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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted by number of followers
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 279)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 195)
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Oryx     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environment Conservation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access  
Recursos Rurais     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Intervención     Open Access  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access  
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access  
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access  
Recycling     Open Access  
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access  
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Regional Sustainability     Open Access  
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Urban Ecology
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2058-5543
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [423 journals]
  • Effects of soil mitigation on lawn-dwelling invertebrates following
           residential development

    • Abstract: AbstractResidential areas are the most rapidly expanding land use type in the southeastern USA. Residential development impairs soil functions primarily through compaction and the removal or burial of topsoil and natural vegetation, which reduces water infiltration and retention, root penetration, and plant establishment. Plant stress reduces plant-derived ecosystem services and increases vulnerability to pests, often leading to supplemental management inputs in the form of irrigation, fertilizers, pesticides and labor. Soil-dwelling invertebrates, including detritivores and natural enemies of pests, drive valuable ecosystem functions that facilitate plant establishment and reduce maintenance inputs. Although poorly understood, soil disturbance during residential development likely disturbs these communities and reduces the services provided by soil-dwelling invertebrates. Here, we compare the effects of two soil compaction mitigation techniques, tillage with and without compost incorporation, on invertebrate communities and the services they provide over 2 years following residential development. We focus on the relationships between detritivores and detritus decomposition rates, entomopathogenic nematodes and the activity density of a key turfgrass pest and other arthropod herbivores and predators. We found that soil mitigation had no detectable benefit for epigeal arthropods within 1 year after disturbance, but that compost-amended soils supported greater arthropod richness and predator activity density than unmitigated soils in the second year after disturbance. In contrast, we found reduced insect-parasitic nematode activity associated with compost amendment. All taxa increased in abundance with time after development. These results can inform more sustainable residential development and landscape maintenance practices for more biodiverse and functional urban and residential ecosystems.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac025
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Keys to the city: an integrative conceptual framework on avian urban
           filtering

    • Abstract: AbstractUrbanization represents a multi-dimensional ecological ‘filter’ for birds determined by a myriad of variables that can change over time. Birds colonising an urban system or staying in a habitat that has been recently urbanised need to overcome both the extrinsic (e.g. food predictability, human activities, and inter-specific interaction) and intrinsic filter variables, ranging from genetic to behavioural changes and/or adjustments. An increasing body of knowledge has identified the behavioural component as crucial for individuals facing the spatiotemporal dynamic urban filters, often after other traits and mechanisms have played their role. Through both developmental (i.e. variability in the expression of genes during ontogeny) and activation plasticity (i.e. alteration of behaviour as a result of individual experience), studies have shown that the identification of cues in novel systems—often determined by extrinsic factors—and learning processes, among other factors, have important impacts on decision-making and innovation. The latter are crucial behavioural traits for thriving in urban settings. Thus, we propose an integrative mechanistic framework based on the process experienced by birds who reach a city and manage to persist in the novel system (becoming urban ‘utilisers’) or those that dwell in an urbanised region who increase their fitness through behavioural responses and adaptations, leading to population persistence (becoming ‘dwellers’). Future field research efforts ought not only to widen the range of focal species, regions, and temporal scales of studies, but also to assess behavioural responses in highly urbanised settings, given that much of our knowledge comes from studies performed in urban greenspaces. Additionally, experimental studies are needed to complement the evidence from field research and to determine causal links.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac026
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Habitat model for wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Bukhansan National Park, Seoul

    • Abstract: AbstractSince the first known sighting in 2004, wild boar have frequently appeared in Seoul causing increased human–wildlife conflicts. Although South Korea designated wild boar as a ‘pest’ species, limited ecological information exists concerning habitat preference and use of the largest wild mammal in the country. Based on 213 presence points, we modeled wild boar habitat preference in Bukhansan National Park, Seoul and validated the model. We analyzed boar presence with 25 raster datasets using MaxEnt, software for species distribution model using maximum entropy modeling algorithm. Slope (23.4%) was the greatest contributing factor for the habitat model, followed by Temperature seasonality (20.4%) and forest type (16.9%), while Precipitation of driest quarter (37.6%) was the most important factor (normalized contribution) of the model, followed by Temperature seasonality (18.9%) and slope (15.4%). Field verification of the model confirmed that the density of boar signs and rooting are twice as high in the area with high MaxEnt values (over 0.7). The habitat model of wild boar will assist habitat management and further our understanding of how to mitigate human–wild boar conflict.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac027
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Challenging assumptions about burial ground biodiversity using flying
           beetles as indicators in urban areas

    • Abstract: AbstractBiodiversity is fundamental to the provision of ecosystem services that benefit urban communities, yet one type of green space is largely overlooked in ecological research and local governance: urban burial grounds. Their longevity, profound importance to society, and ubiquitous nature, provide unique opportunities for urban biodiversity. However, there has been little scientific exploration of their potentials. To quantify biodiversity in urban burial grounds, a low impact methodology for the capture of flying beetles was developed and deployed at 20 sites in southern England. To the authors’ knowledge this work represents the largest sampling of burial grounds in a single study. We used Generalized linear Mixed Models to examine the influence of weather, local demographic variables, urban landscape and burial ground vegetation management on the abundance of flying beetles. We found significant variability in beetle assemblages over time and between burial grounds. Burial ground age was not significantly associated with flying beetle abundance, challenging long-standing assumptions about older burial grounds being more valuable for biodiversity. Increasing area of domestic gardens and hedgerows in the surrounding urban landscape was positively associated with beetle abundance, whereas the most significant negative association was with burial ground size. Additionally, management of burial grounds significantly influenced beetle abundance: more stringent regimes typically resulted in lower abundance, but sites with horticultural landscaping or biodiversity-focused regimes exhibited higher abundances.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac024
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Incorporating the sustainable development goals in small- to medium-sized
           enterprises

    • Abstract: AbstractMultiple international stakeholders emphasise the important role of small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in achieving the sustainable development goals (SDG). SMEs make up more than 99% of companies in Europe, and holds a potential to promote social and environmental responsibility. However, there is no ‘one size fits all’ when it comes to the incorporation of the SDGs. In this study; we identify five main approaches based on a literature review including (i) rainbow washing, (ii) supporting ‘business as usual’, (iii) adding new initiatives/strategies, (iv) philanthropy and (v) strategic use in core businesses. These approaches are categorised based on their contribution to achieving the SDGs as well as the benefits for the company in question. We performed a case study of six SMEs in Northern Jutland, Denmark, which revealed, that most SMEs work with the SDGs in less proactive and ambitious ways, leaving a gap between the role they have been assigned and their current practices. To investigate this gap further, our case study combined with the literature review has helped identify factors influencing the SMEs choice of approach. These include both negative (uncertainty about the SDGs prospective role, lack of resources and low demand for SDG compliance) and positive (taking responsibility, social license to operate, communication and inspiration) factors. The negative influencing factors are particularly interlinked which is caused by inadequacy in resources, knowledge and qualifications. This indicates that SMEs cannot single-handedly implement the SDGs in a way that enables achievement of the 2030 Agenda, thus external guidance is needed.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac022
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) indicators for municipalities: a
           comprehensive monitoring approach from Germany

    • Abstract: AbstractWhile the 2030 agenda addresses the United Nation member states primarily at their national levels, municipalities play a crucial role in implementing all of the 17 SDGs and many of the 169 targets. These processes must be monitored and evaluated. However, the UN indicators are not sufficiently applicable to the local context. Therefore, a multi-stakeholder working group was formed in Germany to develop a comprehensive set of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators for municipalities, together with additional instruments to support local SDG monitoring such as an SDG data portal. The first catalogue which included 47 core SDG indicators was published in 2018. According to consecutive evaluations and practical tests, the indicator set was substantially expanded and revised to a final number of 120 SDG indicators. About half of the 120 indicators are provided with local-level data and the other half must be assessed individually for comprehensive local SDG monitoring. Likewise, accompanying tools were relaunched with additional functionalities. Although this new and unique set of indicators now covers a majority of the municipally relevant targets, there are still some decisive monitoring gaps for various reasons. The strengths and weaknesses of our methodological approach, as well as implications for future research and practical developments, are discussed.
      PubDate: Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of ecosystem services for urban regions in the context of the
           Sustainable Development Goals exemplified by the Bonn/Rhein-Sieg region

    • Abstract: AbstractThe implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the conservation and protection of nature are among the greatest challenges facing urban regions. There are few approaches so far that link the SDGs to natural diversity and related ecosystem services at the local level and track them in terms of increasing sustainable development at the local level. We want to close this gap by developing a set of indicators that capture ecosystem services in the sense of the SDGs and which are based on data that are freely available throughout Germany and Europe. Based on 10 SDGs and 35 SDG indicators, we are developing an ecosystem service and biodiversity-related indicator set for the evaluation of sustainable development in urban areas. We further show that it is possible to close many of the data gaps between SDGs and locally collected data mentioned in the literature and to translate the universal SDGs to the local level. Our example develops this set of indicators for the Bonn/Rhein-Sieg metropolitan area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, which comprises both rural and densely populated settlements. This set of indicators can also help improve communication and plan sustainable development by increasing transparency in local sustainability, implementing a visible sustainability monitoring system, and strengthening the collaboration between local stakeholders.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Implementing energy transition and SDGs targets throughout energy
           community schemes

    • Abstract: AbstractCitizens are expected to play a great role in the future global energy transition, being able to give a decisive contribution to limit global warming to 1.5° and avoid the worst consequences. Empowering citizens is crucial and assigning them the role of prosumers in the new energy market is necessary to ensure a sustainable and fair pathway to the low-carbon energy transition. Creating energy communities (ECs) can also engage citizens by providing flexibility and ancillary services, reducing losses and curtailments in the grid. It also yields environmental and social benefits, activating virtuous circles in the local economy aligned with the SDGs of Agenda 2030.We illustrate the experience of an EC implementation, using GECO-Green Energy COmmunity project, as a case study. In particular, the in-depth qualitative analysis of the project from a social and technical perspective is provided. The GECO Project is active in the districts of Pilastro and Roveri, Bologna, Italy, being implemented by a consortium including the Energy and Sustainable Development Agency (AESS), the National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA) and the University of Bologna (UniBo). Our findings show the potential interconnections among the development of an ECs and SDGs, especially goals 7, 11, 12 and 13. Placing ECs and prosumers at the centre of the international debate may deliver a more sustainable paradigm in the energy sector, in line with the climate change needs and community approaches.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac023
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • COP27 Climate Change Conference: urgent action needed for Africa and the
           worldWealthy nations must step up support for Africa and vulnerable
           countries in addressing past, present and future impacts of climate
           change†

    • Abstract: The 2022 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) paints a dark picture of the future of life on earth, characterised by ecosystem collapse, species extinction, and climate hazards such as heatwaves and floods (IPCC 2022). These are all linked to physical and mental health problems, with direct and indirect consequences of increased morbidity and mortality. To avoid these catastrophic health effects across all regions of the globe, there is broad agreement—as 231 health journals argued together in 2021—that the rise in global temperature must be limited to less than 1.5°C compared with pre-industrial levels.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac021
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Urban environments have species-specific associations with invasive insect
           herbivores

    • Abstract: AbstractUrban forests are critically important for providing ecosystem services to rapidly expanding urban populations, but their health is threatened by invasive insect herbivores. To protect urban forests against invasive insects and support future delivery of ecosystem services, we must first understand the factors that affect insect density across urban landscapes. This study explores how a variety of environmental factors that vary across urban habitats influence density of invasive insects. Specifically, we evaluate how vegetational complexity, distance to buildings, impervious surface, canopy temperature, host availability and density of co-occurring herbivores impact three invasive pests of elm trees: the elm leaf beetle (Xanthogaleruca luteola), the elm flea weevil (Orchestes steppensis) and the elm leafminer (Fenusa ulmi). Insect responses to these factors were species-specific, and all environmental factors were associated with density of at least one pest species except for distance to buildings. Elm leafminer density decreased with higher temperatures and was influenced by an interaction between vegetational complexity and impervious surface. Elm flea weevil density increased with greater host availability, and elm leaf beetle density increased with higher temperatures. Both elm leaf beetle and elm flea weevil density decreased with greater leafminer density, suggesting that insect density is mediated by species interactions. These findings can be used to inform urban pest management and tree care efforts, making urban forests more resilient in an era when globalization and climate change make them particularly vulnerable to attack.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac011
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Prospects and problems of vertical greening within low-income urban
           settings in sub-Sahara Africa

    • Abstract: AbstractGrowing plants along the vertical axis of a building façade is currently re-emerging as a technique for (re)integration of greening into the urban fabric. This article reports an exploratory study that involved the design, development and evaluation of vertical greening within low-income communities in Lagos, Akure (Nigeria) and Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). We highlight the vertical gardens’ contributions to food production (vegetables). Challenges identified include high maintenance, pests, vandalism, tenure status and socio-cultural misgivings about growing vegetables on walls. It is crucial to evolve policy initiatives and programmes that promote citizen-led, community-based vertical farming within the urban fabric in sub-Sahara Africa.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac016
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Urban bird diversity: does abundance and richness vary unexpectedly with
           green space attributes'

    • Abstract: AbstractUrban bird diversity has been shown to be a useful indicator of overall biodiversity in urban green spaces. Attributes of green spaces (size, location and age) vary within a city and can influence bird diversity. To understand the relationship between bird diversity and green space attributes, we assessed bird abundance and richness in several green spaces in Reykjavik, Iceland. Fifteen green spaces were selected, representing different size categories (small: <5 ha and large: 7–41 ha) and different locations within the urban sprawl (central and suburban). Thirteen transect surveys were conducted at each park from March to September 2020. Abundance, species richness, the Shannon diversity index and evenness were compared across parks. Abundance, Shannon index and evenness were significantly higher in large, intermediate-aged parks with residential urban contexts (P < 0.05). Richness did not vary significantly with park size but was significantly higher in old- and intermediate-age parks that were centrally located (P < 0.005). Bird diversity did not vary significantly over the survey season. For abundance, our results were expected: the larger the park, the greater the abundance. However, contrary to most studies, the suburbs of Reykjavik had less richness than the city center. Furthermore, park size was not relevant for richness, which is the main factor in other cities (e.g. London, Boston). These differences in response indicate that abundance and richness should be considered simultaneously when monitoring urban bird diversity. Lastly, small urban parks (<5 ha) should not be disregarded in urban planning, especially in high latitude cities.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac017
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Sugar addicted in the city: impact of urbanisation on food choice and diet
           composition of the Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris)

    • Abstract: AbstractUrban wildlife faces a great variety of human-induced habitat alterations, among others changes in resource availability and composition, often resulting in serious declines in biodiversity. Nevertheless, Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) occur in high densities in urban areas and seem to benefit from supplementary feedingsupplementary feeding. However, we still lack knowledge about consequences of urbanisation on mammalian foraging behaviour and nutrient intake. Thus, we investigated body mass, food choice and diet composition in squirrels from an urban core area versus a forest population in a cafeteria experiment. Urban individuals were lower in initial body mass and condition, but consumed significantly more g and kJ per day and significantly gained weight over the course of the experiment (around 2 weeks); nevertheless, the difference in body mass and condition persisted. All squirrels preferred hazelnuts, but urban squirrels had a wider dietary range and consumed more non-natural food items. Both groups prioritised fat and there was no difference in protein intake. Urban squirrels though had a significantly higher sugar intake, mainly by eating biscuits. Our results demonstrate clear effects of urbanisation on foraging behaviour and preferences, which has the potential for nutritional mismatch or negative side effects due to consumption of non-natural food items. Our findings show that highly supplemented urban core fragments might not serve as adequate refuge for wildlife.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac012
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Local voluntary reports: the implementation of sustainable development
           goals in northern and southern cities

    • Abstract: AbstractGiven the increasing relevance of cities in the global agenda, we examine the voluntary local reports from six northern and southern cities around the world to understand their approach to the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. We examine not only the framework but also the content of the reports to identify the differences in reporting on sustainable development goals (SDGs) and the factors that may explain why these cities have voluntarily submitted their reports. The research has revealed a wide diversity in the structure and content of the voluntary local reports, demonstrating that there was little to no institutional framework used to submit and compile the reports. Although the reports of northern cities tend to align with previous strategies for the SDGs, the implementation of the 2030 Agenda in southern cities has had a more significant impact on the adoption of monitoring and evaluation mechanisms at the local level. We have found that both international bodies and national policies have an influence on the development of sustainable practices at the local level. Our analysis also indicates that all cities have some sort of international exposure either through their participation in transnational municipal networks or through their collaboration with international organizations, especially in southern cities, which can explain why these cities (and not others) are more active in the adoption of SDGs at the local level and in the submission of voluntary reports.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac013
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Urban microclimate warming improves overwintering survival of evergreen
           bagworms

    • Abstract: AbstractIn the northernmost latitude of North America, the evergreen bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haworth), distribution is limited by overwintering temperatures. Urban impervious surfaces such as roads, buildings and parking lots can warm microclimates and create ecological temperature gradients that have the potential to increase the winter survival of insects. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated survival of bagworms over gradients of microclimatic conditions. Bagworms live within spindle-shaped bags constructed from fragments of foliage. In late summer, adult male bagworms fly to bags containing wingless adult females. Mated neotenous females lay eggs within their pupal case. These eggs hatch into larvae during the late spring of the following year and disperse to hosts by ballooning. A total of 2255 bagworm bags were collected from 119 sites in Indiana and Illinois prior to egg hatch in the spring of 2018 and 2019. The maximum temperature during the coldest days of winter was recorded at each site. Up to 25 bagworms were removed from each host plant to assess the overwintering survival of eggs. Survivorship rose as estimates of impervious surface within a 20-m radius increased. Specifically, 50% of bagworm eggs survived at maximum daily temperatures of −19.4°C, −20°C and −20.6°C when plants were surrounded by 25.7%, 48.39% and 50.75% impervious surface, respectively. Egg mortality was not buffered by impervious surfaces at temperatures at or below −21.67°C. Our findings provide insights about how impervious surface in urban areas can provide refugia for marginally hardy insects and improve their chances of surviving the cold of winter.
      PubDate: Sat, 27 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac014
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of urbanization on the opossum Didelphis virginiana health and
           implications for zoonotic diseases

    • Abstract: AbstractUrban animals can be an important threat to human health as possible hosts of zoonotic diseases and their susceptibility to these diseases can depend on their overall health conditions. Thus, it is important to understand the factors that determine their health conditions. For this, we studied Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in six locations with different urbanization levels and types in Mexico City, Mexico. We trapped opossums and measured eight health-related characteristics (number of ectoparasites and tartar severity, among others) and estimated the percentage of area covered by the four main types of terrain (natural vegetation, managed vegetation, impermeable terrain and constructions). Data were analyzed by a canonical correspondence analysis. We found that impermeable terrain was related to negative health characteristics, while the constructions were opposite to impermeable terrain and mostly related to good health characteristics. At the same, time constructed areas held a smaller population than the natural areas. This suggests that constructed areas provide few shelters, but opossums are healthier there, while impermeable areas provide more shelter but cause more health problems to the animals, thus increasing the chances of zoonotic diseases. We recommend reducing the impermeable areas in city planning to contribute to a better health of the urban animals and therefore reduce risks of zoonotic diseases with potentially disastrous results.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac015
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Winter thriving: on the role of a boreal city on bird communities

    • Authors: MacGregor-Fors I.
      Abstract: AbstractInformation on how urban areas affect bird communities during winter in the boreal region is still scarce. With the aim of assessing such role of the urban habitats on over-wintering boreal birds, I focused on a city-wide approach in the city of Lahti (southern Finland) and two nearby forests (as controls). Point count surveys were conducted in 157 sites within the city and 30 in the control forests. In order to achieve comparable sets of data to contrast with the reference forests, I randomly selected five 30 point count sub-samples from the Lahti city-wide survey. Species richness was, in general, higher in the sub-samples from the city of Lahti. Such pattern did not show relationship with the built cover of the studied sites. Bird abundances were 3.3–5.9 times higher in the urban sub-samples when contrasted with the forest ones. Although results of this study are limited to a single city and consider one wintering season, they clearly illustrate the important role of urban systems as habitat for wintering birds in boreal systems.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac010
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The impact of urbanization on outcrossing rate and population genetic
           variation in the native wildflower, Impatiens capensis

    • Authors: Rivkin L; Johnson M.
      Abstract: AbstractCities are one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet, and conserving urban biodiversity is of primary importance. Urbanization increases habitat fragmentation and may be particularly problematic for native plant species which often exist in small, remnant populations in cities. We studied the effects of urbanization on Impatiens capensis, a self-compatible native wildflower, which is an important nectar and pollen source for native bees and hummingbirds. We sampled I. capensis from six populations located in urban and rural habitats in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We sequenced the DNA of 43 families (N = 86 individuals) using genotype-by-sequencing to obtain 5627 single nucleotide polymorphisms. From each parent and offspring, we estimated individual outcrossing rates, population-level genetic diversity and genetic structure among populations. We found that 95% of plants were outcrossed, and populations were genetically differentiated, where urban populations contained a subset of the genetic variation found in rural populations. Urban populations exhibited lower genetic diversity than rural populations, and we detected a relationship between population census size and habitat on genetic diversity. Despite high outcrossing rates, our results suggest that urbanization reduces the genetic diversity of I. capensis populations, potentially increasing the vulnerability of these populations to long-term population declines and extirpation in response to urbanization.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac009
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Application of UAV remote sensing and machine learning to model and map
           land use in urban gardens

    • Authors: Wagner B; Egerer M.
      Abstract: AbstractUrban gardens are an integral part of urban agricultural systems, contributing to ecosystem services, biodiversity and human wellbeing. These systems occur at fine scales, can be highly complex and therefore offer the opportunity to test mechanisms of ecological patterns and processes. The capacity to confidently characterize urban gardens and their land uses is still lacking, while it could provide the basis for assessing ecosystem service provision. Land classifications from remote sensing platforms are common at the landscape scale, but imagery often lacks the resolution required to map differences in land use of fine-scale systems such as urban gardens. Here, we present a workflow to model and map land use in urban gardens using imagery from an unoccupied aerial vehicle (UAV) and machine learning. Due to high resolutions (<5 cm) from image acquisition at low altitudes, UAV remote sensing is better suited to characterize urban land use. We mapped six common land uses in 10 urban community gardens, exhibiting distinct spatial arrangements. Our models had good predictive performance, reaching 80% overall prediction accuracy in independent validation and up to 95% when assessing model performance per cover class. Extracting spatial metrics from these land use classifications, we found that at the garden and plot scale, plant species richness can be estimated by the total area and patchiness of crops. Land use classifications like these can offer an accessible tool to assess complex urban habitats and justify the importance of urban agriculture as a service-providing system, contributing to the sustainability and livability of cities.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac008
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Bridging urban morphology and urban ecology: a framework to identify
           morpho-ecological periods and patterns in the urban ecosystem

    • Authors: Palazzo E.
      Abstract: AbstractIn a perspective of exceptional environmental change, the role of unbuilt and green spaces to improve urban resilience has increasingly attracted the interest of the scientific community. The conceptualisation of cities as urban landscapes has drawn a parallel between their spatial and ecological dimensions. Both urban morphology and urban ecology have examined the structure of cities form. However, we still do not completely understand how anthropogenic processes and ecosystems have been dynamically interacting in the formation of the urban structure. Thus, this article carries out a comprehensive analysis of built and unbuilt spaces in a case study with the objective to reveal the underlying morpho-ecological periods and patterns in the urban ecosystem. Morphological periods (temporal analysis) and ecological patterns (spatial analysis) are examined in combination through the hypothesis of nested scales at different resolutions operated at the macro, meso and micro levels of the urban landscape. By identifying common denominators across urban morphology and landscape ecology, the study is also a contribution to interdisciplinary research. The proposed framework set up the foundation for a more systematic quantitative assessment of the urban ecosystem across different disciplinary traditions while supporting a new urban landscape design culture based on the evidence of ecological constructs. An accurate explanation of how built forms symbiotically interacted with the ecological dimensions of the landscape over time is also crucial to predict the effects of environmental change and promote future sustainable planning agendas.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac007
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Surviving in cities: the case of a year-round territorial bird in the
           Neotropics

    • Authors: Juárez R; Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Sandoval L.
      Abstract: AbstractUrban expansion has been identified as one of the main threats to biodiversity because it can negatively affect wildlife populations. However, wildlife population dynamics have not been studied in one of the most rapidly urbanizing regions in the world—the Neotropics. To examine the effect of urbanization on the population dynamics of Neotropical wildlife, we used recapture data from a marked population (2011–2017) of White-eared Ground-Sparrow (Melozone leucotis) across an urban–rural gradient in the Costa Rican Central Valley. Additionally, we tested if this effect differed between males and females. Contrary to our prediction, ground-sparrow survival rates were higher in urban and suburban sites than in the rural site, and we found that survival was positively correlated to the proportion of urban surface inside each territory (β = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.71–0.97). We did not find differences in survival rates between the sexes and the mean survival rate was high overall (0.79 ± 0.06). Surprisingly, our results suggest that the survival rate of this urban avoider is positively influenced by urbanization, and therefore, suggest that the potential cost to some urban avoiders may not be driven by reduced survival in more urbanized environments, and could be driven by reductions in other vital rates. Therefore, we encourage research to evaluate multiple vital rates of urban avoiders and urban adapters to achieve more comprehensive knowledge on how urbanization is affecting avian populations in the Neotropics.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac006
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Predicting the potential distribution of a previously undetected cryptic
           invasive synanthropic Asian house rat (Rattus tanezumi) in South Africa

    • Authors: Ringani G; Julius R, Chimimba C, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThree species of Rattus, Norway rat (R. norvergicus), black rat (R. rattus) and Asian house rat (R. tanezumi) are currently known to occur in South Africa. The latter two species are cryptic and form part of the Rattus rattus species complex. Historically, R. norvegicus has been reported to occur along the coast and in urban centres, R. rattus is widespread in most urban areas, except in the drier areas, while R. tanezumi was only recorded to occur in the country (and Africa) ca. 15 years ago, and its distribution remains unknown. The aim of this study was to predict the potential distribution of R. tanezumi in South Africa and assess how it overlaps with that of R. norvegicus and R. rattus using species distribution modelling. Rattus tanezumi was predicted to mainly occur in most inland urban areas and along the coast. The distribution of R. rattus was as expected, in contrast, the predicted range of R. norvegicus was not restricted to the coast but also included inland urban areas. All three species showed broad potential distributional ranges that overlapped extensively indicating that their establishment and spread may be influenced by similar factors such as proximity to urban areas and a wet and moderate climate. These results allow insights into assessing their risk of establishment and for formulating appropriate intervention strategies for their management and control.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac005
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Land snail assemblages and microhabitat preferences in the urban areas of
           Kolkata, India

    • Authors: Nandy G; Barman H, Pramanik S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractDue to the minimal dispersal capabilities and dependency on particular microhabitat, the land snails are susceptible to anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Considering the increasing anthropogenic threats, especially in urban areas, information on species’ requirements for particular habitat is very essential for land snail conservation and sustenance. In the present commentary, diversity and distribution of small-sized land snails in relation to their microhabitat preference in urban habitats of Kolkata, West Bengal, had been carried out through the quadrat method. The information on the richness and abundance of snails and their habitat places in Kolkata, India, was used to construct a bipartite network. A total of 13 land snail species were linked with 16 microhabitats. The network indices were used to justify the specialist or generalist nature of the snail species in the context of microhabitat preference. The snail species Succinea daucina and Allopeas gracile were observed to be associated with the maximum number of habitats while species strength was highest for S. daucina. The low value of connectance (0.288, <0.5) and niche overlap (0.34), the high value of specialization index H2′ (0.58) and d′ (0.44) indicate that the snail–microhabitat interactions were highly specialized. The network ecology of snail–microhabitats illustrated in the present instance will enable the identification of preferred microhabitats, which are required for the enhancement of the population of land snails in urban areas like Kolkata, India.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac004
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The relationship between plant and butterfly richness and composition and
           socioecological drivers in five adjacent cities along the Mediterranean
           Coast of Israel

    • Authors: Keren I; Malkinson D, Dorman M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractUrbanization is the land-use process that most significantly impacts flora and fauna. We conducted a multiple city comparison of two taxa to assess whether richness patterns are similar across cities and taxa. This study aimed to examine the effects socioecological factors, namely open area size, socioeconomic status and the built-up cover, on species richness and composition of plants and butterflies in five adjacent Mediterranean cities in Israel’s coastal plain. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 170 open area sites in various urban settings. In 34 of them, the presence of butterfly species was also recorded. Mixed-effect generalized linear models were used to examine the site's characteristics effect on the species richness. The identity of each city was included as a random effect in the models. Results indicated that overall plant species richness increased with patch size, whereas butterfly richness was not associated with this factor. Plant and butterfly species richness in all categories decreased with the increase in building cover, except for endemic plant species. The results demonstrate the complex contribution of urban open area patches to the biodiversity of different taxa, being conditional on their size, surrounding built-up area and socioeconomic values.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac001
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Diverse perceptions of supply and demand of cultural ecosystem services
           offered by urban green spaces in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    • Authors: Sultana R; Selim S, Alam M.
      Abstract: AbstractUnderstanding inhabitants' perceptions of cultural ecosystem services (CES) of urban green space will offer solutions to sustainability challenges. This study aimed to analyse the social perceptions of the supply and demand sides of CES in Dhaka City. A questionnaire-based social preference method was used. Questions in the survey concerned the respondents' satisfaction with green spaces, connected activities, limitations, CES preference and motivation. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to the 405 surveyed questionnaire data to understand variation in respondents' opinions. Respondents were mostly dissatisfied with the quantity of green spaces. Respondents' family status and age influenced their satisfaction with green space quantity. Single and teenage respondents prefer green space for active recreational activities, whereas young and old respondents preferred passive kinds of recreational activities. Both space-related issues and respondents' barriers limited CES provisioning. This contextual factor particularly affected female, single and young respondents. Respondents most preferred CES was recreation. Respondents' gender, family status and age are drivers for differing perceptions of the green space-based CES. To develop sustainable city planning in the face of global environmental change, those divergent perceptions should be taken into consideration through urban development strategies. Moreover, understanding the supply and demand sides of CES help facilitate a more inclusive planning process to address urban sustainability issues.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac003
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Data from public and governmental databases show that a large proportion
           of the regional animal species pool occur in cities in Germany

    • Authors: Sweet F; Apfelbeck B, Hanusch M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractCities have been shown to be biodiverse, but it is unclear what fraction of a regional species pool can live within city borders and how this differs between taxa. Among animals, most research has focused on a few well-studied taxa, such as birds or butterflies. For other species, progress is limited by the paucity of data. We used species occurrence data for 11 taxa and 23 German cities from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and the different German states, in a 50-km buffer around the city centre, to investigate what proportion of species of the regional species pools also occur in cities. While data could be obtained for all cities from GBIF, state databases only provided data for a subset of cities. Sample coverage of data from GBIF was higher across all taxa than of the state databases. For each database and taxon, we analysed (i) all cities where the number of occurrences of a taxon was >50 and (ii) only those cities where additionally sample coverage was >0.85. Across all taxa studied on average, 44.9 ± 7.2% (GBIF) and 40.8 ± 9.6% (German states) of the species of the regional species pool were also found in cities. When all cities were considered together, more than 76% of all species occurred within city borders. Our results show that German cities harbour a large part of the regional diversity of different taxa when city borders rather than the city centre is considered. This opens up ample opportunities for conservation and for fostering human–nature relationships.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juac002
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Activity patterns and behavior of Myocastor coypus in a gated community in
           the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    • Authors: Salas M; Hernandez-Hernandez J, Iglesias M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAnthropization processes confront local wildlife with a new set of conditions that may lead to local extinctions or allow the expansion of some species. This is what happens with the coypu (Myocastor coypus) in gated communities in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (Argentina), where its rapid population growth results in continuous conflicts with the local inhabitants. The aim of this study was to document the daily and seasonal activity patterns and behavior of the coypu in an urban landscape within their natural distribution range. To achieve this, we conducted a camera-trap survey within areas occupied by the species from February to November 2018. The coypu activity was mainly crepuscular and nocturnal with variations between seasons. We found that the seasons with the greatest activity patterns overlap were winter and autumn (84%), while the least overlap was observed between summer and winter (53%). During the active periods, time spent on foraging behavior was dominant. Time dedicated to vigilance was greater in summer than in winter. This result, alongside an increase in nocturnal activity during summer, shows that coypu in this urban landscape shift its behavior when exposed to an increasing human activity. This study brings up more ecological data of this species, which is key to find alternative control methods within gated communities to lead to a harmonic relationship between inhabitants and the species in its native distribution.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juab037
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Urbanization and plant pathogen infection interact to affect the outcome
           of ecological interactions in an experimental multitrophic system

    • Authors: Srisakrapikoop U; Pirie T, Fellowes M.
      Abstract: AbstractUrbanization can change interactions in insect communities, and the few studies of tritrophic interactions in urban settings focus on interactions between plants, herbivorous insects and their mutualists and natural enemies. Plant pathogen infection is also widespread and common, and infection may also alter such interactions, but we have no understanding of whether the ecological consequences of pathogen infection vary with urbanization. Using replicated aphid colonies on experimental plants, we investigated how infection by the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea influences interactions between plants, aphids and the aphid natural enemies and ant mutualists in highly urbanized, suburban and rural study sites. Aphid and natural enemy abundance were highest in the suburban site, while mutualist ants were most abundant in the urban site, reversing the usual positive density-dependent relationship between natural enemies and aphids. The effect of pathogen infection varied with trait and site, mediated by natural enemy preference for hosts or prey on uninfected plants. The effect of infection on aphid abundance was only seen in the suburban site, where natural enemies were most abundant on uninfected plants and aphid numbers were greatest on infected plants. In the urban site, there was no effect of infection, while in the rural site, aphid numbers were lower on infected plants. Uninfected plants were smaller than infected plants and differed between locations. This study suggests that the effects of urbanization on ecological interactions may become more complex and difficult to predict as we study ecological assemblages and communities at greater levels of structural complexity.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jue/juab039
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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