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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 142 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 245)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
Number of Followers: 45  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2296-701X
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [86 journals]
  • Corrigendum: Plant-Induced Transgenerational Plasticity Affecting
           Performance but Not Preference in a Polyphagous Moth

    • Authors: Axel Rösvik, Patrick Lhomme, Mohammed A. Khallaf, Peter Anderson
      PubDate: 2020-10-23T00:00:00Z
  • Effects of the Temporal Scale of Observation on the Analysis of Aquatic
           Invertebrate Metacommunities

    • Authors: Andreu Castillo-Escrivà, Francesc Mesquita-Joanes, Juan Rueda
      Abstract: The development of metacommunity theory has boosted the implementation of numerous empirical tests with field data, mostly focused on the role of spatial and environmental gradients on metacommunity organization. These studies showed an important dependence of the results on the observational scale considered, i.e., spatial grain, sampling spacing, and extent. However, few works deal with time per se as a component explaining metacommunity structure, even when data from periodic sampling are available. We suggest adding time explicitly to metacommunity analysis, but taking into account that the temporal scale of observation could affect the estimation of the relative influence of environment, space, and time, as previously recorded for spatial scale variation. Here, we analyze temporal scale dependence using simulated and empirical metacommunities of aquatic invertebrates. The effects of the study duration (i.e., temporal extent) were stronger when most metacommunity variation occurred along the temporal axis, so that local communities were spatially homogenized under high dispersal rates. Contrarily, dispersal limitation and niche differentiation (depending on the spatio-temporal structure of the environment) kept constant the spatial heterogeneity of the metacommunity, reducing the temporal variation and the importance of the temporal scale of observation. Our results highlight the importance of the temporal scale chosen for the analysis of metacommunity dynamics and emphasizes the temporal perspective of metacommunities, suggesting novel and interesting avenues in this research program.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22T00:00:00Z
  • Advances in Understanding and Managing Catastrophic Ecosystem Shifts in
           Mediterranean Ecosystems

    • Authors: Erik van den Elsen, Lindsay C. Stringer, Cecilia De Ita, Rudi Hessel, Sonia Kéfi, Florian D. Schneider, Susana Bautista, Angeles G. Mayor, Mara Baudena, Max Rietkerk, Alejandro Valdecantos, Victoriano R. Vallejo, Nichola Geeson, C. Jane Brandt, Luuk Fleskens, Lia Hemerik, Panos Panagos, Sandra Valente, Jan J. Keizer, Gudrun Schwilch, Matteo Jucker Riva, Diana Sietz, Michalakis Christoforou, Diofantos G. Hadjimitsis, Christiana Papoutsa, Giovanni Quaranta, Rosanna Salvia, Ioannis K. Tsanis, Ioannis Daliakopoulos, Heleen Claringbould, Peter C. de Ruiter
      Abstract: One of the most challenging issues in Mediterranean ecosystems to date has been to understand the emergence of discontinuous changes or catastrophic shifts. In the era of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, which encompass ideas around Land Degradation Neutrality, advancing this understanding has become even more critical and urgent. The aim of this paper is to synthesize insights into the drivers, processes and management of catastrophic shifts to highlight ways forward for the management of Mediterranean ecosystems. We use a multidisciplinary approach that extends beyond the typical single site, single scale, single approach studies in the current literature. We link applied and theoretical ecology at multiple scales with analyses and modeling of human–environment–climate relations and stakeholder engagement in six field sites in Mediterranean ecosystems to address three key questions:i)How do major degradation drivers affect ecosystem functioning and services in Mediterranean ecosystems'ii)What processes happen in the soil and vegetation during a catastrophic shift'iii)How can management of vulnerable ecosystems be optimized using these findings'Drawing together the findings from the use of different approaches allows us to address the whole pipeline of changes from drivers through to action. We highlight ways to assess ecosystem vulnerability that can help to prevent ecosystem shifts to undesirable states; identify cost-effective management measures that align with the vision and plans of land users; and evaluate the timing of these measures to enable optimization of their application before thresholds are reached. Such a multidisciplinary approach enables improved identification of early warning signals for discontinuous changes informing more timely and cost-effective management, allowing anticipation of, adaptation to, or even prevention of, undesirable catastrophic ecosystem shifts.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22T00:00:00Z
  • Influence of Climate and Management on Patterns of Taxonomic and
           Functional Diversity of Recreational Park Vegetation

    • Authors: Peter C. Ibsen, Dorothy Borowy, Mia Rochford, Christopher M. Swan, G. Darrel Jenerette
      Abstract: Recreational urban parks support diverse assemblages of plants that through their functions, contribute beneficial services to billions of individuals throughout the world. Drivers of vegetation-derived services in parks are complex, as climate and park management interact with the functioning of multiple species of vegetation types. Yet, informal observations suggest that recreational parks are constructed consistently to specific principles of landscape design. Here we ask: what are the patterns of functional traits and vegetation diversity in cities of varying climate in the United States, and how do these patterns result in a consistent typology of recreational park' We hypothesized that increased aridity would exclude species not adapted to warm, dry climates, thereby reducing local, or alpha, taxonomic diversity and shifting community composition. However, a similar preference of park managers in the United States for suites of service-based functional traits leads to similarity of mean values of services traits in recreational parks among cities, regardless of climate differences. We tested this hypothesis by surveying lawn species, comprised of herbaceous turf and spontaneous plants, and woody species in fifteen recreational parks across Baltimore MD, Riverside CA, and Palm Springs CA, three cities that contain multiple parks but differ in regional climate. With increasing aridity, taxonomic alpha diversity decreased and plant physiology shifted, yet no differences were observed among most service-based functional traits. Among the cities surveyed, no significant differences were observed in functional dispersion of woody and spontaneous species or most service-based traits. Taxonomic composition differed in each city for all vegetation types, while suites of service-based traits differed between Baltimore and the two more arid cities of Riverside and Palm Springs. Our results suggest that across the United States, service-based functional traits are consistent, even when arising from unique compositions and abundances of species in recreational parks. We interpret these results as an interaction between climate and the preferences of recreation park managers for services, creating a pattern of vegetation diversity where taxonomic alpha and beta diversity vary among regions while specific suites of services remain available.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22T00:00:00Z
  • Environment and Space Rule, but Time Also Matters for the Organization of
           Tropical Pond Metacommunities

    • Authors: Ángel Gálvez, Josep Antoni Aguilar-Alberola, Xavier Armengol, Fabián Bonilla, Sanda Iepure, Juan Salvador Monrós, Carla Olmo, Carmen Rojo, Juan Rueda, Ricardo Rueda, Mahmood Sasa, Francesc Mesquita-Joanes
      Abstract: Metacommunities are dynamic systems, but the influence of time independently of environmental change in their configuration has been rarely considered. In temporary ponds, strong temporal effects are expected to influence their metacommunity structure, even in relatively constant environments such as tropical habitats. We therefore expect that time as an independent factor could modulate tropical pond metacommunities, which would be also less affected by niche-related processes than by dispersal-related processes. In addition, good dispersers should be more environmentally structured than bad dispersers, which should be more spatially structured. Finally, the relevance of temporal effects should vary among organisms with different generation times. To test these hypotheses, we surveyed 30 temporary ponds along the dry tropical region of western Costa Rica and Nicaragua at three different moments of their hydroperiod: shortly after the infilling of the water bodies, at the middle of the hydroperiod and just before desiccation. We obtained data on 56 environmental variables and used geographic coordinates to build spatial variables (Moran Eigenvector Maps). We collected biological samples and estimated the specific abundance of phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthic invertebrates. To evaluate the relative role of environmental, spatial and temporal (sequential sampling season) effects for metacommunity organization, we used variation partitioning with distance-based redundancy analyses for each group of organisms. The inclusion of time in the analysis highlighted that pure temporal effects explained part of metacommunity variance in almost every group, being as important as spatial or even environmental effects for some groups of organisms. In contrast to the assumed low environmental constraints in tropical areas (i.e., high and stable temperatures), we found strong environmental effects. Passive dispersers were more influenced by environmental factors than active ones. We also found a positive relationship between the body size of the different groups of organisms and the magnitude of the temporal effects, interpreted as related to generation time. Finally, when analyzing each sampling period separately, we found differences in the relative role of environment and space at different sampling periods, showing that snapshot surveys may not be representative of highly dynamic metacommunities.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22T00:00:00Z
  • Grooming Behavior in Naturally Varroa-Resistant Apis mellifera Colonies
           From North-Central Argentina

    • Authors: Romina M. Russo, Maria C. Liendo, Lucas Landi, Hernán Pietronave, Julieta Merke, Hernán Fain, Irina Muntaabski, Maria A. Palacio, Graciela A. Rodríguez, Silvia B. Lanzavecchia, Alejandra C. Scannapieco
      Abstract: The Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, is an important species in providing honey and pollination services globally. The mite Varroa destructor is the major threat to A. mellifera, and it is associated with the severe colony winter mortality reported in recent decades. However, Varroa mite tolerant or resistant populations of A. mellifera have been detected around the world. A proposed mechanism responsible for limiting mite population growth in the colonies is grooming behavior, the physical removal and injury of mites from the adult bee bodies by individual workers or by their nest-mates. This behavioral strategy has been poorly studied in V. destructor-resistant colonies worldwide, especially in honey bee populations of European origin. In Argentina, honey bee stocks showing survival without mite treatment have been reported. In the present study, European-derived A. mellifera populations established in the Transition Chaco eco-region (Santa Fe province), with a subtropical climate, were characterized at the colony level. A honey bee stock showing natural Varroa-resistance (M) was compared to a Varroa-susceptible stock (C) for parameters of colony status (colony strength, percentage of Varroa infestation in adults and brood, hygienic behavior) and for indirect measures of grooming (percentage of fallen mites and damaged mites). M colonies showed lower phoretic and brood infestation and higher hygienic behavior in early autumn, and higher survival and population strength after wintering, in comparison with C colonies. The mean percentages of fallen mites and of damaged mites, and the injury to mites were higher in M than in C colonies. Our results suggest that, by modulating the parasitization dynamics in colonies, grooming behavior would be associated with the higher survival of Varroa-resistant stock. This study sheds light on how honey bee colonies can adaptively respond to mite pressure by modeling their behavior to resist Varroosis and provides evidence for grooming as an emerging factor evolving by natural selection. Percentage of damaged mites appears to be a reliable measure to enhance this behavior in honey bee colonies by selective breeding. Finally, the importance of improving and protecting locally adapted honey bee populations with natural Varroa resistance for regional apiculture is discussed.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22T00:00:00Z
  • Compromised Ecosystem Services From Urban Aerial Microbiomes: A Review of
           Impacts on Human Immune Function

    • Authors: Emily J. Flies, Penelope Jones, Jessie C. Buettel, Barry W. Brook
      Abstract: Biodiverse environments contribute to human health through a wide range of ecosystem services: from providing food and medicines to filtering our air and water. Exposure to biodiverse, airborne microbial communities (aerobiomes) contributes to the development of healthy human-immune function. This overlooked but potentially powerful ecosystem service is akin to nature’s provision of traditional medicines and pharmaceutical compounds. But urban environments appear to support less diverse aerobiomes, suppressing this ecosystem service and potentially contributing to urban-associated diseases through altered immune function. Here, we synthesize the known relationships between aerobiome biodiversity and health and present the experimentally demonstrated mechanisms that connect aerobiome exposure to immune function. We then summarize what is currently known about the effect of urbanization on aerobiomes and identify several important knowledge gaps in this field, including a lack of rigorous, experimental, multi-scale studies demonstrating the mechanistic pathways between urbanization, altered aerobiomes and human health. We offer practical approaches that can close these knowledge gaps and will facilitate the transfer of knowledge and technology between microbiologists, urban ecologists and public-health practitioners. This synthesis should stimulate interdisciplinary research efforts to advance our understanding of how urbanization is impacting aerobiome ecosystem services, and what that means for human health.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22T00:00:00Z
  • A Trait-Based Approach to Self-Organized Pattern Formation in Ecology

    • Authors: Xiaoli Dong
      Abstract: Significant effort in the study of self-organized pattern formation has focused on the physical conditions of the ecosystem. But what about the organisms involved' Can just any species form patterns or are certain traits required' I performed a metadata analysis of pattern-forming species in various patterned ecosystems worldwide and analyzed trait values and other biological characteristics to address this question. Results indicate that some species are more likely to form patterns than others, as a result of their possessing a portfolio of traits conducive to pattern formation. There is a conservation of these traits among species forming vegetation patterns across regions of the world. The degree of conservation is high when regular patterns are formed by the mechanism of scale dependent feedbacks. In contrast, when regular patterns arise from intraspecific competition, cross-site variation among pattern-forming species becomes high. Understanding evolutionary implications of pattern formation can be enhanced by this trait-based approach, a perspective that has been lacking to date.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22T00:00:00Z
  • Horizon Scanning to Predict and Prioritize Invasive Alien Species With the
           Potential to Threaten Human Health and Economies on Cyprus

    • Authors: Jodey M. Peyton, Angeliki F. Martinou, Tim Adriaens, Niki Chartosia, Paraskevi K. Karachle, Wolfgang Rabitsch, Elena Tricarico, Margarita Arianoutsou, Sven Bacher, Ioannis Bazos, Giuseppe Brundu, Elizabeth Bruno-McClung, Iris Charalambidou, Monica Demetriou, Marika Galanidi, Bella Galil, Rhian Guillem, Kypros Hadjiafxentis, Louis Hadjioannou, Margarita Hadjistylli, Jason Michael Hall-Spencer, Carlos Jimenez, Graham Johnstone, Periklis Kleitou, Demetris Kletou, Despina Koukkoularidou, Stalo Leontiou, Norbert Maczey, Nikolas Michailidis, John Owen Mountford, Athina Papatheodoulou, Oliver L. Pescott, Constantinos Phanis, Cristina Preda, Steph Rorke, Richard Shaw, Wojciech Solarz, Chris D. Taylor, Saso Trajanovski, Iakovos Tziortzis, Elli Tzirkalli, Ahmet Uludag, Giovanni Vimercati, Konstantin Zdraveski, Argyro Zenetos, Helen E. Roy
      Abstract: Invasive alien species (IAS) are known to be a major threat to biodiversity and ecosystem function and there is increasing evidence of their impacts on human health and economies globally. We undertook horizon scanning using expert-elicitation to predict arrivals of IAS that could have adverse human health or economic impacts on the island of Cyprus. Three hundred and twenty five IAS comprising 89 plants, 37 freshwater animals, 61 terrestrial invertebrates, 93 terrestrial vertebrates, and 45 marine species, were assessed during a two-day workshop involving 39 participants to derive two ranked lists: (1) IAS with potential human health impacts (20 species ranked within two bands: 1–10 species or 11–20 species); and, (2) IAS with potential economic impacts (50 species ranked in three bands of 1–10, 11–20, and 21–50). Five species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes flavopictus, Aedes japonicus, and Culex quinquefasciatus) were considered a potential threat to both human health and economies. It was evident that the IAS identified through this process could potentially arrive through many pathways (25 and 23 pathways were noted for the top 20 IAS on the human health and economic impact lists respectively). The Convention on Biological Diversity Level II (subcategory) pathways Contaminant on plants, pet/aquarium/terrarium species (including live food for such species), hitchhikers in or on aeroplanes, hitchhikers in or on ship/boats, and vehicles were the main pathways that arose across both lists. We discuss the potential of horizon scanning lists to inform biosecurity policies and communication around IAS, highlighting the importance of increasing understanding amongst all stakeholders, including the public, to reduce the risks associated with predicted IAS arrivals.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T00:00:00Z
  • Metacommunity Structures of Macroinvertebrates and Diatoms in High
           Mountain Streams, Yunnan, China

    • Authors: Angelika L. Kurthen, Fengzhi He, Xiaoyu Dong, Alain Maasri, Naicheng Wu, Qinghua Cai, Sonja C. Jähnig
      Abstract: The metacommunity concept has received increasing interest in the past two decades. However, there has been limited research examining metacommunity structure of communities in high mountain streams. These ecosystems are often physically constrained and can display large environmental gradients within a relatively small spatial extent. Here, we examined metacommunity structures of stream organisms in a high mountain region, which is part of the Hengduan Mountains region in Southwest China. Macroinvertebrates and diatoms were collected from six streams in two opposite aspects of the same mountain with different connectivity between streams. On the west aspect, streams are tributaries of a river (i.e., river-connected) while streams flow into a lake (i.e., lake-connected) on the east aspect. We used Elements of Metacommunity Structure analysis to explore the metacommunity structuring of these two biological models. We also compared the contribution of dispersal and environmental filtering in structuring metacommunities by looking at Euclidean, network, topographic, and environmental distances. Communities of diatoms and macroinvertebrates were structured with clear turnover on both aspects. Further, diatom communities exhibited Clementsian structure on both aspects. Macroinvertebrates exhibited different metacommunity structures on the river-connected aspect (Quasi-Clementsian) and lake-connected aspect (Clementsian). Our results indicated that on the lake-connected aspect, environmental filtering had a stronger association with community dissimilarity than on the river-connected aspect for both macroinvertebrate and diatom communities. Diatom communities were more influenced by environmental filtering on the east aspect with weakened network connectivity compared with those on the west aspect. Our results also emphasized the potential effects of biotic interactions between macroinvertebrates and diatoms on shaping community structures of one other. Our study provides substantial elements to further understand metacommunity structure and highlights the necessity of future research to reveal the underlying mechanisms of community structuring in these remote ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T00:00:00Z
  • Gene Expression Variation of Candidate Endogenous Control Genes Across
           Latitudinal Populations of the Bank Vole (Clethrionomys glareolus)

    • Authors: Lucie Němcová, Silvia Marková, Petr Kotlík
      Abstract: The bank vole has become an important species for the study of gene expression changes underlying evolutionary adaptation, within-host dynamics and resistance to pathogens, or response to pollutants. RT–qPCR is an optimized method for the rapid and accurate measuring gene expression, but it relies on the use of reference genes (RGs) as endogenous controls to normalize mRNA levels of the target genes. Contrary to the common practice, the expression level of the housekeeping genes traditionally used as RGs cannot be assumed stable across different species and experimental settings. Furthermore, compared to model laboratory species, there are potentially additional sources of variation when collecting gene expression data from natural populations with unknown genetic and environmental backgrounds. Thus, rigorous determination of RGs in natural populations of the bank vole was necessary to facilitate gene expression studies in this emerging model species. Therefore, we evaluated the expression variation of 10 RG candidates in spleen samples of bank voles spanning a broad latitudinal range across Europe, using four approaches. Ube2d2a, Ppia, and Tbp were consistently identified as the least variable genes, followed by Rn18s, Ywhaz, and Rplp0. The combinations Ube2d2a and Ppia or Ube2d2a and Tbp were identified to be sufficient for the normalization. In contrast, the traditional housekeeping genes Actb, Gapdh, Sdha, and Tuba1a displayed large expression variation and are not recommended as internal controls. Our results underscore the need of a systematic evaluation of appropriate RGs to each particular experimental system and provide a useful starting point for further studies.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T00:00:00Z
  • Human-Large Carnivores Co-existence in Europe – A Comparative
           Stakeholder Network Analysis

    • Authors: Carol M. Grossmann, László Patkó, Dominik Ortseifen, Eva Kimmig, Eva-Maria Cattoen, Ulrich Schraml
      Abstract: Improving human co-existence with large carnivores (LC) is considered necessary for reaching one of the goals of the EU Council Directive on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora (1992). This study is part of the EU LIFE project EuroLargeCarnivores, providing a scientific analysis of current stakeholder networks of the project partners (mainly WWF offices), a necessary foundation for “Improving human co-existence with large carnivores in Europe through communication and transboundary cooperation.” We conducted systematic participatory and transdisciplinary primary research in 14 European countries. The research design consists of three phases: stakeholder identification (Phase 1), participatory stakeholder-mapping (Phase 2a), a comparative network analysis (Phase 2b), and an Individual Stakeholders’ Perception Survey (Phase 3). We use the realistic method based on perceptions of the stakeholders involved. Phase 1 identifies 10 relevant Stakeholder Categories and specific agents. Phase 2a provides distinct comprehensive regional stakeholder maps with a special focus on the quality of multilateral relationships and stakeholders which are not yet actively involved in the networks. Phase 2b concludes with a comparative network analysis. The composition, density and quality of stakeholder networks as well as the interconnectivity of the project partners differ substantially. We reveal common denominators across Europe, varying relationships between stakeholder categories, and the potential positive role of foresters and veterinarians, for example. Phase 3 provides complementary insights into the involvement of the 10 Stakeholder Categories and their attitudes to large carnivore management. It also tests the institutional representation of membership in formal organizations. We challenge the perception of distinct stakeholder categories and whether involving institutional representatives in networking activities is sufficient. The results indicate the need for a more comparable implementation of EU regulations at national level, and for regional adaptations of support strategies for distinct stakeholders and networks. Based on current conflict constellations and best practice examples, we conclude with recommendations for strategic stakeholder engagement to: (a) broaden and strengthen the stakeholder networks to (b) improve human-human conflict management in the context of expanding large carnivore populations and their management.
      PubDate: 2020-10-20T00:00:00Z
  • Testate Amoeba Functional Traits and Their Use in Paleoecology

    • Authors: Katarzyna Marcisz, Vincent E. J. Jassey, Anush Kosakyan, Valentyna Krashevska, Daniel J. G. Lahr, Enrique Lara, Łukasz Lamentowicz, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Andrew Macumber, Yuri Mazei, Edward A. D. Mitchell, Nawaf A. Nasser, R. Timothy Patterson, Helen M. Roe, David Singer, Andrey N. Tsyganov, Bertrand Fournier
      Abstract: This review provides a synthesis of current knowledge on the morphological and functional traits of testate amoebae, a polyphyletic group of protists commonly used as proxies of past hydrological changes in paleoecological investigations from peatland, lake sediment and soil archives. A trait-based approach to understanding testate amoebae ecology and paleoecology has gained in popularity in recent years, with research showing that morphological characteristics provide complementary information to the commonly used environmental inferences based on testate amoeba (morpho-)species data. We provide a broad overview of testate amoeba morphological and functional traits and trait-environment relationships in the context of ecology, evolution, genetics, biogeography, and paleoecology. As examples we report upon previous ecological and paleoecological studies that used trait-based approaches, and describe key testate amoebae traits that can be used to improve the interpretation of environmental studies. We also highlight knowledge gaps and speculate on potential future directions for the application of trait-based approaches in testate amoeba research.
      PubDate: 2020-10-20T00:00:00Z
  • Neonicotinoid Pesticides Are More Toxic to Honey Bees at Lower
           Temperatures: Implications for Overwintering Bees

    • Authors: Muhammad Shoaib Saleem, Zachary Y. Huang, Meghan O. Milbrath
      Abstract: The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is an important pollinator as well as an important test model for pesticide effects on other insect pollinators. Honey bees have been experiencing high mortality in both the United States and worldwide. Pesticide exposure has been identified as one of the many stressors causing this mortality. Effects of various pesticides have been measured for multiple responses such as learning, memory performance, feeding activity, and thermoregulation. These studies were conducted at many different temperatures (11–35°C); however, few studies compared toxicity of the same pesticide to bees at different temperatures. It is possible that the same pesticide might show different toxicity to honey bees at different temperatures. To reveal such potential interactions, we administered low doses of two neonicotinoid insecticides (imidacloprid and thiamethoxam) at three different temperature scenarios (35°C, 24°C, and a varying temperature) and determined the effects on honey bee survivorship. We discovered that honey bees are much more sensitive to the neonicotinoid pesticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam at a constant 24°C or at a varying temperature (night at 13°C and day at 24°C) compared to bees at 35°C. These results suggest that honey bee colonies during winter time will be more sensitive to pesticides. Doses of neonicotinoids that are safe to colonies during summer might kill them during the winter time.
      PubDate: 2020-10-19T00:00:00Z
  • Evidence for Root Kin Recognition in the Clonal Plant Species Glechoma

    • Authors: Ellen L. Goddard, Sandra Varga, Elizabeth A. John, Carl D. Soulsbury
      Abstract: Plant competition belowground is a crucial factor that determines plant fitness and shapes plant communities. It has been shown that roots possess the ability to recognize between self and non-self individuals and modify their growth patterns accordingly. Roots may also be further able to discriminate between kin and non-kin roots. Competition is stronger with non-kin than kin neighbors, but whether root growth patterns determined by kin interactions are modified in stressful environments is largely unexplored. In this study we used two different experimental set-ups to confirm whether the clonal species Glechoma hederacea exhibits kin recognition between roots, and how water limitation modifies this response. A split-root design was conducted using a focal clonal fragment of G. hederacea placed onto the ridge that separated two adjacent containers: either square petri-dishes boxes with 200 ml of soil or 400 ml clear pots. Focal plants were randomly allocated to either growing alone or in competition with another G. hederacea ramet (of similar size taken from the same stolon as the focal plant) or a non-kin individual (a ramet selected from a different population). A water limitation treatment was applied to both experiments. Five root parameters were measured during the experiment using boxes: the maximum depth and the maximum width of the deepest root, the depth and the maximum width of the widest root, and the total number of roots visible. All plants were harvested after 36 days and several final root measurements were taken and analyzed using GiaRoots. Our results show that G. hederacea roots have kin recognition mechanisms, showing a significant tendency to avoid growing toward a non-kin neighbor but not avoiding the roots of a kin plant, even though the presence of a kin plant modifies root distribution within the soil. As expected, water limitation significantly affected plant growth and root parameters, but this effect was not related to neighbor kin identity. Taken together, our results confirm the existence of root recognition in this species and suggest that the mechanisms of kin recognition are probably related to a root-derived chemical cues, as recognition took place before physical contact occurred.
      PubDate: 2020-10-19T00:00:00Z
  • Can Niche Dynamics and Distribution Modeling Predict the Success of
           Invasive Species Management Using Biocontrol' Insights From Acacia
           longifolia in Portugal

    • Authors: Marco Dinis, Joana R. Vicente, Nuno César de Sá, Francisco A. López-Núñez, Elizabete Marchante, Hélia Marchante
      Abstract: Biological invasions are among the major contemporary threats to biodiversity. Biocontrol has a long history as a safe and effective strategy for the control of invasive species in several world regions, yet the life history and ecological requirements of biocontrol agents are often poorly understood. Species distribution models and assessments of niche overlap and dynamics constitute a way to quantify and compare ecological niches and are widely used for predicting biological invasions. While these tools can also be valuable to predict the effectiveness of biocontrol programs and anticipate whether biocontrol agents can establish on areas targeted for control, they remain underutilized for this purpose. In this work, species distribution models and comparisons of niche dynamics are used to predict the success of the ongoing biocontrol program for Acacia longifolia in Portugal, and potentially along the Mediterranean Basin, using the Australian gall-forming wasp Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae, previously released in South Africa. Niches of both the invasive plant and the biocontrol agent were found to be highly similar and to remain conserved through the introduction process. Distribution models identify suitable climatic areas for A. longifolia in 19% of the Mediterranean Basin and predict successful establishment of T. acaciaelongifoliae in 41% of the suitable area for A. longifolia, despite excluding a few locations where very recent establishment occurred. These results allow us to quantify the risk of future A. longifolia invasion and potential success of biocontrol, as well as establish a comparative framework for similar programs being considered in other regions of the world dealing with A. longifolia invasions.
      PubDate: 2020-10-19T00:00:00Z
  • Honey Bees in the Tropics Show Winter Bee-Like Longevity in Response to
           Seasonal Dearth and Brood Reduction

    • Authors: Stephanie Feliciano-Cardona, Mehmet Ali Döke, Janpierre Aleman, Jose Luis Agosto-Rivera, Christina M. Grozinger, Tugrul Giray
      Abstract: Upon their first introduction to Americas in 1956, African honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) hybridized with the previously introduced and already established European honey bees (EHBs). The resulting Africanized honey bees (AHBs) have spread through the continental tropics of the Western Hemisphere. The expansion of AHB has been constrained in temperate climates generally thought to be because of a lack of key adaptations required for successful overwintering. A drastic increase in longevity during broodless periods is crucial to colony survival. In the temperate regions, honey bee colonies become broodless in winter. While tropical regions do not experience winters as temperate zones do, seasonal changes in the abundance of floral resources cause variation in brood levels throughout the year. Here we use an island population of AHB in Puerto Rico (gAHB) to test the capacity of tropical-adapted honey bees to alter their longevity in different seasons, as well as under brood manipulation. We found that worker longevity in the gAHB colonies increases in the wet season (maximum longevity ca. 88 days vs. 56 days) in response to dearth of floral resources. A more pronounced increase in longevity was observed in response to manipulative reduction of the amount of open brood (maximum longevity 154 days). In addition, long lived gAHB demonstrated the signature winter bee-like hypopharyngeal gland size (average acini diameter 100.8 ± 6.2 μm at 65 and 70 days of age, N = 26), intermediate between forager (88.7 ± 5.9 μm, N = 24) and nurse (129.5 ± 8.1 μm, N = 24) gland size. We showed that gAHBs do not lack the adaptation to alter their longevity seasonally, though the magnitude of changes is less intense than those observed in EHBs during temperate winters. This suggests that increased longevity in response to limited capacity to rear brood is a shared character of Africanized and European honey bees.
      PubDate: 2020-10-16T00:00:00Z
  • Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals the Molecular Genetic Basis of Cave
           Adaptability in Sinocyclocheilus Fish Species

    • Authors: Yincheng Zhao, Hongyu Chen, Chunqing Li, Shanyuan Chen, Heng Xiao
      Abstract: Cavefish evolved a series of distinct survival mechanisms for adaptation to cave habitat. Such mechanisms include loss of eyesight and pigmentation, sensitive sensory organs, unique dietary preferences, and predation behavior. Thus, it is of great interest to understand the mechanisms underlying these adaptability traits of troglobites. The teleost genus Sinocyclocheilus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) is endemic to China and has more than 70 species reported (including over 30 cavefish species). High species diversity and diverse phenotypes make the Sinocyclocheilus as an outstanding model for studying speciation and adaptive evolution. In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptomics study on the brain tissues of two Sinocyclocheilus species (surface-dwelling species – Sinocyclocheilus malacopterus and semi-cave-dwelling species – Sinocyclocheilus rhinocerous living in the same water body. A total of 425,188,768 clean reads were generated, which contributed to 102,839 Unigenes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a total of 3,289 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between two species Comparing to S. malacopterus, 2,598 and 691 DEGs were found to be respectively, down-regulated and up-regulated in S. rhinocerous. Furthermore, it is also found tens of DEGs related to cave adaptability such as insulin secretion regulation (MafA, MafB, MafK, BRSK, and CDK16) and troglomorphic traits formation (CEP290, nmnat1, coasy, and pqbp1) in the cave-dwelling S. rhinocerous. Interestingly, most of the DEGs were found to be down-regulated in cavefish species and this trend of DEGs expression was confirmed through qPCR experiments. This study would provide an appropriate genetic basis for future studies on the formation of troglomorphic traits and adaptability characters of troglobites, and improve our understanding of mechanisms of cave adaptation.
      PubDate: 2020-10-16T00:00:00Z
  • Forest Biodiversity, Carbon Sequestration, and Wood Production: Modeling
           Synergies and Trade-Offs for Ten Forest Landscapes Across Europe

    • Authors: Peter Biber, Adam Felton, Maarten Nieuwenhuis, Matts Lindbladh, Kevin Black, Ján Bahýl', Özkan Bingöl, José G. Borges, Brigite Botequim, Vilis Brukas, Miguel N. Bugalho, Giulia Corradini, Ljusk Ola Eriksson, Nicklas Forsell, Geerten M. Hengeveld, Marjanke A. Hoogstra-Klein, Ali İhsan Kadıoǧulları, Uzay Karahalil, Isak Lodin, Anders Lundholm, Ekaterina Makrickienė, Mauro Masiero, Gintautas Mozgeris, Nerijus Pivoriūnas, Werner Poschenrieder, Hans Pretzsch, Róbert Sedmák, Ján Tuček
      Abstract: Europe's forests provide vital habitat for biodiversity and essential ecosystem services whose provision must be sustained or enhanced over the coming century. However, the potential to secure or increase forest ecosystem services, while securing the habitat requirements of taxa remains unclear, especially within the context of uncertain climate and socio-economic developments. To tease out the associated trade-offs and synergies, we used 10 case study landscapes within nine countries throughout Europe. Starting with the current status of the forests in the case study landscapes, we simulated forest development 100 years into the future. Simulations were embedded in three combined climate and socio-economic frame scenarios based on global and European policies which varied in their climate change mitigation efficiency. Scenarios were translated into country specific projections of climate variables, and resultant demands for wood products. Forest management regimes were projected to vary in response to these scenarios at local scales. The specific combinations of alternative forest management practices were based on parallel research and input from local forest stakeholders. For each case study, a specific forest growth simulator was used. In general, the climate scenarios applied did not cause fundamentally different ecosystem service outputs at the case study level. Our results revealed almost no reduction in outcomes for biodiversity indicators with an increase in wood production, and in some cases synergistic results occurred when diversity was actively promoted as part of the management concept. Net carbon uptake was not strongly correlated with biodiversity, indicating that biodiversity-friendly forest management doesn't need to curtail carbon sequestration. Notably, we obtained heterogeneous results for the relation between sustainable wood production and net carbon uptake. Most scenarios resulted in a more or less reduced net carbon uptake over the long term, often due to stand age class distribution shifts. Levels of sustainable wood production varied widely during the simulation period, from significant increases (Sweden, Lithuania) to minor changes (Slovakia, Turkey) and slight decreases (Ireland, Netherlands). We place our results within the larger context of European forest policy and the challenges of simulating and contrasting forest biodiversity and the ecosystem services that societies depend on.
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T00:00:00Z
  • Altering Neighborhood Relatedness and Species Composition Affects Interior
           Douglas-Fir Size and Morphological Traits With Context-Dependent Responses

    • Authors: Amanda K. Asay, Suzanne W. Simard, Susan A. Dudley
      Abstract: Trees often exist in a complex ecological system with many biological interactions. Here we examine kin interactions of Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (interior Douglas-fir) both in the context of pure kin stands, in accordance with established plant kin selection and recognition studies, but also in combination with inter and intraspecific neighbors in order to observe how interactions may differ in a more complex system. Seedlings grown with kin neighbors (i.e., in stands that contained only kin) were significantly larger (biomass, height, and root length) than those grown with any type of unrelated neighbor. However, of those with an unrelated neighbor, performance was better if that neighbor was interspecific (lodgepole pine rather than a stranger, or non-kin, Douglas-fir neighbor). Interestingly when Douglas-fir was grown in mixed stands, the four growth and four morphological traits of the seedlings examined paralleled neither pure stranger nor pure kin stands. This suggests that a mixed stand environment yielded cues that were uniquely different than either type of pure stand and that these seedlings are able to integrate that information and respond in a different way; for example, with increased early mycorrhizal fungal colonization. The morphological traits fine: coarse root allocation and slenderness (height relative to diameter) closely paralleled the seeding-size results, with the greatest values in pure kin stands. Whereas, fine root: needle allocation showed a kin response of less fine root allocation relative to needle mass compared to strangers, but kin seedlings had more fine root allocation when grown with a pine compared to a stranger Douglas-fir neighbor. We have demonstrated that the kin response in Douglas-fir is influenced by the complexity of the environment in which it grows, and this has significant effects on growth, morphology and mycorrhizal fungal colonization that may affect the success and resiliency of regeneration.
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T00:00:00Z
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