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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
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Journal of Sustainable Mining
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2300-3960
Published by Digital Commons Homepage  [8 journals]
  • Development of an empirical ground-motion model for post-mining induced
           seismicity near Gardanne, France

    • Authors: Pierre Gehl et al.
      Abstract: Since the closure of mining activities in 2003, the coal basin of Gardanne in South-East France has experienced thousands of small-magnitude earthquake events, mostly triggered by the flooding of mine workings. Some of these events have been powerful enough to be strongly felt by the population, generating nuisance and concern about potential damage to buildings. The aim of this study is to improve the characterisation of the level of ground motion at the surface, by developing a ground-motion model for post-mining induced seismicity, based on several years of recorded data. A Bayesian-based method is applied to the data in order to account for uncertainties in the estimation of moment magnitude. Station-to-station ground-motion site terms are also quantified for the nine recording stations in the area, thus providing additional information on the local site conditions. The developed model is compared to existing prediction equations for seismicity induced by other types of anthropic activities, confirming the need for a specific model in the case of post-mining induced seismicity. Finally, the Gardanne ground-motion model is also integrated with a shake-map procedure, showing how this predictive model may be merged with recorded data in order to generate rapid estimates of shaking levels in the area.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Feb 2024 22:00:26 PST
  • Hydraulic Borehole Mining (HBM) technology employed in lignite mining –
           technical, economic and market aspects

    • Authors: Bartłomiej Jura et al.
      Abstract: The results of a cost-effectiveness and economic efficiency assessment of the Hydraulic Borehole Mining (HBM) technology applied to lignite mining are presented. The Dynamic Generation Cost, the Net Present Value, and the Internal Rate of Return were calculated for the extraction of lignite at a rate of about 3.44 million Mg/year from a mining parcel of 1 2.5 km, taking into account CAPEX and OPEX. The cost of mining 1 Mg of lignite using the HBM technology was reported to be lower than its market prices before the energy crisis in Europe caused by the war in Ukraine. The values of the NPV and IRR confirm that the HBM technology may be economically effective in lignite mining. The greatest influence on the cost-effectiveness of the HBM technology was caused by the price of backfill and the diameter of the mining cavern. The NPV is affected by changes in lignite prices. The capital expenditures required by the HBM technology have the least impact on the results in contrary to the open-pit mining technology. Lignite mining using the HBM technology is possible at a level similar to the current level of mining by open-pit technology in Polish conditions.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2024 07:55:28 PST
  • Predicting open-pit mine production using machine learning techniques

    • Authors: Faustin Nartey Kumah et al.
      Abstract: In mining, where production is affected by several factors, including equipment availability, it is necessary to develop reliable models to accurately predict mine production to improve operational efficiency. Hence, in this study, four (4) machine learning algorithms – namely: artificial neural network (ANN), random forest (RF), gradient boosting regression (GBR) and decision tree (DT)) – were implemented to predict mine production. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) analysis was used as a baseline study for comparison purposes. In that regard, one hundred and twenty-six (126) datasets from an open-pit gold mine were used. The developed models were evaluated and compared using the correlation coefficient (R2), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and variance accounted for (VAF). It has been shown in this study that the ANN model can best estimate open-pit mine production by comparing its performance to that of the other machine learning models. The R2, MAPE, RMSE and VAF of the models were 0.8003, 0.7486, 0.7519, 0.6538, 0.6044, 4.23%, 5.07%, 5.44%, 6.31%, 6.15% and 79.66%, 74.69%, 74.10%, 65.16% and 60.11% for ANN, RF, GBR, DT and MLR, respectively. Overall, this study has shown that machine learning algorithms predict mine production with higher accuracy.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2024 07:55:20 PST
  • Identification of strong tremor causes for appropriate rock burst
           prevention in a hard coal mine

    • Authors: Rafał Pakosz et al.
      Abstract: The exploitation carried out in the Bielszowice part of the Ruda Hard Coal Mine is mainly accompanied by seismic and rock burst hazards. The occurrence of high-energy tremors may be associated with many factors, e.g., fracturing of thick layers of high-strength rocks or destruction processes of a stressed and/or thick coal seam. These factors are often combined when excavating a single longwall panel. Determining the causes of strong tremors is of fundamental importance for mining and rock burst prevention. The extraction of the 004z longwall panel in the top layer of coal seam No. 504 was designed in complex geological and mining conditions. During the mining of the 004z longwall panel, strong tremors with energies of 105 J and 106 J occurred. The analysis of the focal mechanisms of these tremors using the seismic moment tensor inversion method allowed to determine the most probable causes of their occurrence. They were mainly related to the processes of fracture and slip in the thick layers of sandstone deposited in the direct or main roof of coal seam No. 504. Therefore, active rock burst prevention was aimed mainly at fracturing high-strength roof rocks.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Feb 2024 07:31:10 PST
  • A quick and cost-effective method for monitoring deforestation of oil
           sands mining activities using Synthetic Aperture Radar and Multispectral
           real-time satellite data from Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2.

    • Authors: J Garcia del Real et al.
      Abstract: Alberta’s oil sands mining operations rank among the largest human-made structures globally. Monitoring through the use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Multispectral satellite imaging is an indispensable strategy in attaining sustainable development and mitigating deforestation in the third-largest verified oil reserves worldwide. This paper introduces a novel approach for cost-effective and reliable monitoring of deforestation caused by oil sands mining, avoiding cumbersome methods. It focuses on observing forest/non-forest areas affected by Suncor Energy Company’s mining assets in Alberta, using a combination of SAR and Multispectral satellite remote sensing. Radar images from Sentinel-1B and Multispectral images from Sentinel-2A were analyzed with SNAP 8.0 and QGIS within a time series from June 2017 to June 2020, providing detailed information to monitor better the potential environmental impact of oil sands mining activities in Canada. The Sentinel satellite system offers several advantages, including near-global coverage, elevated spatial resolution for detecting small-scale deforestation instances, and the ability to track temporal and dynamic changes through time-series analysis. Additionally, the system’s open data policy promotes accessibility, collaboration among researchers, and innovative deforestation monitoring applications. The research results hold potential value for decision-makers, enhancing the efficiency and sustainable development of Suncor,s mining operations.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Feb 2024 13:42:37 PST
  • Analysis of the impact of water treatment by liming sedimentation and
           dredging on the content of heavy metals in fish intended for consumption

    • Authors: Asfie Maidie et al.
      Abstract: The present study sought to determine the presence of metals and arsenic, a metalloid, among the fish of a coal mine reservoir, where the water was treated regularly through liming sedimentation combined with dredging, and the fish living in an adjoining river. The potential hazard of metals in fish as human food was analyzed. Except for selenium (an important metal to the human body), which was higher among the river fish than in the reservoir fish (P < 0.01), there were no particular patterns of other studied metals found in either habitat (P> 0.05), and apparently not related to the fish family that consumed by local people. Measurements of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) yielded scattered values from not detected to as high as 71%, but these were below expected levels and not indicative of significant accumulation. Based on Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) and Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) levels, consuming fish from the studied area poses low risks to human health; therefore, fish in water from coal mining activities should be sufficiently safe to consume.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2024 23:45:53 PST
  • Acknowledgement of Reviewers

    • PubDate: Mon, 29 Jan 2024 00:10:40 PST
  • The outburst probability index (Ww) as a new tool in the coal seam
           outburst hazard forecasting

    • Authors: Marcin Dreger et al.
      Abstract: Gas and rock outbursts are one of the most unpredictable natural hazards in Polish and worldwide underground mining. The complexity and unpredictability of this phenomenon make forecasting and underground prevention difficult to achieve. Gas-geodynamic phenomenon occurs in greater intensity in the southern part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) – close to the Bzie-Czechowice fault zone. The relatively low firmness of coal combined with high methane content and pressure may result in a coal seam outburst. To forecast the gas and rock outburst occurrence, the sorption capacity and gas diffusion parameters are used in Polish coal mining. To provide a new, more direct and helpful tool for outburst hazard occurrence interpretation – an outburst probability index (Ww) has been developed in the CLP-B Laboratory. The components of the simple formula are: methane content, firmness of coal, desorption intensity, effective diffusion coefficient and methane sorption capacity. The four numerical ranges are provided to define the probability of the coal seam outburst occurrence. The new method proposed by the CLP-B Laboratory simplifies the outburst hazard prediction and can be used successfully in the coal mines to foresee the forthcoming danger. The result of the outburst probability index reflects changes in each component, which makes it adequate in long-term outburst research in the new drifting roadways.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Jan 2024 22:15:02 PST
  • The valuation of exit option in a lignite mine using Monte Carlo

    • Authors: Marcin Pawlak et al.
      Abstract: This study aims to demonstrate the application of simulation techniques to the valuation of real options. The nature of the paper is methodological and empirical. The purpose of the valuation of the option to close a lignite mine in Poland is to demonstrate the methodology and advantages of employing Monte Carlo simulation in the valuation of real options. Close to actual numerical data reveals a complex optimization problem in the context of strategy selection by decision-makers. Numerous factors (extraction costs, reclamation costs, the write-off for the reclamation fund, etc.), their interpenetration and multilevel influence on the decision to close the mine early enables simulation methods to demonstrate their valuation capabilities. The valuation techniques used in the paper, particularly the simulation comparative valuation method, are described in detail and are rooted in the literature and theory of finance.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jan 2024 12:50:54 PST
  • Mathematical model for the management of the wave processes in
           three-winding transformers with consideration of the main magnetic flux in
           mining industry

    • Authors: M. S. Seheda et al.
      Abstract: The aim of the work is to study the wave processes in three-winding power transformers caused by impulse overvoltage, to create an improved mathematical model for reproducing the process of distribution and transmission of the impulse in the windings of a three-winding power transformer. A mathematical model has been developed for the study of internal overvoltage in the windings of three-winding power transformers, based on the proposed substitute circuit of an infinitesimal element, taking into account the longitudinal and transverse inductive connections between the turns of the winding, the electromagnetic connections between the windings and the flux splitting from the main magnetic flux of the magnetic wire, in the form of a system of differential equations in partial derivatives using a modified method of variable separation. The formation of initial and boundary conditions for this mathematical model is presented. The results of the study of the distribution of overvoltage along the windings of a three-winding power transformer as a function of distance and time during the action of a voltage pulse on them are presented, as well as the distribution of overvoltage at different points of the winding of high, medium and low voltage as a function of time. The study of the wave processes in the windings of a three-winding power transformer makes it possible to form new approaches to the coordination of the insulation in the windings of the transformer, replacing physical experiments. The choice of insulation for high and ultra-high-voltage power transformers remains a particularly difficult engineering task since it is necessary to know the maximum voltage values at different points of the winding. The mathematical model presented can be used to create more complex models that allow a more detailed study of the wave processes.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jan 2024 12:50:47 PST
  • The effect of blasting using low-density emulsion explosives

    • Authors: Vinko Škrlec et al.
      Abstract: Low-density emulsion explosives are essentially blends of an emulsion matrix and a certain amount of gaseous phase inclusions acting as hot spots. With the addition of expanded polystyrene for gaseous sensibilization, the resulting explosive blend was developed to reduce peak values and pressure impulse of gaseous detonation products on surrounding rock. This resulted in a decrease in rock stress and a decrease in cracking zone width outside of the minefield boundary. The use of low-density emulsion explosives correlates with the decrease in the seismic effect of blasting, more precisely, the decrease of induced rock oscillation velocities. The low-density emulsion explosive used in this work was validated based on laboratory and field experiments. The laboratory experiments measured dominantly detonation and safety characteristics, while field experiments characterized working capacity, i.e. single-shot blasting effect in an igneous diabase. The obtained measurements were compared against reference explosives (pentrite, emulsion explosive sensitized with glass microspheres, and ANFO explosive). Measured parameters were detonation velocity and oscillation velocity used to determine the seismic effect of blasting in the immediate borehole vicinity.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jan 2024 12:50:40 PST
  • Numerical simulation on effect of coal pillar width on stability of
           retained roadway: A case study of Khe Cham Coal Mine, Vietnam

    • Authors: Quang Phuc Le et al.
      Abstract: When extracting coal seams in Vietnam underground mines, coal pillars are often left unmined for the protection of retained roadways in the longwall mining method. During longwall mining operations, coal pillars are often placed where high-stress concentrations occur in the abutment pressure zone of adjacent panels, especially when extracting seams under hard-to-cave main roof conditions. The instability of coal pillars under the loading of the main roof may cause the roadway to collapse, threatening the safe operation of a coal mine. This paper presents a detailed numerical investigation of the effect of coal pillar width on the stability of retained roadway under hard-to-cave main roof conditions, which has not been fully understood in previous studies. The results indicate that as the width of the coal pillar increases, the peak stress gradually moves from the virgin coal side to the pillar side, and an elastic zone will gradually be formed in the center of the pillar. A pillar width of less than 40 m coal pillars is easily destroyed under the great pressure caused by the hard main roof. A pillar width greater than 40 m creates a safe condition and has enough bearing capacity to maintain the stability of retained roadways. Based on these results, this paper proposes to use an improved longwall mining method where the coal pillars should be mined together with the adjacent panel to reduce coal loss in pillars.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jan 2024 12:50:34 PST
  • Compressibility behavior of conditioned sandy clay considering the
           physical degradation of foam: tunneling issue

    • Authors: Mœz SELMI et al.
      Abstract: Surfactants in the form of liquid foam are commonly used for ensuring the fluidity of conditioned soil during shield tunneling in mining zone. The compressibility can be significantly affected, depending on the percentage of fine soil. Thus, this paper investigates the compressibility of foam-conditioned fine soil. Oedometric tests as a function of the percentage of foam have been performed. Foam’s stability was analyzed, considering a laboratory soil made from 40% kaolinite and 60% of sand and mixed with a foaming agent based on an anionic surfactant. Experimental results showed that the foam stability was manifested through a reduction of the foam’s volume followed by liquid drainage, under loading and due to the foam’s physical degradation over time. The compressibility increases with the adding rate of the foam in the soil. Therefore, consolidation and foam’s degradation over time are two factors that allow the recovery of the compressibility property of conditioned soil.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Nov 2023 12:30:50 PDT
  • Ventilation of tunnels during drilling using a forcing ventilation system
           – a case study

    • Authors: Krzysztof Słota et al.
      Abstract: In Poland, more and more tunnels are being built using mining methods. Mostly ventilation systems are described for tunnels already commissioned. There are few examples of ventilation calculations for tunnels under construction. The paper shows a case study where calculations were made of the minimum air volume flow required to ventilate a tunnel during its tunnelling using four duct ventilation systems. The first system used two separate fans with a 1200 mm diameter duct line, the second system changed the diameter of the duct line to 1400 mm, the third system used one fan with two 1200 mm diameter duct lines connected in parallel, and the fourth system increased the diameter of the duct line to 1400 mm. Fan power requirements were determined for these layouts. The cost statement shows that it is advantageous to change the diameter of the duct line to a larger one – reducing the total cost by about 10%. With the assumed electricity prices, the more favourable variants are the systems for which two fans with separate duct lines are provided – a cost difference of about 5%.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Oct 2023 16:17:48 PDT
  • Influence of explosive maximum instantaneous charge on blasting
           environmental impact

    • Authors: Olukemi Yetunde Odeyemi et al.
      Abstract: Our research looked at the effect of explosive maximum instantaneous charge on ground vibrations and noise levels during blasting operations at the Calaba limestone quarry in Nigeria. Vibrock (V9000) seismograph was used to take readings related to ground vibrations and noise generated during all blasting operations that took place in the quarry for a period of one year. The results obtained indicate that the average ground vibration readings fall between 0.25mm/s to 3.6mm/s and the average noise decibel generated during the blasting operations between 35 to 158 dB. An artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed in this study for the prediction of blast-induced ground vibration and noise level. The proposed ANN model was compared with existing empirical models and was found to give the highest prediction accuracy. It was revealed that both noises generated and ground vibrations during all blasting operations increase with an increase in explosive maximum instantaneous charge. Additionally, the measuring equipment distance from the blast site was also revealed to have a negative correlation with noise generated and ground vibrations.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Oct 2023 16:17:41 PDT
  • Effect of priming and explosive initiation location on pull in hard rock
           underground mine

    • Authors: K.K. Rao et al.
      Abstract: In the development of hard rock mines, achieving maximum pull after blasting plays a crucial role. Various machines have been developed for rock cutting, but still, due to flexibility and cost-effectiveness, drilling and blasting are preferred. To enhance the effectiveness of this method, several techniques have been developed, including the use of appropriate stemming material, double-primer placement, selecting optimal initiation locations, improving blast designs, and exploring stress superposition techniques through electronic detonators. This research paper focuses on investigating the effect of the priming and explosive initiation location on pull through an experimental approach. The study specifically examines the influence of different initiation approaches on pull, with a particular focus on inverse initiation without solid decking. The findings indicate that inverse initiation without solid decking reveals the best pull for competent rock. Additionally, the inverse initiation with 1st and 2nd square cut solid decking (double detonators with different delays) and spacers in periphery holes was found to be the best choice to eliminate the post-blast sockets with reasonable pull for weathered competent rock.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 Oct 2023 07:00:01 PDT
  • Open-Cast Mining Deformations Monitoring using Sentinel-1 SAR data (SBAS

    • Authors: Mahvash Naddaf Sangani et al.
      Abstract: Land surface deformation created by mining activities can have negative impacts on the environment. Measuring them can be a tool for managing the environmental impacts of mining. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry is a remote sensing method for measuring deformations. The main aim of this research is to investigate the deformation phenomenon on a region scale and extend our understanding of it to all mining deformation areas across the country. This paper used Small Baseline Subset Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar technology to obtain deformations information in the Sangan mine based on mining activities. We used 48 scenes of Single Look Complex(SLC) data acquired by the Sentinel-1A, C-band of the European Space Agency descending orbit paths from 2014 to 2020. The Time Series of SBAS results show that the deformation velocity rate is about –20 to –35 mm/yr, and the displacement is attributed to approximately –120 mm in the Line of Sight direction. The main deformation zone is situated in the mining area on the main alluvial fan. This study presented the relationship between deformations and mining activity's effects on the ground. Mining activities were accompanied by ground deformation in the mining area: the ground deformation is exacerbated by the increasing mining quantity, and as a result will cause erosion, flood, and other geomorphologic phenomena in the area. We compared the results of the SBAS technique with leveling data for validating the data of SBAS. Their comparison shows approximately suitable agreement with the results of SBAS.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Sep 2023 04:54:32 PDT
  • Numerical modelling of Uniaxial Compressive Strength laboratory tests

    • Authors: Phu Minh Vuong Nguyen et al.
      Abstract: In the last decades, numerical modelling has been widely used to simulate rock mass behaviour in geo-engineering issues. The only disadvantage of numerical modelling is the reliability of required input data (e.g. mechanical parameters), which is not always fully provided due to the complexity of rock mass, project budget, available test methods or human errors. On the other hand, it was proven in many cases that numerical modelling is a helpful tool for solving such complex problems, especially when coupled with the results of laboratory and in-situ tests. This paper presents an attempt to determine the proper numerical constitutive model of rock and its mechanical parameters for further simulating rock mass response based on the outcomes of laboratory testing. For this purpose, the available constitutive models, including mechanical parameters, were taken into account. The simulation performance with the selected constitutive models is demonstrated by matching the numerical modelling results with the uniaxial compressive strength laboratory tests of rock samples from the Bogdanka coal mine. All numerical simulations were carried out using the finite difference method software FLAC3D
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Sep 2023 04:54:25 PDT
  • Multi-criteria analysis of the possibility of retrofitting the system of
           rainwater drainage from subsidence basins in a liquidated mine.

    • Authors: Andrzej Chmiela et al.
      Abstract: Mine closure is the natural final stage of mining activity. The process of financing mine liquidation is complex and expensive. The many years of conducted hard coal extraction affect the surface height differences. Analyses of the shifts in hydrogeological conditions and water hazard states in mining plants led to legal regulation adaptations, primarily in terms of hydrogeological documentation preparation, and made it necessary to conduct work concerning new options for water hazard assessment and prevention. Current subjects of particular interest include shifts in terrain morphology and the water regime, resulting in periodic flooding and permanent flooding of the most depressed areas as well as changes in the directions and intensity of surface water flows. This publication presents a multi-criteria analysis of the possibility of reducing the liquidation costs of an inactive mine through the retrofitting of the existing system of rainwater drainage from subsidence basins. The analysis revealed the primary factors disrupting the course of the drainage process and the problems resulting from them. Technically feasible solutions is presented, together with their assessment. Applying the multi-criteria analysis made it possible to select optimal solutions from a group of proposed technical system retrofitting variants
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Sep 2023 01:06:03 PDT
  • Remote sensing and GIS based approach to evaluate the impact of stone
           quarrying and crushing activities on land resources

    • Authors: R. S. Chaurasia et al.
      Abstract: The land is one of the most treasures to support life, like food, fibre, medicine, and minerals, etc. Stone quarrying is one of the key elements which supports socio-economic development and industrial expansion. RS and GIS play an important role in environmental assessment to monitor the stone quarries and related activities for time to time. The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of stone quarrying and crushing activities (SQCA) on land resources. Therefore, matrix change analysis of 2021, 2015, 2008 and 2003 were used for change detection. High-resolution Google Earth Pro images were used for the assessment of spatial as well as temporal changes caused by stone quarries and associated activities, which result in land use/land cover changes. The results show that the temporal changes in and around the quarrying sites over 18 years have contributed to dynamic changes in land use/ land cover. According to the study, damaging mining operations have grown in the area. SQCA are mostly carried out on agricultural land as well as wasteland, which decreases about 18.44% and 59.89% during the study period. Abandoned pits left without reclamation converted to derelict ponds degrading the landscape and becoming dangerous for humans and the ecosystem.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Aug 2023 11:26:06 PDT
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