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Rural Sustainability Research
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1407-4427 - ISSN (Online) 2256-0939
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [371 journals]
  • Testing of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Commercial Yoghurts

    • Abstract: Yoghurt has been known as an excellent source for delivering viable lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in concentrations providing benefits to the human host and microbiome. Different gastrointestinal tract (GIT) simulators have been developed and are successfully used to determine the viability of LAB from fermented dairy products in vitro studies. Commercial yoghurts were tested for digestibility using the GIT IT system Labfors 5 (INFORS HT, Switzerland). The length for both the gastric phase and the small intestinal phase was 120 min each. Yoghurt LAB colony-forming units were analysed prior to the GIT simulation test, as well as after the simulation test. The survival rate of LAB was evaluated based on the differences in the viable LAB count at the beginning and at the end of the experiment.Tested yoghurts’ LAB were tolerated in the simulated gastric and small intestinal phases. Samples collected prior to and after the intestinal phase revealed that LAB had adapted and started to grow within 120 min. Our results showed the ability of LAB to recover in the intestinal phase which has been explained by the food matrix, which protects the bacteria from the elimination effect of intestinal secretions.In addition, differences in survival rates of LAB significantly influenced the overall LAB colony-forming units in the gastrointestial tract. The chemical composition of the product has an influence on the survival rate of LAB, and it should be studied more thoroughly. In vitro studies are quite different from the assay in vivo studies; however, this information provides significant data about the viability of LAB from regularly consumed products and helps to modulate the influence of LAB on human microbiota.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Research Support Model for Improving the Effectiveness of Medical Study
           Data Collection

    • Abstract: The paper describes the research support model for improving the effectiveness of the medical research data collection process and data quality. Every research project involves a data collection phase, during which different organisation, legal and technology factors are involved, including various procedures (questionnaire design, annotation, database design, data entry, data validation, discrepancy management, medical coding and data mining). The key task of clinical data management is to obtain high-quality data, which can be achieved by minimising data input errors and timely identifying missing data. This process is often time-consuming and takes up a significant part of the research project budget in both veterinary and human medicine. The aim of this study is to elaborate the research support model for the creation of a data collection automation software tool, which will allow one to ensure better data quality, shorten the time for data collection and minimise human work volume and respective human resource expenses, making research projects more effective in terms of their timing and budget. Research work included analysis of the current situation, its shortcomings, typical research project budget distribution and existing automated electronic data collection tools (EDC). Research was carried out in partnership with the Institute of Clinical and Preventive Medicine of the University of Latvia.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Impact of Sowing Dates on the Variability of Different Traits of Fenugreek

    • Abstract: The article presents the results of studies of two samples of fenugreek: blue (Trigonella coerulea (Desr.) Ser.) and hay (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) on the set of economic, biological and biochemical parameters. The researched samples of fenugreek have a wide range of variability of indicators depending on the terms of sowing and weather conditions. More rapid development was shown by fenugreek species on the summer sowing dates (III decade of June) with a vegetation period of 36–37 days. To obtain a high yield of green mass of fenugreek plants, the early spring (II–III decade of April) and late spring (I decade of May) sowing terms were more suitable. The obtained green mass yield was: 5.7–6.9 t∙ha–1 – blue fenugreek, and 7.3–9.3 t∙ha–1 – hay fenugreek, with the content of the dry matter being 12.4–28.4%, the sum of sugars 2.5–5.0% and vitamin C – 38.0–51.8 mg∙(100 g)−1. To obtain spices called “mushroom grass”, it is promising to use hay fenugreek with early spring (II–III decade of April) and late spring (I decade of May) terms of sowing, as a more developed vegetative mass is formed with the dry weight yield of plants 1.3–1.4 t∙ha–1. An increase in the amount of precipitation by 1 mm resulted in fluctuations of green mass yield from 15.0 to 77.3 kg∙ha–1 and dry mass yield from 0.693 to 25.9 kg∙ha–1.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Research of a Dry Extruded Mixture of Protein Rich Plant Composition

    • Abstract: Since plant protein is generally accepted as sustainable and environmentally friendly, production of new plant protein-based products is expanding and a raw material is diversified to ensure a high-value and complete meal. The objective of the study was to compare chemical composition and amino acid provision of pea-buckwheat, pea-barley and pea-oat extruded mixtures with the aim to look for new products to diversify diet using the best plant protein resources. Within the research, amino acid scores of hull-less barley, buckwheat, hull-less oat and grey pea as an indicator of raw material protein quality were evaluated. The highest scores of essential amino acids were found in oat and pea protein. Amino acid scoring patterns of raw material – oat ‘Stendes Emilija’ and grey pea ‘Bruno’ fully meet the requirements for essential amino acid supply. The protein of buckwheat is the richest in lysine (4.3 g 100g−1 protein) among studied cereals, although the difference in the essential amino acids was not significant. The results of the research showed that pea-barley and pea-buckwheat composite mixtures meet human needs better if pea protein is used in the proportion 65:35 with barley or buckwheat flour than in the proportion 35:65. The high protein content – 43.33% and 43.96%, the sum and composition of essential amino acids, and high level of total dietary fibre – 11.9% and 13.7% are the main reasons to consider the mixtures (including as a base for smoothies) as a complete meal.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Impacts of COVID-19 on the Food Supply Chain for Arable Crops in Latvia

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented stress to food supply chains, pointing to weaknesses in the labour, processing, transport and logistics spheres, as well as significant changes in demand. Food supply chains have shown considerable resilience in the face of such stress. Monitoring of the food sector during the COVID-19 pandemic indicates that the effects of COVID-19 on food supply, demand and access are interlinked processes and have a complex impact on food systems. In addition, high-value food supply chains in developed countries are even more complex, so countries need to respond quickly to restore them and also develop mechanisms that balance business and public interests and protect farmers and food business workers during future potential pandemic crises. The research aims to identify the main demand and supply side factors that affect the resilience of local and global food supply chains during the COVID-19 crisis, as well as assess the resilience of the supply chain for arable crops during the COVID-19 crisis in Latvia, identifying the main risk factors. The research found that arable crop farmers were relatively less affected by the COVID-19 crisis than other agricultural employees. The impact of the crisis was larger on the crop processing industry than on the other industries, and the main risk factors related to changes in demand and the industry’s dependence on imported raw materials and the successful operation of export markets. Based on an in-depth risk analysis, the research developed recommendations for policy makers and actors in the agri-food chain that would improve the resilience of local (domestic) participants of the arable crop food supply chain in Latvia.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Missing Link of UTM

    • Abstract: As the use cases for rural unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) missions are evolving, the next step is to make on-site UAV missions controlled over long distances. The control is called Beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) and there is a great need for use cases to become autonomous or self-sustaining over long distances. Designing airspace to include autonomous and BVLOS UAV involves proposals for traffic that do not exist to date, different actors, and a multitude of risks; system design must answer a wide range of questions before its release. Luckily, most of the technical questions are already solved, most of the safety regulations are there in place in general aviation, and the industry is waiting for a new type of transportation. In this paper, the authors propose action for policymakers on how to approach the challenge of developing UAV Traffic Management (UTM) systems that can be applied to any geographic location and identify missing links in decision-making to enable development.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Global Trends of Decarbonisation as a Determining Factor for the
           Development of External Economic Activity of Metallurgical Enterprises

    • Abstract: The article states that in the conditions of climate crisis aggravation the decarbonisation of the economy acquires the status of a global initiative aimed at achieving zero CO2 emissions by 2050. It is emphasised that this initiative is closely accompanied by legislation, business modernisation programmes and the creation of equal conditions for both domestic producers and exporters of carbon-intensive products (in particular, through the introduction of the carbon border adjustment mechanism - CBAM) and new rules of the world market. The consequences of CBAM implementation into Ukrainian metallurgical enterprises and the development of their foreign economic activity are determined in the example of Metinvest Group (Ukraine) enterprises. The ambivalence of CBAM is proven. It is substantiated that CBAM implementation will not accelerate, but, on the contrary, will slow down the process of decarbonisation, which will eventually lead to the loss of domestic metallurgical enterprises’ competitive position in the European market of metal products. Regarding the need to take transitional measures to decarbonise the metallurgical business (first of all, to ensure proper investment), the decision should be based on the expected decoupling effect - positive dynamics of economic growth while reducing the negative impact on the environment. The estimating method of the decoupling effect has been modified according to the integrated approach. A trend analysis of the integrated decalin effect indicator and its components was performed in Metinvest Group companies (Ukraine). Based on the results of econometric analysis of the impact of investment on greenhouse gas emissions, the author’s model for determining the volume of investment in the process of decarbonisation of metallurgical enterprises for the period up to 2050 is proposed. Comparative analysis is performed regarding investment in the process of decarbonisation under the scenarios by GMK Center, IEA, McKinsey and Roland Berger, as well as the author’s model.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Sensory and Textural Properties of Frozen Muffins Prepared with Cottage
           Cheese and Tofu

    • Abstract: Muffin is a flour confectionery product with an elastic texture. Nowadays, vegetable products are replacing traditional dairy products more often in the food sector. Tofu, which is a quintessential soy protein product, is one of the alternatives for making vegan products. The aim of this research was to determine the influence of defrosting processes to changes of sensory and textural properties of a muffins with cottage cheese and its vegan substitutes. Five types of muffins were used in the study – muffin without cottage cheese (control), muffin with cottage cheese, muffin with lactose-free cottage cheese, tofu muffin and tofu chickpea muffin, which were thawed after freezing in two ways (at room temperature and in a microwave oven). For the determination of muffin quality, the Quantitative descriptive method (QDA) was used, and for overall liking, the 7-point hedonic scale and acceptance – Just-about-Right (JAR) method were used. To evaluate physical-chemical and textural analysis, standard methods were used. The method of defrosting muffins – room (ambient) temperature or microwave – has no significant effect (p>0.05) on the quality and JAR rating of the muffins with cottage cheese and tofu. The obtained results showed that the addition of plant-based protein sources significantly reduces the volume of muffins; the texture of the muffins becomes softer, but more sticky. In the process of defrosting using a microwave, the structure of the muffins is drier, softer, whitish, and less sticky, compared to a muffin thawed at 22 °C.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Present and Future Availability of Livestock Manure for Biogas Production
           in Latvia

    • Abstract: In order to address existing and foreseen climate change and environmental challenges, the European Commission has adopted a set of proposals as part of the European Green Deal to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and become the first climate-neutral continent in the world. In the energy sector it is planned to implement specific actions to increase the contribution from renewable sources of energy. Livestock manure as a renewable resource can be processed to produce biogas through anaerobic digestion processes. This study aimed to estimate the amount of livestock manure potentially available for biogas production in Latvia based on statistical information on the number of animals representing current and past trends, and forecasts for the future provided by the results of the Latvian Agricultural Sector Analysis Model (LASAM).The results of this study showed that the share of livestock manure processed to produce biogas has increased considerably during the time period from 2010 to 2019 in all groups of livestock considered for this application in Latvia. However, there are still opportunities to increase the share of manure utilised for anaerobic digestion, especially in the livestock groups of dairy cows and non-dairy cows, as only 16% and 13% of the available amount of manure was processed in 2019, respectively. The LASAM results indicate that the number of animals will experience negligible changes or will decrease; therefore, more attention will need to be paid to increase the efficiency of processing the existing amount of manure rather than relying on an additional amount of manure available for biogas production.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Total Soluble Sugars in Root and Stem of Wichita and Western Varieties in
           Northern Mexico

    • Abstract: The aim of the current study was to determine the monthly total soluble sugar concentration in the stem and root of the Wichita and Western walnut (Carya illinoinensis) varieties during a productive cycle in northern Mexico. Vegetable samples were obtained using a systematic sampling method, and processed by means of a spectrophotometric assay to determine the total soluble sugars (TSS) concentration in productive walnut trees. Data analysis was performed by means of a 2-way ANOVA. The results of the TSS concentration had differences throughout the months of an annual productive cycle, and were also different between the evaluated walnut varieties. The highest total soluble sugar concentration in stem and root were in the lowest temperature months, and it decreases in both tissues when the environmental temperature rises. The Wichita variety had a higher total soluble sugar concentration than the Western in every month during the productive cycle. Further research is required to assess the effect of other type of factors including environmental or agronomic over the dynamics of the total soluble sugars in productive walnut trees.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Green Transportation in the Šiauliai Regional Companies

    • Abstract: A relevant and practical research object is analysed in the article – the implementation resolution of green transportation and the benefits of using such means. In this article, object is analysed from the interdisciplinary position, i.e. from the perspective of transportation, one of the logistical subsystems, and sustainable environment. The transportation department is undoubtedly an important guarantor of economic and industrial development. Despite the worldwide importance of transportation in everyday activities, the transportation also poses the risk for human health and life quality, for it is one of the biggest consumer of oil products and significantly contributes towards air pollution. Despite many theoretical and empirical researches, Šiauliai region still lacks an approach towards the implementation possibilities and studies revealing the benefits of green transportation. A comparative analysis has been performed by using the survey data, collected from 402 workers, responsible for transportation, working for Šiauliai regional companies. According to the results of the research for implementation situations of green transport in Šiauliai regional companies, the representatives of regional companies understand the importance of green transport, and more and more companies aim to reduce the environmental risk and to become more competitive. Integrated transportation by combining several means of transport, cargo consolidation by combining small orders and big orders, and ecological driving are the green transportation measures implemented most in regional companies. The typical benefits of green transport are increased environmental friendliness and improved relationship with consumers.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Significance of “Green” Skills and Competencies Making the
           Transition Towards the “Greener” Economy

    • Abstract: Climate change and environmental deterioration have been recognized as global drivers of change, and the shift to the “greener” economy is the key to sustainable development. The green economy is a priority field for developing and developed economies. However, as the authors of the publication have realised, there is no consensus about the meaning of the green economy and “green” jobs, that is why an uncertainty as in measurement of economic trends and an impact of it, as well as in what skills and competencies should be assigned to the “green” ones, arises. The new “green” processes and technologies are arising in a progressive trend, that is why it is important to ensure there are properly skilled candidates with appropriate “green” skills and competencies on the labour market, as well as to prepare fresh graduates with the “green” skills that will meet requirement of both, the recent and the future companies, especially operating in the “green” sector. In the framework of “SB Bridge” project an online survey was conducted by interviewing the “green” companies to identify which skills and competencies are needed for “green” jobs recently, and whether candidates and fresh graduates are enough with the “green” skills and competencies for fruitful engagement to “green” jobs. As the survey identified, fresh graduates and candidates for “green” jobs lack technical and (or) mechanical knowledge, IT skills, as well as experience and ability to work independently and in the team to resolve arising problems.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Influence of Veneer Density on Plywood Thickness and Some Mechanical
           Properties

    • Abstract: It has been common knowledge that as the density of wood increases, the mechanical properties also improve. In turn, the density of wood depends on many factors, including the wood moisture content, location and cross-section in the trunk, the type of treatment and the parameters of technological processes. There is a great deal of research reported in the scientific literature on the effect of solid wood density on mechanical properties for different wood species as well as for structural timber. However, no research data can be found related investigation of the influence of veneer density on the properties of the birch plywood.In the present study, researching the properties of 7-ply birch plywood (thickness 9 mm), it was concluded that as the density of veneers increases, the bending properties of plywood in the direction of wood fibers (covered veneers) increases. When determining the plywood gluing quality, similar tendencies have been observed. For plywood with a lower density in all veneer plies the gluing quality (tensile-shear test) for perpendicular wood fiber veneers increases in the direction from the symmetry axis or middle veneer to the plywood outer plies, which can be explained by the fact that the outer plies become denser at the time of the hot pressing process. The results of the study will allow birch plywood manufacturers in direct production, sort veneers by density, to produce plywood with very predictable gluing quality, plywood thickness and mechanical properties in bending.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Creating a Regulatory Framework for the ESG-investment in the Multimodal
           Transportation Development

    • Abstract: The work states that the strategic guideline for building an effective competitive national transport system and prosperous using Ukrainian multimodal potential is the formation of a regulatory environment for scaling ESG-investment in the context of transformation to a “climate-neutral” economy. The absence of a unified methodology for (assessment) scoring ESG-direction of business as the basis for decision-making on ESG-investment is established in the world and national practice. For the first time, the author’s model of scoring trends and regularities of business development is proposed in accordance with ESG-principles, in contrast to traditional trend dynamic models, which identifies and iteratively conceptualizes processes by the set of ESG-indicator components determined using the cocoupling-analysis toolkit (tools for assessing the cocoupling-effect). A classification of the cocoupling-effect has been developed and each of its types has been characterized. Possible options for ESG-effectiveness of business are identified, which conditionally correspond to the four zones of the ESG-investment decision-making matrix. A research on the expected cocoupling-effect of ESG-investment in the multimodal transportation development is carried out to validate the feasibility of implementation the author’s scoring model for the ESG-direction of business and obtaining realistic results according to the data of the International Energy Agency and the State Statistics Service of Ukraine. An effective measures arsenal of creating the regulatory framework for ESG-investment in the multimodal transportation development is identified and a Roadmap is proposed for their high-quality implementation, which would ensure positive changes in Ukraine’s position in the world ranking of countries by multimodal potential usage efficiency.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Opportunities for Commercialization of High-Protein Barley: Case of New
           Variety ‘Kornelija’

    • Abstract: The objective of the study was to define the main opportunities and challenges for the commercialization of the new hulless barley variety ‘Kornelija’ arising from its biochemical and farming profile, and to present the evaluation for the approach to a new high protein-based payment system. Unlike the agricultural profile with both advantages and disadvantages, the variety shows distinctive grain quality and biochemical properties. Although there is a growing demand for high-nutrition and plant-based protein foods, farmers are focused on yield potential, not the nutritional value of cereals. By paying for the grains of ‘Kornelija’ the price that is equal or higher than winter wheat referenced break-even price, food processors would both motivate farmers to grow the variety and obtain grains with much higher protein content, and significantly higher β-glucans content than winter wheat to produce functional foods for a price that is close to the price of winter wheat.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Pre-treatment Effect on Physical and Microbial Parameters of Smoked Baltic
           Sprats

    • Abstract: Smoked sprats are delicious and nutritionally valuable product. Besides protein, it contains high amount of unsaturated fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins. Nowadays, human interest for fish product consumption is increasing. It leads to the demand for increased shelf life of the smoked sprats. One way to prolong the shelf life is to use some pre-treatment prior to smoking. The aim of study was to analyse the effect of pre-treatment on smoked Baltic sprat quality and microbiological parameters. Various compositions of brine using salts (NaCl, CaCl2) and acetic acid in different proportions were used for fresh sprat pre-treatment. Pre-treatment had the influence on physical parameters; pre-treated samples had higher salt and lower moisture content, and lower pH, which allowed prolonging the shelf life of smoked sprats. The highest pH was in the control sample 6.6, and it allowed growth of yeasts, moulds, Pseudomonas spp., and mesophilic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms. The results demonstrated that after two-week storage of the smoked sprats the growth of moulds (1×102 CFU g−1) was observed only for smoked sprats without pre-treatment (control sample), indicating the positive effect of pre-treatment. Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfingens, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli were not detected in any of the analysed samples. After pre-treatment in brine, containing combination of NaCl and CaCl2, smoked fish had darker colour compared to control sample or sample with sodium chloride only. Any of applied pre-treatments, except brine containing NaCl, made firmer texture of the smoked fish.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Slaughter Results, Meat Chemical Composition and pH of Aberdinangus,
           Hereford and Limousin bulls

    • Abstract: Beef production must combine the interests of both producers and consumers, taking into account the sustainable use of environmental resources. The aim of the study was to analyze and compare the slaughter results, meet chemical composition and pH value of three beef breeds – Aberdinangus (AA), Hereford (HF) and Limousin (LI) bulls. The bulls were fattened on Latvian and Lithuanian farms, mainly using grass forage.The breed and age of bulls before slaughter significantly affected all slaughter results, except for fat class. From the meat chemical composition traits, the bull breed and age before slaughter had a significant effect only on the protein content. LI bulls showed the highest carcass weight 301.1±6.8 kg (p<0.05), dressing percentage 58.2±1.1% (p<0.05) and conformation score 3.56±0.18 points. The best fattened carcasses were obtained from AA bulls - 2.43±0.20 points. Muscle samples of musculus longissimus (M. longissimus) bulls of LI breed showed higher content of moisture (72.0±1.0%), protein (23.0±0.2%), ash (1.1±0.0%) and cholesterol (56.7±6.6 mg 100 g−1). AA breed bulls showed higher total fat (6.6±1.2%) and iron content (13.1±0.6 mg). The highest pH was observed in the meat obtained from AA bulls – 6.0±0.1, LI and HF breed bulls showed pH 5.8±0.0 and 5.8±0.1 respectively. Correlation analysis showed a significant, strong positive correlation between cold carcass weight and dressing percentage for AA and LI bulls, r=0.90 and r=0.88, respectively. For LI breed bulls, a strong positive correlation was also found between the cold carcass weight and the conformation score (r=0.98, p<0.01).
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Evaluation of patatin content in proteins of potato genotypes grown in
           Latvia

    • Abstract: Potato proteins contains essential amino acids in considerably high concentration, therefore potatoes are considered to be one of the most valuable plant origin food for human consumption. Patatin forms one of the largest group of potato proteins with high potential to be used in food industry as a novel food. This study has been performed to approbate patatin determination method for evaluation of protein quality of potato genotypes, as well as evaluate patatin relative abundance (PRA) for breeding programmes to create in the future potato cultivars with higher value and potential to develop new products.The evaluation of patatin was performed in following steps– extraction proteins from potato, determination of patatin concentration and calculation of its relative abundance in proteins. Separation of patatin from potato tubers was made using extraction by SDS extraction buffer and determination of patatin in organically and conventionally (with differnt N suply) grown samples of 20 potato genotypes. The results of one-year study showed that patatin relative abundance of different cultivars varied from 1.65% to 50.2% and it was significantly different among genotypes. The nitrogen content of soil and maturity type of potato did not affect PRA significantly. Results provide impetus for further research.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Influence of Germinated Hull-less Barley Sordough Fermentation
           Conditions on the Microbiota Development

    • Abstract: Sourdough plays an important role in quality assurance, especially during developing wholegrain wheat bread products. The value of barley and hull-less barley grains is determined by the low lipid and high carbohydrate (starch and resistant starch) content, balanced amino acid profile, dietary fibre and phenolic compounds. During germination (24 h) the amount of sugar, amino acids and vitamins increase in the grains. Therefore, it could be optimal environment for microbiota growth in sourdough. The goal of the research was to find optimal technological parameters and to study microorganism growth dynamic during the fermentation of sourdough with germinated hull-less barley. The study was performed using three steps of fermentation, with different temperature and time parameters. At each step pH, dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeast-like fungi and total plate count (TPC) growth were determined using standard methods. The results of the study showed that the optimal fermentation conditions for the first stage are 48 h and 26 ± 1 °C, for the second stage 8 h and 26 ± 1 °C and for the third stage 20 h and 28 ± 1 °C. During fermentation of the sourdough, the pH 3.91 is reached, LAB 8.8 log10 CFU g−1, and the yeast-like fungi 8.7 log10 CFU g−1 was determined. Obtained data show that more than 80 bacteria and 50 microscopic fungal species were detected in hull-less barley flour, but after germination their diversity decreased and in the germinated hull-less barley sourdoughs dominated species were Pediococcus pentosaceus.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • A Case-study: Temperature Distribution and Heat Penetration in Steam-air
           Retort, Using Glass Jars and Retort Pouches

    • Abstract: Retort thermal sterilization of canned food is a technology, which allows preserving food products by applying heat on packaged food in retorts (autoclaves) at temperatures up to 121 °C. The thermodynamics of the processes in the retort are influenced by the product stacking method in the basket and packaging material. The aims of this study were: 1) to analyse and compare temperature distribution (TD) and the slowest to heat location in the steam-air retort stacked with glass jars and with retort pouches; 2) to analyse and compare commercial product heat penetration (HP) characteristics in glass jars and retort pouches. Temperature measurements were performed with wireless thermocouples. The come-up time (heating phase) required to achieve in the retort temperature uniformity criteria of ±0.5 °C, is 28 min when the retort is stacked with glass jars, and 24 min when the retort is stacked with retort pouches. Total calculated process time (holding phase), necessary to achieve the sterilization value (F0 of 3 min), for sample in glass jars was 67 min, but in retort pouches – 62 min. The overall sterilization process time difference between two considered packaging types was 9 min, which is significant amount of time in the context of commercial processing. The study clearly shows the necessity to perform the Temperature Distribution and Heat Penetration study, as each packaging material, stacking method and product will affect sterilization process thermodynamics and, therefore, the overall process time and consequently - the safety of food product.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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