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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 142 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 246)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Recycling
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2313-4321
Published by MDPI Homepage  [233 journals]
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 23: Mechanical Properties of Concrete with
           Recycled Concrete Aggregate and Fly Ash

    • Authors: Ihab Katar, Yasser Ibrahim, Mohammad Abdul Malik, Shabir Hussain Khahro
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) collected from the demolition of old reinforced concrete structures can be reused to prepare structural and non-structural concrete, thereby protecting the environment by preserving natural resources. This study explores RCA’s use, collected from the crushed concrete of different building projects in Riyadh, to manufacture fresh self-compacting concrete (SCC) and investigate its properties in the fresh and hardened state. Four SCC mixes were prepared by replacing natural aggregate (NA) with RCA at 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% replacement levels. The water-cement (w/c) ratio was maintained constant at 0.38 for all the mixes. Slump Flow, J-ring, and V-funnel tests were performed on the SCC mixes in the fresh state, and the compressive strength of hardened concrete was determined after seven, 14, and 28 days. Water absorption and split tensile tests were also carried out for all the mixes. The findings revealed that it is possible to reach compressive strengths higher than 40 MPa at 28 days for RCA replacement level of 75% by using a superplasticizer and low w/c ratio. The decrease in compressive strength concerning the SCC-NA mix was 25% for 75% replacement level. The highest split tensile strength at 28 days was around 3.3 MPa for a 50% replacement level. The lowest water absorption was 3.2% for SCC-NA, which was gradually increased and was highest at 5.6% for 75% replacement level.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6020023
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 24: Moderating Effects on Residents’
           Willingness in Waste Sorting to Improve Waste Handling in Dammam City,
           Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Ossama Labib, Latifah Manaf, Amir Hamzah Sharaai, Siti Sarah Mohamad Zaid
      First page: 24
      Abstract: While the total amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Dammam city was about 13 million tons in 2013, it is expected to reach about 18.4 million tons in 2025. Although the main problem in Dammam city is an increase in solid waste production without any formal treatment except landfilling, the lack of waste segregation greatly affects the residents’ handling practices of solid waste due to incorrect disposing practices. The objective of this study explored the possibility of Dammam residents’ participation in sorting and recycling to improve MSW handling and to measure the influence of psychological factors which affecting residents’ willingness to participate in waste handling regarding socioeconomic levels and moderating effects. This study also examined various respondents’ perspectives on sorting and recycling sustainable waste and the handling of waste generation. This study covered most Dammam communities, with a gender distribution of 56% males and 44% females and the monthly income ranging from SR700 to SR12,000. The descriptive analysis showed that of the 450 participants, 170 (37.8%) were in the middle-income levels, 199 (44.2%) were in the high-income levels and 81 (18%) were in the low-income levels. The moderating effect of income was observed between attitude and willingness to sort and recycle waste in the low-income levels and high-income levels groups. Additionally, an association was found between market incentives and willingness to sort and recycle waste in the low-income levels and high-income levels groups. The gender status of the participants had a moderating effect on the relationship between market incentives and willingness to sort and recycle waste in males and females. Additionally, the moderating effect of social influence on households’ willingness to sort and recycle waste was moderated by gender in males and females.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6020024
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 25: Phosphorus Recovery from Wastewater:
           Bioavailability of P Bound to Calcareous Material for Maize (Zea Mays L.)
           Growth

    • Authors: Solvei M. Jensen, Chiara Esposito, Dennis Konnerup, Hans Brix, Carlos A. Arias
      First page: 25
      Abstract: (1) Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient, and P deficiency negatively affects plant growth and development. Furthermore, P is a finite and nonrenewable resource, and there is an urgent need to recover P from some of the important waste streams in society. Newly engineered calcareous materials (sol–gel coated cat litter (CATSAN®)) can bind P from wastewater in decentralized treatment systems and potentially enable P recycling into agricultural production by direct addition of the P saturated material. (2) The effects of the addition of two P-enriched calcareous materials as fertilizers for maize (Zea mays L.) growth were investigated in a mesocosm experiment. We compared fertilization with the P-enriched materials at rates of 6, 12, 25, 50, 100 kg P ha−1 yr−1 with fertilization with commercial NPK fertilizer. (3) The P fertilization by the P-enriched materials had a significant positive effect on plant height, biomass, maximum light-saturated photosynthetic rate, respiration rate, and total P content in biomass. However, plants fertilized by the commercial NPK fertilizer performed significantly better in the majority of measured parameters at identical fertilization rates. (4) The bioavailability of the P bound to the calcareous material was very low. However, the studied material has the potential to be used as part of a decentralized treatment solution to remove and subsequently recover and recycle P from wastewater.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6020025
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 26: The Recycling of Waste Laminated Glass
           through Decomposition Technologies

    • Authors: Ľubomír Šooš, Miloš Matúš, Marcela Pokusová, Viliam Čačko, Jozef Bábics
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Laminated glass is ever more frequently used nowadays. This applies to the automobile industry and the construction industry. In cars, this refers mostly to the front and rear windows, whereas in construction, technical safety glass is used for railings and window glass. The task of this type of glass is to provide sufficient resistance against mechanical impact and unpleasant weather conditions. At the same time, if it is damaged, it has to break into the smallest possible pieces, or, wherever possible, the glass should remain intact on the interlayer film to prevent shards from injuring people and animals in the immediate vicinity. The paper deals with the recycling of laminated glass, especially with the effective separation of glass (in the form of cullet) from the polyvinyl butyral (PVB) interlayer film. The experimental research is focused on the mechanical separation of glass from the interlayer film by vibration, and also on the chemical cleaning of PVB film in order to allow subsequent recycling of both materials. The results quantify the efficiency of mechanical separation in the form of weight loss of the sample of laminated glass and define the particle size distribution of glass cullet, which is an important parameter in the possibility of glass recycling. The research leads to a methodology proposal for the separation of glass and PVB film and the design of equipment for this method.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6020026
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 27: Recovery of Platinum from a Spent Automotive
           Catalyst through Chloride Leaching and Solvent Extraction

    • Authors: Ana Méndez, Carlos A. Nogueira, Ana Paula Paiva
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Considering economics and environmental sustainability, recycling of critical metals from end-of-life devices should be a priority. In this work the hydrometallurgical treatment of a spent automotive catalytic converter (SACC) using HCl with CaCl2 as a leaching medium, and solvent extraction (SX) with a thiodiglycolamide derivative, is reported. The aim was to develop a leaching scheme allowing high Pt recoveries and minimizing Al dissolution, facilitating the application of SX. The replacement of part of HCl by CaCl2 in the leaching step is viable, without compromising Pt recovery (in the range 75–85%), as found for the mixture 2 M CaCl2 + 8 M HCl when compared to 11.6 M HCl. All leaching media showed good potential to recover Ce, particularly for higher reaction times and temperatures. Regarding SX, results achieved with a model solution were promising, but SX for Pt separation from the real SACC solution did not work as expected. For the adopted experimental conditions, the tested thiodiglycolamide derivative in toluene revealed a very good loading performance for both Pt and Fe, but Fe removal and Pt stripping from the organic phases after contact with the SACC solution were not successfully accomplished. Hence, the reutilization of the organic solvent needs improvement.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6020027
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 28: Energy Recovery of Agricultural Residues:
           Incorporation of Vine Pruning in the Production of Biomass Pellets with
           ENplus® Certification

    • Authors: Leonel J. R. Nunes, Liliana M. E. F. Loureiro, Letícia C. R. Sá, João C. O. Matias, Ana I. O. F. Ferraz, Ana C. P. B. Rodrigues
      First page: 28
      Abstract: The use of residual biomass of forest and/or agricultural origin is an increasingly common issue regarding the incorporation of materials that, until recently, were out of the typical raw material supply chains for the production of biomass pellets, mainly due to the quality constraints that some of these materials present. The need to control the quality of biomass-derived fuels led to the development of standards, such as ENplus®, to define the permitted limits for a set of parameters, such as the ash or alkali metal content. In the present study, samples of vine pruning, and ENplus®-certified pellets were collected and characterized, and the results obtained were compared with the limits presented in the standard. The values presented from vine pruning approximated the values presented by Pinus pinaster wood, the main raw material used in the production of certified pellets in Portugal, except for the values of ash, copper (Cu), and nitrogen (N) contents, with vine pruning being out of the qualifying limits for certification. However, it was found that the incorporation of up to 10% of biomass from vine pruning allowed the fulfillment of the requirements presented in the ENplus® standard, indicating a path for the implementation of circular economy processes in the wine industry.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6020028
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 29: Incentives for Plastic Recycling: How to
           Engage Citizens in Active Collection. Empirical Evidence from Spain

    • Authors: Denisa Gibovic, Andrea Bikfalvi
      First page: 29
      Abstract: The recycling target for plastics is expected to increase Europe-wide from 22.5% to 55% by 2025, hence the relevance of incentive schemes and the need to reach conclusions about how to encourage families to recycle more. Following this objective, a pilot project was implemented and a virtual reward token called RECICLOS created to encourage recycling among families, using incentives and awards to improve recycling behaviour and a webapp prototype to register the recycled plastic. By the end of the 6-week pilot project, 1053 families were registered on the scheme, representing 10% of the targeted population in the pilot area of the county of Pla de l’Estany, Catalonia, Spain. The novelties were the introduction of a token, the gamification of incentives through raffles and lotteries, webapp-based direct communication with citizens, and feedback after collecting and registering the recycled material. The multidimensional aspects of recycling activities, their strong relation with human behavioural patterns, and the high demand for communication and interaction mean that mobile technologies find significant application in this field. The results show that people can be influenced and their recycling habits changed by means of varied, effective, and innovative incentive schemes.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6020029
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 2: An Additive Model to Predict the Rheological
           and Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene Blends Made by Virgin and
           Reprocessed Components

    • Authors: Francesco Paolo La Mantia, Maria Chiara Mistretta, Vincenzo Titone
      First page: 2
      Abstract: In this work, an additive model for the prediction of the rheological and mechanical properties of monopolymer blends made by virgin and reprocessed components is proposed. A polypropylene sample has been reprocessed more times in an extruder and monopolymer blends have been prepared by simulating an industrial process. The scraps are exposed to regrinding and are melt reprocessed before mixing with the virgin polymer. The reprocessed polymer is, then, subjected to some thermomechanical degradation. Rheological and mechanical experimental data have been compared with the theoretical predictions. The results obtained showed that the values of this simple additive model are a very good fit for the experimental values of both rheological and mechanical properties.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010002
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 3: Prospects of Red King Crab Hepatopancreas
           Processing: Fundamental and Applied Biochemistry

    • Authors: Tatyana Ponomareva, Maria Timchenko, Michael Filippov, Sergey Lapaev, Evgeny Sogorin
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Since the early 1980s, a large number of studies on enzymes from the red king crab hepatopancreas were conducted. They have been relevant both from a fundamental point of view in terms of studying the enzymes of marine organisms and in terms of rational natural resource management aimed to obtain new valuable products from the processing of crab fishing waste. Most of these works were performed by Russian scientists due to the area and amount of waste of red king crab processing in Russia (or the Soviet Union). However, the close phylogenetic kinship and the similar ecological niches of commercial crab species and the production scale of the catch provide the bases for the successful transfer of experience in the processing of the red king crab hepatopancreas to other commercial crab species caught worldwide. This review describes the value of recycled commercial crab species, discusses processing problems, and suggests possible solutions for these issues. The main emphasis is made on hepatopancreatic enzymes as the most salubrious products of red king crab waste processing.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010003
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 4: Sustainable Additive Manufacturing: Mechanical
           Response of High-Density Polyethylene over Multiple Recycling Processes

    • Authors: Nectarios Vidakis, Markos Petousis, Athena Maniadi
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Polymer recycling is nowadays in high-demand due to an increase in polymers demand and production. Recycling of such materials is mostly a thermomechanical process that modifies their overall mechanical behavior. The present research work focuses on the recyclability of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), one of the most recycled materials globally, for use in additive manufacturing (AM). A thorough investigation was carried out to determine the effect of the continuous recycling on mechanical, structural, and thermal responses of HDPE polymer via a process that isolates the thermomechanical treatment from other parameters such as aging, contamination, etc. Fused filament fabrication (FFF) specimens were produced from virgin and recycled materials and were experimentally tested and evaluated in tension, flexion, impact, and micro-hardness. A thorough thermal and morphological analysis was also performed. The overall results of this study show that the mechanical properties of the recycled HDPE polymer were generally improved over the recycling repetitions for a certain number of recycling steps, making the HDPE recycling a viable option for circular use. Repetitions two to five had the optimum overall mechanical behavior, indicating a significant positive impact of the HDPE polymer recycling aside from the environmental one.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010004
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 5: Evaluation of the Use of Recycled Vegetable
           Oil as a Collector Reagent in the Flotation of Copper Sulfide Minerals
           Using Seawater

    • Authors: Felipe Arcos, Lina Uribe
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Considering sustainable mining, the use of seawater in mineral processing to replace conventional water is an attractive alternative, especially in cases where this resource is limited. However, the use of this aqueous medium generates a series of challenges; specifically, in the seawater flotation process, it is necessary to adapt traditional reagents to the aqueous medium or to propose new reagents that achieve better performance and are environmentally friendly. In this research, the technical feasibility of using recycled vegetable oil (RVO) as a collector of copper sulfide minerals in the flotation process using seawater was studied. The study considered the analysis of the metallurgical indexes when different concentrations of collector and foaming reagent were used, considering as collectors the RVO, potassium amyl xanthate (PAX) and mixtures of these, in addition to the methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC) as foaming agent. In addition, it was evidenced that the best metallurgical indexes were achieved using 40 g/t of RVO and 15 g/t of MIBC, which corresponded to an enrichment ratio of 6.29, a concentration ratio of 7.01, a copper recovery of 90.06% and a selectivity index with respect to pyrite of 4.03 and with respect to silica of 12.89. Finally, in relation to the study of the RVO and PAX collector mixtures, it was found that a mixture of 60 g/t of RVO and 40 g/t of PAX in the absence of foaming agent presented the best results in terms of copper recovery (98.66%) and the selectivity index with respect to pyrite (2.88) and silica (14.65), improving PAX selectivity and recovery compared to the use of RVO as the only collector. According to these results, it is possible to conclude that the addition of RVO improved the selectivity in the rougher flotation for copper sulfides in seawater. This could be an interesting opportunity for the industry to minimize the costs of the flotation process and generate a lower environmental impact.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010005
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 6: Raising Awareness on Solid Waste Management
           through Formal Education for Sustainability: A Developing Countries
           Evidence Review

    • Authors: Justice Kofi Debrah, Diogo Guedes Vidal, Maria Alzira Pimenta Dinis
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a multifaceted problem comprising political, socioeconomic, institutional, and environmental aspects. Due to exponential urban growth, it has become one of the most significant issues faced by urban spaces in developing countries. The gap in environmental knowledge among the youth and the old within developing countries contribute to ecological issues or waste management problems, resulting in unsustainable development, with important consequences in low-income countries. For that matter, a systematic review was conducted aiming to identify and analyse environmental knowledge, awareness, attitudes, and practice studies on SWM from 2010 to 2019 in developing countries. The evidence suggests that students at both secondary and tertiary levels have positive environmental attitudes, and high awareness of environmental issues, but there is a lack of practical education of teachers to guide students to put SWM into practice. Student’s low environmental knowledge is related to a deficiency in teachers’ practical experience in SWM for environmental sustainability. A relationship between teachers’ and students’ knowledge and attitudes towards SWM, as well as differences in awareness, attitude, and practices of SWM linked with education and age, were also found. This review also revealed that the lack of environmental education in most developing countries is caused by fragilities in practical environmental curricula of teachers to respond to modern-day environmental issues for sustainable development and cleaner production (CP). To bridge the knowledge gap between the youth and older people in SWM, environmental sustainability education should be integrated into schools at all levels within developing countries.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010006
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 7: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Recycling in
           2020

    • Authors: Recycling Editorial Office Recycling Editorial Office
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Recycling maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...]
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010007
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 8: Towards a Smart E-Waste System Utilizing
           Supply Chain Participants and Interactive Online Maps

    • Authors: Tetiana Shevchenko, Michael Saidani, Yuriy Danko, Ievgeniia Golysheva, Jana Chovancová, Roman Vavrek
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Efficient electronic waste (e-waste) management is one of the vital strategies to save materials, including critical minerals and precious metals with limited global reserves. The e-waste collection issue has gained increasing attention in recent years, especially in developing countries, due to low collection rates. This study aims to search for progressive solutions in the e-waste collection sphere with close-to-zero transport and infrastructure costs and the minimization of consumers’ efforts towards an enhanced e-waste management efficiency and collection rate. Along these lines, the present paper develops a smart reverse system of e-waste from end-of-life electronics holders to local recycling infrastructures based on intelligent information technology (IT) tools involving local delivery services to collect e-waste and connecting with interactive online maps of users’ requests. This system considers the vehicles of local delivery services as potential mobile collection points that collect and deliver e-waste to a local recycling enterprise with a minimum deviation from the planned routes. Besides e-waste transport and infrastructure costs minimization, the proposed smart e-waste reverse system supports the reduction of CO2 through the optimal deployment of e-waste collection vehicles. The present study also advances a solid rationale for involving local e-waste operators as key stakeholders of the smart e-waste reverse system. Deploying the business model canvas (BMC) toolkit, a business model of the developed system has been built for the case of Sumy city, Ukraine, and discussed in light of recent studies.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010008
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 9: Issues and Challenges Confronting the
           Achievement of Zero Plastic Waste in Victoria, Australia

    • Authors: Anne W. M. Ng, Srenghang Ly, Nitin Muttil, Cuong Ngoc Nguyen
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Despite the increase in popularity of the zero waste (ZW) concept, the successful implementation of this concept in waste management is still facing many challenges. The plastic recycling rate in Australia is at only about 9.4% (in 2017–2018). The state of Victoria (in Australia) has proposed an ambitious 10-year plan to upgrade its waste and recycling system and to divert about 80% of waste from landfills by 2030. The aim of this research is to study this currently proposed waste management plan and to develop a simulation model to assess the feasibility of achieving 80% diversion rate by 2030. The feasibility of achieving zero plastic waste by 2035 has also been assessed. In this direction, the existing knowledge of global ZW implementation has been reviewed to gain understanding of the challenges, obstacles, and uncertainties in achieving the ZW target. A simulation model is established using a method called double baselines. This method was developed to address the limitation of data availability for the model development. The model was run in 4 scenarios including one for Victoria’s current 10-year plan. Outcomes from the model are produced using six key considerations, including the rate of plastic consumption, waste to landfill, diversion rate, recycling rate, relative accumulative effort, and cost. The findings of this study point out that Victoria’s current plan for achieving an 80% diversion rate by 2030 is possible. On the other hand, the study results also suggest that achieving zero plastic waste by 2035 is less likely to happen. Hence, opportunities for improvement especially towards achieving the zero plastic waste are also presented.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010009
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 10: Characterization of Used Lubricant Oil in a
           Latin-American Medium-Size City and Analysis of Options for Its
           Regeneration

    • Authors: Carlos Sánchez-Alvarracín, Jessica Criollo-Bravo, Daniela Albuja-Arias, Fernando García-Ávila, M. Pelaez-Samaniego
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Petroleum-derived products, such as lubricant oils, are non-renewable resources that, after use, must be collected and processed properly to avoid negative environmental impacts. A circular economy of used oils requires the re-refining and reuse of the same. Similar to most countries in Latin America, the management of used oils in Ecuador is still incipient and few cities collect and treat this material properly. In Cuenca, the ETAPA company collects ~1344 t/year of used oils, which are subjected to pretreatment operations prior to their use as fuel in a cement factory. However, combustion generates polluting gases and disallows the adding of value to the used oils. The lack of studies on the characterization and methods utilized for recovering used oils under the conditions found in medium-size Latin-American cities (e.g., Cuenca), alongside a lack of government policies, have hindered the adoption of re-refining operations. The objective of this work is to characterize the used lubricant oils in Cuenca, to compare them with the properties of used oils from other countries, and to suggest some re-refining technologies for oils with similar properties. Used oil samples were collected from mechanic shops and car-lubricating shops for characterization. Its physicochemical properties and metal contents are comparable to the used oils in other countries globally. Specifically, the flash point, kinematic viscosity, TBN, and concentrations of Zn, Cd, and Mg are similar to the properties of used oils in Iraq, Egypt, and the United Arab Emirates. Based on these results, the best re-refining option for used oils in Cuenca is extraction with solvents in which sedimentation and dehydration (already conducted in Cuenca) is followed by a solvent reaction process, a vacuum distillation process, a finishing process with bentonite, and a final filtration step.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010010
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 11: Textile Recognition and Sorting for Recycling
           at an Automated Line Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    • Authors: Kirsti Cura, Niko Rintala, Taina Kamppuri, Eetta Saarimäki, Pirjo Heikkilä
      First page: 11
      Abstract: In order to add value to recycled textile material and to guarantee that the input material for recycling processes is of adequate quality, it is essential to be able to accurately recognise and sort items according to their material content. Therefore, there is a need for an economically viable and effective way to recognise and sort textile materials. Automated recognition and sorting lines provide a method for ensuring better quality of the fractions being recycled and thus enhance the availability of such fractions for recycling. The aim of this study was to deepen the understanding of NIR spectroscopy technology in the recognition of textile materials by studying the effects of structural fabric properties on the recognition. The identified properties of fabrics that led non-matching recognition were coating and finishing that lead different recognition of the material depending on the side facing the NIR analyser. In addition, very thin fabrics allowed NIRS to penetrate through the fabric and resulted in the non-matching recognition. Additionally, ageing was found to cause such chemical changes, especially in the spectra of cotton, that hampered the recognition.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010011
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 12: An Overview of Plastic Waste Generation and
           Management in Food Packaging Industries

    • Authors: Lindani Koketso Ncube, Albert Uchenna Ude, Enoch Nifise Ogunmuyiwa, Rozli Zulkifli, Isaac Nongwe Beas
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Over the years, the world was not paying strict attention to the impact of rapid growth in plastic use. This has led to unprecedented amounts of mixed types of plastic waste entering the environment unmanaged. Packaging plastics account for half of the global total plastic waste. This paper seeks to give an overview of the use, disposal, and regulation of food packaging plastics. Demand for food packaging is on the rise as a result of increasing global demand for food due to population growth. Most of the food packaging are used on-the-go and are single use plastics that are disposed of within a short space of time. The bulk of this plastic waste has found its way into the environment contaminating land, water and the food chain. The food industry is encouraged to reduce, reuse and recycle packaging materials. A wholistic approach to waste management will need to involve all stakeholders working to achieve a circular economy. A robust approach to prevent pollution today rather than handling the waste in the future should be adopted especially in Africa where there is high population growth.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010012
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 13: Analysis of the Efficiency of Various Waste
           Electrical and Electronic Equipment’s Collection Routes: A Case Study
           Focusing on Collection Route for Waste Mobile Phones in the Tohoku Area of
           Japan

    • Authors: Xiaoyue Liu, Jeongsoo Yu, Kazuaki Okubo
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Each year, more than 5 million Waste Mobile Phones (WMP) is generated in Japan. Since WMPs contain many rare metals and precious metals, it is essential to collect and recycle high-value metal resources from them effectively. Although multiple stakeholders have already developed WMP collection routes, these WMP collection routes’ current status is unclear. Furthermore, some WMP collection routes can only collect a small number of WMP, and so, their resource efficiency is low. This research aims to clarify each WMP collection route’s characteristics and evaluate their resource efficiency by conducting interview research on related stakeholders and the WMP dismantle experiment. The result shows that local government, authorized recyclers, and telecom carriers are the major stakeholders in collecting WMPs in Japan. To improve the WMP collection rate in cities with high population densities, using the local government’s collection route and installing an authorized recycler’s collection station is considered to be more effective. In cities with low population densities, the collection stations built by authorized recyclers are sufficient. The collection stations can also improve recycling behavior by offering points. Furthermore, the telecom carriers are encouraged to participate in the WMP collection business, but they should figure out a way to monitor the flow route of secondhand phones they exported and prompt the proper recycling of exported phones.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010013
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 14: A Bibliometric Research on Next-Generation
           Vehicles Using CiteSpace

    • Authors: Shuoyao Wang, Jeongsoo Yu
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Next-generation vehicles (NGVs), which mainly refers to hybrid vehicles (HVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHVs), electric vehicles (EVs), fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs), and clean diesel vehicles (CDVs), are becoming more and more popular as the potential answer to decreasing fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emission from traffic sectors. Although the research on NGVs started in the 1990s, a systematic observation or summarization of the research on NGVs has not been performed yet. Thus, the current status, characteristics, latest trends, and issues of the research on NGVs have not been clarified yet. This research analyzed the research on NGVs recorded in the Web of Science published between 1990 to 2020 using CiteSpace, from a macro perspective. The results show that HVs and EVs are the crucial research objects in comparison with FCVs and CDVs. The research on NGVs was mainly performed by countries that own large vehicle makers or markets. However, it is noticeable that many developing countries have also started to study NGVs, which proves that NGVs have become popular globally. On the other hand, the research topics and categories of NGV study have always had a strong bias in favor of their function and technology development. Since NGVs have been sold for years in many countries already, there will be a considerable number of waste NGVs generated in the future, and so, future research should focus on recycling policies and/or recycling technology for NGVs to guarantee their sustainable development.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010014
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 15: Mechanical Property Assessment of
           Interlocking Plastic Pavers Manufactured from Electronic Industry Waste in
           Brazil

    • Authors: Luiz Gabriel, Rodrigo Bianchi, Américo Bernardes
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The estimated production of world electronic waste until 2017 is approximately 6 Gt. Despite this enormous problem, there are no clear regulations regarding the orientation for disposal or treatment of this type of residuals in many countries. There is a federal public policy in Brazil that supports a network of Computer Reconditioning Centers—CRCs. These CRCs train young people and recover or recycle electronic equipment. Through this work, CRCs produce interlocking plastic pavers for application on pavements from recycled electronic industry waste. This article presents the characterization of these interlocking paver’s mechanical properties when applied on the pavement. This characterization is a necessary step to show the effectiveness of this product. We show that the plastic pavers behave similarly to the artifacts manufactured in concrete, thus creating commercial opportunities for this initiative, and contributing to the Brazilian Solid Waste Policy.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010015
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 16: Promotion of the Application of BIM in
           China—A BIM-Based Model for Construction Material Recycling

    • Authors: Kefei Zhang, Jing Jia
      First page: 16
      Abstract: The recovery rate of construction materials is only 5% in China, which will lead to environmental and economic problems. Researchers from other countries have recognized the potential of building information modelling (BIM) in optimizing construction material recycling. However, previous research did not take the whole life cycle into consideration and was not practical enough. In this research, a questionnaire was conducted to find out how construction waste is disposed of in construction projects. Then, the existing research results were analyzed to find out how to apply BIM in the whole-life-cycle disposal of construction materials. According to the results of the questionnaire, landfill is the most common way to dispose of construction materials in China; besides this, almost no construction projects use BIM in material recycling. Hence, a BIM-based dynamic recycling model is proposed. Information management of materials, demolition planning, and BIM were all combined in this model for the purpose of optimizing the application of BIM, thus developing a waste material disposal system to achieve higher recovery rates and sustainability. More positive measures should be taken to deal with the problem of construction waste; if not, more environmental and economic problems will follow.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010016
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 17: Mechanical and Market Study for
           Sand/Recycled-Plastic Cobbles in a Medium-Size Colombian City

    • Authors: Luz Adriana Sanchez-Echeverri, Nelson Javier Tovar-Perilla, Juana Gisella Suarez-Puentes, Jorge Enrique Bravo-Cervera, Daniel Felipe Rojas-Parra
      First page: 17
      Abstract: The need to satisfy the increasing demand for building materials and the challenge of reusing plastic to help improve the critical environmental crisis has led to the recycling of plastic waste, which is further exploited and transformed into new and creative materials for the construction industry. This study looked into the use of low-density recycled polyethylene (LDPE) to produce non-conventional plastic sand cobbles. LDPE waste was melted in order to obtain enough fluid consistency which was then mixed with sand in a 25/75 plastic-sand ratio respectively, such a mixture helped producing cobbles of 10 cm × 20 cm × 4 cm. Water absorption, weight, and density measurements were performed on both commercial and non-conventional plastic sand cobbles. Moreover, compression, bending, and wear resistance were also conducted as part of their mechanical characterization. Plastic sand cobbles showed lower water absorption and density values than commercial cobbles. The mechanical properties evaluated showed that plastic sand cobbles have a higher modulus of rupture and wear resistance than commercial cobbles. In addition, plastic sand cobbles meet the Colombian Technical Standard in lightweight traffic for pedestrians and vehicle, officially known as Norma Técnica Colombiana (NTC), with 25.5 MPa, 16.3 MPa, and 12 mm compression resistance, modulus of rupture and footprint length in wear resistance respectively. Finally, a market study was conducted to establish a factory to produce this type of cobbles in Ibague, Colombia. Not only the study showed positive financial indicators, which means that it is feasible running a factory to manufacture plastic sand cobbles in the city of Ibague, but it also concluded that nonconventional plastic sand cobbles could be explored to provide a comprehensive alternative to LDPE waste.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010017
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 18: The Effect of Recycled HDPE Plastic Additions
           on Concrete Performance

    • Authors: Tamrin, Juli Nurdiana
      First page: 18
      Abstract: This study examined HDPE (high-density polyethylene) plastic waste as an added material for concrete mixtures. The selection of HDPE was based on its increased strength, hardness, and resistance to high temperatures compared with other plastics. It focused on how HDPE plastic can be used as an additive in concrete to increase its tensile strength and compressive strength. 156 specimens were used to identify the effect of adding different percentages and sizes of HDPE lamellar particles to lower, medium, and higher strength concrete for non-structural applications. HDPE 0.5 mm thick lamellar particles with sizes of 10 × 10 mm, 5 × 20 mm, and 2.5 × 40 mm were added at 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% by weight of cement. The results showed that the medium concrete class (with compressive strength equal to 10 MPa) had the best response to the addition of HDPE. The 5% HDPE addition represented the optimal mix for all concrete types, while the 5 × 20 mm size was best.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010018
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 19: Functionalization of Crumb Rubber Surface for
           the Incorporation into Asphalt Layers of Reduced Stiffness: An Overview of
           Existing Treatment Approaches

    • Authors: Christina Makoundou, Kenth Johansson, Viveca Wallqvist, Cesare Sangiorgi
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The substitution of mineral aggregates with crumb rubber (CR) from waste end-of-life tires (ELTs) in the asphalt concretes, has been considered a sustainable paving industry approach. The rubber has been used to construct pavements with proven enhanced resilience and improved durability. However, some issues related to the rubber’s surface adhesion or swelling may arise with these practices and generate complications (binder consumption, temperatures, mixing times). One possible solution to overcome the materials’ compatibility problems is to pre-treat the CR’s surface before its incorporation into the asphalt mixes to allow a surface functionalization that can enhance coverage and cohesion inside the mixes. The physical treatments using radiations-based beam are already exploited in the plastic recycling industries avoiding the use of chemicals in considerable amounts. Such treatments permit the recovering of large quantities of polymer-based materials and the enhancement of interfacial properties. This article provides an overview of existing surface treatments of polymers and especially rubber, including gamma ray, UV-ozone, microwaves, and plasma. Several studies have shown an overall improvement of the rubber surface’s reactive properties due to contaminant removal or roughness enhancement attributed to cross-linking or scission reactions occurring on the rubber’s surface layer. With those properties, the asphalt mixes’ phase stability properties are increased when the pre-treated rubber is incorporated. The treatments would permit to increase the CR quantities, yet reduce the layer stiffness, and improve the durability and the sustainability of future advanced road pavements.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010019
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 20: Recycling of Aseptic Beverage Cartons: A
           Review

    • Authors: Gordon Robertson
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Aseptic beverage cartons are multilayer polymer-coated paperboards with a layer of aluminum foil. Due to their multilayer structure it is commonly assumed that they cannot be recycled. This is not the case and this review details the multifarious processes that are used to recycle aseptic beverage cartons. Hydrapulping to recover the paper fibers that constitute 75% of the carton is the most widespread process, followed by the manufacture of construction materials such as boards and tiles which utilize the complete carton. A range of mechanical, chemical and thermal processes are used to separate the PolyAl (polyethylene and aluminum) residual that remains after the paper fibers have been recovered. The simplest process involves agglutination followed by extrusion to obtain pellets that can then be used in industrial and consumer products or combined with other materials such as lignocellulosic wastes. Chemical approaches involve the solubilization of polyethylene and the removal of aluminum. Various thermal processes have also been investigated and a novel microwave-induced pyrolysis process appears the most commercially viable. It is concluded that the focus in future years is likely to be on recycling cartons into construction materials where there is a theoretical yield of 100% compared with 75% for hydrapulping.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010020
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 21: Energy Recovery from Invasive Species:
           Creation of Value Chains to Promote Control and Eradication

    • Authors: Leonel J. R. Nunes, Abel M. Rodrigues, Liliana M. E. F. Loureiro, Letícia C. R. Sá, João C. O. Matias
      First page: 21
      Abstract: The use of biomass as an energy source presents itself as a viable alternative, especially at a time when the mitigation of climate change requires that all possibilities of replacing fossil fuels be used and implemented. The use of residual biomass also appears as a way to include in the renewable energy production system products that came out of it, while allowing the resolution of environmental problems, such as large volumes available, which are not used, but also by the elimination of fuel load that only contributes to the increased risk of rural fires occurrence. Invasive species contribute to a significant part of this fuel load, and its control and eradication require strong investments, so the valorization of these materials can allow the sustainability of the control and eradication processes. However, the chemical composition of some of these species, namely Acacia dealbata, Acacia melanoxylon, Eucalyptus globulus, Robinia pseudoacacia and Hakea sericea, presents some problems, mainly due to the nitrogen, chlorine and ash contents found, which preclude exclusive use for the production of certified wood pellets. In the case of Eucalyptus globulus, the values obtained in the characterization allow the use in mixtures with Pinus pinaster, but for the other species, this mixture is not possible. From a perspective of local valorization, the use of materials for domestic applications remains a possibility, creating a circular economy process that guarantees the sustainability of operations to control and eradicate invasive species.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010021
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 22: Biodegradation of
           

    • Authors: Mateus Manabu Abe, Marcia Cristina Branciforti, Michel Brienzo
      First page: 22
      Abstract: The volume of discarded solid wastes, especially plastic, which accumulates in large quantities in different environments, has substantially increased. Population growth and the consumption pattern of societies associated with unsustainable production routes have caused the pollution level to increase. Therefore, the development of materials that help mitigate the impacts of plastics is fundamental. However, bioplastics can result in a misunderstanding about their properties and environmental impacts, as well as incorrect management of their final disposition, from misidentifications and classifications. This chapter addresses the aspects and factors surrounding the biodegradation of bioplastics from natural (plant biomass (starch, lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and starch) and bacterial polyester polymers. Therefore, the biodegradation of bioplastics is a factor that must be studied, because due to the increase in the production of different bioplastics, they may present differences in the decomposition rates.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2021-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 6, Pages 1: Working Conditions and Career Aspirations of
           Waste Pickers in Lagos State

    • Authors: Isaac Jacob Omosimua, Olurinola Isaiah Oluranti, Gershon Obindah, Aderounmu Busayo
      First page: 1
      Abstract: In many cities of third world countries, managing waste represents a beehive of activities that involve human scavengers searching for reusable or recyclable items that are either consumed or sold to generate funds for personal and family upkeep, since alternative decent employment are not available for them in the formal employment sector. Many of these waste pickers are young, work without the necessary health and safety apparatus, and expose themselves to injury and various health hazards. Therefore, this study investigated the working conditions and career aspirations of waste pickers in Lagos State, Nigeria. Using the questionnaire approach, structured, semi-structured, and open-ended questions were asked, and the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to descriptively analyze the data collected and interpreted. The results showed that 87% of waste pickers in Lagos State have safety kits. In addition, the results showed flexibility in working hours and days since most waste pickers get to determine when and how they begin their work, i.e., 89% of the waste pickers spend 5 to 6 days a week in waste picking while 64% of them work between 10 and 14 h daily. Regarding earnings, the results showed that 68.3% of waste pickers earn between ₦2500 ($8.2) to ₦4900 ($16) daily. Finally, the results showed that despite access to safety kits, most waste pickers (54%) had experienced one form or another of hazard which has affected their career aspiration. Therefore, based on the study results we recommend that the Lagos State and the Nigerian federal government should develop a system that ensures strict compliance to established rules or guidelines that ensures the safety and health of waste pickers on the job.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-12-30
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling6010001
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 24: Minimizing Organic Waste Generated by
           Pineapple Crown: A Simple Process to Obtain Cellulose for the Preparation
           of Recyclable Containers

    • Authors: Diana Choquecahua Mamani, Kristy Stefany Otero Nole, Efrén Eugenio Chaparro Montoya, Dora Amalia Mayta Huiza, Roxana Yesenia Pastrana Alta, Hector Aguilar Vitorino
      First page: 24
      Abstract: In this study, cellulose was obtained from the residues of pineapple crown by means of simple acid pretreatment and subsequent alkaline treatment. The pretreatment consisted of washing, drying, and chopping with high shear at pH = 5 under heating. The content of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the pineapple crown was determined by chemical methods. The cellulose obtained was compared with commercial cellulose by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XDR). Thus, from the obtained fiber cellulose, a food container was prepared, and its physical-mechanical properties were determined. Then, after alkali treatment, the purity of cellulose was 84.7% from the pineapple crown (56.0%) and was compared with commercial cellulose (95%). FTIR results confirmed the removal of the non-cellulosic compounds after alkali treatment. The maximum pyrolysis temperature increased to 356 °C, higher than the original fiber (322 °C), indicating greater thermal stability after chemical treatment. Furthermore, the crystallinity increased to 68% with respect to the original fiber (27%). The physical properties of the container showed a decrease in the parameters in wet 95% RH, as expected, thus facilitating its reuse. These results indicate that the pineapple crown cellulose can be obtained with significant purity, from a single chemical treatment. In addition, this polymorphous cellulose can be used to make ecofriendly reusable food containers.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5040024
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 25: The Energy and Carbon Footprint of an Urban
           Waste Collection Fleet: A Case Study in Central Italy

    • Authors: Alessio Quintili, Beatrice Castellani
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Municipal solid waste collection and transport are functional activities in waste management, with a significant energy and carbon footprint and a significant effect on the urban environment. An issue related to municipal solid waste collection and transport is their regional and municipal implementation, affected by sorting and recycling strategies at local level. An efficient collection is necessary to optimize the whole recycling process. The present paper shows the results of an energy, environmental, and economic evaluation of a case study, analyzing the fleet used for municipal solid waste collection and transport in 10 municipalities in Central Italy. The current scenario was compared with alternative scenarios on the basis of some parameters for performance evaluation: vehicles’ energy consumption, carbon footprint, routes, and costs. Results show that for passenger cars, the alternative scenario based on an entire fleet of dual compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles led to a reduction of the CO2 emissions (−2675 kgCO2eq) in the analyzed period (January–August 2019) and a reduction of the energy consumption (−1.96 MJ km−1). An entire fleet of CNG vehicles led to an increase of CO2 emissions: +0.02 kgCO2eqkgwaste−1 (+110%) for compactors (35–75 q) and +0.09 kgCO2eqkgwaste−1 (+377%) for compactors (80–180 q). Moreover, both categories report a higher fuel consumption and specific energy consumption. For waste transport high-capacity vehicles, we propose the installation of a Stop-Start System, which leads to environmental and energy benefits (a saving of 38,332 kgCO2eq and 8.8 × 10−7 MJ km−1kgwaste−1). On three-wheeler vehicles, the installation of the Stop-Start System is completely disadvantageous.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5040025
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 26: Phytoremediation of Soil Contaminated with
           Lithium Ion Battery Active Materials—A Proof-of-Concept Study

    • Authors: Jonas Henschel, Maximilian Mense, Patrick Harte, Marcel Diehl, Julius Buchmann, Fabian Kux, Lukas Schlatt, Uwe Karst, Andreas Hensel, Martin Winter, Sascha Nowak
      First page: 26
      Abstract: The lithium-ion battery is the most powerful energy storage technology for portable and mobile devices. The enormous demand for lithium-ion batteries is accompanied by an incomplete recycling loop for used lithium-ion batteries and excessive mining of Li and transition metals. The hyperaccumulation of plants represents a low-cost and green technology to reduce environmental pollution of landfills and disused mining regions with low environmental regulations. To examine the capabilities of these approaches, the hyperaccumulation selectivity of Alyssum murale for metals in electrode materials (Ni, Co, Mn, and Li) was evaluated. Plants were cultivated in a conservatory for 46 days whilst soils were contaminated stepwise with dissolved transition metal species via the irrigation water. Up to 3 wt% of the metals was quantified in the dry matter of different plant tissues (leaf, stem, root) by means of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy after 46 days of exposition time. The lateral distribution was monitored by means of micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, revealing different storage behaviors for low and high metal contamination, as well as varying sequestration mechanisms for the four investigated metals. The proof-of-concept regarding the phytoextraction of metals from LiNi0.33Co0.33Mn0.33O2 cathode particles in the soil was demonstrated.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5040026
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 27: Pros and Cons of Plastic during the COVID-19
           Pandemic

    • Authors: Fabiula Danielli Bastos de Sousa
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Since the beginning of the first cases of the new coronavirus, opinions and laws on the use of plastic materials have been questioned around the world. Their importance in the manufacture of hospital devices and personal protective equipment (PPE) is unquestionable, as they contribute largely to the reduction of the virus spread, helping health systems from all edges of the world and, most importantly, saving lives. However, the same material that is a protector, becomes a polluter when inadequately disposed of in the environment, generating or worsening socio-environmental problems, such as pollution of water bodies by plastic. A critical overview of the role of plastic during the COVID-19 pandemic is provided in this paper. A future panorama is attempted to be outlined. The real possibility of the virus spread from the use of plastic is discussed, as well as the recycling of plastic during the pandemic, correlating its use with problems that it may cause.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5040027
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 28: Organic Material for Clean Production in the
           Batik Industry: A Case Study of Natural Batik Semarang, Indonesia

    • Authors: Nana Kariada Tri Martuti, Isti Hidayah, Margunani Margunani, Radhitya Bayu Alafima
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Batik has become more desirable in the current fashion mode within the global market, but the environmental damage induced by this fabric’s synthetic dye practices is a matter of concern. This study aimed to discuss the application of organic materials as natural dyes in the clean production of textiles to maintain the environment. The research was a case study from the community services program in Kampung Malon, Gunungpati, Semarang City, Indonesia, focused on the batik home industry of the Zie Batik fabric. Furthermore, natural pigments from various plant organs (stem, leaves, wood, bark, and fruit) of diverse species, including Caesalpinia sappan, Ceriops candolleana, Maclura cochinchinensis, Indigofera tinctorial, I. arrecta, Rhizopora spp., Strobilantes cusia, and Terminalia bellirica were used for this type of material. These pigments are more biodegradable, relatively safe, and easily obtained with zero liquid waste compared to the synthetic variants. The leftover wastewater from the coloring stages was further utilized for other processes. Subsequently, the remaining organic waste from the whole procedure was employed as compost and/or timber for batik production, although a large amount of the wastewater containing sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), alum (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O), and fixatives (Ca(OH)2 and FeSO4) were discharged into the environment during the process of mordanting and fixating, with the requirement of additional treatment.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5040028
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 29: Performance Evaluation of Biodiesel Produced
           from Waste Tire Pyrolytic Oil as a Lubricant Additive in Oil Drilling
           Systems

    • Authors: Emmanuel E. Okoro, Sandra Iwuajoku, Samuel E. Sanni
      First page: 29
      Abstract: This study investigates the performance of biodiesel produced from distilled waste tire pyrolytic oil through transesterification as a lubricant additive for aqueous drilling fluid systems. Aqueous-based drilling fluids have a high coefficient of friction as compared to oil-based drilling fluids. The inclusion of a biodiesel additive was for smooth application/operation. The friction-reducing physicochemical properties of the additive were analyzed and compared with the guidelinesof the United States specification (ASTM Standard) and the European specification (EN Standard). The chemical structure of the produced biodiesel was analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results show that the distilled waste tire pyrolytic oil contains aliphatic, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbons. The free fatty acid value reduced from 5.6% (for pyrolytic oil) to 0.64% after the transesterification process. A saponification value of 203.36 mg/g was recorded for the pyrolytic oil, and this value was also reduced to 197.35 mg/g after the transesterification process. The kinematic viscosity was reduced from 11.2 to 5.3 mm2/s for the obtained biodiesel, and this value is within the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standard values (1.9 to 6 and 3.5 to 5 mm2/s, respectively). The cetane number (47.75) was obtained for the biodiesel, and this is within the minimum range stipulated in ASTM D6751 guidelines. The produced biodiesel’s chemical structure analysis using GC-MS shows that it comprises of decanoic acid methyl ester and methyl ester. Furthermore, comparative analysis of the quantified friction-reducing physicochemical properties of the additive shows that the biodiesel produced from the distilled pyrolytic oil is a suitable additive for the improved lubrication of the friction-prone metallic parts of drill bits when water-based drilling fluids are employed for drilling oil and gas wells.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5040029
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 30: Removal of Fish Odors Form Styrofoam
           Packaging to Improve Recycling Potential Using Hansen Solubility
           Parameters

    • Authors: Takeshi Ishida
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Styrofoam fish containers (fish boxes) are ideal for transporting fresh fish because of their light weight and insulation properties. However, due to fish-like odors, fish boxes are simply thrown out after use and are limited to low-grade recycling in Japan. To improve their recyclability, we investigated trimethylamine, which causes fish-like odor, to ascertain whether it is soluble in vegetable oil using the Hansen solubility parameter (HSP). At present, the Oshima College method (OCMT), which is used to reduce the volume of styrofoam, uses heated vegetable oil and can potentially remove the fish-like odor. In addition, the solubility of dimethyl sulfide, which causes the sea-like smell in styrofoam found drifting on shores, in vegetable oil was investigated. Our results conclude that OCMT can remove the fish- and sea-like odors found in waste styrofoam and thus improve its recycling potential.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5040030
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 31: Using Recycled Construction and Demolition
           Waste Products: A Review of Stakeholders’ Perceptions, Decisions, and
           Motivations

    • Authors: Salman Shooshtarian, Savindi Caldera, Tayyab Maqsood, Tim Ryley
      First page: 31
      Abstract: While the increasing rate of urbanisation is a critical concern for socio-environmental reasons, this also leads to more extraction of natural raw materials and the generation of significant quantities of construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Although the use of recycled C&D waste products is technically feasible and regulated, and positive application examples are evident, it is still unclear how to engage key stakeholders to leverage this opportunity in construction projects. Previous research has shown that there is some level of resistance to the reuse of recycled C&D waste products in construction projects. This highlights a critical need to identify the roles of key stakeholders and the barriers they face when using recycled C&D materials. This paper therefore investigates the type of stakeholders influencing the use of recycled C&D waste products and the main factors affecting stakeholders’ decisions to use recycled C&D waste products through a systematic literature review. The authors present an emergent enablers and barriers for recycled C&D waste products model and provide commentary on how stakeholders’ perceptions, decision and behaviour influence the use of recycled C&D waste products. The authors also contribute to the body of knowledge with insights into the factors that various stakeholders believe influence the market for recycled C&D waste products and provides a reference point for authorities to consider these behavioural insights for policy reform.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5040031
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 32: Crumb Rubber as a Secondary Raw Material from
           

    • Authors: Vjaceslavs Lapkovskis, Viktors Mironovs, Andrei Kasperovich, Vadim Myadelets, Dmitri Goljandin
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Despite technological developments, modern methods for the disposal of end-of-life tires most often involve either their incineration in cement kilns or the destruction of tires in special landfills, demonstrating a lack of sustainable recycling of this valuable material. The fundamental role of recycling is evident, and the development of high-efficiency processes represents a crucial priority for the European market. Therefore, the investigation of end-of-life rubber processing methods is of high importance for both manufacturers and recyclers of rubber materials. In this paper, we review existing methods for processing of end-of-life tires, in order to obtain rubber crumb, which can later be used in the production of new industrial rubber goods and composites. We consider processes for separating end-of-life tires into fractions (in terms of types of materials) using chemical, mechanochemical, and mechanical methods to process the materials of used tires, in order to obtain crumb rubber of various fractions and chemical reactivities.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5040032
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 33: Co-Pyrolysis of Low-Density Polyethylene and
           Motor Oil—Investigation of the Chemical Interactions between the
           Components

    • Authors: Bart Rimez, Sacha Breyer, Odile Vekemans, Benoit Haut
      First page: 33
      Abstract: In this work, different thermal analysis methods have been used to study the co-pyrolysis of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and motor oil. Two kinds of motor oil were considered, a fresh one and a used one. Through the comparison of experimental curves and so-called “theoretical curves”, high-resolution thermogravimetry experiments allowed highlighting interactions between the LDPE and each of the two oils, when they are co-pyrolyzed. While thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry did not give any insights into these interactions, pyrolysis coupled to gaseous chromatograph and mass spectrometry allowed identifying aldehydes in the products of the co-pyrolysis of LDPE and each of the two oils. These aldehydes were not observed during the pyrolysis of the LDPE or the oils alone. On the basis of these results, various explanations for the formation of these aldehydes are proposed.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5040033
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 15: Hazardous Waste Management: An African
           Overview

    • Authors: Victor E. Akpan, David O. Olukanni
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Hazardous waste materials and their management are of prime importance to society. This article gives an overview of the current practices that relate to hazardous waste management. It looks at issues concerning the transboundary or international movement of harmful materials from industrialized nations to the developing and emerging world. This study has shown that Africa, most notably Nigeria, has become a dumping ground for hazardous waste materials as a result of the high importation of scrap computers and electronic devices into the country. The public health hazards, such as birth deficiencies, cancers, and even infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B and C, respectively, have been traced to the improper management of these waste materials. The review highlights a few models on hazardous waste management as developed by previous literature, which gives a hierarchy, ranging from source reduction, recycling, and landfill options. Studies reveal that hazardous waste management in Africa must revolve around wealth creation, economic, and environmental sustainability. The study provided evidence that the recycling option has high potentials in the areas of energy recovery. The data collected show South Africa to be the most advanced in the African continent in the field of hazardous waste management. For a sustainable environment, keen attention must be paid to hazardous waste management globally.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5030015
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 16: Ground Tire Rubber Recycling in Applications
           as Insulators in Polymeric Compounds, According to Spanish UNE Standards

    • Authors: Marc Marín-Genescà, Jordi García-Amorós, Ramon Mujal-Rosas, Lluís Massagués Vidal, Jordi Bordes Arroyo, Xavier Colom Fajula
      First page: 16
      Abstract: In the present research, we investigated the conceivable outcomes of using ground tire rubber (GTR) particle polymeric blends. Special methods of restoring tires that are no longer in use include GTR retreading, GTR blending destined for recycling to attain raw substances utilized in other industrial application production processes, and the valorization of GTR for power/energy generation. The recycling of end-of-life tires enables the recovery of rubber, steel, and fibers, all of which are valid on the market as raw materials to be used for other processes. There are methods to recycle GTRs in a clean and environmentally friendly way. In the present research, several industrial applications of GTR polymer blends were developed and compared with standard values from the Spanish Association for Standardization (UNE) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). In order to analyze the viability in many of the industrial applications selected, certain compounds obtained from the GTR polymer blends were analyzed regarding their use in nine low requirement insulator applications. The research and analysis developed in this manuscript used standard values from the UNE and IEC, and these standard values were compared with the test values. The obtained results were used to provide an application list that could be helpful for industrial applications. In this research, the pre-owned polymers were as follows: polypropylene (PP), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polystyrene (PS), acrylonitrile butadiene-styrene (ABS), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyamide (PA). The filler used was GTR with particle sizes lower than 200 microns. The amounts of GTR particles in the compound materials were 0% (raw polymer), 5%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 50%, and 70% (the latter being found in polymeric blends). We discovered six plausible modern applications of GTR polymer blends as indicated by the UNE and IEC standards.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5030016
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 17: Assessment of Eco-Friendly Pavement
           Construction and Maintenance Using Multi-Recycled RAP Mixtures

    • Authors: David Vandewalle, Vítor Antunes, José Neves, Ana Cristina Freire
      First page: 17
      Abstract: The demand for more sustainable solutions has led an ever-growing number of stakeholders to being committed to pursue the principles of sustainability in pavement management. Different stakeholders have been looking for tools and methodologies to evaluate the environmental impacts of the solutions, for which the life cycle assessment (LCA) proved to be an appropriate methodology. This paper is focused on the LCA of road pavement multi-recycling based on the use of bituminous mixtures with high rates of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). In order to promote the circular economy, a comparative analysis was performed on a road pavement section by taking into account different scenarios, which stem from the combination of production, construction and rehabilitation activities incorporating different RAP rates in new bituminous mixtures: 0% (as reference), 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, respectively. LCA results have been expressed in terms of four damage categories: human health, ecosystem quality, climate change and resources. Results have shown that both recycled and multi-recycled bituminous mixtures lead to substantial benefits in comparison with the solution employing virgin materials, hence embodying a sustainable approach. The benefits grow with the increase in the RAP rate with an average decrease of 19%, 23%, 31% and 33% in all the impact categories for a 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of RAP rate.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-08-14
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5030017
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 18: Exploring Biogas and Biofertilizer Production
           from Abattoir Wastes in Nigeria Using a Multi-Criteria Assessment Approach
           

    • Authors: Idi Guga Audu, Abraham Barde, Othniel Mintang Yila, Peter Azikiwe Onwualu, Buga Mohammed Lawal
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Management of waste streams from abattoirs is a major challenge in developing countries. Harnessing these wastes as resources for the production of biogas and biofertilizer could contribute to curbing the environmental menace and to addressing the problems of energy and food deficits in Nigeria. However, large scale uptake of the technology is faced with techno-socio-economic and the lack of data required for effective investment decisions. In this study, the potential use of waste generated in the north central region of Nigerian abattoirs, representing approximately 12% of the land and 6% of the population, were evaluated for suitability for biogas and biofertilizer production. Data acquired from the study sites were used for computational estimation and integrated into strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis to give a detailed overview of the prospects and the limiting factors. The study revealed that high investment costs and public subsidies for fossil fuels are the key limiting factors while the prospects of tapping into the unexploited carbon markets and multiple socio-economic and environmental benefits favors investment. Public supports in the form of national policy reforms leading to intervention programs are required for progress.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-08-19
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5030018
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 19: Characterizing the Urban
           Mine—Simulation-Based Optimization of Sampling Approaches for Built-in
           Batteries in WEEE

    • Authors: Paul Martin Mählitz, Nathalie Korf, Kristine Sperlich, Olivier Münch, Matthias Rösslein, Vera Susanne Rotter
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Comprehensive knowledge of built-in batteries in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is required for sound and save WEEE management. However, representative sampling is challenging due to the constantly changing composition of WEEE flows and battery systems. Necessary knowledge, such as methodologically uniform procedures and recommendations for the determination of minimum sample sizes (MSS) for representative results, is missing. The direct consequences are increased sampling efforts, lack of quality-assured data, gaps in the monitoring of battery losses in complementary flows, and impeded quality control of depollution during WEEE treatment. In this study, we provide detailed data sets on built-in batteries in WEEE and propose a non-parametric approach (NPA) to determine MSS. For the pilot dataset, more than 23 Mg WEEE (6500 devices) were sampled, examined for built-in batteries, and classified according to product-specific keys (UNUkeys and BATTkeys). The results show that 21% of the devices had battery compartments, distributed over almost all UNUkeys considered and that only about every third battery was removed prior to treatment. Moreover, the characterization of battery masses (BM) and battery mass shares (BMS) using descriptive statistical analysis showed that neither product- nor battery-specific characteristics are given and that the assumption of (log-)normally distributed data is not generally applicable. Consequently, parametric approaches (PA) to determine the MSS for representative sampling are prone to be biased. The presented NPA for MSS using data-driven simulation (bootstrapping) shows its applicability despite small sample sizes and inconclusive data distribution. If consistently applied, the method presented can be used to optimize future sampling and thus reduce sampling costs and efforts while increasing data quality.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5030019
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 20: Determination of Metals’ Content in
           Components Mounted on Printed Circuit Boards from End-of-Life Mobile
           Phones

    • Authors: Tadeusz Gorewoda, Marcus Eschen, Jadwiga Charasińska, Magdalena Knapik, Sylwia Kozłowicz, Jacek Anyszkiewicz, Michał Jadwiński, Martyna Potempa, Marta Gawliczek, Andrzej Chmielarz, Witold Kurylak
      First page: 20
      Abstract: The electronic components mounted on the printed circuit boards (PCBs) of mobile phones represent a resource that is rich in metals, and after separation from the boards, these components could be considered secondary raw materials. The concentrations of the valuable metals are insignificant when compared with those of complete PCBs; however, they could be significantly higher in a fraction formed from the separated components. This study focused on the analysis of Ag, Au, Cu, Nd, Nb, Ni, Pb, Pd, Sn, and Ta in fractions produced by the separation of all the components mounted on PCBs from several types of mobile phones. Atomic absorption spectrometry, atomic emission spectrometry, and mass spectrometry techniques were utilized, and a comparison of five older models of “brick” phones and five modern smartphones was conducted. Additionally, 50 kg of PCBs from the current recycling market were analyzed in the same way to create a summary of the current recycling stream.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5030020
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 21: Principles and Policies for Recycling
           Decisions and Risk Management

    • Authors: Jonatan Gehandler, Ulrika Millgård
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Swedish recycling businesses argue that the Non-Toxic Environmental target gets too much weight and that resource efficiency gets too little focus, which results in decreased recycling. The purpose of this paper is to highlight different factors that recycling of waste decisions should consider, as well as contributing to a constructive discussion of the overall principles and policies for recycling. How recycling works in practice is explored based on nine interviews with stakeholders from the governmental agency level to recycling businesses. Theory with regards to ethics, risk, decision-making, governmental policy and laws is summarised. Finally, the discrepancy and connection between practice and theory is analysed. If recycling of waste is seen as a decision problem, the choice is between to recycle (in different ways) or not to recycle (i.e., energy recovery and/or landfill). Based on risk and decision theory, all relevant goals should be considered. This requires a broader problem framing when goals are in conflict. All parties agree that recycled and virgin material should be treated equally. From a higher policy perspective, it should then be demonstrated that any use of material (recycled and/or virgin) minimize environmental impact and promotes long-term sustainability.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5030021
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 22: Biodismantling, a Novel Application of
           Bioleaching in Recycling of Electronic Wastes

    • Authors: Benjamin Monneron-Enaud, Oliver Wiche, Michael Schlömann
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Electronic components (EC) from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) such as resistors, capacitors, diodes and integrated circuits are a subassembly of printed circuit boards (PCB). They contain a variety of economically valuable elements e.g., tantalum, palladium, gold, and rare earth elements. However, until recently there has been no systematic dismantling and recycling of the EC to satisfy the demand for raw materials. A problem connected with the recycling of the EC is the removal of the components (dismantling) in order to recover the elements in later processing steps. The aim of the present study was to develop a new technique of dismantling using bioleaching technology to lower costs and environmental impact. In triplicate batch experiments, used PCBs were treated by bioleaching using an iron-oxidizing mixed culture largely dominated by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strains supplemented with 20 mM ferrous iron sulfate at pH 1.8 and 30 °C for 20 days. Abiotic controls were treated by similar conditions in two different variations: 20 mM of Fe2+ and 15 mM of Fe3+. After 20 days, successful dismantling was obtained in both the bioleaching and the Fe3+ control batch. The control with Fe2+ did not show a significant effect. The bioleaching condition presented a lower rate of dismantling which can partially be explained by a constantly higher redox potential leading to a competition of solder leaching and copper leaching from the printed copper wires. The results showed that biodismantling—dismantling using bioleaching—is possible and can be a new unit operation of the recycling process to maximize the recovery of valuable metals from PCBs.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5030022
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 23: On the Production of Potassium Carbonate from
           Cocoa Pod Husks

    • Authors: Kouwelton Kone, Karl Akueson, Graeme Norval
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Cocoa beans are found inside an outer husk; 60% of the cocoa fruit is the outer husk, which is a waste biomass. The husk cannot be used directly as a soil amendment as it promotes the fungal black pod disease, which reduces crop yield. The pods are segregated from the trees, and their plant nutrient value is wasted. This is particularly true for the small acreage farmers in West Africa. Cocoa pod husk is well suited to be used as a biomass source for electricity production. The waste ash is rich in potassium, which can be converted in various chemical products, most notably, high-purity potassium carbonate. This study reviews the information known about cocoa and cocoa pod husk, and considers the socio-economic implications of creating a local economy based on collecting the cocoa pod husk for electricity production, coupled with the processing of the waste ash into various products. The study demonstrates that the concept is feasible, and also identifies the local conditions required to create this sustainable economic process.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5030023
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 7: The Influence of User-Adapted, Instructive
           Information on Participation in a Recycling Scheme: A Case Study in a
           Medium-Sized Swedish City

    • Authors: Eric Mehner, Adeel Naidoo, Coralie Hellwig, Kim Bolton, Kamran Rousta
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Several theories and case studies have shown that information has little or no direct influence on waste sorting behavior. However, it is often suggested that information plays a vital role by indirectly influencing behavior. This contribution sheds light on how instructive information influences users of a recycling scheme in terms of perception, knowledge and waste sorting behavior. The study was performed as a case study on a student population in a medium-sized city in Sweden. An intervention in the form of modified information that was provided to the users was studied. This information was instructive in nature and adapted to the participants’ needs using the Recycling Behavior Transition procedure, where the users are involved in the development and modification of recycling schemes. New information was designed after investigating how the participants perceived the original information on correct waste sorting, as well as ascertaining their preferred channel for providing the information. Pick analyses and surveys were conducted before and after providing the user-adapted information. The results indicated a trend towards correct participation in the recycling scheme. These results are also discussed in the theoretical context of the Motivation-Opportunity-Ability-Behavior model. The study shows that user-adapted, instructive information can have a significant influence on people’s knowledge of correct waste separation and their overall perception of information.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5020007
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 8: Public Perception of Solid Waste Management
           Practices in Nigeria: Ogun State Experience

    • Authors: David O. Olukanni, Favour B. Pius-Imue, Sunday O. Joseph
      First page: 8
      Abstract: The effects of poor solid waste management practices in many developing countries have been identified in the literature. This study focuses on understanding the public perception and attitudes of people towards local waste management practices. Five Local Government Areas in Ogun State, Nigeria, were selected based on population, landmass, spatial location, and distribution. The study used a survey that looked into the socio-demographics, household characteristics, and standard solid waste disposal practices at the household and municipal levels. Factors such as frequency of waste collection, presence of environmental task force/protection agency, and level of effectiveness of such task force/agency were all investigated. The study verified the impact of people’s attitudes towards waste management, as well as the effects of monitoring and control on the management of waste. The results showed that significant factors such as age, income, and education levels affect the perceptions, practices, and attitudes of the people towards solid waste management. An average of 36.6% of the people in the selected local governments dispose of their solid wastes at open dumps, with the majority of the residents (54.4%) still with the opinion that sanitation services are too costly and should be the prerogative of the local and state governments to carry out. These outcomes resonate that more efforts by the government and relevant stakeholders should be put into proper enforcement of environmental laws, as well as creating awareness on proper solid waste management practices in schools and public places.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5020008
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 9: Effect of SEBS and OBC on the Impact Strength
           of Recycled Polypropylene/Talc Composites

    • Authors: Marco Monti, Maria Teresa Scrivani, Valentina Gianotti
      First page: 9
      Abstract: In this paper, we report a study on the use of a linear triblock copolymer based on styrene and ethylene/butylene (SEBS) and a polypropylene (PP)-based olefin block copolymer (OBC) for improving the impact strength of a recycled polypropylene (PP) from packaging waste. Talc was used as a reinforcing filler in order to prepare a material suitable for being used in the automotive sector. The composite mixtures were prepared by melt extrusion, and the samples were manufactured by injection molding. Impact strength was evaluated by Izod tests, and a morphological study of the produced fractures was performed. As a result, a composite with substantially improved impact properties was prepared, with a two-fold increase of the impact strength in the case of unnotched specimens, while only a limited positive effect was produced on notched specimens. Since talc-filled PP is a typical material used in the automotive sector, the obtained results demonstrate that post-consumer PP coming from the municipal waste collection of plastic packaging can be successfully used in car components with no compromise in terms of mechanical requirements.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5020009
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 10: Facility Location Problems: Models,
           Techniques, and Applications in Waste Management

    • Authors: Olawale J. Adeleke, David O. Olukanni
      First page: 10
      Abstract: This paper presents a brief description of some existing models of facility location problems (FLPs) in solid waste management. The study provides salient information on commonly used distance functions in location models along with their corresponding mathematical formulation. Some of the optimization techniques that have been applied to location problems are also presented along with an appropriate pseudocode algorithm for their implementation. Concerning the models and solution techniques, the survey concludes by summarizing some recent studies on the applications of FLPs to waste collection and disposal. It is expected that this paper will contribute in no small measure to an integrated solid waste management system with specific emphasis on issues associated with waste collection, thereby boosting the drive for effective and efficient waste collection systems. The content will also provide early career researchers with some necessary starting information required to formulate and solve problems relating to FLP.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5020010
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 11: Tire Recycled Rubber for More Eco-Sustainable
           Advanced Cementitious Aggregate

    • Authors: Matteo Sambucci, Danilo Marini, Marco Valente
      First page: 11
      Abstract: This research focused on using ground tire rubber (GTR) with different grain sizes as a replacement for the mineral aggregates used in a cement-based mixture suitable for extrusion-based Additive Manufacturing. The use of two types of GTR particles and the possibility to apply rubberized mixtures in advanced manufacturing technologies are the innovative aspects of this work. At the base of this strategy is the possibility of achieving cementitious aggregates, which would potentially be improved regarding some technological-engineering requirements (lightness, thermal-acoustic insulation, energy dissipation capacity, durability) and environmentally sustainable. The integration of waste tires into cement-based materials is a promising solution for the reuse and recycling of such industrial waste. In addition, this approach may involve a considerable reduction in the use of natural resources (sand, water, coarse mineral aggregates) needed for the building materials production. The purpose of the research was to investigate the effect of sand-GTR replacement on certain chemical-physical properties of mixtures (permeable porosity, surface wetness, and water sorptivity), closely related to material durability. Besides, the role of rubber on the printability properties of the fresh material was evaluated. GTR fillers do not alter the rheological properties of the cement material, which was properly extruded with better print quality than the reference mixture. Concerning chemical-physical characterization, the GTR powder-granules synergy promotes good compaction of the mixture, hinders the cracks propagation in the cement matrix, decreases the permeable porosity, improves the surface hydrophobicity and preserves optimal water permeability.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5020011
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 12: Thermochemical Conversion of Olive Oil
           Industry Waste: Circular Economy through Energy Recovery

    • Authors: Leonel J. R. Nunes, Liliana M. E. F. Loureiro, Letícia C. R. Sá, Hugo F.C. Silva
      First page: 12
      Abstract: The demand for new sources of energy is one of the main quests for humans. At the same time, there is a growing need to eliminate or recover a set of industrial or agroforestry waste sources. In this context, several options may be of interest, especially given the amounts produced and environmental impacts caused. Olive pomace can be considered one of these options. Portugal, as one of the most prominent producers of olive oil, therefore, also faces the problem of dealing with the waste of the olive oil industry. Olive pomace energy recovery is a subject referenced in many different studies and reports since long ago. However, traditional forms of recovery, such as direct combustion, did not prove to be the best solution, mainly due to its fuel properties and other characteristics, which cause difficulties in its storage and transportation as well. Torrefaction and pyrolysis can contribute to a volume reduction, optimizing storage and transportation. In this preliminary study, were carried out torrefaction and pyrolysis tests on olive pomace samples, processed at 300 °C, 400 °C, and 500 °C, followed by laboratory characterization of the materials. It was verified an improvement in the energy content of the materials, demonstrating that there is potential for the use of these thermochemical conversion technologies for the energy recovery of olive pomace.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5020012
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 13: Utilization of Waste Cooking Oil via
           Recycling as Biofuel for Diesel Engines

    • Authors: Hoi Nguyen Xa, Thanh Nguyen Viet, Khanh Nguyen Duc, Vinh Nguyen Duy
      First page: 13
      Abstract: In this study, waste cooking oil (WCO) was used to successfully manufacture catalyst cracking biodiesel in the laboratory. This study aims to evaluate and compare the influence of waste cooking oil synthetic diesel (WCOSD) with that of commercial diesel (CD) fuel on an engine’s operating characteristics. The second goal of this study is to compare the engine performance and temperature characteristics of cooling water and lubricant oil under various engine operating conditions of a test engine fueled by waste cooking oil and CD. The results indicated that the engine torque of the engine running with WCOSD dropped from 1.9 Nm to 5.4 Nm at all speeds, and its brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) dropped at almost every speed. Thus, the thermal brake efficiency (BTE) of the engine fueled by WCOSD was higher at all engine speeds. Also, the engine torque of the WCOSD-fueled engine was lower than the engine torque of the CD-fueled engine at all engine speeds. The engine’s power dropped sequentially through 0.3 kW, 0.4 kW, 0.6 kW, 0.9 kW, 0.8 kW, 0.9 kW, 1.0 kW and 1.9 kW.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5020013
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 14: Potential Recovery of Biogas from Lime Waste
           after Juice Extraction Using Solid–Liquid Extraction Process

    • Authors: Oluwatosin J. Ogundare, David O. Olukanni
      First page: 14
      Abstract: A large percentage of fruit mass is left as waste after the consumption or processing of citrus fruits. The inappropriate disposal of these wastes directly leads to environmental and economic concerns. However, scientific investigations have demonstrated that citrus wastes, due to their high concentration in soluble sugars, can be a source of cellulosic biomass for biogas recovery. d-Limonene, the major constituent of essential oils present in citrus wastes, is however, known to hamper the conversion process of citrus wastes to biogas. With the aim of improving biogas production, a study on the pre-treatment of lime fruit waste to reduce the effect of d-limonene was carried out. The pre-treatment process was done using hexane as the solvent in a solid–liquid extraction process to leach out essential oils from lime wastes. Solid–liquid extraction was carried out in a Soxhlet apparatus with pulverized lime waste at 68 °C for 180 min; then the residue was washed and aerated. From the pre-treatment procedure, 21.3 mL of essential oil was recovered, indicating an oil yield of 3.8%. Substrates of untreated and pre-treated lime waste were digested in batches under mesophilic conditions for a period of 28 days. The biogas yield of each substrate was evaluated and the results compared. Substrate of untreated lime waste yielded 66.9 mL/g VS. biogas after the digestion period. In comparison, pre-treated lime waste gave a better biogas yield of 93.2 mL/g VS. after 28 days, indicating an improvement in biogas yield by about 40%. The findings of this research show that there is a viable recovery option of biogas from lime waste, and recommendations of this research can be further explored to develop an economically viable biogas plant process that efficiently utilizes citrus wastes. This would boost the drive of government towards alternative sources of energy and also fulfil two of the sustainable development goals presented by the United Nations.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5020014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 1: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Recycling in
           2019

    • Authors: Recycling Editorial Office
      First page: 1
      Abstract: The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...]
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5010001
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 2: Evaluating the Thermal Behavior of a
           Sustainable Room and Roof Prototype Using Recycled Waste Materials

    • Authors: Flavio Roberto Ceja Soto, José de Jesús Pérez Bueno, Maria Luisa Mendoza López, Martha Elba Pérez Ramos, José Luis Reyes Araiza, Rubén Ramírez Jiménez, Alejandro Manzano-Ramírez
      First page: 2
      Abstract: This work shows a proposed room prototype and its thermal behavior evaluation. The room was built by using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles filled with soil from the site for its walls and a roof made of multiple layers of reused materials. The construction had a green roof and skylights that were constructed out of upcycled entire glass bottles. Thermal measurements were made indoors and outdoors over the course of one year. Temperature and humidity sensors were used for internal measurements, and, at the same time, a reference sensor recorded data that corresponded to external environmental conditions. The constructed building differed by an average of 8.5 °C from the reference measurements of the external environment and an average of 24.24% in relative humidity. Thermograms were taken from the outside walls, which reached 54.2 °C, while internal wall temperatures reached 25.5 °C. Additionally, a thermal transfer simulation of the prototype was accomplished by using COMSOL Multiphysics. Simulation results approximated the experimental data. The prototype had low daily thermal fluctuations, which was considered a desirable thermal behavior. These results, along with the self-building practices, low costs, and reuse of waste materials, makes this kind of building a potentially feasible alternative.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5010002
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 3: Elastomeric Composites Containing SBR
           Industrial Scraps Devulcanized by Microwaves: Raw Material, Not a Trash

    • Authors: Aline Zanchet, Fabiula Danielli Bastos de Sousa
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Environmental concerns about waste management systems have stimulated the search for technological and economical alternatives that introduce waste as raw material for production cycles. In this sense, this study aimed to develop and characterize styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) composites that contain industrial rubber scraps devulcanized by microwaves (SBR-r) as a reinforcing filler. The scraps were ground under ambient conditions. From the obtained powder (SBR-r), composites were prepared, varying the exposure time of the powder to the microwaves (1, 2, and 3 min), as well as the SBR-r content. These composites were compared to a Reference sample (base formulation without SBR-r). The vulcanization parameters were determined by an oscillating disk rheometer. After vulcanization, the composites were characterized by mechanical properties (tensile and tear strength, and compression set). These properties were also evaluated after accelerated aging in an air oven and a UV chamber (ultraviolet light). The results indicated that as a result of increasing the exposure time of the waste to the microwaves, no significant influence in the composite properties was observed. Aged samples presented higher results as compared with the Reference sample (tensile strength up to 175% higher, tear strength up to 107% higher, and compression set up to 91% higher), which indicates the possibility of using these materials in technological applications, such as in the civil and automotive industries.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5010003
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 4: Collective Action in Waste Management: A
           Comparative Study of Recycling and Recovery Initiatives from Brazil,
           Indonesia, and Nigeria Using the Institutional Analysis and Development
           Framework

    • Authors: Jinkyung Oh, Hiroshan Hettiarachchi
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Recycling and recovery provide not only a sustainable option to decrease the volume of waste that needs final disposal, but also a blueprint to a circular economy. However, rates of recycling/recovery still remain very low on a global scale. While it is important to look for technology-based solutions to improve recycling/recovery activities, such solutions might not be necessarily affordable in many countries. A solution that involves the active participation of the population, on the other hand, has the potential to succeed in any country. The challenge is to attract and unite people to achieve such common goals. The theory of collective action and the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, that have been originally used in resource management, are two concepts that can be adapted to organize recycling/recovery initiatives. This manuscript discusses what recycling/recovery programs can learn from the theory of collective action and the IAD framework, through a qualitative comparative study of such initiatives from three different cities. They are; Curitiba in Brazil, Padang in Indonesia, and Akure in Nigeria. The cases show the potential benefits of both concepts, not only in formulating and implementing recycling/recovery programs but also in making corrective measures for continuous improvements. All cases also showed the importance of increasing awareness-raising to change public perception towards waste from being a nuisance to a valuable resource.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5010004
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 5: Improving Fly Ash Brightness with Carbon and
           Iron Oxide Removal

    • Authors: Helong Song, Huiming Fan, Hang-tian Gao, Jian-an Liu, Hongyan Mou
      First page: 5
      Abstract: In this paper, the brightness of fly ash is improved by carbon removal by heating and iron-containing oxides removal by acid treatment using a two-step method to realize the application of fly ash as filler or coating in the future, which not only increases the range of resource utilization of fly ash, but also reduces dust pollution. The modification results show that the brightness of fly ash reaches the maximum value of 38.27% ISO (Brightness unit) after decarburization by heating at 600 °C. On this basis, the Box–Benhnken design scheme is adopted to optimize the brightening process for removing iron-containing oxides in fly ash. Finally, when the concentration of hydrochloric acid is 15%, the acid leaching time is 0.75 h, the reaction temperature is 74 °C, and the brightness of fly ash can eventually increase to 43.92% ISO.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5010005
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Recycling, Vol. 5, Pages 6: Household Waste Sorting Participation in
           Developing Countries—A Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Kamran Rousta, Liu Zisen, Coralie Hellwig
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Given the increasing efforts at improving waste management in developing countries, this study aimed to analyze factors that influence participation in household waste sorting. It thereby is the first review that extends the published literature on this topic. A meta-analysis was conducted that analyzed twelve influencing factors. A moderate correlation was found for the most strongly influential factors—attitude, moral norm, subjective norm and perceived behavior control—which indicates that people’s perception of waste sorting is most influencing in prompting participation in household waste sorting in developing countries. The results of this meta-analysis indicate that knowledge, situational factors, such as physical conditions, and governmental incentives can influence participation in household waste sorting in developing countries but the relationship between those factors and other factors with high correlations should be studied further. Notably, socio-demographic factors have the weakest influence on the participation in waste sorting in developing countries despite a large body of research on such factors. It can be constructive to take the relationship across the identified factors and the participation in waste sorting into consideration when aiming to implement measures to increase the participation in waste management schemes through waste sorting. The outcome of this study may contribute to recommendations and policy suggestions regarding the promotion of sustainable waste management through household waste sorting in developing countries.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2020-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling5010006
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2020)
       
 
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