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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 140 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 241)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 381)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 99)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover
Journal of Sustainable Mining
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2300-3960
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3294 journals]
  • Size distribution of ambient and radioactive aerosols formed by the
           short-lived radon progeny

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Journal of Sustainable MiningAuthor(s): Krystian Skubacz, Katarzyna Wołoszczuk The survey of ambient airborne particle size distribution is important when the deposition of radioactive particles is considered in the human lung and the assessment of radiation hazard in occupational exposures or contaminated environments. CLOR (the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection) in cooperation with CMI (the Central Mining Institute) performed simultaneous measurements of the activity size distribution of radon progeny and ambient aerosols using different types of aerosols. Measurements were performed in a radon chamber with a volume of 17 m3, where radon was generated by a radium-226 open source, and ambient aerosols by an oil candle, vax candle, and incense sticks. Such measurements were also made in an aerosol depleted atmosphere after cleaning the chamber air by means of a high-efficiency pump and filters. The size distribution of radioactive aerosols containing radon progeny was measured by RPPSS (Radon Progeny Particle Size Spectrometer) with the measuring size ranging from 0.6 nm to approximately 2500 nm. The key parts of this device are the impaction plates and diffusion screen batteries, which collect aerosols of different sizes, and semiconductor alpha detectors which detect the activity of the collected particles. The SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Spectrometer) and APS (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer) were applied to evaluate the size distribution of all aerosols with sizes from approximately 3 nm to 20 μm. Based on the results obtained by these spectrometers, the activity size distributions and related dose conversion factors (DCF) were evaluated both for the exposed workers and the general population.
       
  • Tests of methane desorption and emission from samples of hard coal in the
           context of mine closures through flooding

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Journal of Sustainable MiningAuthor(s): Eugeniusz Krause, Marcin Karbownik Forecasts of methane emissions during and after flooding a closed gassy hard coal mine and the evaluation of possible methane migration to the surface in post-mining areas, after cutting off the vertical ventilation workings of hard coal mines from the surface, provide valuable information which can help to ensure public safety.This article presents research into the influence of changes in the hydrostatic pressure of a water column in a flooded mine on the volume of methane emission and migration from hard coal seams, during and after the flooding of a closed mine. The tests were conducted based on a modified research method developed by the French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks (INERIS), France, and the Central Mining Institute (GIG), Katowice, Poland. A test stand for gas desorption and autoclaves for emissions, under controlled pressure and temperature, were used. The tests were conducted and changes in pressure in the autoclaves over time were observed. The observations led to the conclusion that water inhibits methane desorption and emission from coal to varying extents, depending on the hydrostatic pressure exerted. Based on the conducted tests, developed a model of methane emission into flooded goafs was developed. A method of determining index k2 was also developed, which lowers the forecast volume of methane emission into goafs depending on the value of the hydrostatic pressure of the water column and the level of submersion. Results of the tests form the basis to calculate forecasts in the developed model of methane emission into the goafs of a mine during its closure, which, as a consequence, enables the identification of the level of methane hazard and the selection of preventive measures aimed at combating methane hazard during and after the closure of a gassy mine.
       
  • The Journal of Sustainable Mining in numbers – A developing
           international publication channel

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019Source: Journal of Sustainable MiningAuthor(s): Magdalena Bemke-Świtilnik
       
  • Mathematical relationship between ultimate pit limits generated by
           discounted and undiscounted block value maximization in open pit mining

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Journal of Sustainable MiningAuthor(s): Meisam Saleki, Reza Kakaie, Mohammad Ataei Ultimate pit limit is an important aspect of open pit mining. The optimal ultimate outline determines the tonnage of extractable ore, the volume of waste to be removed, the location of the subsidiary facilities, the location of ore and waste stockpiles, the life time of the mine and the estimated net present value (NPV) of the entire mining operation. Traditionally, there are two major approaches to optimizing the ultimate pit limit. One seeks to determine the ultimate pit using undiscounted profit maximization and the other by determining the optimal mining sequence of all blocks and discounting the value of the blocks. The outline with the highest cumulative NPV will be chosen as the final pit limit. For each of these approaches, different algorithms are presented. The aim of this paper is to present an analytical investigation about the mathematical relationship between sets of blocks of ultimate pits generated by each of these approaches in an ore body. This investigation is in fact the mathematical proof of the theorem that a discounted ultimate pit is smaller than or equal to the undiscounted pit. The results show that the discounted pit is always a subset of the undiscounted pit.
       
  • Life cycle assessment of cobalt extraction process

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Journal of Sustainable MiningAuthor(s): Shahjadi Hisan Farjana, Nazmul Huda, M.A. Parvez Mahmud This paper presents the results of an investigation carried out on the impacts of cobalt extraction process using a life cycle assessment by considering a cradle to gate system. Life cycle inventory data was collected from the EcoInvent and Australian Life cycle assessment database and analysis were performed using SimaPro software employing the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) method, and Cumulative Energy Demand method (CED) for per kg cobalt production. Several impact categories are considered in the analysis i.e. global warming, ozone depletion, eutrophication, land use, water use, fossil fuels, minerals, human toxicity, ecotoxicity, and cumulative energy demand. The analysis results indicate that among the impact categories, eutrophication and global warming impacts are noteworthy. Medium voltage electricity used in cobalt production and the blasting operation appears to be causing most of the impact and emission into the environment. The sensitivity analysis was carried out using three different case scenarios by altering the electricity generation sources of UCTE (Synchronous Grid of Continental Europe) to investigate the proportional variation of impact analysis results. Furthermore, the impacts caused by cobalt production are compared with nickel and copper production processes to discover their relative impacts on the environment and ecosystems.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Thermochemical utilization of low rank coal and flotation concentrate

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2019Source: Journal of Sustainable MiningAuthor(s): Rafał Gąsior, Adam Smoliński Flotation concentrates are waste material from coal mine operation. The process of steam gasification seems to be an attractive option for their economic utilization and an alternative to their potential combustion in boilers. The gasification process is characterized by both higher efficiency and lower emission of pollution than conventional combustion systems. In this paper the results of the steam gasification of low rank coal and flotation concentrate into hydrogen-rich gas at the temperature of 800 °C are presented. The reactivity for 50% carbon conversion as well as the maximum reactivity in this process were calculated for the samples studied.
       
  • A field study on the possible attachment of DPM and respirable dust in
           mining environments

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Journal of Sustainable MiningAuthor(s): Sallie Gaillard, Emily Sarver, Emanuele Cauda Typcial monitoring procedures for diesel particulate matter (DPM) in mines include the collection of filter samples using particle size selectors. The size selectors are meant to separate the DPM, which is generally considered to occur in the submicron range (i.e., < 0.8 μm), from larger dust particles that could present analytical interferences. However, previous studies have demonstrated that this approach can sometimes result in undersampling, therefore, excluding significant fractions of the DPM mass. The excluded fraction may represent oversized DPM particles, but another possibility is that submicron DPM attaches to supramicron dust particles such that it is effectively oversized. To gain insights into this possibility, a field study was conducted in an underground stone mine. Submicron, respirable, and total airborne particulate filter samples were collected in three locations to determine elemental carbon (EC) and total carbon (TC), which are commonly used as analytical surrogates for DPM. Concurrent with the collection of the filter samples, a low-flow sampler with an electrostatic precipitator was also used to collect airborne particulates onto 400-mesh copper grids for analysis by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results indicated that, while typical submicron sampling did account for the majority of DPM mass in the study mine, DPM-dust attachment can indeed occur. The effect of exposure to such attached particulates has not been widely investigated.
       
  • Journal of Sustainable Mining – The continuous quality improvement
           strategy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Journal of Sustainable MiningAuthor(s): Adam Smoliński
       
  • Numerical modeling of transport roads in open pit mines

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Journal of Sustainable Mining, Volume 18, Issue 1Author(s): Adila Nurić, Samir Nurić Transport of overburden and mineral raw materials in surface mining is one of the most complex and costly processes today. Good transport roads are essential for successful transportation by trucks in open pit mines. Poor design, and maintenance of the roads has the greatest impact on the high transport costs and possible risks in terms of security. Numerical modeling was performed to analyze the effects of the properties of the built-in materials used in the construction of roads, the thickness of the layers and the interaction of tires with the road surface. The distribution of stress and strain determined in the construction of a road depends on the characteristics of the road and the structure and mass of the truck. For this reason, numerical modeling and computer simulation is considered a very suitable method in the design of roads, because in a short period of time and at a lower cost calculations for the construction of a large number of models can be implemented and the best model available will be chosen. The most favorable construction will be considered to be the one that will, at minimum construction costs and with low costs of maintenance, enable the efficient use of transport equipment for a longer period of exploitation.
       
  • The environmental implications of the exploration and exploitation of
           solid minerals in Nigeria with a special focus on Tin in Jos and Coal in
           Enugu

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Journal of Sustainable Mining, Volume 18, Issue 1Author(s): Adeyinka O. Omotehinse, Bankole D. Ako Mining activities can have serious negative effects on the environment, these effects occur from the exploration stage to the closure stage of a mine's operation. Nigeria has different minerals and exploration/exploitation of these minerals can affect the environment. The objective of this paper is to consider how the exploration and exploitation of Tin in Plateau and Coal in Enugu has affected the environment. The Jos field (Plateau State) is used as a case study for areas with existing mines and the coal mines at Enugu represent areas with closed mines. The methodology used for this research includes a field survey; direct mapping of mining activities; assessment of the impacts of exploration and exploitation; documentary analysis; and observations. The results include analysis of the mining impacts of Tin and Coal on the environment. It is hoped that the conclusion of this study will enable Nigeria to put in place and enforce certain minimum environmental standards for solid mineral exploration and exploitation. In addition, best management practices for reclaiming surface mines could also be put in place.
       
  • Sensitivity analysis of fuzzy-analytic hierarchical process (FAHP)
           decision-making model in selection of underground metal mining method

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Journal of Sustainable Mining, Volume 18, Issue 1Author(s): Bhanu Chander Balusa, Amit Kumar Gorai This study aims to analyse the sensitivity in decision-making which results in the selection of the appropriate underground metal mining method using the fuzzy-analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) model. The proposed model considers sixteen criteria for the selection of the most appropriate mining method out of the seven. The model consists of three-layer viz. the first layer represents the criteria (factors which influence the mining method), the second layer represents the sub-criteria (categorisation of the factors) and the third layer represents the alternatives (mining methods). The priority of the different mining methods was determined based on global weights. The global weights of seven mining method were determined using a different fuzzification factor under different decision-making attitudes (optimistic, pessimistic and unbiased). The sensitivity of the decision-making results was analysed in order to understand the robustness of the model.
       
  • Natural radionuclides (NORM) in a Moroccan river affected by former
           conventional metal mining activities

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Journal of Sustainable Mining, Volume 18, Issue 1Author(s): Guillermo Manjón, Juan Mantero, Ignacio Vioque, Inmaculada Díaz-Francés, José Antonio Galván, Said Chakiri, Abdelmajid Choukri, Rafael García-Tenorio The main aim of this work was to determine the levels of multiple natural radionuclides in an aquatic system (Moulouya river, Morocco) impacted by multiple abandoned Zinc and Lead mines. 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th and 210Po were determined by alpha-particle spectrometry in water and sediment samples collected along the river and in samples from three pit lakes of abandoned mines, located in the Upper Moulouya catchment area.The results enabled the analysis of the different levels of impact of former mining activities, depending on the natural radionuclides. While the activity concentration of U-isotopes in Moulouya river water was slightly elevated in the vicinity of abandoned mine wastes, other natural radionuclides (Th-isotopes and 210Po) levels were typical of a natural environment. This fact is clearly reflected in the magnitude and range observed in the distribution coefficients for the different radionuclides analyzed.
       
  • Analytical design of selected geotechnical solutions which protect civil
           structures from the effects of underground mining

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Journal of Sustainable Mining, Volume 18, Issue 1Author(s): Rafał Misa, Anton Sroka, Krzysztof Tajduś, Mateusz Dudek This paper presents the authors' computational methods based on Knothe's theory. The methods enable the estimation of the reduction coefficient for effects which originate from mining operations performed via the application of a longitudinal structure which is sunk in to the ground. It could be, for example, a partition, which as a structural gap fulfils the function of an expansion grout, or via breaking the subsoil continuity (e.g. because of creating a peat-filled ditch or using a natural gap). Demonstrative calculations have been carried out in a few cases, i.a. to protect a structure situated in the vicinity of a planned tunnel. Additionally, some examples of the discontinuity zone which impact the obtained deformation values have been presented. The calculation method has been tested in case studies. The results of the calculations clearly show the positive influence of the applied geotechnical solutions on the minimisation of mining damage.
       
  • Analysis and evaluation of risks in underground mining using the decision
           matrix risk-assessment (DMRA) technique, in Guanajuato, Mexico

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Journal of Sustainable Mining, Volume 18, Issue 1Author(s): Claudia Rivera Domínguez, Ignacio Villanueva Martínez, Paloma María Piñón Peña, Adolfo Rodríguez Ochoa In this article special emphasis is placed on the importance of underground mining worldwide, in the Country of Mexico and in the State of Guanajuato, thereby generating the hiring of operational personnel to perform the main activities of this sector such as blasting, use of machinery and equipment, exploitation, fortification and amacize. Occupational accidents and diseases occur as a result of the aforementioned activities since the conditions in which workers work are not the most appropriate. To help improve working conditions, the decision matrix risk-assessment (DMRA) technique was applied, in which accidents are classified according to their severity and probability, in order to perform an assessment of the risks and identify the activities that should continue in the same manner, those that require control measures and, as a last resort, those activities that must stop. At the end of the study, corrective actions are proposed that can help to avoid the occurrence of the accidents presented, through the application of occupational safety and health regulations issued by the Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, which is a government entity that is responsible for both the issuing of and compliance with those regulations. Also establishes the obligations that must be documented according to rules that are applicable to mining activities.
       
  • Discharges of dust from NORM facilities: Key parameters to assess
           effective doses for public exposure

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Journal of Sustainable Mining, Volume 18, Issue 1Author(s): Christian Kunze, Hartmut Schulz, Eckard Ettenhuber, Astrid Schellenberger, Jörg Dilling In transposing Directive 2013/59/Euratom (European Basic Safety Standards or EU BSS) into national law, it was necessary to identify industrial sectors which involve naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) which may lead to public exposure that cannot be disregarded from a radiation protection point of view. A research project was implemented that resulted in a comprehensive survey of all potentially relevant industrial sectors operating in Germany. Major efforts were made to determine source terms of airborne discharges, atmospheric dispersion models, and dose calculations.The study arrived at the conclusion that the discharge and the settlement of dust in agricultural and horticultural areas is the most relevant dispersion and exposure pathway, while discharges of radon are of minor importance.The original study used a number of rather complex models that may distract from the fact that very few key parameters and assumptions determine the effective dose of members of the public. This paper revisits the study and identifies those parameters and assumptions and provides a simplified, generic, yet sufficiently reliable and robust assessment methodology to determine the radiological relevance of dust discharges from NORM industries under the typical geographical and meteorological conditions of Germany.This paper provides examples of dose estimates for members of the public for selected industries operating in Germany. Due to its simplicity and robustness, the methodology can also be used to assess effective doses resulting from discharges in other industries in Germany, and it can be adapted to conditions in other countries in a straightforward way.
       
  • Mining-induced seismicity of a seam located in rock mass made of thick
           sandstone layers with very low strength and deformation parameters

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Journal of Sustainable Mining, Volume 17, Issue 4Author(s): Jan Drzewiecki, Jacek Myszkowski The paper presents the results of calculations and analyses aimed at explaining the cause and mechanism of strong seismic events E ≥ 105 J (local magnitude, Ml ≥ 1.7). Their source are thick and at the same time weak layers of sandstone, theoretically unable to accumulate elastic energy during the exploitation of the seam 209 in hard coal mine Ziemowit in the edge area of seams 206/1, 206/1–2 and 207.In the developed method of forecasting the pressure/stresses in the areas of the rock mass, which are affected by mining exploitation, the formulas linking the results of geophysical measurements of the longitudinal wave anomaly to the pressure values in its impact zone are used. This method was used to locate areas where elevated pressure occurred compared to gravitational pressure, which had a decisive impact on confinement of layers affected by mining exploitation. In such areas the level of confinement/stiffening of the layers is very high, that is why their deformation in the direction of the gobs is limited. In the case of a formation of a large area of gobs, large-size rock blocks are formed in the rock mass, whose mining-induced separation causes their the impact on the ground. Seismic energy accompanying this event is a function of the impact energy reduced by damping resulting from the physiomechanical properties of the cracked substrate.
       
  • Forecast of methane emission from closed underground coal mines exploited
           by longwall mining – A case study of Anna coal mine

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Journal of Sustainable Mining, Volume 17, Issue 4Author(s): Adam Duda, Alicja Krzemień Closure and post-closure periods in underground coal mines present specific risks that have to be handled with sound management practices in order to achieve sustainability within the mining sector. These risks may negatively affect the environment and result in hazards on the surface caused by phenomena occurring in the rock mass after mining operations. One of the hazards that has to be considered in the process of coal mine closure is gas, which is caused by methane emission after mining operations cease.This paper presents a forecast of methane emissions conducted within the framework of the Research Fund for Coal and Steel “MERIDA” project, using a model that was developed by the National Institute for the Environment and Industrial Hazards (INERIS) from France, and the Central Mining Institute (GIG) in Katowice, from Poland. This model enables the estimation of the volume of methane emitted into longwall goafs from relaxed undermined and overmined coal seams in order to assess in a further step the risk of methane emissions into the atmosphere from closed/sealed underground coal mines.For a critical analysis of the forecasted methane emissions into the longwall goafs, the results obtained with this model were compared with a gas decline curve generated for longwall goafs from closed/sealed underground coal mines in Australia, where long term full range data was available. The results of the analysis allowed the forecasted emissions and, thus, the accuracy of the model to be validated.The forecast was developed in the “Anna” coal mine, property of the PGG Company, which is located in the southern part of the Upper Silesian region in the south of Poland, near the border with the Czech Republic, and that is undergoing a closure process.
       
  • Copper extraction by wet chemical method

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Journal of Sustainable Mining, Volume 17, Issue 4Author(s): Peterson Mutembei Kugeria, Isaac Mwangi, Jackson Wachira, Peter Njoroge In many countries large deposits of copper with no locally established copper based industries occur because known methods for extraction are prohibitively expensive and unaffordable. This study reports on an affordable and sustainable method for the extraction of copper. This was achieved through the use of a wet chemical method which makes use of hydrazones prepared in situ from chicken dung leached solution. The method involves the reduction of copper (II) ions leached from copper ore to zero valence using chlorine treated solution prepared from chicken droppings at a temperature range of 60–70 °C. The ore samples were pulverized to 250 micro millimetres and leached with hydrochloric acid to obtain leachate containing copper ions. The dissolved copper was reduced to copper metal and obtained by filtration. It was confirmed by XRFS analysis that, the metal purity was found to range between 60 and 80% depending on the ore used. In another experiment, chicken waste solution was used to extract copper from the ore. To the mixture, chlorine gas was then bubbledthrough a glass delivery tube to prepare the hydrazone in situ at a temperature range of 60–70 °C and a pure copper metal was obtained. The findings from this study have shown that there is great potential for the production of copper at low cost and this could be applied in both small-scale cottage industries and large industries using readily available resources such as chicken dung.
       
  • The application of seismic interferometry for estimating a 1D S-wave
           velocity model with the use of mining induced seismicity

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Journal of Sustainable Mining, Volume 17, Issue 4Author(s): Rafał Czarny, Zenon Pilecki, Dorota Drzewińska The main objective of this paper is to present the usefulness of the seismic interferometry method to determine the S-wave velocity model of the rock mass affected by exploitation in the KGHM Rudna copper ore mine. The research aim was achieved on the basis of seismic data, acquired from seismograms, of 10 strong seismic events of magnitude greater than 2.6. They were recorded by a pair of seismometers deployed on mining terrain. In the first stage, the Rayleigh wave between seismometers was estimated. Then, the group velocity dispersion curves of fundamental and first higher modes were identified. Finally, inversion of the dispersion curves to a 1D S-wave velocity model up to 500 m in depth was obtained. The velocity model was determined for the part of the rock mass partially affected by mining. The results confirm similar rock mass structure and velocities of the subsurface layers as those obtained by the archival 3D model. In both models, a high degree of correlation in the boundary location between the overburden of the Cenozoic formations and the bedrock of the Triassic formations was observed. The applied methodology can be used to estimate the S-wave velocity model in other mining regions characterized by strong seismicity.
       
  • Siting a centralised processing centre for artisanal and small-scale
           mining – A spatial multi-criteria approach

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Journal of Sustainable Mining, Volume 17, Issue 4Author(s): Nash Amoah, Eric Stemn Artisanal and small-scale mining is one of the global phenomena that is a threat to environmental health and safety. There are ambiguities in the manner in which an ore-processing facility operates. These ambiguities can cause environmental problems and hinder the mining capacity of these miners in Ghana. The vast majority of attempts to address these problems through the establishments of centralised processing centres have failed, with only a handful of successes. This research sought to use an established data-driven, geographic information based system to locate a centralised gold processing facility within the Wassa Amenfi-Prestea Mining Area in the Western region of Ghana. The study was designed to first determine the relevant factors that should be considered in the decision-making process for locating a centralised ore-processing facility. Secondly, it sought to implement the identified factors in a case study by identifying specific geospatial techniques that can best be applied to identify potential sites. By adopting in-depth consultations with four stakeholder groups for data collection and content analysis for data analysis, thirteen relevant factors were identified. However, in the case study, due to data unavailability, only seven of the factors were considered. Geoprocessing techniques including buffering and overlay analysis and multi-criteria decision analysis were employed to develop a model to identify the most preferred locations to site a centralised processing facility. Site characterisations and environmental considerations, incorporating identified constraints, to determine an appropriate location were selected. The final map output indicates estimated potential sites identified for the establishment of a centralised processing centre. The results obtained provide areas suitable for consideration.
       
  • Analysis of the average fire gas temperature in a mine drift with multiple
           fires

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Journal of Sustainable Mining, Volume 17, Issue 4Author(s): Rickard Hansen The average fire gas temperature of multiple fires in a mine drift with longitudinal ventilation is investigated. The output of a quasi-steady model is investigated and compared with experimental results from model scale fire experiments. During the analysis it was found that the calculated average fire gas temperature of the model correlates quite well with the measured temperature, except for the period when the fire closest to the measuring point reached a peak of heat release rate. This poor correlation is likely due to flame impingement as the distance to the nearest fire decreases. Uncertainty of the calculations is caused by the fire gas temperature at the site of each individual fire and further studies into the fire growth rate and maximum heat release rates of multiple fires are recommended in order to remedy this uncertainty. When calculating the average fire gas temperature, a key parameter is determined with respect to the smoke spread in a mine drift as well as the risk of fire spread.
       
  • Identification of safety hazards in Indian underground coal mines

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Journal of Sustainable Mining, Volume 17, Issue 4Author(s): Debi Prasad Tripathy, Charan Kumar Ala To improve safety the application of effective risk management has become a requirement in the mining industry. The effectiveness of mining risk management essentially depends on the risk assessment process, as the output of the risk assessment process helps the mine management to decide upon the control measures to be employed to mitigate the risks identified in the mine. The application of risk assessment in mines has become important not only for ensuring a safe working environment but, also, it is now a legal requirement. The capability of a risk assessment process depends on the hazard identification phase, as unidentified hazards may lead to unknown and unmanageable risks. Therefore, it is essential to identify all the potential hazards to manage the risks in mines. The object of this study is to identify the safety hazards present in Indian underground coal mines and to build a preliminary database of the identified hazards. Accident data collected from the Directorate General of Mines Safety in India and a public sector coal mining company was studied to identify safety hazards that may probably lead to accidents. The database could help the mine management to improve decision making after analysing and evaluating the safety risks of identified hazards.
       
 
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