based analysis

    • First page: juac030
      Abstract: AbstractAssessing the effects of land use and land cover (LULC) on ecosystem service values (ESVs) is critical for public understanding and policymaking. This study evaluated the impacts of LULC dynamics on ESVs in Chandigarh city of India. The assessment of LULC changes was performed by analyzing the satellite imagery of the study area for the years 1990 and 2020 with different band combinations in ArcGIS (10.8 version software). In addition, we analyzed ecosystem services changes which were based on the LULC classes of the study area. Five LULC classes were identified in the present study area (Water bodies, forest and vegetation, built-up, agriculture and shrubland and open spaces). The results demonstrated (from 1990 to 2020) that the forest cover and agricultural areas decreased by 4.19% and 37.01%, respectively, whereas the built-up area substantially increased by 104.61%. Overall, ESV decreased by 2.54% from 1990 to 2020 due to rapid urbanization. The combination of LULC and ecosystem services valuation can increase our understanding of different issues of an urban ecosystem. Hence, we recommend the integration of LULC and ecosystem services valuation as a tool that could provide information to policymakers, urban planners and land managers for sustainable use in future.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac030
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
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