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Rural Sustainability Research
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1407-4427 - ISSN (Online) 2256-0939
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Green Transportation in the Šiauliai Regional Companies

    • Abstract: A relevant and practical research object is analysed in the article – the implementation resolution of green transportation and the benefits of using such means. In this article, object is analysed from the interdisciplinary position, i.e. from the perspective of transportation, one of the logistical subsystems, and sustainable environment. The transportation department is undoubtedly an important guarantor of economic and industrial development. Despite the worldwide importance of transportation in everyday activities, the transportation also poses the risk for human health and life quality, for it is one of the biggest consumer of oil products and significantly contributes towards air pollution. Despite many theoretical and empirical researches, Šiauliai region still lacks an approach towards the implementation possibilities and studies revealing the benefits of green transportation. A comparative analysis has been performed by using the survey data, collected from 402 workers, responsible for transportation, working for Šiauliai regional companies. According to the results of the research for implementation situations of green transport in Šiauliai regional companies, the representatives of regional companies understand the importance of green transport, and more and more companies aim to reduce the environmental risk and to become more competitive. Integrated transportation by combining several means of transport, cargo consolidation by combining small orders and big orders, and ecological driving are the green transportation measures implemented most in regional companies. The typical benefits of green transport are increased environmental friendliness and improved relationship with consumers.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Significance of “Green” Skills and Competencies Making the
           Transition Towards the “Greener” Economy

    • Abstract: Climate change and environmental deterioration have been recognized as global drivers of change, and the shift to the “greener” economy is the key to sustainable development. The green economy is a priority field for developing and developed economies. However, as the authors of the publication have realised, there is no consensus about the meaning of the green economy and “green” jobs, that is why an uncertainty as in measurement of economic trends and an impact of it, as well as in what skills and competencies should be assigned to the “green” ones, arises. The new “green” processes and technologies are arising in a progressive trend, that is why it is important to ensure there are properly skilled candidates with appropriate “green” skills and competencies on the labour market, as well as to prepare fresh graduates with the “green” skills that will meet requirement of both, the recent and the future companies, especially operating in the “green” sector. In the framework of “SB Bridge” project an online survey was conducted by interviewing the “green” companies to identify which skills and competencies are needed for “green” jobs recently, and whether candidates and fresh graduates are enough with the “green” skills and competencies for fruitful engagement to “green” jobs. As the survey identified, fresh graduates and candidates for “green” jobs lack technical and (or) mechanical knowledge, IT skills, as well as experience and ability to work independently and in the team to resolve arising problems.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Influence of Veneer Density on Plywood Thickness and Some Mechanical

    • Abstract: It has been common knowledge that as the density of wood increases, the mechanical properties also improve. In turn, the density of wood depends on many factors, including the wood moisture content, location and cross-section in the trunk, the type of treatment and the parameters of technological processes. There is a great deal of research reported in the scientific literature on the effect of solid wood density on mechanical properties for different wood species as well as for structural timber. However, no research data can be found related investigation of the influence of veneer density on the properties of the birch plywood.In the present study, researching the properties of 7-ply birch plywood (thickness 9 mm), it was concluded that as the density of veneers increases, the bending properties of plywood in the direction of wood fibers (covered veneers) increases. When determining the plywood gluing quality, similar tendencies have been observed. For plywood with a lower density in all veneer plies the gluing quality (tensile-shear test) for perpendicular wood fiber veneers increases in the direction from the symmetry axis or middle veneer to the plywood outer plies, which can be explained by the fact that the outer plies become denser at the time of the hot pressing process. The results of the study will allow birch plywood manufacturers in direct production, sort veneers by density, to produce plywood with very predictable gluing quality, plywood thickness and mechanical properties in bending.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Creating a Regulatory Framework for the ESG-investment in the Multimodal
           Transportation Development

    • Abstract: The work states that the strategic guideline for building an effective competitive national transport system and prosperous using Ukrainian multimodal potential is the formation of a regulatory environment for scaling ESG-investment in the context of transformation to a “climate-neutral” economy. The absence of a unified methodology for (assessment) scoring ESG-direction of business as the basis for decision-making on ESG-investment is established in the world and national practice. For the first time, the author’s model of scoring trends and regularities of business development is proposed in accordance with ESG-principles, in contrast to traditional trend dynamic models, which identifies and iteratively conceptualizes processes by the set of ESG-indicator components determined using the cocoupling-analysis toolkit (tools for assessing the cocoupling-effect). A classification of the cocoupling-effect has been developed and each of its types has been characterized. Possible options for ESG-effectiveness of business are identified, which conditionally correspond to the four zones of the ESG-investment decision-making matrix. A research on the expected cocoupling-effect of ESG-investment in the multimodal transportation development is carried out to validate the feasibility of implementation the author’s scoring model for the ESG-direction of business and obtaining realistic results according to the data of the International Energy Agency and the State Statistics Service of Ukraine. An effective measures arsenal of creating the regulatory framework for ESG-investment in the multimodal transportation development is identified and a Roadmap is proposed for their high-quality implementation, which would ensure positive changes in Ukraine’s position in the world ranking of countries by multimodal potential usage efficiency.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Opportunities for Commercialization of High-Protein Barley: Case of New
           Variety ‘Kornelija’

    • Abstract: The objective of the study was to define the main opportunities and challenges for the commercialization of the new hulless barley variety ‘Kornelija’ arising from its biochemical and farming profile, and to present the evaluation for the approach to a new high protein-based payment system. Unlike the agricultural profile with both advantages and disadvantages, the variety shows distinctive grain quality and biochemical properties. Although there is a growing demand for high-nutrition and plant-based protein foods, farmers are focused on yield potential, not the nutritional value of cereals. By paying for the grains of ‘Kornelija’ the price that is equal or higher than winter wheat referenced break-even price, food processors would both motivate farmers to grow the variety and obtain grains with much higher protein content, and significantly higher β-glucans content than winter wheat to produce functional foods for a price that is close to the price of winter wheat.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Pre-treatment Effect on Physical and Microbial Parameters of Smoked Baltic

    • Abstract: Smoked sprats are delicious and nutritionally valuable product. Besides protein, it contains high amount of unsaturated fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins. Nowadays, human interest for fish product consumption is increasing. It leads to the demand for increased shelf life of the smoked sprats. One way to prolong the shelf life is to use some pre-treatment prior to smoking. The aim of study was to analyse the effect of pre-treatment on smoked Baltic sprat quality and microbiological parameters. Various compositions of brine using salts (NaCl, CaCl2) and acetic acid in different proportions were used for fresh sprat pre-treatment. Pre-treatment had the influence on physical parameters; pre-treated samples had higher salt and lower moisture content, and lower pH, which allowed prolonging the shelf life of smoked sprats. The highest pH was in the control sample 6.6, and it allowed growth of yeasts, moulds, Pseudomonas spp., and mesophilic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms. The results demonstrated that after two-week storage of the smoked sprats the growth of moulds (1×102 CFU g−1) was observed only for smoked sprats without pre-treatment (control sample), indicating the positive effect of pre-treatment. Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfingens, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli were not detected in any of the analysed samples. After pre-treatment in brine, containing combination of NaCl and CaCl2, smoked fish had darker colour compared to control sample or sample with sodium chloride only. Any of applied pre-treatments, except brine containing NaCl, made firmer texture of the smoked fish.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Slaughter Results, Meat Chemical Composition and pH of Aberdinangus,
           Hereford and Limousin bulls

    • Abstract: Beef production must combine the interests of both producers and consumers, taking into account the sustainable use of environmental resources. The aim of the study was to analyze and compare the slaughter results, meet chemical composition and pH value of three beef breeds – Aberdinangus (AA), Hereford (HF) and Limousin (LI) bulls. The bulls were fattened on Latvian and Lithuanian farms, mainly using grass forage.The breed and age of bulls before slaughter significantly affected all slaughter results, except for fat class. From the meat chemical composition traits, the bull breed and age before slaughter had a significant effect only on the protein content. LI bulls showed the highest carcass weight 301.1±6.8 kg (p<0.05), dressing percentage 58.2±1.1% (p<0.05) and conformation score 3.56±0.18 points. The best fattened carcasses were obtained from AA bulls - 2.43±0.20 points. Muscle samples of musculus longissimus (M. longissimus) bulls of LI breed showed higher content of moisture (72.0±1.0%), protein (23.0±0.2%), ash (1.1±0.0%) and cholesterol (56.7±6.6 mg 100 g−1). AA breed bulls showed higher total fat (6.6±1.2%) and iron content (13.1±0.6 mg). The highest pH was observed in the meat obtained from AA bulls – 6.0±0.1, LI and HF breed bulls showed pH 5.8±0.0 and 5.8±0.1 respectively. Correlation analysis showed a significant, strong positive correlation between cold carcass weight and dressing percentage for AA and LI bulls, r=0.90 and r=0.88, respectively. For LI breed bulls, a strong positive correlation was also found between the cold carcass weight and the conformation score (r=0.98, p<0.01).
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Strategic Potential of Agricultural Waste as a Feedstock for Biofuels
           Production in Ukraine

    • Abstract: Ukraine’s agriculture is a leading sector of the national economy. Ukraine has a significant area (603628 km2), 70.9% of which are agricultural lands. Quality soil and good climatic conditions create favorable conditions for the development of crop and livestock production. The generation of a large amount of organic waste from agriculture opens wide opportunities for the development of the biogas technologies. The aim of the paper is to identify the main waste management trends in Ukraine based on data on waste generation and waste management and to calculate the strategic potential of agricultural waste as a feedstock for biofuels production. The resource potential of crop, livestock and processing waste has been considered and the necessity of its use for energy purposes has been substantiated. It has been determined that the greatest potential of agricultural waste that can be used for biogas production in Ukraine is concentrated in crop production. The livestock industry and processing enterprises also have a powerful feedstock base for biogas production. It has been determined that the agroindustrial sector of Ukraine produces significant amount of waste. As a result of the study, it has been found that the potential volume of biogas production from agricultural waste can replace 36.1% of natural gas consumption in Ukraine.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Inactivation of
           and in Different Canned Food Matrices

    • Abstract: In the canning industry, thermal preservation processes typically are designed based on Clostridium botulinum thermal destruction kinetics. However, some bacteria can still survive, necessitating implementation of stricter timetemperature regimen for sterilization process. The aim of this study was to compare processing effectiveness at F0 (sterilization value) 8 ±1 min from the perspective of the vegetable-based product canning facility, while analyzing the inactivation, viability, and recovery of thermophilic bacteria. Four commercial products [tomato soup and rassolnik soup - acidified food (AF), and mushroom soup and pea porridge - low-acid food (LACF)] with different heat transfer characteristics (convection and conduction) were inoculated with 6.6 log10 spores/ml Geobacillus stearothermophilus LMKK 244 (reported as DSM 6790 and ATCC 10149 in other collections) and 4.810 log spores/ml Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM 571 spore suspensions. Food samples contaminated with bacterial spores were processed in a steam-air retort at 118 °C for 75 min. G. stearothermophilus and T. thermosaccharolyticum growth was not detected in AF samples (pH = 4.4 and 4.5), but was observed in LACF samples (pH = 5.1 and 5.8). Practical evaluation showed that T. thermosaccharolyticum did not survive thermal processing, which was verified using a presence/absence test after incubation at 55 °C. G. stearothermophilus did not survive thermal processing, but recovered in pea porridge (pH = 5.8) during incubation. Our observations showed that food pH is a crucial factor determining microorganism survival during heat treatment and may be used by the vegetable-based product canning facilities to improve the food sterilization conditions.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Evaluation of patatin content in proteins of potato genotypes grown in

    • Abstract: Potato proteins contains essential amino acids in considerably high concentration, therefore potatoes are considered to be one of the most valuable plant origin food for human consumption. Patatin forms one of the largest group of potato proteins with high potential to be used in food industry as a novel food. This study has been performed to approbate patatin determination method for evaluation of protein quality of potato genotypes, as well as evaluate patatin relative abundance (PRA) for breeding programmes to create in the future potato cultivars with higher value and potential to develop new products.The evaluation of patatin was performed in following steps– extraction proteins from potato, determination of patatin concentration and calculation of its relative abundance in proteins. Separation of patatin from potato tubers was made using extraction by SDS extraction buffer and determination of patatin in organically and conventionally (with differnt N suply) grown samples of 20 potato genotypes. The results of one-year study showed that patatin relative abundance of different cultivars varied from 1.65% to 50.2% and it was significantly different among genotypes. The nitrogen content of soil and maturity type of potato did not affect PRA significantly. Results provide impetus for further research.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Theoretical Study of Vibrocentrifugal Separation of Grain Mixtures on a
           Sieveless Seed-cleaning Machine

    • Abstract: The article presents an analysis of known developments on creation of sieve-less pneumatic vibration centrifuges separating devices and processes of separating seed mixtures into fractions according to the complex of physical and mechanical properties of components. Mechanistic and mathematical models for studying the movement of particles over the sieve-free surface of pneumatic vibration separators were developed, theoretical studies of movement of seed mixture components were conducted and the most acceptable pneumatic vibration centrifugation process was determined by likeness to the process occurring on the separating surface of pneumatic sorting tables. To achieve the greatest separation of particles on the complex of their physical and mechanical properties (density, geometric dimensions, aerodynamic properties of seeds) is possible with the same direction of oscillatory motion and rotation of the separating surface performing the rotation in the direction from a larger radius to a smaller radius of the surface, in the “fluidization” mode, i. e. i.e. with periodic separation of the lower particles of the layer from the separating surface at simultaneous blowing of the layer by an air stream.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Influence of Germinated Hull-less Barley Sordough Fermentation
           Conditions on the Microbiota Development

    • Abstract: Sourdough plays an important role in quality assurance, especially during developing wholegrain wheat bread products. The value of barley and hull-less barley grains is determined by the low lipid and high carbohydrate (starch and resistant starch) content, balanced amino acid profile, dietary fibre and phenolic compounds. During germination (24 h) the amount of sugar, amino acids and vitamins increase in the grains. Therefore, it could be optimal environment for microbiota growth in sourdough. The goal of the research was to find optimal technological parameters and to study microorganism growth dynamic during the fermentation of sourdough with germinated hull-less barley. The study was performed using three steps of fermentation, with different temperature and time parameters. At each step pH, dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeast-like fungi and total plate count (TPC) growth were determined using standard methods. The results of the study showed that the optimal fermentation conditions for the first stage are 48 h and 26 ± 1 °C, for the second stage 8 h and 26 ± 1 °C and for the third stage 20 h and 28 ± 1 °C. During fermentation of the sourdough, the pH 3.91 is reached, LAB 8.8 log10 CFU g−1, and the yeast-like fungi 8.7 log10 CFU g−1 was determined. Obtained data show that more than 80 bacteria and 50 microscopic fungal species were detected in hull-less barley flour, but after germination their diversity decreased and in the germinated hull-less barley sourdoughs dominated species were Pediococcus pentosaceus.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Case-study: Temperature Distribution and Heat Penetration in Steam-air
           Retort, Using Glass Jars and Retort Pouches

    • Abstract: Retort thermal sterilization of canned food is a technology, which allows preserving food products by applying heat on packaged food in retorts (autoclaves) at temperatures up to 121 °C. The thermodynamics of the processes in the retort are influenced by the product stacking method in the basket and packaging material. The aims of this study were: 1) to analyse and compare temperature distribution (TD) and the slowest to heat location in the steam-air retort stacked with glass jars and with retort pouches; 2) to analyse and compare commercial product heat penetration (HP) characteristics in glass jars and retort pouches. Temperature measurements were performed with wireless thermocouples. The come-up time (heating phase) required to achieve in the retort temperature uniformity criteria of ±0.5 °C, is 28 min when the retort is stacked with glass jars, and 24 min when the retort is stacked with retort pouches. Total calculated process time (holding phase), necessary to achieve the sterilization value (F0 of 3 min), for sample in glass jars was 67 min, but in retort pouches – 62 min. The overall sterilization process time difference between two considered packaging types was 9 min, which is significant amount of time in the context of commercial processing. The study clearly shows the necessity to perform the Temperature Distribution and Heat Penetration study, as each packaging material, stacking method and product will affect sterilization process thermodynamics and, therefore, the overall process time and consequently - the safety of food product.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Status of the Precision Beekeeping Development in Latvia

    • Abstract: Information and communication technologies are part of almost any branch of human lives. During the last decade also beekeeping joined the direction of application of IT tools and solutions and precision beekeeping was defined. Still in the beekeeping many operations and observations are completed manually, and there is a potential to switch to the digital realisation. Information technologies can be used in the beekeeping to partly support the beekeepers by implementation of automatic or semi-automatic solutions for bee colony remote monitoring, apiary record making and other actions. The aim of this paper is to make a summary of the usage of information technology tools by the beekeepers in Latvia, summarizing precision beekeeping development status and conclude about its future development potential. To achieve this aim, in cooperation with Latvian Beekeepers Association, a beekeepers survey was conducted. More than 200 beekeepers shared thoughts and opinions about their application of information and communication technologies for monitoring the bee colonies and apiary management. The summary of the survey conducted is described in this study.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Influence of Technological Peculiarities on Fermented Sausages’
           Quality and Sensory Properties

    • Abstract: Fermentation is one of the ancient technological processes used in food production which influences the shelf-life of meat and meat products, also significantly affects the sensory properties like aroma and flavour. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the elaborated technology for a new fermented sausage production on the product quality and sensory properties. Sausages were produced by the standard technology using glucono-delta-lactone or starter culture. The drying of samples differs from 3 to 4 weeks at the same conditions; samples were dried for 4 weeks which produced with the starter culture, and 3 weeks which produced with glucono-delta-lactone. The sausages were tested at the end of the production, analysing pH, water activity, moisture and salt content, as well as the presence of Listeria monocytogenes, colony forming units of Listeria monocytogenes and Enterobacteriaceae in the sausage samples were analysed. The sensory evaluation was organised after getting Listeria monocytogenes testing results.The moisture content, water activity and salt content significantly differed (p < 0.05) among samples, no differences were established in pH, taste and flavour liking. The presence of Listeria monocytogenes was not established in samples which indicates that the producer properly applies a hurdle technology in fermented sausage production.Sensory evaluation results showed higher scores for texture and appearance in fermented sausages with glucono-delta-lactone. The study results confirmed that fermented sausages with glucono-delta-lactone during 3 weeks of drying can achieve corresponding safety criteria and sensory properties which are set for semidry fermented sausages.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Agriculture Policy Scores of Selected Countries Through the Technique for
           Order of Preference (TOPSIS) Method

    • Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of agricultural sectors in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries using selected criteria, to identify the deficiencies in agricultural policies, to explore competitive advantages and to guide food and nutrition policies. The analyses of this research use the secondary of time series data between the years 1967 - 2016 from 10 countries including; Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam which are the member of ASEAN. This research uses the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method and the data used for the mentioned countries include the following criteria; total agricultural production value of the land, self-sufficiency of animal products criteria, self-sufficiency of crop products criteria, rural population rate, greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, and value of foreign trade in agricultural products. The result of proximity coefficients calculated with the TOPSIS method, which according to the number of proximity and maximum benefit analysis should be done according to the order of preference. It is stated that Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia were the most successful countries in the agricultural policy performance in 1967. As for last decades, Malaysia became the most successful country in agricultural policy performance. We can infer from the results that Malay industrial sector triggered the agricultural sector by supplying financial investment atmosphere.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Determination and Optimization of Feeding Device Parametres in the Plant
           for Preparing Liquid Feed Mixtures

    • Abstract: Feeding young animals is a very important stage during their growing-up period, but in order to provide them with essential nutrients, they are fed with liquid feeds, whole milk substitute in particular (WMS). The technique for reconstituting WMS consists of dissolving it in water followed by mixing, but it is significant to follow the cooking recipe strictly, so it is necessary to develop a system with a feeding (dosing) device that will make it possible to solve this problem. Theoretical and experimental studies of the feeding device have been conducted in order to optimize the technological process of mixing liquid feed. Theoretically, the quality of determining the mixture during dosing was established for the purpose of further research. The influence of the design and technological parameters of the feeding device was experimentally studied, and its efficiency was evaluated. It was found that as the inclination angle α increases from 67,50 to 700, the rotation speed n being from 850 to 1500 min−1, the maximum probability of staying in the tolerance field ΔP=96% is reached, and feed discharge Q ranges from 540 to 660 kg h−1. The research makes it possible to develop a feeding device at the design stage, meeting the requirements of the recipe, having high discharge rates and the lowest energy consumption.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Impact of High-pressure Impregnation and Fire Protective Coatings on the
           Reaction to Fire Performance of Birch Plywood

    • Abstract: Birch plywood has a wide range of applications for interior and exterior use. The demand for plywood with improved fire protection properties and good visual appearance is increasing year by year. The impregnation at high pressure of the whole plywood panels is one of the options to achieve it. The aim of this study was to develop good visual looking birch plywood product for interior design purposes as well evaluate different influencing factors to reaction to fire properties of fire-retardant treated birch plywood. This study consists of three parts. At the first stage, high pressure industrially impregnated plywood properties were studied by two influencing factors – distribution of fire retardant in plywood panel plane and sanding process influence on reaction to fire performance of product. At the second stage, seven different industrial finishing systems were selected for covering high-pressure impregnated birch plywood and their effect on fire reaction performance was studied. In addition, two surface coating systems were studied on standard birch plywood substrate. At the third stage, intumescent coating consumption effect on reaction to fire performance was studied. The reaction to fire performance of birch plywood was evaluated by performing a flammability test using the Single Burning Item test according to EN 13823:2010. It was found that high pressure impregnation of plywood cannot ensure even saturation of fire retardant throughout the sheet, which significantly affects the fire performance of product. The impact of different finishing materials to reaction to fire performance has been described by the results of this research.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Efficiency of Different Wood Coatings against Water Surface Absorption

    • Abstract: In the market of the Latvia different wood surface coating materials suitable for use in outdoor conditions are offered, but available information on the efficiency of these against direct water exposure is insufficient. For structural timber building elements, such as glued laminated timber (GLT), the surface coating should be applied taking into account technological, visual or colour changes (ISO 7724:1984) and – last, but not least – economic aspects are considered. Wood surfaces coated with coating materials, such as varnishes, paints, etc. can stabilize some properties such as movement of moisture content, dimensional changes and attack by microorganisms and fungi. The changes in the moisture content of timber may influence such important parameters as mechanical properties and the total life time of the structural timber elements. A study has been conducted with the aim of assessing the efficiency of coating materials used for wood protection against water absorption. In this study, six different commercial coating products used for the treatment of spruce (Picea Abies L. Karst.) and pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) samples were tested. The efficiency of different coating substances was assessed using two modified test methods according to the standards EN 382-2 (1994) and EN 927-5 (2006), determining the surface water absorption after immersion in water for 24 h and the dynamics of water absorption of the glued laminated timber for 696 h kept in water. As a result of the study, it has been ascertained that organic solvent-based commercial coating products are more efficient against short-term and long-term wood water absorption compared to oil-based coating materials.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Resilience of Milk Supply Chains during and after the COVID-19 Crisis in

    • Abstract: The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on national economies are characterized as the worst economic turmoil in recent years, as economic growth slowed to the level of the 2008 global financial crisis. At the end of 2019 and the beginning of 2020, economic growth surveys did not project that the novel virus could have a negative impact on economic growth. As a result of the rapid spread of the virus and the increase in the number of infection cases, national governments took strict measures to limit the spread of the virus, which led to a significant deterioration in the economic situation in all industries of the economy. Agriculture plays an important role in providing food to the country’s population, yet the pandemic made a negative impact on sales volumes and prices in the domestic and international markets. The research aims to assess the impacts of the pandemic on milk supply chains in Latvia and come up with solutions to stabilizing the situation in the dairy sector. The national restrictions to combat the pandemic also hampered the dairy sector concerning the sale of raw milk and finished products in foreign markets, thereby leading to overproduction and stockpiling of the finished products, price dumping and a significant decrease in milk purchase prices to or below the production cost level for many dairy farms. Although there is no indication that the pandemic would lead to a decrease in the numbers of livestock and farms or output in early 2021, it is too early to assess the overall impact of the pandemic on dairy farming, as uncertainty over the duration of pandemic restrictions is a major risk to farm survival. The operation of the dairy sector was stabilized by means of the support provided by the government, as well as the farms’ accumulated financial and feed resources. In order to identify future challenges for milk supply chains, the research performed an analysis of operational risks for milk producers and processors to identify the most important risks and design recommendations for their elimination. The longer there is uncertainty about the return of the dairy sector to pre-pandemic output levels, the more likely it is that the pandemic is going to lead to a decrease in the numbers of dairy livestock and farms.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
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