A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Neotropical Biology and Conservation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.272
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2236-3777
Published by Pensoft Homepage  [58 journals]
  • Habitat use, non-breeding groupings and chromatic pattern in
           Johngarthia lagostoma (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) (Decapoda, Gecarcinidae) in
           Trindade Island, South Atlantic Ocean

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 18(1): 83-95
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.18.e101409
      Authors : Hilton Entringer Jr, Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo : The land crab Johngarthia lagostoma is endemic to Trindade Island, Atol das Rocas, Fernando de Noronha and Ascension Islands. The natural history of the species in non-breeding periods is little known. Therefore, here we reported the formation of non-breeding groups and evaluated the chromatic populational pattern of J. lagostoma in Trindade Island. Records were obtained between April and June 2015. The groups were characterized according to their location, terrain elevation, environmental characteristics and specimens’ behavior. The chromatic pattern was defined by the classification of individuals between yellow and purple, and the proportion of each color was compared between populational units (previously defined based on genetic differences). Non-breeding groups were recorded in four locations in Trindade Island, at altitudes < 40 m, and all of them were in locations with food resources and sediment suitable for the construction of shelters. Isolated individuals or the absence of the species were observed in the most inhospitable places, indicating that the maintenance of the species depends on portions of suitable habitat amid the currently arid matrix. Yellow individuals (96.4%) were predominant on Trindade Island and the chromatic pattern differed from the other populations. Color patterns seem to follow genetic differences between populations, and the founder effect may account for current patterns. From the data obtained, we emphasize that the maintenance of the species may depend on food, sediment suitable for shelters construction, humidity and shade. Due to the significant population decline in other regions, the need to define guidelines for the conservation of the species on Trindade Island is highlighted. In this context, the regeneration of insular vegetation and prohibiting the known anthropic consumption of individuals may represent important strategies for the maintenance of the species. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Mar 2023 10:03:10 +020
  • Influence of tree-fall gaps on directional seed dispersal by small
           mammals in Central Panama

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 18(1): 73-82
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.18.e97653
      Authors : Autumn B. Phillips-Lewis, Thomas D. Lambert, Gregory H. Adler : Small mammals, particularly rodents, are often important seed-dispersal agents in Neotropical forests. Directional seed dispersal into tree-fall gaps may enhance seedling survival of light-demanding species and thus influence forest regeneration. To examine this proposition, we tracked seeds of a light-demanding palm (Attalea butyracea), with a focus on spiny rats (Proechimys semispinosus), the most-likely seed-removal agents. We established seed-removal stations at three distances relative to 28 gaps (gap center, gap edge, and intact forest 10 m from a gap edge) in a lowland forest in Central Panama. We placed five fresh fruits (with their seed) in semi-permeable exclosures to exclude larger mammals at each station and tracked the directions in which seeds were moved and deposited intact. More seeds were moved toward or into gaps when removed from gap center or edge stations; however, seeds dispersed from intact forest stations showed no such directionality. Small mammals may have dispersed seeds into and within tree-fall gaps because they favored caching seeds in areas that offered increased cover, which is typical of gaps, and consequently protection from predation. The lack of directional dispersal from intact forest stations may have been because spiny rats were able to find sufficient cover in the young intact forest that was closer than the gaps. In older forest, the contrast between intact forest and gaps may be greater, resulting in directed dispersal into gaps. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Feb 2023 18:12:30 +0200
  • Biochemical, physiological, and molecular characterisation of a large
           collection of aerobic endospore-forming bacteria isolated from Brazilian

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 18(1): 53-72
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.18.e86548
      Authors : Paulo Henrique Rosa Martins, Leon Rabinovitch, Juliana Capela de Orem, Waldeyr Mendes C. Silva, Felipe de Araujo Mesquita, Maria Ines Andre de Magalhães, Danilo de Andrade Cavalcante, Adriana Marcos Vivoni, Edmar Justo de Oliveira, Vera Cristina Pessoa de Lima, Josiane Teixeira Brito, Marlene Teixeira De-Souza : The aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) comprise species of Bacillus and related genera and have long been regarded as prominent constituents of the soil bacterial community. The wide diversity of AEFB renders appropriate categorisation and generalisations a challenging task. We previously isolated 312 AEFB strains from Brazilian soils that we designated SDF (Solo do Distrito Federal) strains. To better understand the SDF diversity and explore their biotechnological potential, we addressed the biochemical and physiological profiles of these 312 environmental strains by performing 30 tests in this work. Of these, the 16S rRNA gene sequences segregated 238 SDF strains into four genera in the family Bacillaceae and two in the Paenibacillaceae. Bacillus spp. were the most prevalent, followed by species of Paenibacillus. We summarised the phenotypic test relationships among selected SDF strains using a Pearson correlation-based clustering represented in heatmaps. In practice, biochemical and physiological profiles are often less discriminatory than molecular data and may be unstable because of the loss of traits. Although these test reactions are not universally positive or negative within species, they may define biotypes and be efficient strain markers, enhancing the accuracy of unknown sample identification. It can also help select the most representative phenotypes of samples. Along with the other phenotypic and genotypic data, the present results are of great importance for the robust classification of the SDF strains within the scope of the polyphasic approach. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Feb 2023 18:06:24 +0200
  • A review of environmental and anthropogenic variables used to
           model jaguar occurrence

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 18(1): 31-51
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.18.e98437
      Authors : Víctor H. Montalvo, Carolina Sáenz-Bolaños, Eduardo Carrillo, Todd K. Fuller : Jaguars (Panthera onca) are a landscape species of conservation importance and our understanding of environmental and anthropogenic drivers of jaguar occurrence is necessary to improve conservation strategies. We reviewed available literature to simply describe environmental and anthropogenic variables used and found to be significant in occurrence modeling. We reviewed 95 documents published from 1980 to 2021 that focused on jaguar occurrence and that used 39 variable types (21 anthropogenic, 18 environmental) among different techniques, scales, and approaches. In general, these variables included both anthropogenic (roads, land use, human activities, and population) and environmental (climate, vegetation, ecological interactions, topographic, water, and others) factors. Twelve variables were identified as affecting jaguar occurrence overall, eleven at local scale and seven at broad scales (regional and continental). Focusing more specifically on the variables that correlate with occurrence should help researchers to make better predictions in areas without quantitative jaguar data. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Jan 2023 10:15:35 +020
  • Mammals of the Tandilia Mountain system, current species inhabiting
           Pampean highland grasslands

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 18(1): 13-29
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.18.e98374
      Authors : María Florencia Aranguren, Melina Alicia Velasco, Clara Trofino-Falasco, María Gimena Pizzarello, David Gustavo Vera, Igor Berkunsky : Neotropical temperate grasslands comprise the Pampas ecoregion in Argentina. This region is also the center of agricultural development in Argentina, which has led to a significant simplification and homogenization of the landscape. The Tandilia Mountains, located in the Southeast of the ecoregion, house one of the last remnants of the highland grassland that acts as a refuge for several native species, including both endemic and threatened species. This work aims to present an updated inventory of mammal species that inhabit the highland grassland remnants of the Tandilia Mountains. We used several sources of information to compile the list, including museum collections, citizen science projects (i.e., iNaturalist, EcoRegistros, and Argentinian Network for Monitoring Run Over Fauna), literature, and personal observations. We recorded 40 species of mammals, which include 32 native species and eight exotic species. The richest orders were Rodentia (42.5%), Chiroptera (17.5%), and Carnivora (12.2%). The native mammals found in the Tandilia Mountains represent 44% of the mammal diversity of the Pampas ecoregion, among which there are endemic species of the ecoregion, species whose populations are declining globally, and threatened species. Unfortunately, the presence of protected areas in the system is limited to a few small ones, which highlights the urgency of increasing the number and variety of protected areas. The information presented in this work contributes to the knowledge of biodiversity and the planning of conservation actions for the last remnants of highland grasslands. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Jan 2023 18:28:50 +020
  • Activity pattern and predatory behaviour of the ocelot (Leopardus
           pardalis) (Carnivora, Felidae) in mineral licks of the Yasuni National
           Park, Ecuador

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 18(1): 1-11
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.18.e95027
      Authors : Patricio Macas-Pogo, Edison Mejía Valenzuela, Gabriela Arévalo-Serrano : The ocelot, Leopardus pardalis, is one of the opportunistic predators of the tropical forests that includes birds, small and medium mammals, amphibians and reptiles in its diet. Aiming to observe its behaviour within its natural habitat, 10 cameras were installed in 10 mineral licks within the Yasuni National Park (Ecuador). Both images and videos of ocelot predation events were collected. Hence, the frequency of activity of this specie was determined with the register of captures obtained. Three events are described: the first one, an image of an ocelot stalking a Mazama deer was taken, while in the second scene, a video of stalking an anuran was obtained and in the third event, a video of the ocelot capturing a flying bat was recorded. The use of camera traps allowed us to collect valuable behavioural information about this feline and provide evidence of the importance of the mineral licks for this and other wild species. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Jan 2023 17:39:19 +020
  • Release and follow-up of a rehabilitated two-toed sloth (Choloepus
           hoffmanni) in a tropical dry forest in Ecuador

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 17(4): 253-267
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.17.e91332
      Authors : Ricardo Villalba-Briones, Edwin R. Jiménez, Juan S. Monros : We present the first records of the post-release follow-up and monitoring of a rehabilitated two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni) as well as freezing behavior and an inferred antagonistic interaction for this species. Two-toed sloths are nocturnal and arboreal mammals whose survival relies on their capability to remain undetected by predators. Nevertheless, in the Guayas province of Ecuador, they are among the most common mammal species in rehabilitation centers. The liberation of animals back to the forest is the main goal of rehabilitation, while the follow-up of post-release human support of animals facilitates their re-establishment in their natural habitat. Follow-up, direct observation, and Bluetooth-based monitoring of the two-toed sloths secured the survival of this species in this part of Ecuador. The range of detectability of the device used indicates its suitability for tracking low-mobility animals. After the first five days, the number of trees used per day increased, and 19 trees within 1152 m2 were visited. Daylight and movement time range showed a correlation towards detectability. The follow-up effort allowed for keeping the two-toed sloth safe for 10 days after release. Due to the difficulty monitoring nocturnal animals, economic constraints in conservation, accessibility, and safety of the animals, biodegradable Bluetooth-based backpacks are recommended to ease the location of the animal and support its survival in the wild. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Nov 2022 15:28:02 +020
  • Lessons from a tropical deciduous shrub species: leaf fall can play a more
           important role than rain in leaf budding

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 17(4): 239-251
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.17.e93846
      Authors : Nathália Ribeiro Henriques, Cássio Cardoso Pereira : In the Cerrado, the sequential chaining of phenological events during the dry season is a pattern observed in many plant species. In this season, many plants completely lose their leaves, and soon after deciduous, there is an expressive production of leaf buds. In this study, we investigated the effect of irrigation and early defoliation on the triggering of leaf budding of the deciduous species Peixotoa tomentosa A.Juss. in the dry season of a seasonal environment with water restrictions. Therefore, we set up an experiment with three groups of plants: control (n = 15), irrigation treatment (n = 15), and removal treatment (n = 15), and after the complete deciduousness of the plants, we carried out phenological monitoring of the development of leaf buds in these plants. From July to August 2022, the leaf budding phenology of the 45 individuals was evaluated twice a week. To test whether there is a difference in the number of leaf buds between treatments, we built generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). Plants in the removal treatment had a statistically higher number of leaf buds produced than the plants in the irrigation and control groups (P < 0.05). However, the control group and the irrigation treatment did not differ from each other (P> 0.05). We showed that early defoliation influenced the triggering of leaf buds in P. tomentosa, increasing the production of young leaves in their individuals in a seasonal environment with water restrictions. Irrigation was not able to break the dormancy of leaf buds. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the triggering of vegetative phenophases in deciduous Cerrado plants, showing that leaf fall may play a more important role than rain in the production of leaf buds in the dry season. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 18:12:32 +020
  • Ocelot, Leopardus pardalis (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae), home range
           in the Lowland Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 17(4): 229-237
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.17.e93828
      Authors : Laura Martins Magalhães, Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo : The ocelot is an important Neotropical mesopredator and information on its spatial ecology remains scarce. Here we estimated the ocelot home range in a remnant of Lowland Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil. The data were collected by camera traps installed at eight known ocelot latrines. We estimated the home range both based on the Minimum Convex Polygon (MCP) and the 95% adaptive Kernel density estimator (95%K) to compare with other published studies. We identified 22 ocelots (adult males = 8; adult females = 12; cubs = 2). Six males were recorded at more than one latrine, while all females were recorded at only one sampling point. In addition to male ocelots being recorded at a large number of points, they showed greater intrasexual spatial overlap as they used the same latrines, suggesting larger home ranges than females. The mean home range size for males was 12.1 ± SE 4.4 km2 (range = 6.2 to 20.8 km2) using MCP, and 19.9 ± SE 9.5 km2 (range = 10.1 to 38.9 km2) applying 95%K. Despite our estimates representing an approximation of the total area used by males, both values are consistent with those reported from other locations. Our data complemented the gradient of vegetation type sampled for ocelots in Atlantic Forest and support the suggestion that this environmental variable and, consequently, its effect on prey availability, influence the home range size of ocelot. Information on population ecology and other spatial ecology data are also presented. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Oct 2022 10:44:54 +030
  • Distribution and conservation of vanilla crop wild relatives: the value
           of local community engagement for biodiversity research

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 17(3): 205-227
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.17.e86792
      Authors : Nicola S. Flanagan, Andres Navia-Samboni, Eimer Norberto González-Pérez, Hernan Mendieta-Matallana : Natural vanilla is a high-value crop with demand increasing globally. Crop wild relatives (CWR) represent valuable agrobiodiversity and are prioritized in the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. Vanilla species are naturally rare with historically infrequent botanical collections. Despite their importance as CWR, fewer than 10% of Vanilla species have been evaluated for the IUCN Red List. Colombia is a diversity center for Vanilla species, yet many remote regions are lacking detailed floristic characterization. We show that the participation of rural communities in scientific endeavor enhances capacity to register biodiversity. We report two Vanilla species in the under-explored region of the Serranía de las Quinchas in the mid–Magdalena River valley in Colombia, including the first report for Colombia of Vanilla karen-christianae. For this, and the second species, Vanilla dressleri, we present descriptions with photographic botanical illustrations, updated distribution maps, and preliminary conservation status assessment. Both species are of elevated conservation concern, categorized as Endangered – EN: B2a,b(ii,iii,iv,v) following IUCN criteria. Within Colombia, all recorded occurrences for both species fall outside protected areas. Vanilla crop wild relatives in Colombia have urgent conservation needs. The Serranía de las Quinchas is a priority for further botanical exploration for Vanilla, as well as other protected areas with appropriate habitat. In situ conservation should be complemented with ex situ actions. Community participation in biodiversity research is recommended in this and other remote regions as an integral step towards enhancing biodiversity research and community-based conservation. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Sep 2022 10:21:17 +030
  • Current state of knowledge on freshwater planarians (Platyhelminthes,
           Tricladida, Dugesiidae) from Chile

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 17(3): 185-203
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.17.e82779
      Authors : Constanza Vásquez-Doorman, Javiera Escobedo, Miguel L. Allende : The unique geography of Chile encompasses a wide diversity of ecosystems and a rich biodiversity. However, the platyhelminth fauna has been poorly studied. The aim of this work is to compile the historical record of freshwater planarians described for this country. We accessed worldwide databases and published articles to provide a comprehensive review of their discovery history, morphological characteristics and their localities. Freshwater planarians have been collected mainly in central and southern Chile, while in the northern region a single species has been described. The discovery of new species of freshwater triclads has the potential to reveal novel animal models to study regeneration and/or biological adaptations, as some species are suitable for culture in the laboratory. We discuss the many reasons why further research is needed for this animal group, which should include genomic and molecular genetic studies. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 5 Aug 2022 10:32:39 +0300
  • Vascular plants of Punta Ballena: dataset for conservation of an
           endangered hotspot from Uruguay

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 17(2): 163-195
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.17.e84893
      Authors : Patricia Mai, María Zabaleta, Laura Cappuccio, Antonella Pollero, Eduardo Marchesi : Punta Ballena is the coastal southern tip of the Sierra de la Ballena, a shear zone of two tectonic plates, located at the beginning of the oceanic coast of Uruguay. Coastal rocky points are especially relevant because of their high plant richness, moreover their vegetation is endangered mainly due to the high tourist – urbanistic development of the coast. This study aimed to determine the list of vascular plants occurring on Punta Ballena coastal rocky point and identify its vegetation communities. Also, to identify endemic species, threatened and of interest for conservation species; and to analyze the species historically documented for the site. Punta Ballena stands out for its remarkable species richness with 427 species, dominated by Asteraceae (82), Poaceae (82) and Fabaceae (26). Five vegetation types were found in the natural area, which allows the combination of species with different adaptations. The site supports five vulnerable species and one endangered species (IUCN), 33 priority species for conservation, two local endemisms and numerous national (13) and regional (45) endemisms. Regarding historical collections, to date Punta Ballena has suffered a loss of 14% of its species, this is likely a direct consequence of the recent urban development. From these historically documented species, we consider five of them to be locally extinct. Due to these overwhelming results, we consider the site a diversity hotspot on the Uruguayan coast. It becomes urgent to generate conservation plans that allow the maintenance of the flora and vegetation communities that are still preserved in the area. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 17:51:25 +030
  • Osteophagia of sea turtle bones by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus
           virginianus) in Santa Rosa National Park, northwestern Costa Rica

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 17(2): 143-149
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.17.e87274
      Authors : Brayan Morera, Víctor Montalvo, Carolina Sáenz-Bolaños, Juan C. Cruz-Díaz, Todd K. Fuller, Eduardo Carrillo : Herbivores obtain nutrients mostly from the vegetation they consume, but may obtain additional minerals during periods of nutritional stress by consuming bones (osteophagia), a behavioral strategy that has been reported for many wild ungulate species, including the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Here we document multiple records (n = 183 camera-trap records) of osteophagia by white-tailed deer chewing sea turtle remains (resulting from jaguar [Panthera onca] predation) near a nesting beach in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica during January-September 2017. Females with fawns, males with hard and velvet-covered antlers, and non-spotted fawns reached a peak of sea turtle bone consumption during June to August. We hypothesize that seasonality, sex, age, and individual growth stage influence the frequency of osteophagy as a strategy to cope with environmental changes and food resource scarcity. Finally, these observations highlight the role of an apex predator as indirectly influencing rare but important ecological processes. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Jul 2022 20:56:35 +030
  • Genetic divergence and demography of pudu deer (Pudu puda) in five
           provinces of southern Chile, analyzed through latitudinal and longitudinal

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 17(2): 117-142
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.17.e81324
      Authors : Nelson Colihueque, Javier Cabello, Andrea Fuentes-Moliz : Pudu deer (Pudu puda) is endemic to the temperate rainforests of Chile. Genetic studies at different geographic scales for this species are required to better determine the genetic divergence within and among populations and their demography across the distribution range. These data can provide unique insights into the species or population status for conservation plans and decision-makers. We analyzed the mtDNA control region (CR) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences of pudu deer in five provinces of southern Chile located at different latitudinal locations (Cautín, Valdivia, Osorno, Llanquihue and Chiloé Island) and three geographic areas within the studied provinces, representative of different longitudinal sites (Andes range, Central Valley and Coastal Range), to understand their genetic divergence and demography. The haplotype (H) and nucleotide (Π) diversities of CR and Cyt b ranged from 0.64286 to 0.98333 and from 0.00575 to 0.01022, respectively. CR diversity was significantly different among provinces, with Valdivia showing higher values than Llanquihue and Chiloé Island (H = 0.98333 vs. 0.64286–0.92727, P < 0.05). Cyt b variation also showed significant differences among provinces, particularly, among Cautín and Llanquihue (H = 1.000 vs. 0.222, P < 0.05). Genetic structuring among provinces was relatively high, as indicated by the FST index (FST = 0.41905). Clustering analysis indicated the presence of a distinctive cluster for Chiloé Island individuals. Fu’s FS and Tajima’s D based on CR revealed significant, negative deviations from equilibrium for Chiloé Island (D = -1.65898), Valdivia (Fs = -7.75335) and Llanquihue (Fs = -3.93267), suggesting population expansion in these provinces. Analysis at the longitudinal range showed significant differences among areas based on Π (P < 0.05), with the Andes range and Central Valley showing higher diversity than the Coastal Range. Neither population structuring (FST = 0.01360, P> 0.05) nor distinctive clusters in the longitudinal range were observed. Fu’s Fs and Tajima’s D were negative and significant for the Coastal Range based on CR (Fs = -6.64752, P < 0.001) and Cyt b (D = -1.74110, P < 0.05), suggesting the existence of population expansion. Our results suggest that pudu deer in the analyzed provinces is a genetically structured species, which could be associated with reduced panmixia among populations. The genetic divergence pattern and the population expansion recorded are likely to be associated with past processes of recolonization after Pleistocene glaciation events. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jun 2022 17:00:21 +030
  • Record of occurrence of Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766) (Carnivora,
           Procyonidae) in a densely urbanized area of the city of Canoas, southern

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 17(2): 111-116
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.17.e81824
      Authors : Diego Floriano da Rocha, Thaís Brauner do Rosario, Ana Carolina Pontes Maciel, Duana Suelem Alves, Cristina Vargas Cademartori : The South American coati is a carnivore with a wide distribution in South America. Despite this, it is considered a threatened species in Rio Grande do Sul, as Vulnerable, primarily because of the loss of forest habitats. We recorded a Nasua nasua individual at the Canoas airbase, one of the last remaining green spaces in a densely urbanized area in southern Brazil. This confirms the capability of this species to use environments that have been changed by anthropic activity. It also highlights the relevance of green spaces in urban areas for wildlife conservation. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Apr 2022 09:45:31 +030
  • Recent observations of Dermochelys coriacea (Vandelli, 1761), in the
           waters of Pacific Panama

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 17(1): 103-110
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.17.e81465
      Authors : Eric E. Flores : The situation of the Eastern Tropical Pacific subpopulation of the leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) is critical due to the drastic declines of nesting females. Evidence of the presence of leatherback sea turtles along the Pacific coast of Panama is anecdotal and is based on the local knowledge of local residents. I present here an uncommon observation of a subadult and an adult D. coriacea in the waters off the coast of Azuero Peninsula in central Panama. These observations indicate the need for intensive surveys along this coast that in part may rely on key local informants to urgently implement conservation efforts for this species. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Mar 2022 12:15:09 +020
  • The importance of pollination and dispersal syndromes for the
           conservation of Cerrado Rupestre fragments on ironstone outcrops immersed
           in an agricultural landscape

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 17(1): 87-102
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.17.e79247
      Authors : Cássio Cardoso Pereira, Daniel Meira Arruda, Fernanda de Fátima Santos Soares, Rúbia Santos Fonseca : Studies on pollination and seed dispersal are essential for the conservation of plant diversity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the pollination and dispersal syndromes of five fragments of the Cerrado Rupestre immersed in an agricultural landscape to answer the following questions: (i) What is the frequency of pollination and dispersal syndromes among species and individuals'; (ii) Which are the predominant pollination and seed dispersal syndromes in this environment'. A total of 66 species, belonging to 44 genera and 29 botanical families, were evaluated. Melittophily was the most common type of pollination syndrome, observed in 54.55% of the species, followed by phalenophily (9.09%), cantharophily, ornithophily, quiropterophilly and sphingophily (all 3.03%), and psychophilly (1.51%). Generalist pollination represented 22.73% of the records. Of the 1246 individuals identified, 59.23% were melitophilous, 25.20% generalists, 5.86% phalenophilous, 3.37% quiropterophilous, 2.49% cantharophilous, 2.25% ornithophilous, 1.44% sphingophilous and 0.16% psychophilous. Regarding dispersion syndromes, zoochory was the most common type of dispersion, observed in 68.18% of the species, followed by anemochory (28.79%) and autochory (3.03%). On the other hand, the frequency among individuals differed from the values found for frequency among species. Of the 1246 individuals identified, 55.38% were anemochoric, 43.10% zoochoric, and 1.52% autochoric. Our results demonstrate the predominance of biotic syndromes in the community, especially melittophily and zoochory, contributing to a better understanding of the functionality and availability of resources in the community, as well as indispensable information for the conservation, management, and restoration of natural environments. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Mar 2022 12:14:48 +020
  • Non-native freshwater fishes in Guatemala, northern Central America:
           introduction sources, distribution, history, and conservation consequences

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 17(1): 59-85
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.17.e80062
      Authors : Diego J. Elías, César E. Fuentes-Montejo, Yasmín Quintana, Christian A. Barrientos : Non-native freshwater fishes have been introduced to Guatemalan freshwater ecosystems since the beginning of the last century without prior risk assessment or subsequent evaluation of their impacts. We synthesized historical records, and distributional data from a literature review, online databases and museum records of non-native freshwater fishes in Guatemala. We found records for 22 non-native freshwater fishes with the oldest records dating back to 1926. Non-native freshwater fishes were recorded in 64% of the river sub-basins in Guatemala and we identified that at least 12 species have established populations. The Jaguar guapote (Parachromis managuensis) and Tilapias (Oreochromis spp.) are the most widespread non-native fishes. The species of non-native freshwater fishes introduced indicates that they are human selected (e.g., for farming purposes). Our work shows that aquaculture has been the major driver of introductions in the country, but aquarium release has become an important source in the last 20 years. Given the potential impact of non-native freshwater fishes on native fauna and ecosystems, we highlight an urgent need to assess their ecological effects, as well as to establish a fish fauna monitoring program in Guatemala to detect new introductions. Government and non-governmental agencies should promote the use of native species to supply fish demands in alignment with environmental policies and the objectives of the fishing agency in Guatemala. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Mar 2022 11:33:20 +020
  • Taxonomic and functional diversity of birds in a rural landscape of
           high Andean forest, Colombia

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 17(1): 39-57
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.17.e66096
      Authors : Lina P. Sarmiento-Garavito, Juan S. García-Monroy, Juan E. Carvajal-Cogollo : We evaluated the taxonomic and functional diversity of birds in a rural landscape in the north-eastern Andes of Colombia. We carried out seven field trips and used transects of 300 m, separated from each other by 500 m in the dominant plant cover of the rural landscape. We measured alpha (α) and beta (β) diversity at both the taxonomic and functional levels. We registered 10 orders, 21 families, 56 genera and 63 species of birds. In wooded pasture, we recorded 55 species and a relative abundance of 66% and 44 and 34% for an Andean forest fragment. The species that contributed the most to the dissimilarity between the covers were Zonotrichia capensis, Turdus fuscater, Mecocerculus leucophrys, Atlapetes latinuchus and Crotophaga ani. We identified nine functional types, where G1 was made up of small species with anissodactyl and pamprodactyl legs that were insectivorous, frugivorous and nectarivorous as the best represented. The FEve and FDiv were 0.51 and 0.74, respectively in the Andean forest fragment plant cover and, for the wooded pasture, the FEve was 0.45 and the FDiv was 0.81. Both cover types contributed to the diversity of the rural landscape and the dynamics that existed between them formed a complementary factor that favoured the taxonomic and functional richness of the characterised rural landscape. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Feb 2022 11:53:23 +020
  • Abundance of the Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno
           (Trogoniformes, Trogonidae) in the tourist sector of a cloud forest

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 17(1): 29-38
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.17.e72273
      Authors : Javier Adolfo García Reynaud, Miriam Elizabeth Sorto Sabillón, Allan Francisco Padilla Barahona : The Resplendent Quetzal (Pharomachrus mocinno) exhibits characteristics that are common to species prone to extinction, such as occurring at low densities, presenting strict ecological requirements, and inhabiting locations with high rates of degradation. The lack of data on the abundance of threatened species makes it difficult to make management decisions and does not allow to know trends over time, which is essential for conservation in their distribution areas. The abundance and density of the Resplendent Quetzal was estimated from audio/visual detections analyzed with distance sampling techniques. Data was collected in the public use sector of La Tigra National Park, a reserve of virgin and secondary growth cloud forest in Honduras, Central America. A population N = 136 was found with a density of 40 quetzals per km2. There are no systematic studies on the population size and density of the species for this site since 1979, in which a population of 145 quetzals was reported. The estimation of the Resplendent Quetzal population for the total area of the park is a main research priority, which will make it possible to evaluate the viability of the species and the establishment of a new baseline for conservation policies and environmental education efforts in the area of influence. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jan 2022 15:12:30 +020
  • Confirmation of the current occurrence of Nasua narica (Procyonidae) in
           the Caribbean region of Colombia

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 17(1): 21-28
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.17.e70352
      Authors : Gerson A. Salcedo-Rivera, Alberto Mario Rodríguez, Dairo Carrascal-Prasca, Ramón Granados-Peña, José F. González-Maya : The White-nosed Coati, Nasua narica is a small carnivore distributed from the United States to Ecuador, and whose occurrence in Colombia had only been confirmed from the biogeographic Chocó. Although it was previously erroneously considered widespread in the country, a recent revision identified inconsistencies with some supporting records there. Here we present a new distribution record for the species, which confirms previously alleged information about the presence of this procyonid in the Department of Magdalena, also confirming its current occurrence for the Caribbean region, and solving a long-due geographical distribution uncertainty in the country. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jan 2022 14:42:44 +020
  • The distribution and conservation status of Tapirus terrestris in the
           South American Atlantic Forest

    • Abstract: Neotropical Biology and Conservation 17(1): 1-19
      DOI : 10.3897/neotropical.17.e71867
      Authors : Kevin M. Flesher, Emília Patrícia Medici : Tapirus terrestris is the largest South American land mammal, with an extensive historical distribution and capable of occupying diverse habitats, and yet its populations have declined across its range. In order to provide baseline data on the conservation status of tapirs in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a long-term study in one landscape, visited 93 forests, and received 217 expert reports over the 15-year study. We estimate that 2,665–15,992 tapirs remain in 48 confirmed populations, occupying 26,654 km2 of forest or 1.78% of its original range in the biome. Historically, hunting and deforestation were the main causes of decline, but today population isolation is the principal long-term threat. Vortex models indicate that 31.3–68.8% and 70.8–93.8% of the populations are demographically and genetically non-viable over the next 100 years, respectively, and that only 3–14 populations are viable when considering both variables. Habitat use data indicate that tapirs are adaptable to disturbed and secondary forests and will use diverse tree plantations and agricultural lands but hunting and highways keep populations isolated. Reserve staff report tapirs as common/abundant at 62.2% of the sites, and populations as stable and growing in 60% and 36% of the sites, respectively, and there is ample habitat in the biome for a population expansion, but overcoming the causes of isolation will be necessary for this to occur. Lack of adequate funding for protecting reserves is a chronic threat throughout the biome, especially in federal and state/provincial reserves, and increased funding will be necessary to implement effective conservation plans. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jan 2022 14:41:50 +020
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

Your IP address:
Home (Search)
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-