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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 142 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 244)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 380)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 99)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal of Urban Ecology
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2058-5543
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [415 journals]
  • Contested natures: conflict over caracals and cats in Cape Town, South
           Africa

    • Authors: Nattrass N; O’Riain M.
      Abstract: In the mid-2010s, residents of Atlantic Beach Golf Estate (ABGE) in peri-urban Cape Town became embroiled in a dispute over how to respond to a wild predator, the caracal (Caracal caracal) killing domestic cats (Felis catus). It was revealing of the policy challenges posed by both these predators for urban ecology, of social conflict over notions of ‘nature’, and how cats can be framed as family members worthy of protection or as a danger to wildlife themselves. Conservation authorities resisted requests for permission to capture, remove or radio-collar and monitor any caracals on the ABGE, even after a caracal entered a home and killed a cat. This contrasted with Cape Town’s policy on Chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) where significant resources are allocated to reducing the spatial overlap between baboon home ranges and houses, and where negotiated protocols exist for the lethal management of individuals that persist in entering urban areas despite non-lethal deterrents. It also contrasts with the lethal management of caracals inside penguin (Spheniscus demersus) colonies. Policy towards the ABGE was shaped by its history as a security/eco-estate bordering a nature reserve, but the outcome—inconsistent policy regarding caracals that incentivises affected residents to take matters into their own hands—was sub-optimal for environmental managers, affected residents and caracals. Relatively high-income ratepayers committed to living with ‘nature’ (albeit curated) in places like ABGE are potential allies in assisting environmental officials better protect penguins and caracals, thereby facilitating more biodiverse ecologies with predators in urban Cape Town.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Sep 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa019
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Changes in recreational behaviors of outdoor enthusiasts during the
           COVID-19 pandemic: analysis across urban and rural communities

    • Authors: Rice W; Mateer T, Reigner N, et al.
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic presents not only a global health crisis but has also disrupted the daily lives of people around the world. From a leisure perspective, urban outdoor enthusiasts are one group particularly impacted by the pandemic and the subsequent institutional response. Stay-at-home orders and physical distancing recommendations serve as potential inhibitors to outdoor recreation activities central to the lifestyles and wellbeing of outdoor enthusiasts. In urban areas, where these orders and recommendations are most restrictive, the potential impacts on recreation behavior are most consequential. This study provides an empirical analysis of the COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on the recreational behaviors of outdoor enthusiasts across urban and rural communities. Results suggest that the frequency of outdoor recreation participation, distance travelled to participate in outdoor recreation and distance travelled beyond roads during outdoor recreation have declined significantly more among outdoor enthusiasts residing in urban areas than urban clusters or rural areas.
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa020
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Can we plan for urban cultural ecosystem services'

    • Authors: Tandarić N; Ives C, Watkins C.
      Abstract: Despite being intangible, subjective and difficult to measure, cultural ecosystem services (CES) are more comprehensible and meaningful to people than many other services. They contribute greatly to the quality of urban life and achieving sustainability. Yet, little attention has been paid to how CES might practically be incorporated into urban planning. This paper addresses this gap by examining the challenges planners might face when handling CES, establishing strategies for addressing the challenges and highlighting key factors planners should consider when planning for CES. CES differ greatly from other ecosystem services—they are definitionally vague, difficult to measure, often bundled with other services and depend on users’ perceptions and situational factors. Therefore, rather than adopting a deterministic approach to generating CES, we suggest that urban planners should seek to create opportunities for CES to ‘hatch’ and ‘grow’ as people encounter nature in cities. This paper draws from diverse theoretical considerations of the CES concept as well as greenspace planning scholarship and practice. We identify five factors that need to be considered when planning for CES: place, people, past, practices and purpose. We see the proposed ‘5P’ framework as a useful heuristic for planners when implementing CES in urban planning.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa016
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • The state factor model and urban forest restoration

    • Authors: Smith J; Hallett R, Groffman P.
      Abstract: A ‘state factor’ model of ecosystems can serve as a conceptual framework for researching and managing urban ecosystems. This approach provides alternative goals and narratives to those derived from historically grounded dichotomies between nature and culture, which can reify constructions of human influence as inherently destructive. The integration of human behaviour and state factors is critical to the application of a state factor model to urban ecosystems. We emphasize the role of culture in co-producing urban ecosystems and the importance of feedbacks between urban ecosystems and state factors. We advocate for ecosystem models that encourage local agency and actions that enhance the capacity of cities to constructively adapt to environmental change. We contrast this approach to efforts intended to minimize human impacts on ecosystems. The usefulness of the state factor model for informing such efforts is assessed through a consideration of the norms and practices of urban forest restoration in New York City. Despite the limitations and challenges of applying a state factor model to urban ecosystems, it can inform comparative research within and between cities and offers an intuitive framework for understanding the ecological conditions created in cities by human behaviour.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa018
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Habitat urbanization and stress response are primary predictors of
           personality variation in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis)

    • Authors: Huang P; St.Mary C, Kimball R.
      Abstract: Behavioral traits that vary consistently among individuals across different contexts are often termed as ‘personality traits,’ while the correlated suite formed by those traits is called a ‘behavioral syndrome’. Both personality trait and behavioral syndrome are potentially responsive to animal ‘states’, defined as strategically relevant individual features affecting the cost-and-benefit trade-offs of behavioral actions. Both extrinsic ‘states’ (e.g. urban versus rural habitats), and intrinsic ‘states’ (e.g. sex), may shape among-individual variation in personality traits, as well as behavioral syndromes. Here, we used northern cardinals sampled from four locations to examine the effect of habitat type (urban versus rural, an extrinsic state), stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) parameters, body weight and sex (intrinsic states) on personality traits and behavioral syndrome variation. We used behavioral trials to measure five personality traits. Using principal component analysis to quantify personality traits first, followed by general linear mixed models, we found that habitat type, CORT at capture and 2-day CORT response affected some personality traits, while body weight and sex did not. Cardinals inhabiting more urbanized areas had lower CORT metabolite levels at capture and were more neophilic, less neophobic and also less aggressive than their rural conspecifics. Using structural equation modeling to construct behavioral syndromes formed by our selected personality traits, we found that urban and rural cardinals varied in the models representing syndrome structure. When utilizing the shared syndrome structural model to examine the effects of states, habitat type and 2-day CORT response appear to affect syndrome variation in a coordinated, not hierarchical, manner.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa015
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Vertical life: impact of roof height on beetle diversity and abundance on
           wildflower green roofs

    • Authors: Mills W; Rott A.
      Abstract: Despite their increasing popularity in an urban setting, we still know relatively little in how well-extensive green roofs support biodiversity in terms of vertical connectivity from terrestrial habitats. Most green roof biodiversity studies have not considered whether the roof height affects community composition and abundance of species present. This study focused on evaluating beetle diversity and abundance in relation to roof height, with emphasis on wildflower roofs. The key results of the study confirm previous studies found that extensive wildflower green roofs are capable of supporting fairly rich beetle communities, including some rare/scarce species. However, an increase of roof height was found to negatively impact both beetle abundance and richness, despite all recorded species being well adapted to active flight and thus dispersal. In addition forb cover decreased with roof height which consequently influenced beetle community structure. These results are therefore indicative that further research is required on species communities found on extensive green roofs that are less adapted to active flight and consequently vertical dispersal. This study further highlights the need for vertical and horizontal connectivity between green roofs and the surrounding natural habitats as a management tool to increase the general ecological value of urban green spaces.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa017
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Differences in body composition between urban and rural Mallards, Anas
           platyrhynchos

    • Authors: Jarman T; Gartrell B, Battley P.
      Abstract: Anthropogenic feeding of wildlife provides a valuable opportunity for people to engage with animals, but such feeding has the potential to be detrimental to the species involved. Ducks are frequently fed at urban ponds globally, yet the health impacts of an urban lifestyle for birds are poorly documented. We studied urban and rural Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in the Manawatū-Whanganui region (New Zealand). Mallards are opportunistic omnivores that have a phenotypically flexible gastrointestinal system. As urban Mallards consume considerable amounts of low-fibre, high carbohydrate foods via anthropogenic feeding, we predicted that urban Mallards would have smaller gastrointestinal tract organs and higher fat levels than rural ducks. We compared gross body composition of Mallards in a modified environment with high levels of feeding by humans and in rural habitats. We also evaluated other health-associated aspects including fat deposit size, liver fat content and haemosiderin (liver iron deposit) levels. Contrary to predictions, urban birds had larger gizzards and caeca and were no fatter than rural birds; rural birds additionally had larger pectoralis major muscles. These differences are probably associated with broader ecological and behavioural factors than with the provision of anthropogenic food per se [in particular the presence of hard foods (acorns and nuts) for urban birds, and higher flight activity of rural birds]. Longer caeca in urban birds could, however, relate to immunity rather than microbial fermentation of cellulose. Overall, while the nature of the local environment does affect Mallard physiology, no detrimental effects of urban living were evident in this study.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa011
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Changes in the home range sizes of terrestrial vertebrates in response to
           urban disturbance: a meta-analysis

    • Authors: O’Donnell K; delBarco-Trillo J.
      Abstract: The unprecedented growth rate in human population and the increasing movement of people to urban areas is causing a rapid increase in urbanisation globally. Urban environments may restrict or affect the behaviour of many animal species. Importantly, urban populations may change their spatial movement, particularly decreasing their home ranges in response to habitat fragmentation, the presence of landscape barriers and the availability and density of resources. Several species-specific studies suggest that urban animals decrease their home ranges compared with their non-urban counterparts; however, it remained unclear whether this pattern is widespread across taxa or is instead restricted to specific taxonomic groups. Consequently, we conducted a meta-analysis, collecting 41 sets of data comparing home ranges in both natural and urban environments in 32 species of reptiles, birds and mammals. We calculated effect sizes as the difference in animal home range sizes between natural and urban environments. We found that the home ranges were smaller in urban environments compared with natural environments (mean effect size = −0.844), and we observed a similar result when considering birds and mammals separately. We also found that home range sizes were not significantly affected when disturbance in urban areas was minimal, which suggests that many species may be able to tolerate low levels of disturbance without changing their movement patterns. Our study thus indicates that increasing levels of urbanisation restrict the spatial movement of species across taxa; this information is relevant for ecological studies of further urban species as well as for the development of management strategies for urban populations.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa014
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Spatiotemporal co-occurrence and overlap of two sympatric mongoose species
           in an urban environment

    • Authors: Cronk N; Pillay N.
      Abstract: Small carnivores are becoming increasingly common in urban areas. What has received less attention is whether and how resource partitioning among sympatric species in urban areas facilitates their coexistence. We examined the spatial, temporal and combined spatiotemporal occurrence and overlap of co-existing yellow mongoose Cynictis penicillata and slender mongoose Galerella sanguinea in an urban estate in South Africa. The reserve comprised two parts, an Eco-Estate where human residential and natural areas are interspersed and wildlife has greater contact with people, and a Nature Estate, where contact is reduced by palisade fencing between people and natural areas. Using photographic data from camera traps collected over 11 consecutive months, we found a moderate level of spatial overlap between the mongoose species. Differences between the species occurred at a finer habitat scale: yellow mongooses were more common in open habitats located near human residents whereas the slender mongooses were more common in covered areas further away from human residents. The detection probability of the yellow mongoose, however, was greater than that of the slender mongoose, and the occupancy probability of the slender mongoose was reduced in the presence of the yellow mongoose. Although both species demonstrated bimodal diurnal peaks in activity, they varied in their active periods, with temporal overlap being greater during colder than warmer months. No complete spatiotemporal overlap (occurrence in the same place at the same time/within a 10-min period) occurred. This may have been as a result of the difference in detection and occupancy probabilities of the two species. Resource availability (food), however, appears to influence the different habitat selection, space use, and activity patterns of yellow and slender mongoose in the study area. Therefore, we conclude that partitioning along the spatial and somewhat on the temporal dimensions aids in the coexistence of these mongoose species in an urban environment.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa013
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Cities and pandemics: urban areas are ground zero for the transmission of
           emerging human infectious diseases

    • Authors: Santiago-Alarcon D; MacGregor-Fors I.
      Abstract: human healthOne Healthtrans-disciplinaryurban ecologyurban systemszoonosis
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa012
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Adaptations of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) to urban environments in
           Sydney, Australia

    • Authors: Gil-Fernández M; Harcourt R, Newsome T, et al.
      Abstract: With urban encroachment on wild landscapes accelerating globally, there is an urgent need to understand how wildlife is adapting to anthropogenic change. We compared the behaviour of the invasive red fox (Vulpes vulpes) at eight urban and eight peri-urban areas of Sydney, Australia. We observed fox behaviour around a lure and compared fox activity patterns to those of potential prey and to two domestic predators (dogs—Canis lupus familiaris and cats—Felis catus). We assessed the influence of site type, vegetation cover, and distance from habitation on fox behaviour, and compared the temporal activity patterns of urban and peri-urban red foxes. Urban red foxes were marginally more nocturnal than those in peri-urban areas (88% activity overlap). There was greater overlap of red fox activity patterns with introduced mammalian prey in urban areas compared with peri-urban areas (90% urban vs 84% peri-urban). Red fox temporal activity overlapped 78% with cats, but only 20% with dogs, across both site types. The high degree of overlap with cats and introduced mammalian prey is most likely explained by the nocturnal behaviour of these species, while pet dogs are generally kept in yards or indoors at night. The behavioural differences we documented by urban red foxes suggest they may adapt to human modifications and presence, by being more nocturnal and/or more confident in urban areas.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 Jun 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa009
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Urban coyotes are genetically distinct from coyotes in natural habitats

    • Authors: Adducci A; II, Jasperse J, Riley S, et al.
      Abstract: Urbanization is increasing throughout the world, transforming natural habitats. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are found in highly urban, suburban, rural and undeveloped mountainous habitats, making them an exemplary model organism to investigate the effects of urbanization on animals. We hypothesized that coyotes in natural habitats are more genetically related to distant coyotes in similar natural habitats and less related to coyotes in urban areas due to natal habitat-biased dispersal. We also hypothesized that increasing urbanization would result in decreased genetic diversity due to habitat fragmentation, dispersal barriers and genetic drift. We analyzed 10 microsatellite genetic markers from 125 individual coyotes sampled across a spectrum of highly urban to highly natural areas in southern California. Most coyotes clustered into four distinct genetic populations, whereas others appeared to have admixed ancestry. Three genetic populations were associated primarily with urban habitats in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. In contrast, the remaining population was associated with more naturally vegetated land near the surrounding mountains. Coyotes living in natural areas formed a genetically distinct cluster despite long geographic distances separating them. Genetic diversity was negatively associated with urban/suburban land cover and local road density, and positively associated with the relative amount of natural vegetation. These results indicate that genetic differentiation and loss of genetic diversity coincided with the extremely rapid expansion of Greater Los Angeles throughout the 1900s. Thus, urbanization reduces gene flow and erodes genetic diversity even in a habitat generalist thought to be minimally impacted by land development.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa010
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Diet assessments as a tool to control invasive species: comparison between
           Monk and Rose-ringed parakeets with stable isotopes

    • Authors: Borray-Escalante N; Mazzoni D, Ortega-Segalerva A, et al.
      Abstract: Food is a main limiting factor for most populations. As a consequence, knowledge about the diet of invasive alien species determines the design of control measures. The Monk and Rose-ringed parakeets are two typical species of successful invasive parrots that are highly appreciated by people. Although some observations suggest that Monk parakeets rely on a higher percentage of anthropogenic food than Rose-ringed parakeets, no detailed quantitative data is available. The aim of this study was to compare the diet of the two parakeets using stable isotope analysis (SIA). We performed SIA of carbon and nitrogen in feathers collected in Barcelona, Spain. We also measured isotopic ratios for potential food sources. We reconstructed the diet of parakeets using Bayesian mixing models. The two species differed in the isotopic signatures of their feathers for both δ13C and δ15N. Diet reconstruction showed that Monk parakeets feed mainly on anthropogenic food (41.7%), herbaceous plants (26.9%) and leaves/seeds (22.2%), while Rose-ringed parakeets feed mainly on flowers/fruits (44.1%), anthropogenic food provided in the trap located at the museum (32.4%) and leaves/seeds (23.1%). The more detailed information we can obtain from the diet of these species is useful to develop more effective control measures for their populations. The Monk parakeet may be more susceptible to control through education local residents, given the greater use of anthropogenic food in this species compared to Rose-ringed parakeet. Our conclusions also indicate that SIA is a powerful tool in providing crucial information about the diet and informing measures to control invasive species.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa005
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Subsidised by junk foods: factors influencing body condition in stray cats
           (Felis catus)

    • Authors: Crawford H; Calver M, Fleming P.
      Abstract: Domestic cats (Felis catus) are one of the most widely distributed and successful carnivores globally. While cats are popular pets, many unowned, ‘stray’ cats live freely in anthropogenic environments at high densities where they make use of anthropogenic resources. These stray cats present a management challenge due to concerns about wildlife predation, pathogen transmission, public nuisance and threats to cat welfare (e.g. vehicle collisions). In Australia, there are few studies of strays compared with pet cats or feral cats (free-roaming cats in rural areas that are independent of resources provided by humans). To contribute original data about stray cat biology, the carcasses of 188 euthanised stray cats were collected from Perth, Western Australia. Cats were assessed for general health, age, reproduction, diet and gastrointestinal parasite biomass. The influence of cat demographics, collection location, season, parasite biomass, diet and history of supplemental feeding by people were tested against body condition. Overall, strays were physically healthy and reproductive, with few life-threatening injuries or macroscopic evidence of disease; however, helminths were extremely common (95% of cats) and pose a threat. Nearly 40% of strays consumed wildlife, including two species of endemic marsupial. Alarmingly, 57.5% of strays were scavenging vast amounts of refuse, including life-threatening items in volumes that blocked their gastrointestinal tracts. These findings illustrate that strays need to be removed from anthropogenic environments for their own health and welfare and to prevent continued breeding. Targeted control programmes should prioritise removal of cats from areas where refuse is common and where valued native fauna exist.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa004
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Tardigrade abundance in relation to urbanisation and highly anthropogenic
           substrates

    • Authors: McCarthy T; delBarco-Trillo J.
      Abstract: Animals colonising urban environments are exposed to a series of novel stressors and ecological challenges, which can result in adaptations to alternative urban niches. Tardigrades are cosmopolitan invertebrates present in all types of ecosystems, including urban environments; and they can survive under extreme conditions, including periods of desiccation, thus allowing them to colonise novel harsh habitats. Tardigrades are thus a promising model to investigate the challenges and opportunities encountered by urban colonisers. Our aims were 1, to determine if tardigrade abundance in natural substrates (moss, lichen and leaf litter) differs between rural and urban sites and 2, to assess if tardigrades have successfully colonised urban substrates that are highly anthropogenic (road sediment, and material accumulated under cars and in wall crevices). Among natural substrates, we found fewer tardigrades in Cork city than in rural sites. However, in urban sites we found no differences between the number of tardigrades present in natural and anthropogenic substrates. In fact, the highest tardigrade abundances in urban samples were found in abiotic material accumulated in wall crevices. We conclude that even though urbanisation may restrict tardigrade abundance, this group of organisms can successfully colonise alternative urban substrates. More research is needed on the ability of tardigrades and other taxa to inhabit highly unusual and disturbed urban substrates effectively, and the adaptations that may take place when animals colonise such substrates.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa008
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Spatial ecology of copperhead snakes (Agkistrodon contortrix) in response
           to urban park trails

    • Authors: Carrasco-Harris M; Bowman D, Reichling S, et al.
      Abstract: Urban forests and parks are important for recreation and may serve as a natural corridor for commuters. The consequences of human-mediated disturbance in natural areas are documented for avian and mammalian species. Less is known about the consequences of human disturbance on reptile species, specifically snakes, residing in natural refuges within the urban matrix. Thus, we examined the spatial activity of copperheads (Agkistrodon contortrix) in regard to pedestrian trails within an urban forest. We used radio telemetry to track snakes during the active season and estimated distances moved in between relocations, distances to the nearest trail and home range size for individuals. We found sex and season, but not distance to the nearest trail, affected the distance snakes moved. In addition, we observed a weak, positive relationship between home range size and average distance to the trail. Sex, season and body condition did not explain snake distance to the trail, but individual patterns were variable for snakes compared to random locations generated from snake relocations. Our study indicates copperheads may be tolerant of low-level human disturbances found in an urban forest. Further work should be done to quantify levels of disturbance, such as trail use, and compare the behavior of reptiles across urban park types and locations.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa007
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Road salt impact on soil electrical conductivity across an urban landscape

    • Authors: Shannon T; Ahler S, Mathers A, et al.
      Abstract: Road salt application is a necessary component of winter road maintenance but comes with an environmental cost. Salts are transported via stormwater drainage or overland and soil throughflow to surface waterbodies, where excess ions create unfavorable or even uninhabitable conditions for freshwater organisms. Soils may retain salts during the process of overland and subsurface flow, thus acting as reservoirs that slow the transport of salt into freshwaters. Understanding the capacity and consistency of anthropogenic salt storage in urban soils may allow us to discover when and where deicing salt applications are most harmful. This article investigates the degree to which soils across a heterogeneous urban landscape retain salts. We measured the electrical conductivity (EC) of soils in an urban setting. Land covers included forests, grasslands, open spaces, low- and medium-density developments and along roadsides. We found that across land-cover types, soil carbon and porosity were correlated to EC in late summer, which suggests that pore space is an important and long-lasting reservoir for salt. In addition, more developed areas, had higher mean soil EC and greater EC variability within and between sites, with 75% of overall variance occurring within individual sites. We hypothesize that this within-site heterogeneity is driven by anthropogenic modifications to salt inputs and soil characteristics. The high EC variance in highly developed urban soils is a previously undiscussed phenomenon and highlights the fine-scale complexity of heterogeneous urban landscapes and the need for high-resolution sampling to accurately characterize urban ecosystems.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa006
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Anthropogenic noise affects winter song structure of a long-distance
           migrant, Gambel’s white-crowned sparrow

    • Authors: Phillips J; Katti M.
      Abstract: Many animals learn to produce acoustic signals that are used to attract mates and defend territories. The structure of these signals can be influenced by external features of the environment, including the anthropogenic soundscape. In many sedentary species, habitat features and soundscape appears to influence the cultural evolution of songs, often with tradeoffs for better transmission over sexually selected song structure. However, none have investigated whether noise on the wintering grounds affects song structure, which for long-distance migrants may result in an acoustic ‘mismatch’ when returning to a breeding ground. This study investigates urban noise effects on song structure in a long-distance migrant, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii, on the wintering grounds in the Fresno Clovis Metropolitan Area and in outlying non-urban areas. Songs and background noise levels were recorded concurrently, and song measurements of frequency and duration were examined differences across noise levels and habitats . We found that the buzz and trill decrease in bandwidth in the presence of noise. The length of the whistle and buzz portion of the song also tends to decreases with noise in urban habitats. This trend toward short, pure tones in noisy areas may transmit better in noisy urban winter habitats, but may not be adaptive on quieter breeding grounds. We suggest that future studies should consider whether winter auditory feedback and song learning environments have consequences for song crystallization and breeding success for long-distance migrants.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa003
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Nestled in the city heat: urban nesting behavior enhances embryo
           development of an invasive lizard

    • Authors: Tiatragul S; Hall J, Warner D.
      Abstract: Urbanization transforms many aspects of natural landscapes and poses many new challenges for individual survival and population persistence. Thus, urbanization provides an opportunity to examine how organisms deal with novel environmental change. Many studies provide evidence of phenotypic adaptation to urban environments, but few focus on responses during early life stages. Filling this information gap is important, because early life stages are particularly sensitive to abiotic factors, and no population is sustainable without successful embryo development. We tested the hypotheses that (i) embryos tolerate warmer temperature conditions of urbanized areas and (ii) maternal nesting behavior protects embryos from potentially lethal thermal conditions in urbanized habitats. We studied introduced populations of a subtropical lizard, Anolis cristatellus, in suburban and forested areas in Miami, Florida. In each habitat, we measured microenvironment variables for locations that females used for nesting vs. locations they did not use. We then incubated eggs from both populations under thermal conditions that mimicked used and unused sites. Nests in the suburban site were warmer than in the forest; however, in the suburban site, locations that females used were relatively cool compared with locations that were not used. We found no evidence that embryos are adapted to their respective suburban or forested thermal environments, but rather maternal nest-site choice enhanced embryo development in the suburban habitat. Maternal nesting behavior is likely an important factor for population persistence under major environmental changes, and a key contributor to the establishment and spread of invasive organisms across urbanized landscapes.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa001
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Drivers of avian species richness and community structure in urban
           courtyard gardens

    • Authors: Pirzio Biroli A; Van Doren B, Grabowska-Zhang A.
      Abstract: Increasing global urbanisation has steered research towards understanding biodiversity in urban areas. Old city spaces throughout Europe have a proliferation of urban court gardens, which can create a mosaic of habitat pockets in an urban area. This article examines the patterns and drivers of avian species richness and community structure in 20 gardens of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford. We conducted morning surveys across 7 weeks in May and June 2017 and used an information-theoretic approach and model averaging to identify important habitat predictors of species richness. We also studied community structure with Sorensen indices and non-metric multi-dimensional analysis. A total of 43 avian species were observed across all sites. Our sites generally differed in their avian assemblages, with greater species turnover than nestedness between sites. Site area was the strongest predictor of site species richness and surrounding habitat composition was the dominant driver of community structure. Thus, the largest gardens were the most species rich, but species composition among gardens differed based on the habitats in which they were embedded. We support using island biogeography theory to understand the avian species assemblages of urban ecosystems and stress the suitability of our study sites for future urban ecosystem research and generating wildlife awareness.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juz026
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Continental-scale citizen science data reveal no changes in acoustic
           responses of a widespread tree frog to an urbanisation gradient

    • Authors: Mitchell B; Callaghan C, Rowley J.
      Abstract: One of the major drivers of global biodiversity declines is habitat loss and modification, often associated with anthropogenic environments. To mitigate biodiversity declines, a comprehensive understanding of how species respond to novel anthropogenic environments is required. Compared to natural habitats, human-modified environments often have increased noise and light pollution, potentially affecting acoustically communicating species, such as frogs. These areas may force animals to modulate or alter their calls to communicate with potential mates, as they compete with anthropogenic noise. Using large-scale citizen science data, coupled with remotely sensed data, we examined how the advertisement calls of the Australian red tree frog (Litoria rubella) varied in response to a gradient consistent with anthropogenic disturbance. After measuring a suite of acoustic properties of L.rubella across its range, we discovered that their advertisement calls showed no response to a disturbance urbanisation gradient. The advertisement calls of the species were highly variable, both at continental and local scales. Our results indicate that acoustic communication in male L.rubella may not be impeded in human-modified habitats as (1) they are a loud species typically heard over background noise and multi-species choruses and (2) their calls are highly variable—potentially serving as a buffer to any acoustic disturbances. Overall, our results provide evidence that some frog species may be acoustically urban tolerant and provide a greater understanding of the responses frogs exhibit to human-mediated environmental change.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juaa002
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Diet composition of introduced barn owls (Tyto alba javanica) in urban
           area in comparison with agriculture settings

    • Authors: Saufi S; Ravindran S, Hamid N, et al.
      Abstract: This study investigated the diet of introduced barn owls (Tyto alba javanica, Gmelin) in the urban area of the Main Campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, based on collected regurgitated pellets. We also compared the diet of the introduced barn owls with the diet of barn owls from two agricultural areas, i.e. oil palm plantations and rice fields. Pellet analysis of introduced barn owls showed that commensal Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, made up the highest proportion of the diet (65.37% prey biomass) while common shrews, Suncus murinus were the second highest consumed prey (30.12% prey biomass). Common plantain squirrel, Callosciurus notatus, made up 4.45% of the diet while insects were taken in a relatively small amount (0.046% prey biomass). Introduced barn owls showed a preference for medium-sized prey, i.e. 40–120 g (52.96% biomass and 38.71% total). In agricultural areas, rice field rats, Rattus argentiventer predominated the diet of barn owls (98.24% prey biomass) in rice fields while Malayan wood rats, Rattus tiomanicus, were the most consumed prey in oil palm plantations (99.5% prey biomass). Food niche breadth value was highest for barn owls introduced in an urban area with a value of 2.90, and 1.06 in rice fields and 1.22 in oil palm plantations. Our analysis reiterates the prey preference of barn owls in various landscapes for small mammals. Our results also indicate the suitability of utilizing barn owls as a biological control not only in agricultural areas, but also as a biological control agent for commensal rodent pests in urban areas.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juz025
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Green roof and ground-level invertebrate communities are similar and are
           driven by building height and landscape context

    • Authors: Dromgold J; Threlfall C, Norton B, et al.
      Abstract: Green roofs are increasingly promoted for urban biodiversity conservation, but the value of these novel habitats is uncertain. We aimed to test two hypotheses: (i) green roofs can support comparable invertebrate family and order richness, composition and abundances to ground-level habitats and (ii) green roofs planted with native species from local habitats will support a richer invertebrate community at family and order level than other green roofs. We sampled the invertebrate community on green roofs dominated by native grassland or introduced succulent species in Melbourne, Australia, and compared these to the invertebrate community in ground-level sites close by, and sites with similar vegetation types. The only significant differences between the invertebrate communities sampled on green roofs and ground-level habitats were total abundance and fly family richness, which were higher in ground-level habitats. Second hypothesis was not supported as invertebrate communities on green roofs supporting a local vegetation community and those planted with introduced Sedum and other succulents were not detectably different at family level. The per cent cover of green space surrounding each site was consistently important in predicting the richness and abundance of the invertebrate families we focussed on, while roof height, site age and size were influential for some taxa. Our results suggest that invertebrate communities of green roofs in Melbourne are driven largely by their surrounding environment and consequently the effectiveness of green roofs as invertebrate habitat is highly dependent on location and their horizontal and vertical connection to other habitats.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juz024
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
 
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