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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access  
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access  
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 172)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226)
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 94)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environment Conservation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access  
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intervención     Open Access  
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access  
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access  
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access  
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access  
Recycling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regional Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access  
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover
Journal of Sustainable Mining
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2300-3960
Published by Digital Commons Homepage  [8 journals]
  • A proper borehole pattern design for coal seam methane drainage in Tabas
           coal mine using Comsol Multiphysics

    • Authors: Ali Bagherzadeh et al.
      Abstract: Optimizing the operational parameters of the borehole pattern in the coal seam includes the maximum amount of gas to be drained with the least amount of drilling, investment, and drainage time. The main purpose of this research is to properly design the drainage borehole pattern in the C1 coal seam of the Tabas coal mine. In this research, the Comsol Multiphysics software was used for numerical modeling of the boreholes. According to the method of diffusion of methane gas in a coal seam, the reduction of methane gas concentration and the amount of gas released from the coal blocks were approximated. For the gas drainage boreholes, the three patterns of the rectangular, parallelogram, and triangular forms were considered. Also, the boreholes were modeled with the three diameters of 76, 86, and 96 mm. This modeling was performed for 180 days of drainage operation and showed that the triangular pattern was more suitable than the other two patterns. The presented model is applicable in coal mines where gas drainage operations are necessary and helps engineers design the patterns of drainage boreholes to maximize their gas drainage efficiency.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 May 2022 15:27:52 PDT
       
  • Use of InSAR in Linear Discontinuous Ground Deformation Generation
           Analysis: Case Study of a Mine in Poland

    • Authors: Bartosz Apanowicz
      Abstract: Linear Discontinuous Ground Deformations are defined as fissures and steps, as well as structural forms composed of them. They occur on the surface as a result of underground mining. Knowledge of LDGDs has been acquired through field observations which are subsequently described in the scientific publication. Records of LDGDs are made by using the classic surveying method. The paper reviews the created LDGDs in the years 2015–2019 in one of the mines of the USCB. The analysis covers the velocity of subsidence as a result of underground mining and the values of horizontal strains determined according to the Knothe-Budryk theory. The InSAR satellite technique was used to measure the subsidence. The subsidence was determined using the small baseline method – SBAS. The combination of the theoretical Knothe-Budryk model with the large-scale capabilities of InSAR may provide valuable material for a better understanding of the genesis of LDGD creation and their prediction.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Apr 2022 14:03:44 PDT
       
  • Accident Analysis of Mining Industry in the United States – A
           retrospective study for 36 years

    • Authors: Elham Rahimi et al.
      Abstract: A retrospective study on accident analysis of the United States mines for 36 years was achieved using statistical analysis on the MSHA's accident databases between 1983 and 2018. A regression model of generalized estimation equation (GEE) was used for unbalanced panel data that provided 95,812 observations for 19,924 mine-ID-year in aggregate, coal, metal, and non-metal mines. The contributions of various parameters, including mine type, injured body part, days lost, age, and experience on the rate of accidents and injuries were investigated across the commodity types. The results showed coal miners in the East region are at a higher risk of accident. The results of regression analysis show that mine-tenured workers have a vital role in accident frequencies. Analysis of the injured body part on the injury rate indicates that the upper body injuries are the most significant among all mine types. Also, the fatality rate is significant in aggregate, and coal mines in comparison with metal and non-metal mines.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Feb 2022 08:58:29 PST
       
  • The use of microalgal sourced biodiesel to help underground mines
           transition to battery electric vehicles

    • Authors: Corey A. Laamanen et al.
      Abstract: The use of fossil fuel sourced diesel underground has various associated health and environmental hazards, and additional energy demand and costs associated with necessary ventilation. One way to reduce these impacts is by utilizing a biodieselblend, which generates lower levels of harmful emissions from underground equipment and can be produced regionally, reducing the impact of transportation. Furthermore, this would help allow use of existing machinery during transition towards more widespread electrification underground. Therefore, the concept of an integrated supply and use chain within the mining industry is examined based on biodiesel from acidophilic photosynthetic microalgae cultivated using CO 2 in smelter off-gas. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to compare the environmental impacts of production, transportation, and end-use of fossil fuel sourced diesel to biodieselblended fuel across four underground metal ore mine sites (Canada, Poland, Zambia, and Australia). The outcomes from assessing four key environmental impact potentials (global warming, eutrophication, acidification and human toxicity) demonstrate the advantages of using biodiesel-blends. The integration of biodiesel resulted in changes of -22.5–+22.8% (global warming), -6.1–+27.3% (eutrophication), -18.9–+26.3% (acidification), and -21.0–-3.6% (human toxicity). The results showed reduction across all potentials for two mines and reduction in human toxicity potential for all sites.
      PubDate: Sat, 08 Jan 2022 13:23:04 PST
       
  • Investigating the effectiveness of a ground support system implemented on
           Block A: A case study of Southern Africa Metalliferous Mine

    • Authors: Kamogelo Manyelo et al.
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the ground support systems that are planned to be implemented on Block A, which will be excavated through the Marikana fault zone. The block of ground being prepared for mining has been physically affected by the presence of the Marikana fault and is therefore geomechanically and geotechnically weaker than the normal stoping conditions on the rest of the shaft. Joint mapping conducted in Block A raiselines indicated that there is a high concentration of shallow dipping joints which are dipping in opposite directions. Such conditions present special challenges in the planned excavations because they can lead to sudden and uncontrolled collapses unless appropriate action is taken to mitigate such instances. The orientation of joint sets aid the formation of keyblocks, which can collapse provided their weight exceeds the support load bearing capacity or if they are located in between support units. Therefore, stoping in the Marikana fault zone requires a more intensive support with a higher than normal support resistance. The existing ground control strategies, the processes, tools, techniques, and methods that are currently being used for support design were investigated and incorporated into the new system where applicable.
      PubDate: Sat, 08 Jan 2022 11:08:37 PST
       
  • Application of Entropy Method for Estimating Factor Weights in
           Mining-Method Selection for Development of Novel Mining-Method Selection
           System

    • Authors: Elsa Pansilvania Andre Manjate et al.
      Abstract: Mining-method selection (MMS) is one of the most critical and complex decisionmaking processes in mine planning. Therefore, it has been a subject of several studies for many years culminating with the development of different systems. However, there is still more to be done to improve and/or create more efficient systems and deal with the complexity caused by many influencing factors. This study introduces the application of the entropy method for feature selection, i.e., select the most critical factors in MMS. The entropy method is applied to assess the relative importance of the factors influencing MMS by estimating their objective weights to then select the most critical. Based on the results, ore strength, host-rock strength, thickness, shape, dip, ore uniformity, mining costs, and dilution were identified as the most critical factors. This study adopts the entropy method in the data preparation step (i.e., feature selection) for developing a novel-MMS system that employs recommendation system technologies. The most critical factors will be used as main variables to create the dataset to serve as a basis for developing the model for the novel-MMS system. This study is a key step to optimize the performance of the model.
      PubDate: Sat, 08 Jan 2022 07:18:35 PST
       
  • Sources and techniques of domestic heating within TRITIA region

    • Authors: Malgorzata Wysocka et al.
      Abstract: The paper presents the balance of energy consumption for domestic heating in Opole and Silesian Voivodship (Poland), divided into various media. The report was based on an analysis of approximately 250 documents containing low-carbon economy plans for individual municipalities (gminas). The authors compared the current situation in these voivodships and their districts with the structure of the heating system in Poland as a whole, based on data from the Central Statistical Office of Poland. The data demonstrate that the use of coal-based energy media has not changed significantly over the years and around 55-60% of households with individual heating systems use this type of media. A much more favourable trend is found in large urban centres, where there is a high proportion of district heating. The most common of the lower-emitting fuels (LPG, natural gas, electricity, heat pumps) is natural gas, and the share of the remaining sources within this group are barely significant.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Jan 2022 04:23:34 PST
       
  • Modelling the throttle effect in a mine drift

    • Authors: Rickard Hansen
      Abstract: The throttle effect is a phenomenon, which may occur during a fire underground, causing unforeseen smoke spread. This paper focuses on the modelling of the throttle effect in a mine drift, using a CFD software. The aim of the paper is to investigate whether the CFD tool is able to predict and reproduce the throttle effect for fire scenarios underground. Experimental data from fire experiments in a model-scale mine drift and modelling results from a CFD model were used during the analysis. It was found that the CFD model was not able to fully reproduce the throttle effect for fire scenarios in a mine drift. The inability was due to the under prediction of the fire gas temperature at the ceiling level and the over prediction of the temperatures at the lower levels. The difficulties occurred foremost during transient periods with high fire growth rates. Given the difficulties in modelling the thermal stratification and the throttle effect, the use of CFD models should be mainly for qualitative analysis. Qualitative analysis could possibly be performed for non-transient and low intensity fires.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jan 2022 13:07:41 PST
       
  • Gravity field changes during deep exploitation of the coal longwall and
           their relation to stress distribution and seismic activity

    • Authors: Łukasz Kortas
      Abstract: Mining operations cause volumetric deformations within the rock mass and changes in its density, to which the gravimetric method is sensitive. These changes are particularly well seen in periodic measurements of the local gravity field. The paper analyses the relationship between the movement of a longwall in a coal seam and the change in the distribution of the gravity field in time and space observed on the ground surface. Relative gravimetric measurements were carried out in six series between 2018 and 2020; before the start of coal extraction, with the progress of the longwall and after the cessation of mining. Collected data allowed differential maps of changes in gravity to be plotted. Differential anomalies between the subsequent measurement series, and the reference one were then analysed. The distribution and temporal variations of the anomalies suggest a relationship between changes in density distribution of the rock medium in the longwall overburden, and the change in the stress state in the rock mass caused by the passage of the longwall front. An attempt was made to relate the variability of the state of stresses in the longwall overburden to the intensity of seismic tremors with energy> 10E4 J accompanying longwall exploitation.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Nov 2021 16:22:32 PST
       
  • Study of the relationship of tidal changes in gravity with the time of
           mining tremors in the area of the mining longwall in a coal mine – case
           study in USCB, Poland

    • Authors: Sławomir Siwek
      Abstract: Deep mining of coal deposits in Upper Silesia Coal Basin in Poland over several hundred years has led to disturbances in the natural state of equilibrium. As a result of changes in stress distribution, mass distribution (changes in gravity forces) and deformation of the rock mass, seismic tremors with energy reaching up to 10E+09J are generated. In this paper, the time of mining tremors occurrence is linked with changes in the gravitational load of the rock mass caused by litosphere tides, which are considered to be one of the factors leading to occurrence of natural seismic tremors. The analysis used data on tremors in the immediate vicinity of the longwall VIII E-E1 in seam 703/1 located in the north-eastern part of the Rydułtowy I mining area, whose mining user is PGG S.A. KWK ROW Rydułtowy. These data was compared with data recorded by gPhoneX-155 tidal gravimeter which measures changes in gravity acceleration. Gravimeter gPhoneX-155 is installed on the stand in the Industrial Cultural Center of Mine Ignacy in Rybnik-Niewiadom, within a few hundred meters of the longwall VIII E-E1. The results obtained in the paper indicate a relationship between changes in gravitational load known as lithosphere tides and the time of longwall mining-induced tremors. At the same time, no periodicity was found in the tremors catalog allowing to link them directly to litosphere tides.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Nov 2021 14:22:34 PST
       
  • Decarbonisation – Origins and Evolution of the Process on the
           European Level

    • Authors: Sylwia Jarosławska-Sobór
      Abstract: Decarbonisation of the european economy is one of the most important megatrends that will shape economic and social development in the coming years. This paper discusses the basic concepts of decarbonisation in terms of climate change, the history of this idea development and the legal basis introduced in the European Union, including key European documents and tools influencing the process, like ETS or CO2 emission allowances. Background on decarbonisation has been presented as a European roadmap to achieve a low-carbon economy in Europe. In the article the main assumptions of the EU strategy papers like Clean Energy for All Europeans or the European Green Deal are presented. Casus Silesia indicates the basic problematic issues that coal regions will have to tackle to due to the transition away from coal. For European societies, the new environmental policy of the European Commission means the intensification of activities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and switching the economy to low- or zero-carbon energy sources and technologies. The decarbonisation of the economy is an ongoing process which has been gaining momentum in recent years. The coal transition is a huge challenge, particularly for Poland.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Nov 2021 14:48:20 PST
       
  • Analysis and evaluation of risks in underground mining using the decision
           matrix risk-assessment (DMRA) technique, in Guanajuato, Mexico

    • Authors: Claudia Rivera Domínguez et al.
      Abstract: In this article special emphasis is placed on the importance of underground mining worldwide, in the Country of Mexico and in the State of Guanajuato, thereby generating the hiring of operational personnel to perform the main activities of this sector such as blasting, use of machinery and equipment, exploitation, fortification and amacize. Occupational accidents and diseases occur as a result of the aforementioned activities since the conditions in which workers work are not the most appropriate. To help improve working conditions, the decision matrix risk-assessment (DMRA) technique was applied, in which accidents are classified according to their severity and probability, in order to perform an assessment of the risks and identify the activities that should continue in the same manner, those that require control measures and, as a last resort, those activities that must stop. At the end of the study, corrective actions are proposed that can help to avoid the occurrence of the accidents presented, through the application of occupational safety and health regulations issued by the Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, which is a government entity that is responsible for both the issuing of and compliance with those regulations. Also establishes the obligations that must be documented according to rules that are applicable to mining activities.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:02:14 PDT
       
  • The environmental implications of the exploration and exploitation of
           solid minerals in Nigeria with a special focus on Tin in Jos and Coal in
           Enugu

    • Authors: Adeyinka O. Omotehinse et al.
      Abstract: Mining activities can have serious negative effects on the environment, these effects occur from the exploration stage to the closure stage of a mine's operation. Nigeria has different minerals and exploration/exploitation of these minerals can affect the environment. The objective of this paper is to consider how the exploration and exploitation of Tin in Plateau and Coal in Enugu has affected the environment. The Jos field (Plateau State) is used as a case study for areas with existing mines and the coal mines at Enugu represent areas with closed mines. The methodology used for this research includes a field survey; direct mapping of mining activities; assessment of the impacts of exploration and exploitation; documentary analysis; and observations. The results include analysis of the mining impacts of Tin and Coal on the environment. It is hoped that the conclusion of this study will enable Nigeria to put in place and enforce certain minimum environmental standards for solid mineral exploration and exploitation. In addition, best management practices for reclaiming surface mines could also be put in place.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:02:12 PDT
       
  • Natural radionuclides (NORM) in a Moroccan river affected by former
           conventional metal mining activities

    • Authors: Guillermo Manjón et al.
      Abstract: The main aim of this work was to determine the levels of multiple natural radionuclides in an aquatic system (Moulouya river, Morocco) impacted by multiple abandoned Zinc and Lead mines. 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th and 210Po were determined by alpha-particle spectrometry in water and sediment samples collected along the river and in samples from three pit lakes of abandoned mines, located in the Upper Moulouya catchment area. The results enabled the analysis of the different levels of impact of former mining activities, depending on the natural radionuclides. While the activity concentration of U-isotopes in Moulouya river water was slightly elevated in the vicinity of abandoned mine wastes, other natural radionuclides (Th-isotopes and 210Po) levels were typical of a natural environment. This fact is clearly reflected in the magnitude and range observed in the distribution coefficients for the different radionuclides analyzed.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Oct 2021 13:32:15 PDT
       
  • “Small in size, but big in impact”: Socio-environmental reforms for
           sustainable artisanal and small-scale mining

    • Authors: Obed Owusu et al.
      Abstract: Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) – small sized, largely unrecognized, rudimentary, and an informal form of mining – occurs in more than 70 countries around the world and is mainly hailed for its socioeconomic benefits and reviled for its environmental devastation. As a result, many people are confused about the future of ASM. In Ghana, the government banned ASM in 2017 and formed a security taskforce drawn from the military and police to crack down on nomadic and local ASM workers who defy the ban. This approach is unsustainable, deals less with the fundamental problems, and increases poverty among the already impoverished local populations who depend on this type of mining as their only means of livelihood. To support the argument for sustainable reforms, revenue growth decomposition and growth accounting analyses were performed to determine the factors shaping ASM revenue over 25 years (1990–2016). Results show that production (gold output) is the most important factor that influences revenue growth from ASM, contrary to the usual view that the price of the metal is mainly responsible for the increase in revenue. Thus, increasing labor hours in ASM could significantly increase mining revenue, reduce unemployment, and improve local commerce. We strongly conclude that sustainable reforms such as increasing local participation in decision making, education and training, adoption of improved technology, strengthening regulatory institutions, legislation and enforcement of enactments, and the provision of technical support and logistics could ensure socio-environmental sustainability.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Oct 2021 11:42:34 PDT
       
  • Discharges of dust from NORM facilities: Key parameters to assess
           effective doses for public exposure

    • Authors: Christian Kunze et al.
      Abstract: In transposing Directive 2013/59/Euratom (European Basic Safety Standards or EU BSS) into national law, it was necessary to identify industrial sectors which involve naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) which may lead to public exposure that cannot be disregarded from a radiation protection point of view. A research project was implemented that resulted in a comprehensive survey of all potentially relevant industrial sectors operating in Germany. Major efforts were made to determine source terms of airborne discharges, atmospheric dispersion models, and dose calculations. The study arrived at the conclusion that the discharge and the settlement of dust in agricultural and horticultural areas is the most relevant dispersion and exposure pathway, while discharges of radon are of minor importance. The original study used a number of rather complex models that may distract from the fact that very few key parameters and assumptions determine the effective dose of members of the public. This paper revisits the study and identifies those parameters and assumptions and provides a simplified, generic, yet sufficiently reliable and robust assessment methodology to determine the radiological relevance of dust discharges from NORM industries under the typical geographical and meteorological conditions of Germany. This paper provides examples of dose estimates for members of the public for selected industries operating in Germany. Due to its simplicity and robustness, the methodology can also be used to assess effective doses resulting from discharges in other industries in Germany, and it can be adapted to conditions in other countries in a straightforward way.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Oct 2021 11:42:33 PDT
       
  • Numerical modeling of transport roads in open pit mines

    • Authors: Adila Nurić et al.
      Abstract: Transport of overburden and mineral raw materials in surface mining is one of the most complex and costly processes today. Good transport roads are essential for successful transportation by trucks in open pit mines. Poor design, and maintenance of the roads has the greatest impact on the high transport costs and possible risks in terms of security. Numerical modeling was performed to analyze the effects of the properties of the built-in materials used in the construction of roads, the thickness of the layers and the interaction of tires with the road surface. The distribution of stress and strain determined in the construction of a road depends on the characteristics of the road and the structure and mass of the truck. For this reason, numerical modeling and computer simulation is considered a very suitable method in the design of roads, because in a short period of time and at a lower cost calculations for the construction of a large number of models can be implemented and the best model available will be chosen. The most favorable construction will be considered to be the one that will, at minimum construction costs and with low costs of maintenance, enable the efficient use of transport equipment for a longer period of exploitation.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Oct 2021 11:12:53 PDT
       
  • Sensitivity analysis of fuzzy-analytic hierarchical process (FAHP)
           decision-making model in selection of underground metal mining method

    • Authors: Bhanu Chander Balusa et al.
      Abstract: This study aims to analyse the sensitivity in decision-making which results in the selection of the appropriate underground metal mining method using the fuzzy-analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) model. The proposed model considers sixteen criteria for the selection of the most appropriate mining method out of the seven. The model consists of three-layer viz. the first layer represents the criteria (factors which influence the mining method), the second layer represents the sub-criteria (categorisation of the factors) and the third layer represents the alternatives (mining methods). The priority of the different mining methods was determined based on global weights. The global weights of seven mining method were determined using a different fuzzification factor under different decision-making attitudes (optimistic, pessimistic and unbiased). The sensitivity of the decision-making results was analysed in order to understand the robustness of the model.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Oct 2021 12:17:51 PDT
       
  • Analytical design of selected geotechnical solutions which protect civil
           structures from the effects of underground mining

    • Authors: Rafał Misa et al.
      Abstract: This paper presents the authors' computational methods based on Knothe's theory. The methods enable the estimation of the reduction coefficient for effects which originate from mining operations performed via the application of a longitudinal structure which is sunk in to the ground. It could be, for example, a partition, which as a structural gap fulfils the function of an expansion grout, or via breaking the subsoil continuity (e.g. because of creating a peat-filled ditch or using a natural gap). Demonstrative calculations have been carried out in a few cases, i.a. to protect a structure situated in the vicinity of a planned tunnel. Additionally, some examples of the discontinuity zone which impact the obtained deformation values have been presented. The calculation method has been tested in case studies. The results of the calculations clearly show the positive influence of the applied geotechnical solutions on the minimisation of mining damage.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Oct 2021 12:17:50 PDT
       
  • Determination of the stress-strain state of rock mass and zone of
           inelastic deformation around underground mine excavation using modern
           methods of numerical modelling

    • Authors: Sergey A. Ignatiev et al.
      Abstract: The paper reviews methods and trends of numerical modelling of geomechanical processes around underground mine excavations. The most rational method of determining the additional stresses caused by the mine excavations is chosen. Mathematical modelling was performed for excavations of various cross sections and different strength of rocks. The dimensions of the inelastic deformation zone around the mine excavations have been identified. The area of the total fracture zone around the excavation, as well as the area of the roof fracture zone are calculated. The results of the fracture zone modelling are presented both as coordinates and in a graphical form. To simplify application of the modelling results, dependency plots of the obtained parameters were created and analytical dependencies of the fracture zone parameters were identified. The SURFER and KOMPAS software packages were used as the graphic tools to visualize the modelling results
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Oct 2021 06:23:30 PDT
       
 
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