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Rural Sustainability Research
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1407-4427 - ISSN (Online) 2256-0939
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Retrospective Analysis of 101 Canine Lymphoma Cases Diagnosed in Surgical
           biopsies in Latvia (2011–2020)

    • Abstract: Lymphoma is a malignant tumor commonly diagnosed in dogs representing 7–24% of all canine tumors. There has been no previous studies focused on characterization of canine lymphoma cases in Latvia. The goals of this retrospective study were to determine prevalence and characteristics of lymphoma cases among biopsy submissions to a private veterinary pathology service that receives approximately 80% of all biopsy submission in Latvia and to compare this data with published canine lymphoma reviews. Data were retrieved to select records from Latvian dogs diagnosed with lymphoma between 2011 and 2020, determining characteristics of dogs and types of lymphoma based on anatomic distribution and cellular morphology. In a ten-year study period, diagnosis of lymphoma constituted 1–4% of surgical biopsy submissions each year without upwards trend. Affected dogs were middle age (median 8 years; range 2–13), with a slight male predominance (58%). The majority of dogs (19%) were mixed breed. Top 3 affected dog breeds were Rottweiler, American Staffordshire terrier and French bulldog with 6–7 cases in each breed. Multicentric form of lymphoma predominated (55%) followed by alimentary and mucocutaneous lymphoma (21% and 14%, respectively). Within multicentric form of lymphoma two thirds were intermediate to large cell lymphomas. Included in this group would be diffuse large B cell lymphomas, the most common subtype of canine lymphomas; however, lack of immunohistochemical testing precluded complete lymphoma classification according to WHO guidelines. Results of this study correlate well with the previously published results and provide important information to Latvian small animal veterinarians and pathologists.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Challenges for fodder production in Ukraine during the war

    • Abstract: This study aimed to identify the most characteristic trends in the area of fodder production and the use of fodder as factors in the development of animal husbandry in Ukraine under conditions of war as the modern challenge for these industries. Russian military aggression is a powerful challenge for the economy of Ukraine, including its fodder production, as well as other countries of the world, reflecting on the aggravation of global problems of food shortages and food security. The effect of the mentioned challenge in Ukraine is superimposed on the identified negative trends and situation, which were formed before the beginning of 2022. Calculations based on them show that the occupation of large areas of Ukraine by Russian aggressors and hostilities caused a significant decrease in the production of livestock products due to a 13–17% decrease in the number of animals. Accordingly, consumption of fodder at the expense of these regions decreased by 16%. However, the situation is very dynamic as the war continues. Given the limitations of state support for the industry, until the end of the war the main efforts to improve fodder production in Ukraine should objectively be related to the maximum optimization of the structure of fodder rations by increasing the share of less energy-intensive forages. Every challenge creates new opportunities, therefore the post-war development of fodder production and use in Ukraine will become highly innovative.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Screening of virulence and resistance of genotypes to apple scab using
           methodology

    • Abstract: The apple scab induced by Venturia inaequalis is an economically significant disease of apples worldwide and is predominantly controlled by multiple fungicide applications. Therefore, resistant apple cultivation is important for long-standing disease control. The knowledge about cultivar resistance is mainly founded on their evaluation in orchard conditions and testing in a greenhouse that is laborious and requires a large space. This study evaluated apple cultivar resistance and the virulence of V. inaequalis strains by inoculating detached leaves and immature fruits. Nine V. inaequalis strains originating from different apple-growing regions and host genotypes were tested on eight apple genotypes. Microscopic and macroscopic symptom development and host tissue reactions were monitored during the experiments. The tested V. inaequalis strains and cultivars showed different levels of virulence and resistance, respectively. Cultivar ‘Lobo’ was scored as partially susceptible, with almost all strains tested. The incompatible interaction with or without host tissue reactions was observed only on the cultivar ‘Priscilla’ with all the strains and field populations tested. The results of this study using detached leaves and immature fruits were concordant with the data obtained in the cultivar evaluation trials in the orchards.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Quality Function in Determining the Effectiveness of Example
           Bioeconomics Tasks

    • Abstract: The aim of the publication is to develop theoretical and methodological foundations and practical recommendations for determining the efficiency of biotechnological processes with the subsequent justification of technical parameters to ensure a high level of viability of bio-objects. In the course of the conducted scientific research, the criteria of quality function were defined and formalised, in accordance with which the conditions of biotechnological processes of laser division of embryo were formulated as a single case in the realisation of the economic mechanism of biotechnology. This makes it possible to ensure a high level of cattle (cattle) productivity, reduce the time for the reproduction of livestock and reduce the costs of movement, trade and transportation of cattle. The quality function of the biotechnological process of laser division of embryo is formulated on the basis of criterion of non-exceeding of the temperature field in cells of blastomeres and the predetermined acceptable value that allowed one to take into account the main parameters and to propose the criterion of biotechnological process optimisation. As a promising task for the development of the bioeconomy as an economic mechanism in implementing biotechnologies, the necessity of determining the quality function by formalising the integral indicator of efficiency has been established, This enables one to ensure a high level of commercialisation of biotechnologies, to increase the productivity of agricultural animals, and to suggest alternative methods for the quick renewal of livestock.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Lake Kisezers: analysis of factors influencing morphometry and
           hydrological regime

    • Abstract: This study describes dynamics in hydrology, morphometry, and water mass movement in Lake Kisezers. The analysis of Lake Kisezers’ morphometry dynamics according to the rapidly changing environment has been carried out. The determination of dynamics in morphometry comes before understanding potential exploitation and environmental sustainability of water body. Lake Kisezers is situated in a densely populated area. Without understanding and deciphering all possible environmental factors influencing Lake Kisezers, the water body can degrade and become of poor environmental quality. Such changes can lead to irreversible changes in the lake ecosystem and degradation of the surrounding landscape. This study aims to identify and explain the elements that influence Lake Kisezers’ hydrological regime, catchment area, and bathymetry. Lake Kisezers is hardly influenced body of water with rapid hydrological and morphometric dynamics. The research is possible due to extensive data availability and the importance of the water body location. Lake Kisezers affects the city of Riga and its surrounding area with a danger of flooding and decreasing land exploration potential. This study results in better understanding in the factors influencing hydrology and morphometry in Lake Kisezers and possible environmental sustainability endangerment in the future. The main impact factor is the connectivity to the River Daugava and its unique hydrological regime. For Lake Kisezers, environmental balance is necessary to continue research and develop a hydrological change model. This study was conducted with fieldwork data and open-source cartographic, geospatial, water level, and mass movement data. The research seeks to understand what is necessary to maintain environmental sustainability in Lake Kisezers.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Multifunctionality of urban agriculture and its characteristics in Latvia

    • Abstract: In the 21st century, urban agriculture renews and diversifies approaches to the practice within the context of urban regeneration, climate change risks, sustainable development and resource consumption balance problems. Influenced by the long historical evolution and intensification of various risks, food production in urban areas involves the widest multifunctionality to date. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify the main functions of urban agriculture and to evaluate their significance in Latvia. The following tasks were set to achieve the aim: 1) to identify and classify functions of urban agriculture, 2) to analyse the performance and significance of functions in Latvia. Several methods were employed to perform tasks and achieve the aim: the monographic and descriptive methods for making a theoretical discussion; the analysis, synthesis and deduction methods for obtaining information, systematisation and classification of functions; a structured expert interview for rating and ranking functions and identifying interactions between them. The research identified 14 functions of urban agriculture, which were classified into 5 groups: political, economic, social, environmental and technological. The most significant functions of urban agriculture in Latvia are social (promotion of social cohesion and public health, education and maintaining traditions and values) and technological innovations. There are interactions between all functions, and support for urban sustainability, education, provision of ecosystem services and technological innovations have the strongest impact on other functions. Interactions of functions proved the multifunctionality of urban agriculture, which could be an important support tool to contributing to sustainable urban development.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Bumblebee pollination activity in a commercial tomato greenhouse during
           the winter season

    • Abstract: Bumblebee activity interaction with solar irradiation, solar irradiation and HPS lighting irradiation, the HPS effect of photoperiod, day temperature and hive density were assessed with tomato fruit weights in a commercial tomato glass greenhouse in 2020–2021. Pollination activity was measured by observing ten randomly chosen cv. ‘Beorange’ tomato plants and by counting bumblebee bruised tomato flowers. MANOVA was conducted between factors and bee activity, followed by Pearson’s correlation. A Mann-Whitney U test was calculated to determine the significance between tomato flower bruising levels and fruit weights, followed by Cliff’s delta (d). Pollination activity decreased mainly in December and January when solar irradiation decreased to below 110 J cm−2 day−1. Bumblebee activity was significantly affected by solar irradiation with HPS lighting (p<0.001; p<0.01). There was a significant correlation between bumblebee activity and solar irradiation (r= 0.75; p<0.05), and solar irradiation with HPS lighting (r= 0.70; p<0.05). There was no correlation between bumblebee activity and fruit weights (r= −0.20; p<0.05). Bruised flowers had significantly greater fruit weight increases (165.7 g) compared to unbruised flowers (123.4 g) (d= 0.12; p<0.05). Bee activity rates between 60% to 80% can be concluded as an effective rate for tomato growers. Bumblebees need at least 110–154 J cm−2 day−1 of solar irradiation to achieve a high pollination activity rate in temperate climate zones during the winter season.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Role of Cereal and Pulse Constituents and Processing Technology in
           Flake Texture Development: a Review

    • Abstract: To meet the rising consumer demand for higher nutrition foods and to increase flake nutritional value and functionality, it is possible to combine cereals with pulses. For consumers, one of the most important quality parameters along with appearance and taste, is texture. To produce the appropriate quality of flakes, the knowledge about the relationship between chemical composition, processing parameters, and texture is necessary. The aim of this study was to characterise the role of cereal and pulse constituents and processing technologies in flake texture development, which could be used in flake production for achieving the appropriate hardness and crunchiness of new products. The monographic method was used to characterise the constituent and processing technology‘s role in cereal and pulse flake texture development. Information published from 2003 till 2022, in total 77 full text research articles, books and databases were analysed and summarised. Data analysed show if pulse and cereal nutritional information, mineral and vitamin content is known, it is possible to combine different cereals and pulses to provide a specific nutrient composition in the developed products. The main change in high starch products is a specific gelatinization and retrogradation behaviour of starch. Constituents such as lipids and proteins as well as processing technology and parameters, can significantly modify the properties and functionality of starch. Proteins can encapsulate starch granules, inhibit starch digestion and gelatinization, reduce starch structural order, and inhibit starch retrogradation.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • in dairy cattle herd: farming practices and infection dynamics

    • Abstract: Q fever is a widespread disease affecting reproduction in dairy cattle. Several risk factors can increase the possibility of the herd becoming infected and the persistence of infection. The aim of this study was to characterise the dynamics of C. burnetii infection in affected herds and to evaluate reproduction problems and risk factors using a questionnaire within infected and infection-free dairy herds. In total, 25 farms that were serologically positive or shedding C. burnetii DNA in milk and 14 C. burnetii infection-free farms in Latvia answered the questionnaire. Ten positive herds were studied by testing individual blood and milk samples from up to 10 animals at two times separated by 7.5 to 13 months. The number of serologically positive and suspicious animals was higher in the second sampling even though several animals were culled. In the positive herds, the percentage of dystocia, stillborn calves and abortions during the last year was significantly (p=0.001; 0.01; 0.005, respectively) higher than in the negative herds. Several significant factors were found for the presence of Q fever infection, such as the herd size, the regional population density of ruminants, artificial ventilation systems, and frequent farm visitors. Deratisation was less practised in the negative farms and the presence of ticks was observed more often in the negative farms. Only two identified risk factors can be mitigated – the ventilation system and frequent farm visitors. The other factors cannot be changed arbitrarily but they have to be taken into account by decision makers.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Testing of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Commercial Yoghurts

    • Abstract: Yoghurt has been known as an excellent source for delivering viable lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in concentrations providing benefits to the human host and microbiome. Different gastrointestinal tract (GIT) simulators have been developed and are successfully used to determine the viability of LAB from fermented dairy products in vitro studies. Commercial yoghurts were tested for digestibility using the GIT IT system Labfors 5 (INFORS HT, Switzerland). The length for both the gastric phase and the small intestinal phase was 120 min each. Yoghurt LAB colony-forming units were analysed prior to the GIT simulation test, as well as after the simulation test. The survival rate of LAB was evaluated based on the differences in the viable LAB count at the beginning and at the end of the experiment.Tested yoghurts’ LAB were tolerated in the simulated gastric and small intestinal phases. Samples collected prior to and after the intestinal phase revealed that LAB had adapted and started to grow within 120 min. Our results showed the ability of LAB to recover in the intestinal phase which has been explained by the food matrix, which protects the bacteria from the elimination effect of intestinal secretions.In addition, differences in survival rates of LAB significantly influenced the overall LAB colony-forming units in the gastrointestial tract. The chemical composition of the product has an influence on the survival rate of LAB, and it should be studied more thoroughly. In vitro studies are quite different from the assay in vivo studies; however, this information provides significant data about the viability of LAB from regularly consumed products and helps to modulate the influence of LAB on human microbiota.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Research Support Model for Improving the Effectiveness of Medical Study
           Data Collection

    • Abstract: The paper describes the research support model for improving the effectiveness of the medical research data collection process and data quality. Every research project involves a data collection phase, during which different organisation, legal and technology factors are involved, including various procedures (questionnaire design, annotation, database design, data entry, data validation, discrepancy management, medical coding and data mining). The key task of clinical data management is to obtain high-quality data, which can be achieved by minimising data input errors and timely identifying missing data. This process is often time-consuming and takes up a significant part of the research project budget in both veterinary and human medicine. The aim of this study is to elaborate the research support model for the creation of a data collection automation software tool, which will allow one to ensure better data quality, shorten the time for data collection and minimise human work volume and respective human resource expenses, making research projects more effective in terms of their timing and budget. Research work included analysis of the current situation, its shortcomings, typical research project budget distribution and existing automated electronic data collection tools (EDC). Research was carried out in partnership with the Institute of Clinical and Preventive Medicine of the University of Latvia.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Impact of Sowing Dates on the Variability of Different Traits of Fenugreek

    • Abstract: The article presents the results of studies of two samples of fenugreek: blue (Trigonella coerulea (Desr.) Ser.) and hay (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) on the set of economic, biological and biochemical parameters. The researched samples of fenugreek have a wide range of variability of indicators depending on the terms of sowing and weather conditions. More rapid development was shown by fenugreek species on the summer sowing dates (III decade of June) with a vegetation period of 36–37 days. To obtain a high yield of green mass of fenugreek plants, the early spring (II–III decade of April) and late spring (I decade of May) sowing terms were more suitable. The obtained green mass yield was: 5.7–6.9 t∙ha–1 – blue fenugreek, and 7.3–9.3 t∙ha–1 – hay fenugreek, with the content of the dry matter being 12.4–28.4%, the sum of sugars 2.5–5.0% and vitamin C – 38.0–51.8 mg∙(100 g)−1. To obtain spices called “mushroom grass”, it is promising to use hay fenugreek with early spring (II–III decade of April) and late spring (I decade of May) terms of sowing, as a more developed vegetative mass is formed with the dry weight yield of plants 1.3–1.4 t∙ha–1. An increase in the amount of precipitation by 1 mm resulted in fluctuations of green mass yield from 15.0 to 77.3 kg∙ha–1 and dry mass yield from 0.693 to 25.9 kg∙ha–1.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Research of a Dry Extruded Mixture of Protein Rich Plant Composition

    • Abstract: Since plant protein is generally accepted as sustainable and environmentally friendly, production of new plant protein-based products is expanding and a raw material is diversified to ensure a high-value and complete meal. The objective of the study was to compare chemical composition and amino acid provision of pea-buckwheat, pea-barley and pea-oat extruded mixtures with the aim to look for new products to diversify diet using the best plant protein resources. Within the research, amino acid scores of hull-less barley, buckwheat, hull-less oat and grey pea as an indicator of raw material protein quality were evaluated. The highest scores of essential amino acids were found in oat and pea protein. Amino acid scoring patterns of raw material – oat ‘Stendes Emilija’ and grey pea ‘Bruno’ fully meet the requirements for essential amino acid supply. The protein of buckwheat is the richest in lysine (4.3 g 100g−1 protein) among studied cereals, although the difference in the essential amino acids was not significant. The results of the research showed that pea-barley and pea-buckwheat composite mixtures meet human needs better if pea protein is used in the proportion 65:35 with barley or buckwheat flour than in the proportion 35:65. The high protein content – 43.33% and 43.96%, the sum and composition of essential amino acids, and high level of total dietary fibre – 11.9% and 13.7% are the main reasons to consider the mixtures (including as a base for smoothies) as a complete meal.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Impacts of COVID-19 on the Food Supply Chain for Arable Crops in Latvia

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented stress to food supply chains, pointing to weaknesses in the labour, processing, transport and logistics spheres, as well as significant changes in demand. Food supply chains have shown considerable resilience in the face of such stress. Monitoring of the food sector during the COVID-19 pandemic indicates that the effects of COVID-19 on food supply, demand and access are interlinked processes and have a complex impact on food systems. In addition, high-value food supply chains in developed countries are even more complex, so countries need to respond quickly to restore them and also develop mechanisms that balance business and public interests and protect farmers and food business workers during future potential pandemic crises. The research aims to identify the main demand and supply side factors that affect the resilience of local and global food supply chains during the COVID-19 crisis, as well as assess the resilience of the supply chain for arable crops during the COVID-19 crisis in Latvia, identifying the main risk factors. The research found that arable crop farmers were relatively less affected by the COVID-19 crisis than other agricultural employees. The impact of the crisis was larger on the crop processing industry than on the other industries, and the main risk factors related to changes in demand and the industry’s dependence on imported raw materials and the successful operation of export markets. Based on an in-depth risk analysis, the research developed recommendations for policy makers and actors in the agri-food chain that would improve the resilience of local (domestic) participants of the arable crop food supply chain in Latvia.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Missing Link of UTM

    • Abstract: As the use cases for rural unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) missions are evolving, the next step is to make on-site UAV missions controlled over long distances. The control is called Beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) and there is a great need for use cases to become autonomous or self-sustaining over long distances. Designing airspace to include autonomous and BVLOS UAV involves proposals for traffic that do not exist to date, different actors, and a multitude of risks; system design must answer a wide range of questions before its release. Luckily, most of the technical questions are already solved, most of the safety regulations are there in place in general aviation, and the industry is waiting for a new type of transportation. In this paper, the authors propose action for policymakers on how to approach the challenge of developing UAV Traffic Management (UTM) systems that can be applied to any geographic location and identify missing links in decision-making to enable development.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Global Trends of Decarbonisation as a Determining Factor for the
           Development of External Economic Activity of Metallurgical Enterprises

    • Abstract: The article states that in the conditions of climate crisis aggravation the decarbonisation of the economy acquires the status of a global initiative aimed at achieving zero CO2 emissions by 2050. It is emphasised that this initiative is closely accompanied by legislation, business modernisation programmes and the creation of equal conditions for both domestic producers and exporters of carbon-intensive products (in particular, through the introduction of the carbon border adjustment mechanism - CBAM) and new rules of the world market. The consequences of CBAM implementation into Ukrainian metallurgical enterprises and the development of their foreign economic activity are determined in the example of Metinvest Group (Ukraine) enterprises. The ambivalence of CBAM is proven. It is substantiated that CBAM implementation will not accelerate, but, on the contrary, will slow down the process of decarbonisation, which will eventually lead to the loss of domestic metallurgical enterprises’ competitive position in the European market of metal products. Regarding the need to take transitional measures to decarbonise the metallurgical business (first of all, to ensure proper investment), the decision should be based on the expected decoupling effect - positive dynamics of economic growth while reducing the negative impact on the environment. The estimating method of the decoupling effect has been modified according to the integrated approach. A trend analysis of the integrated decalin effect indicator and its components was performed in Metinvest Group companies (Ukraine). Based on the results of econometric analysis of the impact of investment on greenhouse gas emissions, the author’s model for determining the volume of investment in the process of decarbonisation of metallurgical enterprises for the period up to 2050 is proposed. Comparative analysis is performed regarding investment in the process of decarbonisation under the scenarios by GMK Center, IEA, McKinsey and Roland Berger, as well as the author’s model.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Sensory and Textural Properties of Frozen Muffins Prepared with Cottage
           Cheese and Tofu

    • Abstract: Muffin is a flour confectionery product with an elastic texture. Nowadays, vegetable products are replacing traditional dairy products more often in the food sector. Tofu, which is a quintessential soy protein product, is one of the alternatives for making vegan products. The aim of this research was to determine the influence of defrosting processes to changes of sensory and textural properties of a muffins with cottage cheese and its vegan substitutes. Five types of muffins were used in the study – muffin without cottage cheese (control), muffin with cottage cheese, muffin with lactose-free cottage cheese, tofu muffin and tofu chickpea muffin, which were thawed after freezing in two ways (at room temperature and in a microwave oven). For the determination of muffin quality, the Quantitative descriptive method (QDA) was used, and for overall liking, the 7-point hedonic scale and acceptance – Just-about-Right (JAR) method were used. To evaluate physical-chemical and textural analysis, standard methods were used. The method of defrosting muffins – room (ambient) temperature or microwave – has no significant effect (p>0.05) on the quality and JAR rating of the muffins with cottage cheese and tofu. The obtained results showed that the addition of plant-based protein sources significantly reduces the volume of muffins; the texture of the muffins becomes softer, but more sticky. In the process of defrosting using a microwave, the structure of the muffins is drier, softer, whitish, and less sticky, compared to a muffin thawed at 22 °C.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Present and Future Availability of Livestock Manure for Biogas Production
           in Latvia

    • Abstract: In order to address existing and foreseen climate change and environmental challenges, the European Commission has adopted a set of proposals as part of the European Green Deal to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and become the first climate-neutral continent in the world. In the energy sector it is planned to implement specific actions to increase the contribution from renewable sources of energy. Livestock manure as a renewable resource can be processed to produce biogas through anaerobic digestion processes. This study aimed to estimate the amount of livestock manure potentially available for biogas production in Latvia based on statistical information on the number of animals representing current and past trends, and forecasts for the future provided by the results of the Latvian Agricultural Sector Analysis Model (LASAM).The results of this study showed that the share of livestock manure processed to produce biogas has increased considerably during the time period from 2010 to 2019 in all groups of livestock considered for this application in Latvia. However, there are still opportunities to increase the share of manure utilised for anaerobic digestion, especially in the livestock groups of dairy cows and non-dairy cows, as only 16% and 13% of the available amount of manure was processed in 2019, respectively. The LASAM results indicate that the number of animals will experience negligible changes or will decrease; therefore, more attention will need to be paid to increase the efficiency of processing the existing amount of manure rather than relying on an additional amount of manure available for biogas production.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Total Soluble Sugars in Root and Stem of Wichita and Western Varieties in
           Northern Mexico

    • Abstract: The aim of the current study was to determine the monthly total soluble sugar concentration in the stem and root of the Wichita and Western walnut (Carya illinoinensis) varieties during a productive cycle in northern Mexico. Vegetable samples were obtained using a systematic sampling method, and processed by means of a spectrophotometric assay to determine the total soluble sugars (TSS) concentration in productive walnut trees. Data analysis was performed by means of a 2-way ANOVA. The results of the TSS concentration had differences throughout the months of an annual productive cycle, and were also different between the evaluated walnut varieties. The highest total soluble sugar concentration in stem and root were in the lowest temperature months, and it decreases in both tissues when the environmental temperature rises. The Wichita variety had a higher total soluble sugar concentration than the Western in every month during the productive cycle. Further research is required to assess the effect of other type of factors including environmental or agronomic over the dynamics of the total soluble sugars in productive walnut trees.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Influence of Germinated Hull-less Barley Sordough Fermentation
           Conditions on the Microbiota Development

    • Abstract: Sourdough plays an important role in quality assurance, especially during developing wholegrain wheat bread products. The value of barley and hull-less barley grains is determined by the low lipid and high carbohydrate (starch and resistant starch) content, balanced amino acid profile, dietary fibre and phenolic compounds. During germination (24 h) the amount of sugar, amino acids and vitamins increase in the grains. Therefore, it could be optimal environment for microbiota growth in sourdough. The goal of the research was to find optimal technological parameters and to study microorganism growth dynamic during the fermentation of sourdough with germinated hull-less barley. The study was performed using three steps of fermentation, with different temperature and time parameters. At each step pH, dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeast-like fungi and total plate count (TPC) growth were determined using standard methods. The results of the study showed that the optimal fermentation conditions for the first stage are 48 h and 26 ± 1 °C, for the second stage 8 h and 26 ± 1 °C and for the third stage 20 h and 28 ± 1 °C. During fermentation of the sourdough, the pH 3.91 is reached, LAB 8.8 log10 CFU g−1, and the yeast-like fungi 8.7 log10 CFU g−1 was determined. Obtained data show that more than 80 bacteria and 50 microscopic fungal species were detected in hull-less barley flour, but after germination their diversity decreased and in the germinated hull-less barley sourdoughs dominated species were Pediococcus pentosaceus.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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