A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
Number of Followers: 49  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2296-701X
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Editorial: Sex and gender effects on power, status, dominance, and
           leadership – an interdisciplinary look at human and other mammalian

    • Authors: Joey T. Cheng, Charlotte K. Hemelrijk, Tanja Hentschel, Elise Huchard, Peter M. Kappeler, Jenny Veldman
      PubDate: 2023-12-01T00:00:00Z
  • A hypothesis about the influence of oxidative stress on amino acid protein
           composition during evolution

    • Authors: Enrique González-Tortuero, Alexandro Rodríguez-Rojas
      Abstract: Life emerged in an anoxic world, but the release of molecular oxygen, the by-product of photosynthesis, forced adaptive changes to counteract its toxicity. However, reactive oxygen species can damage all cellular components, including proteins. Therefore, several mechanisms have evolved to balance the intracellular redox state and maintain a reductive environment more compatible with many essential biological functions. In this study, we statistically interrogated the amino acid composition of E. coli proteins to investigate how the proneness or susceptibility to oxidation of amino acids biased their sequences. By sorting the proteins into five compartments (cytoplasm, internal membrane, periplasm, outer membrane, and extracellular), we found that various oxidative lesions constrain protein composition and depend on the cellular compartments, impacting the evenness of distribution or frequency. Our findings suggest that oxidative susceptibility could influence the observed differences in amino acid abundance across cellular compartments. This result reflects how the oxidative atmosphere could restrict protein amino acid composition and impose a codon bias trend.
      PubDate: 2023-11-29T00:00:00Z
  • Influence of abiotic factors on habitat selection of sympatric ocelots and
           bobcats: testing the interactive range-limit
           theory|Aim|Location|Methods|Results|Main conclusions

    • Authors: Maksim Sergeyev, Evan P. Tanner, Michael J. Cherry, Jason V. Lombardi, Michael E. Tewes, Tyler A. Campbell
      Abstract: AimMitigating the effects of extreme conditions is a mechanism that can structure the activity patterns and habitat selection of a species and may particularly impact species at the extremes of their geographic distribution. Furthermore, changing climate patterns have the potential to influence biotic interactions between species in novel ways. As two species at the edges of their northern and southern distributions, respectively, ocelots and bobcats may face unique pressure compared to individuals in more central portions of their range. Our objective was to describe the selection of thermal cover by ocelots and bobcats to examine whether partitioning of thermal resources was occurring or if this was a source of potential interspecific competition.LocationWe monitored eight ocelots and 13 bobcats in South Texas, USA.MethodsWe compared selection within, above, and below their estimated thermoneutral zones to examine the effect of varying temperature on habitat selection. Additionally, we stationed 130 black globe thermal sensors to describe the thermal properties of the various cover types.ResultsWe observed variation in habitat selection across temperatures and species. Ocelots and bobcats selected for shrub cover and vertical canopy cover when cold stressed. When heat stressed, both species avoided bare ground and selected for higher vertical canopy cover and were located closer to dense cover. Black globe measurements revealed differences in environmental temperature across cover types, with forest and shrub cover significantly lower than herbaceous or bare ground.Main conclusionsChanging climates may influence interspecific competition and alter areas of sympatry through range shifts. Our results stress the importance of dense shrub cover and forested canopy as thermal refuge for ocelots and bobcats and suggest that abundant vegetation may mitigate the effects of interspecific competition during lower temperatures and niche partitioning may reduce interspecific competition during upper temperature limits, providing support for the interactive range-limit theory.
      PubDate: 2023-11-29T00:00:00Z
  • Mechanisms of carbon dioxide detection in the earthworm Dendrobaena

    • Authors: Emily Jordan Smith, Jennifer L. Ryan, Sofia A. Lopresti, Dastan B. S. Haghnazari, Karleigh A. S. Anderson, Sarah J. Lipson, Erik C. Johnson, Wayne L. Silver, Cecil J. Saunders
      Abstract: IntroductionCarbon dioxide (CO2) is a critical biological signal that is noxious to many animals at high concentrations. The earthworm Dendrobaena veneta lives in subterranean burrows containing high levels of CO2 and respires through its skin. Despite the ecological and agricultural importance of earthworms, relatively little is known about how they make decisions in their environment, including their response to elevated levels of CO2.MethodsTo examine CO2 detection in this species, we designed the exudate assay, in which we placed an earthworm in a sealed container, exposed it to varying concentrations of CO2 for one minute, and recorded the amount of exudate secreted. Because earthworms excrete exudate in response to noxious stimuli, we hypothesized that the amount of exudate produced was proportional to the amount of irritation. We repeated these experiments after treatment with several blockers for molecules with potential involvement in CO2 detection, including carbonic anhydrases, guanylate cyclase, TRPA1, ASICs, and OTOP channels. We also confirmed the presence of homologous transcripts for each of these gene families in an epithelial transcriptome for D. veneta. Additionally, since organisms often detect CO2 levels indirectly by monitoring the conversion to carbonic acid (a weak acid), we used the exudate assay to evaluate aversion to additional weak acids (formic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid).ResultsEarthworms excreted significantly more exudate in response to CO2 in a dosage-dependent manner, and this response was muted by the general carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide, the carbonic anhydrase IX/XII inhibitor indisulam, the calcium channel blocker ruthenium red, the sodium channel blocker amiloride, and the acid-sensing ion channel blocker diminazene aceturate.DiscussionThese data provide evidence of the role of carbonic anhydrase and epithelial sodium channels in earthworm CO2 detection, establish that, similar to other subterranean-dwelling animals, earthworms are extremely tolerant of CO2, and contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms used by earthworms to detect and react to weak acids in their environment.
      PubDate: 2023-11-29T00:00:00Z
  • Factors driving changes in water conservation function from a geospatial
           perspective: case study of Jilin Province

    • Authors: Teng Gao, Yuchen Li, Chunzi Zhao, Jingping Chen, Ri Jin, Weihong Zhu
      Abstract: Jilin Province in China borders other countries in Northeast Asia and is a complex ecosystem of transboundary rivers, varying terrains, and climates, which provides vital freshwater resources to the neighboring countries. Water conservation is one of the ecosystem service functions and is of great significance to maintaining sustainable development of water resources and ecological security. In this study, we analyzed the water conservation function and its variations in Jilin Province from 2000 to 2020 using the InVEST model. Furthermore, we examined the dominant factors governing spatial distribution of the changes in water conservation function over the past two decades using geographical detectors. In addition, a multi-scale geographic weighted regression model was adopted to investigate spatial differences and characteristics of individual drivers across different spatial scales. The study revealed a number of findings. First, between 2000 and 2020, average water conservation in Jilin Province increased by 46.12% overall from 87.14 mm/m2 to 127.28 mm/m2. Second, compared with land use change, climate change had a greater influence on water conservation. However, in some areas, the opposite was true, and the combined impact of both factors was more substantial on water conservation than when each acted independently. Third, except for temperature, the correlation between each driving factor and the change in water conservation function exhibited spatial variations, and the characteristics of each factor also varied across different spatial scales. In the study site, variations in water conservation were positively correlated with forest and grass coverage and negatively correlated with cultivated land and urban-rural and industrial-mining land. This study provides new insights for exploring the driving factors of changes in water conservation function and imparts a more appropriate basis for government agencies to make decisions about ecological and environmental protection and optimization of ecosystem management.
      PubDate: 2023-11-29T00:00:00Z
  • Estimation of grassland aboveground biomass and its response to climate
           changes based on remote sensing inversion in Three-River-Source National
           Park, Tibet Plateau, China

    • Authors: Hui He, Hui Yu, Ziwei Rong, Yan Yang, Pengshang Li
      Abstract: Three-River-Source (TRS) National Park stands as one of China’s earliest established national parks, dedicated to significant ecological responsibilities that include conserving soil and water resources in the Tibetan Plateau region. Research on climate change’s influence on the TRS region’s grasslands is of great significance in our efforts to comprehend and conserve the grassland ecosystem. The most effective random forest (RF) model was chosen to invert the aboveground biomass (AGB) of grassland in the previous 6 years (2015−2020) and predict the grassland AGB in the following 20 years (2021−2040) by comparing linear regression and multivariate nonlinear regression models such as RF, support vector machine, decision tree, and artificial neural network. A Theil–Sen median trend analysis and a Mann–Kendal test were then used to examine the trends of grassland AGB. The results showed that (1) RF outperformed other models in estimating grassland AGB, with a test set decision coefficient of multiple determination (R2) of 0.722, a root mean square error of 42.596 g/m2, and a mean absolute error of 35.619 g/m2; (2) over 6 years, the grassland AGB in TRS National Park had a spatial trend of a steady rise from the northwest to the southeast. The average annual grassland AGB was 247.333 g/m2, with averages of 44.836 g/m2, 92.601 g/m2, and 120.217 g/m2 in the Yangtze River, Yellow River, and Lancang River source parks respectively. The trend of the grassland AGB was primarily stabilized and slightly recovered, with a small portion of the slightly deteriorated areas; (3) climate change significantly affected grassland AGB, and when temperature and precipitation conditions were adequate, grassland AGB values increased with temperature and precipitation. In the scenarios of ssp119, ssp245, and ssp585, grassland AGB is projected to exhibit a dynamic upward trend over the next 20 years. Global warming is expected to boost grassland AGB. Comprehensive measures are essential to maintain grassland health and ensure a positive impact on global carbon and ecological balance. The study’s findings hold great importance for the ecological security of the TRS region and contribute to our global understanding of sustainable grassland development.
      PubDate: 2023-11-29T00:00:00Z
  • Long-term N addition reduced the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
           and understory herbs of a Korean pine plantation in northern China

    • Authors: Wei Wang, Yuhan Feng, Ruotong Wu, Xiaohui Wang, Xue He, Mengmeng Zhang, Kun Li, Guangze Jin, Fuqiang Song
      Abstract: With the development of agriculture and industry, the increase in nitrogen (N) deposition has caused widespread concern among scientists. Although emission reduction policies have slowed N releases in Europe and North America, the threat to biodiversity cannot be ignored. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of plant communities in forest ecosystems, and both their distribution and diversity have vital ecological functions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of long-term N addition on AM fungi and understory herbaceous plants in a Korean pine plantation in northern China. The soil properties, community structure, and diversity of AM fungi and understory herbaceous plants were detected at different concentrations of NH4NO3 (0, 20, 40, 80 kg N ha−1 year−1) after 7 years. The results showed that long-term N deposition decreased soil pH, increased soil ammonium content, and caused significant fluctuations in P elements. N deposition improved the stability of soil aggregates by increasing the content of glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) and changed the AM fungal community composition. The Glomus genus was more adaptable to the acidic soil treated with the highest N concentration. The species of AM fungi, understory herbaceous plants, and the biomass of fine roots were decreased under long-term N deposition. The fine root biomass was reduced by 78.6% in the highest N concentration treatment. In summary, we concluded that long-term N deposition could alter soil pH, the distribution of N, P elements, and the soil aggregate fractions, and reduce AM fungal and understory herb diversity. The importance of AM fungi in maintaining forest ecosystem diversity was verified under long-term N deposition.
      PubDate: 2023-11-29T00:00:00Z
  • Spatial and temporal evolution of the eco-efficiency of cultivated land
           use in the region around Beijing–Tianjin based on the Super-EBM model

    • Authors: Xiaoqing Li, Li Zhao, Xinhan Chang, Jie Yu, Xinming Song, Lizhu Zhang
      Abstract: The eco-efficiency of cultivated land use (ECLU) is an important indicator for ecological civilization construction in China. Exploring the spatiotemporal dynamic evolution of the ECLU is helpful for the sustainable use of arable land, ensuring food security and ecological security. However, previous studies have mostly focused on the use of a slacks-based measure (SBM) model for ECLU measurement, ignoring the more accurate epsilon-based measure (EBM) model. Therefore, in this study, first, we explored the conceptual framework of the ECLU, and then, based on 2005–2020 panel data covering the counties in the region around Beijing and Tianjin, we investigated the spatial and temporal evolution of the ECLU by using the Super-EBM model, kernel density estimation method, and spatial Markov chain model. The results show the following: 1) From 2005 to 2020, the ECLU in the region around Beijing and Tianjin displayed an increasing state, but the average value was only 0.55. 2) The temporal evolution of the ECLU has gradually polarized, and the internal gap has widened, but it tends to stabilize. 3) The ECLU in the region around Beijing and Tianjin was more inclined to remain the same, and there was a “club convergence” phenomenon, which was meaningfully affected by the background of neighboring areas. In this article, we emphasize the significance of the super‐efficient EBM model in measuring the ecological efficiency of arable land use, and discuss the spatiotemporal evolution of the ecological efficiency of arable land use at a deeper level. In light of local conditions, the government should reasonably formulate a path to optimize the ECLU, strengthen the linkage with surrounding cities, and bring into play the positive spillover effect.
      PubDate: 2023-11-29T00:00:00Z
  • Isotopic niches of diadromous fishes inform on interspecific competition
           in an obstructed catchment

    • Authors: Anne Lizé, Nils Teichert, Jean-Marc Roussel, Anthony Acou, Eric Feunteun, Alexandre Carpentier
      Abstract: Competition arises when species share a limited resource, but this can be avoided through niche partitioning. Despite the large body of literature on diadromous fishes, very few studies have focused on niche partitioning when competing for resources. Diadromous fishes are suffering a global decline throughout their range in part due to their peculiar life history traits as they migrate from the sea to freshwater to spawn or the reverse. They are particularly sensitive to river fragmentation induced by barriers. Dams for instance are expected to alter the spatial distribution and resource exploitation of diadromous fishes as well as other organisms. Here, we studied the ecological niche of six taxa of diadromous fishes, temporally co-occurring in the same land–sea continuum obstructed by two river dams. We used Bayesian mixing models run on C and N isotopes to infer the various habitats used and the origin of the trophic carbon in muscle and scale tissues of diadromous fishes. Results showed that the sub-adults of Anguilla anguilla, juveniles of Petromyzon marinus, and Salmo trutta exploit mainly the freshwater, or marine part for adults of Lampetra fluviatilis, whereas juveniles of Platichthys flesus and Mugilidae use all the habitats of the land–sea continuum. In the freshwater habitat, the microphytobenthos and biofilm are the main sources of carbon used, while in the marine habitat, the basal carbon sources are more diverse. The analyses of niche overlaps between diadromous fishes demonstrate that the widest isotopic niches, observed for A. anguilla and P. flesus, also have more impact within the community. Results are discussed in terms of intra- and interspecific competition between these diadromous fishes and their generalist/specialist strategies in an obstructed catchment.
      PubDate: 2023-11-28T00:00:00Z
  • Assessing the invasion risk of Chelydra serpentina in China under current
           and future climate change scenarios

    • Authors: Chaosheng Mu, Pipeng Li
      Abstract: Chelydra serpentina, a species introduced to China for aquaculture purposes, is commonly found in its natural habitats within the country. The invasion of C. serpentina poses potential threats to both the biodiversity of China and human health. The potential distribution of C. serpentina has been simulated using the species distribution model – MaxEnt, incorporating global distribution data, climate, and land cover variables. Our simulations encompasses both current conditions and four future climate change scenarios. Currently, the potential distribution is concentrated in central, eastern, and southeastern regions of China, with the central and eastern regions facing the highest risk of invasion. Under future climate change scenarios, the distribution area may expand by 30–90%, and multiple provinces will face a more severe threat of invasion. This study presents the inaugural simulation of the potential invasion range of C. serpentina under current climatic conditions. Moreover, it reveals that climate change is likely to contribute to the expansion of its invasive range, thus furnishing a reference foundation for scientific prevention and control measures. We propose integrating citizen science and eDNA technologies into species monitoring to enhance the efficiency of detecting invasive species. This research has filled the gap in the research on the invasive distribution range of C. serpentina in China and globally, while also providing novel perspectives on the invasion control of this species.
      PubDate: 2023-11-28T00:00:00Z
  • Plant diversity and grasses increase root biomass in a rainfall and
           grassland diversity manipulation

    • Authors: Laura Y. Podzikowski, Megan M. Heffernan, James D. Bever
      Abstract: The loss of plant productivity with declining diversity is well established, exceeding other global change drivers including drought. These patterns are most clearly established for aboveground productivity, it remains poorly understood whether productivity increases associated with diversity are replicated belowground. To address this gap, we established a plant diversity-manipulation experiment in 2018. It is a full factorial manipulation of plant species richness and community composition, and precipitation. Three and five years post-establishment, two bulk soil cores (20cm depth) were collected and composited from each plot and were processed for roots to determine belowground biomass as root standing crop. We observed a strong positive relationship between richness and aboveground production and belowground biomass, generating positive combined above and belowground with diversity. Root standing crop increased 1.4-fold from years three to five. Grass communities produced more root biomass (monoculture mean 463.9 ± 410.3g m−2), and the magnitude of the relationship between richness and root standing crop was greatest within those communities. Legume communities produced the fewest roots (monoculture mean 212.2 ± 155.1g m−2), and belowground standing crop was not affected by diversity. Root standing crops in year three were 1.8 times higher under low precipitation conditions, while in year five we observed comparable root standing crops between precipitation treatments. Plant family was a strong mediator of increased belowground biomass observed with diversity, with single family grass and aster families generating 1.7 times greater root standing crops in six compared to single species communities, relationships between diversity and aboveground production were consistently observed in both single-family and multiple family communities. Diverse communities with species from multiple families generated only 1.3 times the root standing crop compared to monoculture average root biomass. We surprisingly observe diverse single family communities can generate increases in root standing crops that exceed those generated by diverse multiple family communities, highlighting the importance of plant richness within plant family for a given community. These patterns have potential implications for understanding the interactions of multiple global change drivers as changes in both precipitation and plant community composition do alter whether plant production aboveground is translated belowground biomass.
      PubDate: 2023-11-27T00:00:00Z
  • A facultative mutualism between habitat-forming species enhances the
           resistance of rocky shore communities to heat waves

    • Authors: Jorge L. Gutiérrez, María Bagur, Rodrigo A. Lorenzo, Maria Gabriela Palomo
      Abstract: Heat waves have increased in frequency, duration, and magnitude in recent decades, causing mass mortality events in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Arguably, mass mortalities of habitat-forming organisms – i.e., dominant sessile organisms that define habitats via their own physical structure – would be amongst the most dramatic impact of heat waves because of their negative, cascading consequences on their associated biodiversity. However, the resistance of habitat-forming organisms to heat waves can be enhanced if they associate with secondary habitat formers able to tolerate and modulate extreme heat levels. Here we show that a seaweed of the Porphyra/Pyropia (P/P) clade can shield primary habitat-forming mussels, Brachidontes rodriguezii, from the impacts of extreme temperatures in a southwestern Atlantic rocky intertidal shore. By means of P/P removal experiments and surveys, we illustrate that P/P cover (a) buffers temperatures in the understory mussel beds during daytime air exposure periods in the summer, (b) reduces mussel mortality and leads to increased mussel body condition during warm summer periods, and (c) can prevent mass mortality of mussels during the course of a heat wave. Additionally, by means of a mussel removal experiment we illustrate that mussel cover is critical for P/P establishment, which is in consonance with the remarkably higher P/P densities and cover observed in mussel beds relative to exposed rock surfaces across a ~70 km coastal range. Collectively, these findings reveal a facultative mutualism where mussels provide a favorable substrate for P/P colonization and P/P attenuates heat mediated mortality on mussels. The ability of P/P to enhance the resistance of mussel beds to extreme heat events and the occurrence of similar P/P-mussel associations during spring-summer at globally dispersed sites suggests a widespread importance of P/P for the stability of mussel beds and their associated communities under warming climates.
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T00:00:00Z
  • Skeletal indicators of developmental changes in arboreality and locomotor
           maturation in extant apes and their relevance to hominin

    • Authors: Jaap P. P. Saers
      Abstract: IntroductionModern humans are the only fully terrestrial ape. All other apes are partially arboreal, particularly as infants and juveniles. Precocial locomotor development, high frequency of arboreal locomotion in early ontogeny, and increased terrestriality throughout development are ubiquitous amongst the hominines and likely represent the ancestral state. The role of climbing in hominin evolution has been debated for decades, but if hominins climbed regularly then subadults likely relied on it most frequently. Investigating the role of climbing throughout hominin evolution requires reliable developmentally plastic traits that are responsive to locomotor loading and can be identified in the fossil record. Chimpanzees and gorillas provide a natural experiment to examine the relationship between age-related variation locomotor activities and bone structure. Chimpanzees and gorillas are most arboreal during infancy and become more terrestrial throughout development. Gorillas are comparatively more terrestrial and transition to predominantly terrestrial locomotion at an earlier age. This paper has two main objectives. First, to examine if interspecific differences in the rate of locomotor development is reflected in bone structure. Second, to determine if ontogenetic reductions in the frequency of arboreal locomotion correspond to age-related variation in bone structure.MethodsThe humerus, tibia, calcaneus, and seventh cervical vertebrae of an ontogenetic series of gorillas and chimpanzees from the Powell Cotton Museum (n = 71) were uCT scanned. Trabecular, cortical, and total bone volume fraction (BV/TV) were calculated in developmentally homologous regions of interest.ResultsBV/TV scales with positive allometry throughout ontogeny. The achievement of adult-like locomotor behaviour can be identified by a significant change in the slope of Total.BV/TV with age. Younger, more arboreal individuals have relatively greater upper limb Total.BV/TV relative to the neck and lower limb than older, more terrestrial individuals in gorillas and chimpanzees. More arboreal chimpanzees have relatively more Total.BV/TV in the upper limb relative to the lower limb and neck.DiscussionThe correspondence between developmental trajectories of BV/TV and locomotor ontogeny in extant apes suggests that analyses of hominin skeletal ontogeny can provide new insights into the evolution of two characteristic human traits: our slow rate of maturation and the evolution of fully terrestrial bipedalism.
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T00:00:00Z
  • Nurse role and mechanism of Coriaria nepalensis in abandoned land of Pb-Zn
           mining area

    • Authors: Jie Yang, Hong Tang, Chang-qun Duan, Si-chen Wang, Xin-qi Yuan, Lv Huang, Lin-yang Li
      Abstract: Mining activities, while providing a huge material base for human society, have also caused great damage to the ecosystem. A large amount of mine waste is in urgent need of treatment and remediation. Phytoremediation, as a green and low-cost way of mine site restoration, has been researched by a large number of scholars. Ecological restoration, as a suitable alternative to phytoremediation, has also received extensive attention from scholars too. Field survey revealed that a native plant, Coriaria nepalensis, adapted to the abandoned sites of Pb-Zn mines for its adaptability to pollution and extreme habitats and its improvement of the surrounding microenvironment, with its formation of plant communities may contribute to the natural recovery of the abandoned sites of mines. For this reason, the present study was conducted on the nurse plant, C. nepalensis, which was naturally colonized in the abandoned land of the Pb-Zn mine in Mine Town, Huize County. The specific results of the study are as follows: Coriaria nepalensis promotes the stabilization of the soil structure under the canopy, and the local resources of the soil increase and the “fertilizer island” effect appears: (1) Improvement of physical properties: Compared with the herbaceous sample, the soil bulk density of the Coriaria nepalensis is significantly lower than that of the herbaceous sample. (2) Improve soil nutrition: the organic matter, total nitrogen and total phosphorus contents of the inter-root soil of the Coriaria nepalensis in large multi-diversity sites were higher than those of the herbaceous sample sites. (3) Reducing the toxicity of soil heavy metals to plants: although the total amount of heavy metals and the effective state of the Coriaria nepalensis were significantly higher than that of the herbaceous samples, the diversity and biomass of the plants under the Coriaria nepalensis were not affected, but were higher instead, which indicated that the Coriaria nepalensis mitigated the stress and toxicity of the heavy metals to the plants under the canopy, and allowed the plants to colonize and grow under the canopy. (4) Coriaria nepalensis in Pb-Zn mine abandoned sites can regulating soil microbial community structure, thus enabling plant community succession in degraded environments. Ascomycetes, Mycobacteriophages, Ascomycetes, and Stramenophages with higher abundance. (5) Coriaria nepalensis microbial community structure and increases the abundance of functions associated with nitrogen cycling and stress tolerance. There were higher abundances of bacterial functions related to nitrogen fixation, nitrate reduction, nitrogen respiration, nitrate respiration; and higher abundances of stress-tolerant, parthenogenetic anaerobic, biofilm-forming, aerobic, mobile protozoa-containing, and Gram-negative bacteria in the Coriaria nepalensis. In sum: C. nepalensis can have a nurse effect on its sub-canopy plants by improving microhabitat soil properties and regulating soil microbial community structure in abandoned sites of Pb-Zn mines, thus enabling plant community succession in degraded environments.
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T00:00:00Z
  • Modeling timing and size of juvenile Chinook salmon out-migrants at three
           Elwha River rotary screw traps: a window into early life history post dam

    • Authors: Martin C. Liermann, Aimee H. Fullerton, George R. Pess, Joseph H. Anderson, Sarah A. Morley, Michael L. McHenry, mcKenzi N. Taylor, Justin Stapleton, Mel Elofson, Randall E. McCoy, Todd R. Bennett
      Abstract: Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations express diverse early life history pathways that increase habitat utilization and demographic resiliency. Extensive anthropogenic alterations to freshwater habitats along with hatchery and harvest impacts have led to marked reductions in early life history diversity across much of the species’ range. The recent removal of two Elwha River dams between 2011 and 2014 restored access to over 90% of the available habitat that had been inaccessible to Chinook salmon since the early 1900s. This provided an opportunity to investigate how renewed access to this habitat might affect life history diversity. As exotherms, egg-to-fry development, juvenile growth, and movement are influenced by water temperatures. We used spatially and temporally explicit Elwha River water temperature and Chinook salmon spawning location data, in conjunction with spawn timing, emergence, growth, and movement models, to predict observed timing and sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon captured in three rotary screw traps in the mainstem and two tributaries during four trap years. This effort allowed us to test hypotheses regarding Elwha River Chinook salmon early life history, identify potential problems with the data, and predict how emergence and growth would change with increased spawning in the upper watershed. Predicted Chinook salmon emergence timing and predicted dates that juveniles reached 65 mm differed by as much as 2 months for different river locations due to large differences in thermal regimes longitudinally in the mainstem and between tributaries. For 10 out of the 12 trap–year combinations, the model was able to replicate important characteristics of the out-migrant timing and length data collected at the three traps. However, in most cases, there were many plausible parameter combinations that performed well, and in some cases, the model predictions and observations differed. Potential problems with the data and model assumptions were identified as partial explanations for differences and provide avenues for future work. We show that juvenile out-migrant data combined with mechanistic models can improve our understanding of how differences in temperature, spawning extent, and spawn timing affect the emergence, growth, and movement of juvenile fish across diverse riverine habitats.
      PubDate: 2023-11-22T00:00:00Z
  • Putative roles of terpenoids in primitive membranes

    • Authors: Joshua P. King, Anna Wang
      Abstract: For the continuation and evolution of life, primitive membranes formed from prebiotically available components must have fulfilled certain essential requirements. Candidate amphiphiles, such as straight-chain fatty acids, that can self-assemble into cell-like structures have been shown to be capable of performing many life-like functions. However, obstacles that preclude a cohesive description of the evolution of modern-day cells from the origins of primitive membranes remain. Terpenoids are uniquely placed in terms of their derivation and chemical motifs to play an important role in primitive membranes, as they do in extant cells. Here, we discuss the principles behind primitive membrane formation and offer a biophysics perspective regarding the potential role of terpenoids in membrane function. By doing so, we identify opportunities in the realm of protocell research.
      PubDate: 2023-11-22T00:00:00Z
  • Effects of environmental factors on vertical distribution of the
           eukaryotic plankton community in early summer in Danjiangkou Reservoir,

    • Authors: Sijie Mai, Yuxiao He, Weiguo Li, Tongqian Zhao
      Abstract: IntroductionEukaryotic plankton plays crucial roles in ecosystem processes, impacting aquatic ecosystem stability. This study focuses on Danjiangkou Reservoir, a canyon lake in central China, that acts as the water source of the Mid-route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project.MethodsIn this study, high-throughput 18S rDNA gene sequencing was employed to investigate eukaryotic plankton community at four water depths (0.5 m, 5 m, 10 m, and 20 m). The environmental factors including pH, water temperature (WT), nitrate nitrogen (NO3−-N), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), total nitrogen (TN), conductivity (Cond), and dissolved oxygen (DO) in reservoir areas were measured, and their correlations with abundance and diversity of eukaryotic plankton were analyzed.ResultsThe results showed the presence of 122 genera of eukaryotic plankton from 38 phyla. Eukaryotic plankton communities were mainly composed of Eurytemora, Thermocyclops, Sinocalanus, Mesocyclops, and Cryptomonas. In particular, significant differences in the diversity of eukaryotic plankton communities were found in vertical distribution. The diversity and abundance of eukaryotic plankton communities in 7 sampling sites decreased with the increase of depth from 0.5 to 10 m, while the diversity and abundance of plankton communities increased at 20 m. RDA analysis indicated that pH, depth, WT, NH4+-N, DO, Cond, and NO3−-N could influence the vertical distribution of the eukaryotic plankton community in the Danjiangkou Reservoir. Among these eukaryotic plankton, Eurytemora, Thermocyclops, and Volvox were negatively correlated with pH and WT and positively correlated with depth.DiscussionThis study revealed a novel perspective on the distribution of the eukaryotic plankton community in Danjiangkou Reservoir, particularly in terms of vertical variation, which will be helpful to comprehensively understand ecological processes and to further ensure the water quality safety in this canyon-style reservoir.
      PubDate: 2023-11-22T00:00:00Z
  • Stress gradients structure spatial variability in coastal tidal marsh
           plant composition and diversity in a major Pacific coast estuary

    • Authors: Lyndsay L. Rankin, Scott F. Jones, Christopher N. Janousek, Kevin J. Buffington, John Y. Takekawa, Karen M. Thorne
      Abstract: Understanding the drivers of variability in plant diversity from local to landscape spatial scales is a challenge in ecological systems. Environmental gradients exist at several spatial scales and can be nested hierarchically, influencing patterns of plant diversity in complex ways. As plant community dynamics influence ecosystem function, understanding the drivers of plant community variability across space is paramount for predicting potential shifts in ecosystem function from global change. Determining the scales at which stress gradients influence vegetation composition is crucial to inform management and restoration of tidal marshes for specific functions. Here, we analyzed vegetation community composition in 51 tidal marshes from the San Francisco Bay Estuary, California, USA. We used model-based compositional analysis and rank abundance curves to quantify environmental (elevation/tidal frame position, distance to channel, and channel salinity) and species trait (species form, wetland indicator status, and native status) influences on plant community variability at the marsh site and estuary scales. While environmental impacts on plant diversity varied by species and their relationships to each other, overall impacts increased in strength from marsh to estuary scales. Relative species abundance was important in structuring these tidal marsh communities even with the limited species pools dominated by a few species. Rank abundance curves revealed different community structures by region with higher species evenness at plots higher in the tidal frame and adjacent to freshwater channels. By identifying interactions (species–species, species–environment, and environment–trait) at multiple scales (local, landscape), we begin to understand how variability measurements could be interpreted for conservation and land management decisions.
      PubDate: 2023-11-21T00:00:00Z
  • Contrasting response mechanisms and ecological stress of net primary
           productivity in sub-humid to arid transition regions: a case study from
           the Loess Plateau, China

    • Authors: Chunsheng Wang, Rui Zhang, Lili Chang, Qingjiu Tian
      Abstract: With the intensification of global change, the overall functions and structures of ecosystems in sub-humid to arid transition regions have changed to varying degrees. The Loess Plateau, as a typical case of such regions, plays a great role in the study of net primary productivity (NPP) for estimating the sustainability of the Earth’s carrying capacity in terrestrial ecosystem process monitoring. In the research on contrasting response mechanisms and ecological stress of NPP, the main innovations of this study are as follows. On the basis of the indicator system constructed from satellite imagery and meteorological data, we introduced deep multiple regressive models to reveal the relationship between NPP and the identified driving factors and then creatively proposed ecological stress (ES) evaluation models from the perspective of vegetation productivity. The findings are as follows: 1) From 2000 to 2019, the changes in driving factors presented a clear regional character, and the annual NPP maintained a fluctuating increasing trend (with a value of 4.57 g·m2·a−1). From the perspective of spatial distribution, the growth rate of NPP gradually increased from arid to sub-humid regions. 2) The effects of different driving factors on NPP changes and specific NPPs varied greatly across different regions. Arid and semi-arid regions were mainly controlled by precipitation (20.49%), temperature (15.21%), and other related factors, whereas sub-humid regions were mainly controlled by solar radiation, such as net surface solar radiation (NSSR) (8.71%) and surface effective radiation (SER) (7.93%). The main driving factors of NPP change varied under different soil conditions. 3) The spatio-temporal patterns of NPP approximated those of ES, but the effects of the latter significantly differed across ecological functional regions and land uses. This research on the Loess Plateau can serve as a valuable reference for future research on realizing ecosystem restoration and protection in sub-humid to arid transition regions.
      PubDate: 2023-11-21T00:00:00Z
  • Which land cover product provides the most accurate land use land cover
           map of the Yellow River Basin'

    • Authors: Weige Zhang, Junjie Tian, Xiaohu Zhang, Jinlong Cheng, Yan Yan
      Abstract: Precise land use land cover (LULC) data are essential for understanding the landscape structure and spatial pattern of land use/cover in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) to regulate scientific and rational territorial spatial planning and support sustainable development. However, differences in the multiple sets of LULC products in portraying the land composition of the YRB limit our understanding of the land cover composition in this region. To address this issue, this study chose five sets of open and high spatiotemporal LULC data in 2020, namely, CLCD, LSV10, ESRI10, CLC_FCS30, and Globeland30, to evaluate the accuracy and consistency of classification in the YRB. Our results show that: (1) The LULC composition of the YRB in 2020 was mapped consistently by the five datasets. Grasslands, croplands, and woodlands constitute the major LULC types, accounting for 96% of the total area of the study area. (2) The correlation coefficients of the LULC types of any two of the five datasets ranged from 0.926 to 0.998, showing high land compositional consistency. However, among the five datasets, there were considerable differences in the areas of a single LULC type. (3) The classification consistencies of croplands, woodlands, grasslands, and water bodies were higher than 60% in any two datasets. The spatial consistencies of grasslands, croplands, and woodlands were higher than those of other LULC types. An area with better consistency can reach more than 50% of the average area of the corresponding land types, but grasslands were mixed with other LULC types in ESRI10 and GLC_FCS30. (4) According to the accuracy assessments, LSV10 data have the highest overall classification accuracy, 79.32%, and the classification accuracy of major land types is also higher than 70%; GLC_FCS30 data have the lowest overall accuracy, 70.14%. Based on these results, LSV10 can more accurately demonstrate LULC than the other four datasets. This study can be used as a reference for selecting land cover data, and it also highlights that the necessary assessments of consistency and accuracy are essential when conducting land use/cover change studies in a specific region.
      PubDate: 2023-11-20T00:00:00Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

Your IP address:
Home (Search)
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-