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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 140 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 241)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 381)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 99)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2313-4321
Published by MDPI Homepage  [233 journals]
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 30: Modification of Refractory Concretes with
           Aeration Agents as a Method of Protection against the Phenomenon of

    • Authors: Paweł Ogrodnik, Aleksandra Powęzka, Bartosz Zegardło
      First page: 30
      Abstract: The aim of the work is to carry out tests analyzing the effectiveness of introducing pores to concrete on eliminating explosive spalling of concrete in fire conditions. A fireproof concrete is designed, which contains aluminum cement and aggregate obtained from waste sanitary ware. A Microporan aerating agent is used to modify the concrete features. The tests are carried out on cubic samples with nominal dimensions 10 × 10 × 10 cm and cylindrical dimensions 10 × 20 cm. Three batches of test samples are prepared, with different levels of aeration of the concrete mixture, i.e., without an aeration agent, with 0.5% and a 1% amount of aeration admixture weighted relative to the amount of cement used. Samples of all batches are divided into two series and conditioned in two types of environments with different humidity levels: dry and humid. The article presents the results of strength tests of concrete samples that are subjected to high temperatures similar to the temperatures occurring in the fire environment. The process of heating the samples proceeds according to the standard curve showing the temperature rise during the standard fire. The soaking temperature is in the range of 20 to 1000 °C. After baking in the oven, the samples are tested on a strength machine. The authors carry out only pilot studies. Only results from destructive tests of compressive strength of a refractory concrete composite are presented. The simulation station for the fire impact is the PK-1100/5 high-temperature chamber furnace together with the control system and a computer station with temperature monitoring software. Samples are loaded with increasing temperatures, according to the “temperature–time” standard curve. The compressive strength test is used as a criterion for assessing the effectiveness of the aeration agent. Strength tests are carried out both on unheated and soaked conditions in different environments. This paper presents the results of laboratory tests that allow for the authors to determine the characteristics of the material being tested. The empirical data include, among others, testing of selected physical properties (water absorption of concrete) and mechanical properties (measurements of compressive strength before and after thermal load). Based on the results obtained, conclusions from the tests are formulated. The proposed considerations show that the modification of the composite by aeration is an effective preventive measure in relation to the phenomenon of explosive concrete spalling.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3030030
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 31: A Proof-of-Concept Portable Water
           Purification Device Obtained from PET Bottles and a Magnetite-Carbon

    • Authors: Elisabetta Gaita, Claudio Evangelisti, Guido Panzarasa
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Widespread access to potable water is still far from being granted to populations of developing countries, especially in rural zones. For this reason, the development of easy-to-make, easy-to-use water purification devices is a topic of great social and economic importance. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles are available worldwide, even in the remotest and poorest countries, as testified by the increasingly common practice of re-using bottles for solar water disinfection (SODIS). Here, we demonstrate how PET bottles could be re-used as a proof-of-concept water purification system. In this way, virtually the same bottle could be used first for SODIS and then for removing chemical contaminants. In the proposed approach, the bottles are treated with ethylenediamine to introduce amine groups, which are subsequently protonated with dilute acid. These functional groups allow the stable adsorption of a magnetite-activated carbon nanocomposite, which is prepared by a simple coprecipitation protocol. The efficiency of the nanocomposite and of the resulting prototype to remove model inorganic and organic pollutants (hexavalent chromium, industrial dyes) from water has been demonstrated. The proposed purification device is easy, cheap, and effective, all factors which could promote its use in developing and rural countries.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3030031
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 11: Potential of Briquetting as a
           Waste-Management Option for Handling Market-Generated Vegetable Waste in
           Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    • Authors: Olugbemiro Akande, Abel Olorunnisola
      First page: 11
      Abstract: The conversion of biomass to high-density briquettes is a potential solution to solid waste problems as well as to a high dependence on fuel wood in developing countries. In this study, the potential of converting vegetable waste to briquettes using waste paper as a binder was investigated. A sample size of 30 respondents was interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire at the D-line fruit and vegetable market in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Carrot and cabbage leaves were selected for briquetting based on their availability and heating value. This waste was sun-dried, pulverized, torrefied and fermented. Briquettes were produced with a manual briquette press after the processed vegetable waste was mixed with waste paper in four paper:waste ratios, i.e., 10:90, 15:85, 20:80 and 25:75. The moisture content, densities and cooking efficiency of the briquettes were determined using the oven-drying method, the water-displacement method, and the water-boiling test, respectively. There was no observed trend in moisture content values of the briquettes, which varied significantly between 3.0% and 8.5%. There was no significant variation in the densities, which ranged from 0.79 g/cm3 to 0.96 g/cm3 for all the briquette types. A degree of compaction above 300% was achieved for all the briquette types. Water-boiling test results revealed that 10:90 paper:sun-dried cabbage briquettes had the highest ignitability of 0.32 min. Torrefied carrot briquettes with 25% paper had the least boiling time and the highest burning rates of 9.21 min and 4.89 g/min, respectively. It was concluded that cabbage and carrot waste can best be converted into good-quality briquettes after torrefaction.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020011
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 12: Upgrading of Mixed Food Industry Side-Streams
           by Solid-State Fermentation with P. ostreatus

    • Authors: Theodoros Aggelopoulos, Argyro Bekatorou, Stavros Plessas, Athanasios A. Koutinas, Poonam Nigam
      First page: 12
      Abstract: In the frame of efforts to exploit agroindustrial side-streams and wastes (AISS) for added-value products that are based on single cell protein (SCP), mixed substrates consisting of brewer’s spent grains (BSG), malt spent rootlets (MSR), cheese whey, molasses, orange, and potato pulps, were used for growth of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. The substrates were mixed in various combinations, and were used for P. ostreatus growth at various conditions. The substrate, for which the highest sugar consumption, protein increase, and mycelium yield were observed, consisted of 20 mL molasses (4° Baume density), 20 mL potato pulp, 5 mL whey, 5 mL orange pulp, 30 g BSG, and 5 g MSR (at 25 °C and substrate pH 4). The mycelium-enriched product was analyzed for protein, fat, minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu), and aroma volatile compounds, indicating the potential for use as nutritious supplement for food, feed, or microbiology uses. The product was also autolyzed, freeze-dried, powdered, and analyzed for total ribonucleic acid content, showing the potential for use as a commercial natural food flavor enhancer.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020012
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 13: Benchmark Comparison of High Voltage
           Discharge Separation of Photovoltaic Modules by Electrohydraulic and
           Electrodynamic Fragmentation

    • Authors: Fadri Pestalozzi, Stefan Eisert, Jörg Woidasky
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Recent years have seen an increasing interest in exploring alternative techniques to conventional grinding methods such as fragmentation by high voltage discharges. Although pulsed power has already been applied to break down complex composite materials, there is currently no systematic comparison between different types of discharge regimes such as electrohydraulic and electrodynamic fragmentation. The aim of this work is to present such a comparison based on the electrohydraulic and electrodynamic fragmentation of copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules for potential indium recovery. High voltage discharges are performed in a process vessel filled with demineralized water at ambient conditions. After fragmentation, individual fractions are weighed, milled and the indium content is determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Both the electrohydraulic and the electrodynamic approach are suitable to efficiently separate thin-film photovoltaic composite material into its constituent layers. The separation result is not dependent on the voltage level, but only on the total pulse energy applied. Since the generation of discharges with higher voltages requires a higher investment into plant properties such as insulation and generator, a comminution at lower voltages, i.e., electrohydraulic fragmentation, is preferable to electrodynamic fragmentation at higher voltages. To reveal the specific strengths of the two processes compared here, further comparative work with different composite materials is required.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020013
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 14: The Recycling Potential of Submersible Sewage
           Pumps in the EU

    • Authors: Constantinos S. Psomopoulos, Dimitrios Barkas, George Ch. Ioannidis
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Sewage pumps have been among the main electromechanical equipment of the sewage and wastewater management facilities around Europe for over 30 years. Their operational life ranges between 15 and 20 years. Therefore, a significant proportion of that equipment is currently non-operational, and many of them must be disposed of in the forthcoming years. Although the “Waste electrical and electronic equipment” Directive (2012/19/EU) is the main related legislation, sewage pumps are not directly addressed. EcoDesign Legislation is the main legislation applicable on such cases. This work investigates the possibilities of recycling sewage pumps used in wastewater management facilities after their renovation or upgrade. Evaluation results indicate that there is high potential for material recovery and for significant economic benefit. Therefore, the recovery of materials and safe handling of non-operating industrial and possibly hazardous electrical equipment waste, could contribute to the minimization of their impact on the environment.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020014
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 15: A Green Extraction Process to Recover
           Polyphenols from Byproducts of Hemp Oil Processing

    • Authors: Ioannis Mourtzinos, Nikolaos Menexis, Dimitrios Iakovidis, Dimitris P. Makris, Athanasia Goula
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The valorization of solid waste hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) by a non-conventional method is presented in this article. Hemp polyphenols were extracted using aqueous solutions of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin as an eco-friendly extraction solvent. Cyclodextrins (CD’s) are known to enhance the extraction of polyphenols in water by forming water soluble inclusion complexes. The process was optimized by implementing a response surface methodology (RSM) that took into consideration the following independent variables: CD concentration (CCD), solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L), and temperature (T). The assessment of the extraction model was based on two responses: the total polyphenol yield (YTP) and the antiradical activity (AAR). The optimum operating conditions were found to be: CD concentration, 32.1% (w/v); solid/solvent ratio, 1/15.2 g/mL; and extraction temperature, 28 °C. Different kinetic models were employed to fit with experimental data and the Peleg’s model was successfully developed for describing the mechanism of extraction under different processing parameters.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020015
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 16: Key Drivers for High-Grade Recycling under
           Constrained Conditions

    • Authors: Jacqueline Cramer
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Various authors have analyzed the fundamental barriers that hamper the transition towards a circular economy, e.g., economic and business, regulatory and legal, and social. This analysis questions how, under these constrained conditions, high-grade recycling can still be implemented successfully in the Netherlands. The study compares five Dutch material flows: paper and cardboard, plastics, non-wearable textiles, building and demolition waste and mattresses. It is concluded that the following four key conditions should be in place, but need a tailor-made approach for each material flow: (1) adequate collection system/logistics; (2) guaranteed volumes of material supply; (3) clear market demand for and (4) quality guarantee of recycled materials. Moreover, the following five key drivers help circumvent the fundamental barriers and realize the four key conditions: (1) mobilizing power by change agents; (2) cooperation within the material chain; (3) well-attuned financial arrangement; (4) circular procurement; and (5) technological innovation (including redesign). These drivers follow a certain sequence in implementation and circumvent the fundamental barriers each in their own way. This empirical analysis complements the mostly conceptual or theoretical literature on the transition towards high-grade recycling and the circular economy in general. Based on this analysis a conceptual model is developed, in which the key conditions, the key drivers and fundamental barriers are linked. Whether the results also hold true for other countries than the Netherlands needs additional research.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020016
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 17: Manufacturing a Better Planet: Challenges
           Arising from the Gap between the Best Intentions and Social Realities

    • Authors: Darrin Durant, Adam Lucas
      First page: 17
      Abstract: With rising concerns about the social and environmental impacts of industrial and manufacturing waste, scientists and engineers have sought solutions to the burdens of waste which do not simply involve burying, burning, dumping or diluting. Our purpose here is to sketch how social science perspectives can illuminate aspects of the waste problem which are not routinely grappled with within science and engineering perspectives. We argue that if one is concerned about the burdens of waste, it is crucial to understand the way political and cultural contexts shape what happens (or does not happen) in regards to reuse. We sketch some of the challenges facing green manufacturing; challenges that hinge on the gap between the best laid plans and social realities. Rather than imply green manufacturing is simply a post hoc move to hide the excesses of industrial capitalism in the green cloth of sustainability, we hope our discussion can assist those who hope to use green manufacturing as a pre-emptive move to build sustainability into industrial capitalism. We suggest that a socio-political conception of technology can bring greater depth to understandings of the industrial, political and consumer environments into which green manufacturing researchers hope to insert their efforts.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020017
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 18: Managing Cd Containing Waste—Caught by the
           Past, the Circular Economy Needs New Answers

    • Authors: Henning Friege, Barbara Zeschmar-Lahl, Andreas Borgmann
      First page: 18
      Abstract: What is understood by the circular economy concept is the re-use and recycling of used materials and waste. In many used products, hazardous compounds are found or might be present either because of the products’ present intended use or former applications that have been banned in the meantime. Clearly, recycling activities should not endanger man and environment through carryover of contaminants. To learn more about how hazardous chemicals in waste impede the circular economy, it is necessary to investigate the ways in which products containing hazardous compounds have been handled up to now in order to avoid secondary contamination. For this study, cadmium (Cd) in NiCd batteries and accumulators and Cd compounds used as stabilisers for PVC profiles were selected as examples. The situation in the European Union was analysed, with a focus on legislation, collection, recycling, disposal and the further fate of “co-recycled” Cd. Insufficient collection rates, partially unsafe disposal and carryover were identified as the main problems. An advanced management strategy for Cd and its compounds is needed in order to mitigate problems in the circular economy. Used products containing hazardous substances ought to be recycled without contaminating the environment or recycled materials. The results suggest that circular economy is faced with different, partially insurmountable challenges.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020018
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 19: Municipal Solid Waste Management in Latin
           America and the Caribbean: Issues and Potential Solutions from the
           Governance Perspective

    • Authors: Hiroshan Hettiarachchi, Sohyeon Ryu, Serena Caucci, Rodolfo Silva
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management is an essential service for an urban population to maintain sanitation. Managing MSW is complex as the treatment/recovery options depend not only on the volume of waste, but also on the socioeconomic conditions of the population. This paper focusses on MSW management in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. Dominance of uncontrolled disposal options of MSW in the region, such as open dumps, has an adverse influence on health and sanitation. Interest in source separation practices and recycling is low in the LAC region. Furthermore, economic matters such as poor financial planning and ineffective billing systems also hinder service sustainability. Rapid urbanization is another characteristic feature in the region. The large urban centres that accommodate over 80% of the region’s population pose their own challenges to MSW management. However, the same large volume of MSW generated can become a steady supply of resources, if recovery options are prioritized. Governance is one aspect that binds many activities and stakeholders involved in MSW management. This manuscript describes how we may look at MSW management in LAC from the governance perspective. The issues, as well as the best potential solutions, are both described within three categories of governance: bureaucratic, market, and network. The governance perspective can assist by explaining which stakeholders are involved and who should be responsible for what. Financial issues are the major setbacks observed in the bureaucratic governance institutions that can be reversed with better billing strategies. MSW is still not seen by the private sector as a place to make investments, perhaps due to the negative social attitude associated with waste. The market governance aspects may help increase the efficiency and profitability of the MSW market. Private sector initiatives such as cost-effective microenterprises should be encouraged and the projects that fit under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) defined in the Kyoto Protocol should be incentivized to attract technology and capital. Lastly, network governance is at the centre of attention due to its flexibility in supporting/absorbing public-private partnerships, especially the participation of the informal sector that is important to the LAC region. Many individual waste pickers are providing their services to the LAC region by taking part in collecting and recycling under very unfavourable working conditions.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020019
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 20: Skateboards as a Sustainable Recyclable

    • Authors: Dylan Willard, Joseph Loferski
      First page: 20
      Abstract: The exact number of skateboards manufactured every year is unknown, but it is estimated to be in the millions. Most skateboard decks are made from a high grade of maple (Acer spp.) veneer plywood and typically last only a few months before they break or deteriorate beyond use. Millions of used skateboard decks are discarded annually, ending up in landfills when, instead, they could be recycled into new products. But beyond artistic or aesthetic purposes, material properties of the used skateboard decks are unknown. The objective of this paper is to investigate the material properties of wooden composite panels created by reengineering the skateboard deck material. These aesthetically pleasing wooden panels may be a sustainable recycled product. This paper presents a method of analyzing material properties and structural aspects of used skateboard deck material. Tests were developed to measure the stiffness and strength in bending, moisture content, specific gravity, moisture durability, and species identification. The results show that this process of reengineering skateboard decks makes for a strong wood product and may be useful to those interested in developing new products from recycled materials.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020020
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 21: Improving the Energy Concentration in Waste
           Printed Circuit Boards Using Gravity Separation

    • Authors: Amit Kumar, Vinoth Kumar Kuppusamy, Maria E. Holuszko, Travis Janke
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Electronic waste is one the fastest growing waste streams in the world, and printed circuit boards (PCBs) are the most valuable fraction of this stream due to the presence of gold, silver, copper, and palladium. Printed circuit boards consist of approximately 30% metals and 70% non-metals. The non-metal fraction (NMF) is composed of 60–65% fiberglass and 35–40% organics, in the form of surface-mount plastics and epoxy resins in the printed circuit board laminates. The organics in the NMF provide a potential alternative source of energy, but hazardous flame retardants contained in epoxy resins and the presence of residual metals create challenges for utilizing this material for energy recovery. This research provides an evaluation of the energy content of printed circuit boards. Density-based separation was used to separate various components of the NMF to increase the energy content in specific density fractions while reducing the metal content. The result showed that the energy content before and after the removal of the metallic fraction from PCBs was 9 and 15 GJ/t, respectively. After the density-based separation of the NMF, the energy content in the lightest fraction increased to 21 GJ/t, while reducing the concentration of the hazardous flame retardants. The contents of the hazardous flame retardants and residual metal were analyzed, to evaluate the harmful effect of emissions produced from utilizing the NMF as an alternative feedstock in waste-to-energy applications.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020021
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 22: Recycling within the Chemical Industry: The
           Circular Economy Era

    • Authors: Raffaele Cucciniello, Daniele Cespi
      First page: 22
      Abstract: In this present work, we have briefly discussed the importance of recycling within the chemical sector. Recycling is fundamental in promoting a circular economy, which is a new paradigm of sustainability that is able to reduce environmental implications, and in creating new business opportunities. Therefore, to highlight the importance of recycling in the circular economy era, we have reported on some recent examples of strategies helpful to minimize waste by increasing the efficiency of the whole system and promoting a greener/safer chemical industry.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020022
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 23: Production and Evaluation of Composite
           Rainwater Storage Tanks from Recycled Materials Part 1: Material

    • Authors: Amarachi C. Alaka, Abel O. Olorunnisola
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Solid waste management and potable water supply are two of the major challenges in Nigeria. Recycling of wood and plastic wastes as cement-bonded composite rainwater storage tanks can play a major role in addressing both challenges. The aim of this study was to determine acceptable composite formulations for tank production and their short-term effects on stored rainwater. This paper reports the experimental results on composite formulations using varying proportions of Gmelina arborea sawdust, water sachet and acrylic plastic waste and determining their moisture content, density, water absorption (WA), thickness swelling (TS), thermal conductivity (TC), and impact energy. The moisture contents (14.7–16.5%) and densities (1.24–1.53 g/m3) exceeded the minimum value specified for cement-bonded composites. WA in all samples containing plastic materials were relatively low (<6%), an indication of suitability for water storage. However, only the samples containing water sachet exhibited an acceptable thickness swelling (approximately 2%). Density and WA had positive correlations with TS of the composites. The TC values (0.044–0.051 W/mK) were acceptably low. A strong, positive linear correlation was also observed between density and TC. Samples produced with a combination of cement, sawdust, water sachet and acrylic plastic exhibited the highest impact energy.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020023
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 24: On the Prevention of Avoidable Food Waste
           from Domestic Households

    • Authors: Peter J. Shaw, Matthew M. Smith, Ian D. Williams
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Unconsumed food impacts on the environment via the wasteful use of resources in its production and via its disposal. Householders would ideally only generate food waste that is not considered edible (unavoidable food waste) and the disposal of edible food (avoidable food waste) would be prevented, mitigating both the environmental impacts of food waste and reducing consumers’ wasted expenditure on uneaten food. This study aimed to elucidate if and how householders’ food waste behaviour might be changed via interventions in the form of a leaflet highlighting the impacts of avoidable food waste. The composition of avoidable food waste set out for kerbside collection was assessed in relation to interventions intended to reduce avoidable food waste and in relation to households’ economic status. Two parallel interventions were tested, setting out to householders the impacts of avoidable food waste on (1) the environment, and (2) personal finances. Avoidable food waste set out by affluent and low income households, considered in terms of total weight, life-cycle stage and product group, did not change significantly after delivery of either leaflet. Neither of the interventions tested had a discernible impact on the quantity and composition of avoidable food waste in these terms. We propose that initiatives to reduce food waste may be more successful if focused on positive actions to improve householders’ efficiency in their food use, directed by insight provided by analysis of avoidable food waste within product groups and in relation to life-cycle stage.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020024
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 25: Production and Evaluation of Composite
           Rainwater Storage Tanks from Recycled Materials Part 2: Stored Water
           Quality Assessment

    • Authors: Abel O. Olorunnisola, Amarachi C. Alaka
      First page: 25
      Abstract: This paper presents the concluding part of the study on the development cement-bonded composite tanks for rainwater storage. Water containers were fabricated using four composite mixtures (cement + sawdust, cement + sawdust + water sachets, cement + sawdust + acrylic plastic waste, and cement + sawdust + water sachet + acrylic plastic waste) and tested. The quality of the rainwater samples tested immediately after harvesting and samples stored in the composite tanks, a traditional clay pot and a plastic bucket (controls) for four and eight weeks, respectively, were analyzed. The cooling effects of the composite tanks on the stored rainwater were also investigated. Results indicated that the harvested rainwater was free of contaminants. However, there were some preliminary negative interactions between cement and the stored water. Within the first four weeks in storage, the water quality deteriorated with the pH and total suspended solids exceeding acceptable limits. A marked reduction in the salinity, total hardness, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, and turbidity was observed by the eighth week. Acrylic plastic waste particles generally had minimal negative interaction with the stored rainwater. The cooling effects of the tanks were positively correlated with the density and thermal conductivity of the composite materials.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020025
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 26: Investigation of Accidents during Storage
           Caused by Fermentation or Oxidation from SSSR and Fishmeal Using Thermal
           Analysis and Frank-Kamenetskii Theory

    • Authors: Naoharu Murasawa, Hiroshi Koseki, Yusaku Iwata, Takabumi Sakamoto
      First page: 26
      Abstract: In Japan, where soy sauce production and the fishery industries thrive, soy sauce squeezing residue (SSSR) and fishmeal, which are operational byproducts of these sectors, are produced as waste materials for recycling. SSSR and fishmeal have resulted in accidents due to spontaneous ignition and oxygen deprivation, which are believed to have been caused by the heat generated through fermentation or oxidation; consequently, it is desirable to develop measures that prevent such accidents during storage and transportation. In this study, we assessed the hazards associated with the spontaneous ignition and oxygen deprivation of SSSR and fishmeal in storage areas using thermal and gas analysers, focusing on the heat produced by fermentation and oxidation. We also used Frank-Kamenetskii theory to determine the relationship between pile height and the ambient temperatures at which spontaneous ignition and oxygen deprivation occur. Our results suggest that oxygen deficiency may occur in a well-sealed storage facility in which oxygen is consumed by fermentation. For example, the oxygen concentration can drop below critical safety thresholds in the case of SSSR, even when stored below 25 °C, particularly when the moisture content is high. However, when a sufficient amount of oxygen is present and the material is stored in large deposits in a well-insulated facility, fermentation causes the temperature to increase, leading to the oxidation of fatty acid esters and eventually fire; when SSSR or fishmeal is maintained at temperatures near 40 °C, their temperatures can increase to 250 °C within approximately 30 h. Furthermore, the results of this study also demonstrate the need to consider pile height in storage areas in order to prevent accidents due to spontaneous ignition and oxygen deprivation; the critical ambient temperature at which heat accumulates is estimated to be between 20–30 °C, at a bulk density of 0.3 × 103 kg/m3, and a pile height of 3 m.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020026
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 27: Estimation of Phenolic and Flavonoid
           Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Spent Coffee and Black Tea
           (Processing) Waste for Potential Recovery and Reuse in Sudan

    • Authors: Samar A. Abdeltaif, Khitma A. SirElkhatim, Amro B. Hassan
      First page: 27
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant power associated with spent coffee and black tea processing waste. Ethanolic extracts from the samples were prepared in order to determine the quantities/concentrations of the phenolic and flavonoid compounds, polyphenols, and associated levels of antioxidant activity. The results showed that both the spent coffee and black tea waste had high amounts of phenolic compounds and high antioxidant activity rates. The total phenolic and flavonoids content was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the spent black tea than in the spent coffee. The total phenolic content was found to be 152.8 and 97.87 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g, while the total amount of flavonoids was found to be 47.40 and 34.32 mg catechin/g in spent black tea and coffee, respectively. However, the spent coffee had a significantly higher (p < 0.05) antioxidant activity than that detected in the spent black tea (57.83%). Consequently, the results revealed that the waste residue of spent coffee and black tea may be considered as natural sources of bioactive compounds and that there may be potential for recycling these waste products, which could be applied in different industries to further develop functional foods.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020027
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 28: Households’ Perception of Financial
           Incentives in Endorsing Sustainable Waste Recycling in Nigeria

    • Authors: Beatrice Abila
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Recycling is viewed as a central aspect in sustainability and mainly as pro-environmental consumer behavior. The purpose of this study is to examine the perception of households on financial incentives in endorsing sustainable recycling for municipal solid waste in Nigeria. The study was conducted in the Shomolu Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria. The study also covers drivers for household willingness to recycle municipal solid waste on environmental risk, behavioral economics, resource value, economic benefit, convenience, knowledge, legislation, and belief. The result from the study asserts the hypothesis that financial incentives for recycling are vital for reducing and managing municipal solid waste sustainably. The most important driver for household willingness to recycle municipal solid waste is the detrimental environmental impacts. A moderate to positive relationship exists between households’ perception of financial incentives for recycling and drivers for household willingness to recycle municipal solid waste. The study recommends adopting the extended producer responsibility (EPR) model, reverse vending options, amongst other approaches, in an effort to promote recycling culture among citizens and residents in Nigeria.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020028
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 29: Research of Chosen Acoustics Descriptors of
           Developed Materials from Old Automobile Recycled Materials †

    • Authors: Miroslav Badida, Lydia Sobotova, Anna Badidova, Marek Moravec, Alzbeta Mikulova
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Legislative regulations and standards have been approved for noise control, aimed at controlling noise minimization. This problem is also under the public interest, because noise is increasing in many counties. EU directive 70/157/eec determines and controls limits of environmental noise and is aimed at creating less noisy and more pleasant outdoor and indoor environments for European residents within “sustainable development in Europe”. This study focused on the utilization of new, so-called acoustic more convenient materials, based on and produced from old materials from automobiles, e.g. foam, textile, rubber, and tires. The chosen acoustic parameters—sound absorption coefficient and sound transmission loss—of these materials were tested, and the acoustic properties of materials were subsequently improved compared to tested values and potential applications for them were found.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3020029
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 2: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Recycling in

    • Authors: Recycling Editorial Office
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Recycling maintains high quality standards for its published papers. In 2017, a total of 24 papers were published in the journal.[...]
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3010002
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 3: Concepts for Reusing Composite Materials from
           Decommissioned Wind Turbine Blades in Affordable Housing

    • Authors: Lawrence Bank, Franco Arias, Ardavan Yazdanbakhsh, T. Gentry, Tristan Al-Haddad, Jian-Fei Chen, Ruth Morrow
      First page: 3
      Abstract: The very rapid growth in wind energy technology in the last 15 years has led to a rapid growth in the amount of non-biodegradable, thermosetting fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials used in wind turbine blades. This paper discusses conceptual architectural and structural options for recycling these blades by reusing parts of wind turbine blades in new or retrofitted housing projects. It focuses on large-sized FRP pieces that can be salvaged from the turbine blades and can potentially be useful in infrastructure projects where harsh environmental conditions (water and high humidity) exist. Since reuse design should be for specific regional locations and architectural characteristics the designs presented in this paper are for the coastal regions of the Yucatan province in Mexico on the Gulf of Mexico where low-quality masonry block informal housing is vulnerable to severe hurricanes and flooding. To demonstrate the concept a prototype 100 m long wind blade model developed by Sandia National Laboratories is used to show how a wind blade can be broken down into parts, thus making it possible to envision architectural applications for the different wind blade segments for housing applications.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3010003
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 4: Social Acceptance for Reclaimed Water Use: A
           Case Study in Bengaluru

    • Authors: Chaya Ravishankar, Sunil Nautiyal, Manasi Seshaiah
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The main source of water to the peri-urban areas of Bengaluru is groundwater. Access to groundwater is through tankers, private borewells, Bruhat Bengaluru MahanagaraPalike (Urban Local Body) borewells, and public stand posts. All modes other than tankers provide water to the community free of charge. Reclaimed water from sewage treatment plants (STPs) is in use by industries and some gated communities and multistoried apartments for toilet flushing and landscaping. For individual households in peri-urban areas of Bengaluru, it could be an additional water source replacing expensive water supply through tankers; reducing demand for groundwater (a finite resource); improving the sanitation system by providing drainage systems and preventing groundwater contamination from black and grey water. Consequently, this research paper investigates the willingness of residents in peri-urban areas of Bengaluru to use reclaimed water for non-potable end uses. To investigate residents’ willingness and key motivations for the use of reclaimed water, a survey of residents in the peri-urban ward of Bellandur was conducted. In this region, the sewerage board had prepared a media advertisement to create awareness of—and to sell—reclaimed water to other users, including local residents. This advertisement was shown to respondents, asking if they were willing to accept and buy the reclaimed water at 15 Indian Rupees (INR) per kiloliter. Sixty-seven percent of residents who were household owners were willing to buy reclaimed water, 20% were concerned about hygiene, and 33% of respondents lacked trust in the public agency with respect to water quality standards. The study concludes that public awareness from key stakeholders is essential for the reuse of reclaimed water. It also recommends stringent regulation by levying fees for groundwater extraction in addition to making reclaimed water readily available and supplied free of charge to the consumers. In addition, the quality of reclaimed water should meet international standards to gain the confidence of the people.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3010004
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 5: Procedural Information and Behavioral Control:
           Longitudinal Analysis of the Intention-Behavior Gap in the Context of

    • Authors: Sonny Rosenthal
      First page: 5
      Abstract: The theory of planned behavior states that individuals act on their intentions, especially when they have behavioral control. The current study examines how seeking recycling-related procedural information—i.e., information about how and where to recycle—is related to behavioral control. Hypothesis testing used hierarchical ordinary least squares regression analysis of longitudinal data from 553 survey respondents. Results supported seven hypotheses. Most notably, procedural information seeking both mediated and moderated the relationship between intention and behavior. Further, the moderation effect was itself mediated by behavioral control. The argument for this mediated moderation is that information seeking enhances behavioral control, and it is primarily behavioral control that moderates the relationship between intention and behavior. These results have implications for the theory of planned behavior and, more generally, for how individuals use information to support their behaviors.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3010005
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 6: Sustainable Airport Waste Management: The Case
           of Kansai International Airport

    • Authors: Glenn Baxter, Panarat Srisaeng, Graham Wild
      First page: 6
      Abstract: The global air transport industry is predicted to continue its rapid growth. A by-product of air transport operations, however, is the substantial volumes of waste generated at airports. To mitigate the environmental impact of waste and to comply with regulatory requirements, airports are increasingly implementing sustainable waste management policies and systems. Using an in-depth case study research design, this study has examined waste management at Kansai International Airport from 2002 to 2015. Throughout its history the airport has implemented world best practices to achieve its goal of being an eco-friendly airport. The qualitative data gathered for the study were analysed using document analysis. The quantitative data were analysed using t-tests. Statistically significant results were found in the reduction in waste per passenger and aircraft movement (for total waste, incinerated waste, and landfill waste). In addition, a statistically significant increase in the proportion of waste recycled, and a decrease in the proportion of waste sent to landfill was observed. As such, quantitatively speaking, Kansai International Airport has shown significant waste management improvements. The study concludes that Kansai Airport’s waste management approaches and policies can be transferred to other airport facilities. This would greatly improve sustainability across airports, globally.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3010006
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 7: Material Implications of Rural
           Electrification—A Methodological Framework to Assess In-Use Stocks of
           Off-Grid Solar Products and EEE in Rural Households in Bangladesh

    • Authors: Alexander Batteiger, Vera Rotter
      First page: 7
      Abstract: “Universal access to electricity” is proclaimed as the seventh sustainable development goal (SDG 7) of the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals list. The achievement of this goal will result in a rapid diffusion of energy technologies that would in turn increase materials stocks, subsequently increase the raw material demand as well as the arising waste flows. This study describes a methodological framework to assess in-use stocks of off-grid solar products and electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) for rural communities in developing countries. The methodology is based on energy-access data. Furthermore, the specifics of the characteristics of off-grid solar products are discussed. The methodology is applied to rural Bangladesh and its solar home system (SHS) program. By the end of 2016, around 4.1 million SHSs were installed. This type of access to electricity has a significant impact on the in-use stocks, as households add the comparatively heavy SHSs to their in-use stocks. In-use stocks of EEE, in general, are low. Off-grid solar products are lighter than standard EEE, and fewer products types are available. These findings will help to better understand material stocks and future waste flows in the given context and will support the adaption of recycling infrastructures.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3010007
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 8: Mechanical Processing of GFRP Waste into
           Large-Sized Pieces for Use in Concrete

    • Authors: Ardavan Yazdanbakhsh, Lawrence C. Bank, Yuan Tian
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Recycling glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite materials has been proven to be challenging due to their high mechanical performance and high resistance to harsh chemical and thermal conditions. This work discusses the efforts made in the past to mechanically process GFRP waste materials by cutting them into large-sized (cm scale) pieces, as opposed to pulverization, for use in concrete mixtures. These pieces can be classified into two main categories—coarse aggregate and discrete reinforcement, here referred to as “needles.” The results from all the studies show that using GFRP coarse aggregate leads to significant reductions in the compressive strength and tensile strength of concrete. However, GFRP needles lead to sizable increases in the energy absorption capacity of concrete. In addition, if the glass fibers are longitudinally aligned within the needles, these elements can substantially increase the tensile strength of concrete. Processing GFRP waste into needles requires less energy and time than that for producing GFRP coarse aggregate. Also, compared to pulverized GFRP waste, which consists of broken and separate particles of glass and resin that at best can be used as low-quality fillers, GFRP needles are high strength composite elements.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3010008
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 9: The Potential of Tree Fruit Stone and Seed
           Wastes in Greece as Sources of Bioactive Ingredients

    • Authors: Stella Ordoudi, Christina Bakirtzi, Maria Tsimidou
      First page: 9
      Abstract: The inedible part (stones, husks, kernels, seeds) of the tree fruits that are currently processed in various regions of Greece constitutes a huge portion of the fruit processing solid waste that remains underexploited. In this review, the existing scientific background for the composition and content of fruit stone and seed in bioactive ingredients is highlighted for olives, stone fruits and citrus fruits that represent the economically most important tree crop products of the country. The content of bioactive compounds may vary considerably depending on the quality of the raw material and the treatment during processing. However, both the hydrophilic and the lipophilic fractions of the seeds contain significant amounts of the primary and the secondary plant metabolites. Among them, phytosterols and several types of polyphenols, but also squalene, tocopherols and some other terpenoids with a unique structure are of particular importance for the utilization and valorization of stones and seeds. Official and scholar records about the current management practices are also presented to highlight the dynamics of the Greek fruit sector. Prospects for the regionalization of fruit seed wastes, in line with EU-promoted Research and Innovation Strategies (RIS) for Smart Specialization are critically discussed.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3010009
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018)
  • Recycling, Vol. 3, Pages 10: Valorization of Municipal Waterworks Sludge
           to Produce Ceramic Floor Tiles

    • Authors: Lara Rodrigues, José de Holanda
      First page: 10
      Abstract: In municipal waterworks large amounts of waste in the form of sludge have to be discarded. This investigation focuses on the processing of ceramic floor tiles incorporated with a municipal waterworks sludge. Four floor tile formulations containing up to 10 wt. % of the municipal waterworks sludge were prepared in order to replace the kaolin. The floor tile processing route consisted of dry powder granulation, uniaxial pressing, and firing between 1190 and 1250 °C using a fast-firing cycle (<60 min). The densification behavior and technological properties of the floor tile pieces as function of the sludge addition and firing temperature were determined. The development of the microstructure was followed by XRD and SEM/EDS. The results show that the replacement of kaolin with municipal waterworks sludge, in the range up to 10 wt. %, allows the production of ceramic floor tiles (group BIb and group BIIa, ISO 13006 Standard) at lower firing temperatures. These results suggest a new possibility of valorization of municipal waterworks sludge in order to bring economic and environmental benefits.
      Citation: Recycling
      PubDate: 2018-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/recycling3010010
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018)
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